Science.gov

Sample records for achievement test mat

  1. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  2. Flight control systems development and flight test experience with the HiMAT research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Two highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted vehicles were flown a total of 26 flights. These subscale vehicles were of advanced aerodynamic configuration with advanced technology concepts such as composite and metallic structures, digital integrated propulsion control, and ground (primary) and airborne (backup) relaxed static stability, digital fly-by-wire control systems. Extensive systems development, checkout, and flight qualification were required to conduct the flight test program. The design maneuver goal was to achieve a sustained 8-g turn at Mach 0.9 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. This goal was achieved, along with the acquisition of high-quality flight data at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. Control systems were modified in a variety of ways using the flight-determined aerodynamic characteristics. The HiMAT program was successfully completed with approximately 11 hours of total flight time.

  3. Electrical resistance tests of glass mat type separators

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, A.L.

    1997-12-01

    Resistance measurement of glass mat separators for VRLA batteries is necessary for proper design selection. The equipment described makes sample comparison possible under compression in either flooded or starved condition. The Palico Instrument Labs method operates on the principle of measuring the change in resistance of test cell as electrolyte level is changed, first with and then without the separator sample. Since the separator can only be removed by removing the Model 903 Carrier and then reinserting after separator removal, stability to test readings and accurate measurement of electrolyte level are essential. Measurements are made with a reversing polarity DC current in all of the Palico resistance test equipment which closely match conditions found in the final battery.

  4. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  5. The role of simulation in the development and flight test of the HiMAT vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. B.; Schilling, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Real time simulations have been essential in the flight test program of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The HiMAT project makes extensive use of simulations in design, development, and qualification for flight, pilot training, and flight planning. Four distinct simulations, each with varying amounts of hardware in the loop, were developed for the HiMAT project. The use of simulations in detecting anomalous behavior of the flight software and hardware at the various stages of development, verification, and validation has been the key to flight qualification of the HiMAT vehicle.

  6. Cumulative achievement testing: progress testing in reverse.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D B; Holtzman, K Z; Butler, A

    2010-01-01

    This collaborative project between the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine explored the design and use of cumulative achievement tests in basic science education. In cumulative achievement testing, integrative end-of-unit tests are deliberately constructed to systematically retest topics covered in previous units as well as material from the just-completed unit. CWRU faculty developed and administered a series of six web-based cumulative achievement tests using retired United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 test material and tools provided by NBME's Customized Assessment Services, and trends in student performance were examined as the new CWRU basic science curriculum unfolded. This article provides the background information about test design and administration, as well as samples of score reporting information for students and faculty. While firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cumulative achievement testing are not warranted after a pilot test at a single school, preliminary results suggest that cumulative achievement testing may be an effective complement to progress testing, with the former used to encourage retention of already-covered material and the latter used to assess growth toward the knowledge and skills expected of a graduating student.

  7. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p < .0001) and post-MotScl (ES = 0.32; p < .05) scores. According to data obtained from the questionnaire, the application of the 4MAT model increases student motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  8. Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) flight-flutter test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle was evaluated in a joint NASA and Air Force flight test program. The HiMAT vehicle is a remotely piloted research vehicle. Its design incorporates the use of advanced composite materials in the wings, and canards for aeroelastic tailoring. A flight-flutter test program was conducted to clear a sufficient flight envelope to allow for performance, stability and control, and loads testing. Testing was accomplished with and without flight control-surface dampers. Flutter clearance of the vehicle indicated satisfactory damping and damping trends for the structural modes of the HiMAT vehicle. The data presented include frequency and damping plotted as a function of Mach number.

  9. Test Anxiety, Test Comfort and Student Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.

    The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…

  10. The National Item Analysis Program. Metropolitan Achievement Tests, 1978 Edition. Special Report Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychological Corp., New York, NY.

    The following information on the development of the 1978 Metropolitan Achievement Tests (MAT), fifth edition, is given; the purpose and importance of item analysis, steps preceding item tryout, characteristics of the sample population, and data obtained. Item analysis allows elimination of undesirable items, adjustment of the difficulty level of…

  11. Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Anthony J.

    The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…

  12. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  13. What grades and achievement tests measure

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648

  14. HiMAT flight program: Test results and program assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Deangelis, V. Michael; Lux, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The Highly Manueverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) program consisted of design, fabrication of two subscale remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRVs), and flight test. This technical memorandum describes the vehicles and test approach. An overview of the flight test results and comparisons with the design predictions are presented. These comparisons are made on a single-discipline basis, so that aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and propulsion controls are examined one by one. The interactions between the disciplines are then examined, with the conclusions that the integration of the various technologies contributed to total vehicle performance gains. An assessment is made of the subscale RPRV approach from the standpoint of research data quality and quantity, unmanned effects as compared with manned vehicles, complexity, and cost. It is concluded that the RPRV technique, as adopted in this program, resulted in a more complex and costly vehicle than expected but is reasonable when compared with alternate ways of obtaining comparable results.

  15. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  16. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  17. The Effect of the 4MAT Method (Learning Styles and Brain Hemispheres) of Instruction on Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Enver; Dikici, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of 4MAT method of instruction in which learning style and cerebral hemispheres are taken into account in teaching the binary operation and its properties in mathematics. The sample of this study comprised 58 ninth grade students in two separate classes in a high school. One of the classes…

  18. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    A comparison of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) indicates that the two should be used interchangeably only with caution and understanding of the differences. While there is a moderate to high correlation between the test scores, nevertheless, the two have distinctly different strengths and…

  19. Testing the utility of matK and ITS DNA regions for discrimination of Allium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Allium L. has been mainly based on the nucleotide sequences of ITS region. In 2009 matK and rbcL were accepted as a two-locus DNA barcode to classify plant species by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group. MatK region has been ...

  20. Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, TN.

    The history of the Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT), a university based national curriculum assessment project, is described in this report. The project performs surveys of academic curricula by content area, collects examination items from the faculty of participating departments, and constructs, distributes, and scores…

  1. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  2. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…

  3. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    1978-01-01

    The article presents a statistical and descriptive comparison, with emphasis on math subtests, of the Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, based on scores obtained from clients (in grades 1-12) at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. (SBH)

  4. Toward Educational Testing Reform: Inside Reading Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.

  5. Proficiency Testing for Achieving Accreditation in Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, S.; Strouse, G. F.

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of traceability is an essential component of laboratory accreditation for calibration laboratories accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). Traceability requires that an unbroken chain of comparisons to national standards with stated and documented uncertainties be established. The use of proficiency testing is an important tool for validating uncertainty claims contained within a Scope of Accreditation. As such, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Thermometry Group conducts proficiency testing for NVLAP-accredited contact thermometry laboratories. These proficiency tests include thermometric fixed points, standard platinum resistance thermometers, industrial platinum resistance thermometers, thermistors, thermocouples, and liquid-in- glass thermometers. The NIST Thermometry Group proficiency tests scale inversely in difficulty as a function of the uncertainties contained within a facility’s Scope of Accreditation. The offered proficiency tests are designed to establish confidence in the participant’s calibration capabilities and uncertainty claims without being an undue burden to the calibration facility. The NIST Thermometry Group proficiency tests involve measurements of NIST-owned artifact(s) at NIST, measurements of the artifact(s) at the participant’s calibration facility, and then a second set of measurements at NIST. On completion of the measurement phase of a proficiency test, a detailed report is generated to give the difference in temperature realization between that of the participant and NIST and the degree of equivalence. As part of the goal to improve the participant’s measurement capabilities, the report also gives suggested solutions to any identified measurement issues that need attention. The role of proficiency testing as part of the process in achieving NVLAP accreditation in thermometry is discussed in the article. Additionally, the descriptions of the NIST

  6. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  7. Standardized Testing: Measurement of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Keshia

    2011-01-01

    Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…

  8. Directory of Achievement Tests for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L., Jr.; Shimberg, Benjamin

    This directory was compiled to assist vocational teachers and researchers in locating tests in various occupational fields. Test data was gathered from publishers, directors of vocational programs, union officials, and members of the American Vocational Association. Selection of the instruments depended on their availability and standardization,…

  9. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    A study conducted with kindergarten and elementary school children showed that Piagetian tasks which measured seriation, conservation, and multiple classification were equal or superior to traditional intelligence tests in predicting number language, number line comprehension, and verbal arithmetic. (GC)

  10. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung

    1993-10-01

    According to the EPA-recommended closure cap design a waste site can either be covered with a single layer cap made of 36 inches of compacted soil (clay) or with a multilayer cap consisting of an upper vegetative layer underlain by a drainage layer over a low permeability layer. The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four-foot loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected. Currently, detailed soil test data and cavity configuration data are not available to validate the mathematical model. Since the configuration of the cavities created in the testing process is irregular and unpredictable, two extreme configurations are considered in this mathematical model, viz., the circular cavity and the infinitely long trench in the sand underneath the cap. This approach will provide bounds for the testing results.

  11. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  12. Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests for English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Mirocha, Jim

    The concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests (the Stanford 9 and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills) was examined using data from different school districts nationwide and a latent variable modeling approach. Items in the standardized achievement tests in several content areas were divided into parcels. Parcel scores were used to create…

  13. Provincial Report: Achievement Tests, September 1986. Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

    This document reports the provincial results of the June 1986 student achievement tests in Alberta in grade 3 mathematics, grade 6 science, and grade 9 English language arts. The achievement tests are specific to the program of studies prescribed by the Minister of Education. The document starts with general information about the testing program…

  14. Back to the Basics: In Defense of Achievement (and Achievement Tests) in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…

  15. A Study of the Construct Validity of Six Vocational Achievement Tests in the Ohio Vocational Education Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Constance V.; And Others

    A study examined the construct validity of six vocational achievement tests used in the Ohio Vocational Achievement Testing Program. (Subject areas covered in the tests were agricultural mechanics, carpentry, diesel mechanics, distributive education for food services personnel, fabric services, and home economics/food service.) In order to…

  16. Self Statements, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, James V.; And Others

    An investigation of self-statements, test anxiety and academic achievement studied 426 college students. Research methodology is defined, demographics and student profiles for both facilitative and debilitative test anxiety are presented, with the resulting findings for each testing component. The student profile for high facilitative test anxiety…

  17. i RadMat: A thermo-mechanical testing system for in situ high-energy X-ray characterization of radioactive specimens

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Chi; Wang, Leyun; ...

    2017-01-27

    Here, we present an in situ Radiated Materials (iRadMat) experimental module designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame for X-ray measurements at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermo-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. The iRadMat is a radiation-shielded vacuum heating system with the sample rotation-under-load capability. We describe the design features and performances of the iRadMat and present a dataset from a 300 °C uniaxial tensile test of a neutron-irradiated pure Fe specimen to demonstrate its capabilities.

  18. iRadMat: A thermo-mechanical testing system for in situ high-energy X-ray characterization of radioactive specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Chi; Wang, Leyun; Chen, Yiren; Li, Meimei; Almer, Jonathan D.; Benda, Erika; Kenesei, Peter; Mashayekhi, Ali; Park, Jun-Sang; Westferro, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an in situ Radiated Materials (iRadMat) experimental module designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame for X-ray measurements at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermo-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. The iRadMat is a radiation-shielded vacuum heating system with the sample rotation-under-load capability. We describe the design features and performances of the iRadMat and present a dataset from a 300 °C uniaxial tensile test of a neutron-irradiated pure Fe specimen to demonstrate its capabilities.

  19. Testing Accommodations for ELL Students on an Achievement Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Lori Lee

    2013-01-01

    How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to completely…

  20. HiRadMat at CERN SPS - A test facility with high intensity beam pulses to material samples

    SciTech Connect

    Charitonidis, N.; Fabich, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.

    2015-07-01

    HiRadMat (High Irradiation to Materials) is a facility at CERN designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, shock tests on high power targets, collimators) can be tested. The beam parameters (SPS 440 GeV protons with a pulse energy of up to 3.4 MJ, or alternatively lead/argon ions at the proton equivalent energy) can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. It is a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed beams on materials in a dedicated environment, excluding long-time irradiation studies. The facility is designed for a 10{sup 16} maximum number of protons per year, in order to limit the activation to acceptable levels for human intervention. This paper will demonstrate the possibilities for research using this facility and showing examples of upcoming experiments scheduled in the beam period 2014/2015. (authors)

  1. Spatial and spatio-temporal clustering of overall and serovar-specific Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT) seropositivity among dogs in the United States from 2000 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Raju; Guptill, Lynn F; Wu, Ching Ching; Potter, Adam; Moore, George E

    2010-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease of dogs in the United States (U.S.). This paper reports the findings of a retrospective study conducted to determine if seroreactivity to Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT) among dogs in the U.S. clustered in space and time. The study utilized canine sera submitted to a commercial laboratory for leptospiral MAT from January 2000 through December 2007. There were 31,869 serum samples submitted by veterinarians from 3156 zip code locations across the U.S. Results of MAT were considered positive at titers of > or = 1:1600. Spatial and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to identify statistically significant clusters of seroreactivity to Leptospira (overall and individual serovars) using recorded test request dates and locations of the centroid of the zip code reported for each serum sample. There were 2469 positive MAT results with a titer > or = 1:1600 to at least one of seven Leptospira serovars. Two relevant spatial clusters of 26.3 and 246.5 km radius were identified (P=0.001). The primary cluster was located in the northeastern part of Illinois including Chicago and surrounding areas (232 [14.4%] of 1612 MAT positive; RR=1.95). The secondary cluster covered the central part of Texas (292 [12.62%] of 2314 MAT positive; RR=1.71). Eight space-time clusters of overall MAT positivity were identified (29-335 km radius; P=0.001-0.048 and RR=3.98-24.69) that covered different geographic locations for different time points. Spatial and space-time clusters for individual serovars were also identified for six serovars: eight each of Grippotyphosa and Pomona, seven of Bratislava, five of Autumnalis, and three each of Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola. In conclusion Leptospira seropositivity in dogs tended to have distinctive clusters in space and space-time. Most of the space-time clusters of overall Leptospira MAT seropositivity were associated with cluster events for individual serovars. Further investigation is

  2. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  3. The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robert G.

    This article describes the organization, functions, and components of the Defense Language Institute. The test division is responsible for aptitude, achievement, and proficiency tests and for test development in a variety of resident and non-resident programs. The progress that has been made over a 10-year period is also described and special…

  4. Customizing a Norm-References Achievement Test to Achieve Curricular Validity: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, S. Jean; Gramenz, Gary W.

    1984-01-01

    A norm-referenced achievement test, in combination with supplementary items, can be used to produce norm-referenced data as well as objective-referenced data. The experiences of the Palm Beach County (Florida) school district in developing and using such a test are described. (EGS)

  5. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  6. Achievement Test Performance of Intellectually Advanced Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)

  7. MAT Program Test Summary Report. Biconic Body with Slice/Flap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    8217• " Stokes (PNS) codes , and other detailed flow field codesJ 4kTests_ were conducted at the von Karman Facility (VKF) of the Arnold Enginec. g velopment...as well as examples of data retrieved for code comparison purposes. ’I.- - 1 3z , f.. . o -. 2. UNCLASSIFIED SE-CURITY CLASSIVICATION nr Twi; oA’-VCflM...46 10 Photograph of the Probe Housing Assembly with the Probe Assembly Attached 49 11 Photograph of the Probe Assembly 50 12 Close-up Photograph of

  8. An experiment to test advanced materials impacted by intense proton pulses at CERN HiRadMat facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertarelli, A.; Berthome, E.; Boccone, V.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Charitonidis, N.; Charrondiere, C.; Dallocchio, A.; Fernandez Carmona, P.; Francon, P.; Gentini, L.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N.; Masi, A.; Marques dos Santos, S. D.; Moyret, P.; Peroni, L.; Redaelli, S.; Scapin, M.

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the consequences of highly energetic particle beams impacting protection devices as collimators or high power target stations is a fundamental issue in the design of state-of-the-art facilities for high-energy particle physics. These complex dynamic phenomena can be successfully simulated resorting to highly non-linear numerical tools (Hydrocodes). In order to produce accurate results, however, these codes require reliable material constitutive models that, at the extreme conditions induced by a destructive beam impact, are scarce and often inaccurate. In order to derive or validate such models a comprehensive, first-of-its-kind experiment has been recently carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility: performed tests entailed the controlled impact of intense and energetic proton pulses on a number of specimens made of six different materials. Experimental data were acquired relying on embedded instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature probes and vacuum sensors) and on remote-acquisition devices (laser Doppler vibrometer and high-speed camera). The method presented in this paper, combining experimental measurements with numerical simulations, may find applications to assess materials under very high strain rates and temperatures in domains well beyond particle physics (severe accidents in fusion and fission nuclear facilities, space debris impacts, fast and intense loadings on materials and structures etc.).

  9. High-Stakes Testing: Does It Increase Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    I review the literature on the impact on student achievement of high-stakes testing. Its popularity as a mechanism for holding educators accountable has triggered studies to examine whether its promise to increase student learning has been fulfilled. The review concludes there is no consistent evidence to suggest high-stakes testing leads to…

  10. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  11. The Relationship between Learning Style, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Kubilay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…

  12. Problems and Issues in Translating International Educational Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews research and findings on problems and issues faced when translating international academic achievement tests. The purpose is to draw attention to the problems, to help to develop the procedures followed when translating the tests, and to provide suggestions for further research. The problems concentrate on the following: the…

  13. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  14. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve

  15. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  16. A Validity Investigation of the Achievement Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    The concurrent validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) and its factor structure are investigated to provide empirical evidence about the quality of AAT. State and trait anxiety were measured by State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mathematics anxiety was assessed by a 24-item revised version of the 98-item Mathematics Anxiety Rating…

  17. A Validity Investigation of the Achievement Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) were investigated. The evidence gives cause to be concerned about the quality of a difference score because of the nonindependence of the two scores. Further, the underlying structure of the instrument appears to be more complex than originally hypothesized. (Author/GK)

  18. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  19. Teachers and Tests: Assessing Pupils' Reading Achievement in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…

  20. Effects of mat characteristics on plantar pressure patterns and perceived mat properties during landing in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Perez-Turpin, Jose Antonio; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; van den Tillaar, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Shock absorption and stability during landings is provided by both, gymnast ability and mat properties. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of different mat constructions on their energy absorption and stability capabilities, and to analyse how these properties affect gymnast's plantar pressures as well as subjective mat perception during landing. Six mats were tested using a standard mechanical drop test. In addition, plantar pressures and subjective perception during landing were obtained from 15 expert gymnasts. The different mats influenced plantar pressures and gymnasts' subjective perception during landing of gymnasts. Significant correlations between plantar pressures at the medial metatarsal and lateral metatarsal zones of the gymnasts' feet with the different shock absorption characteristics of the mats were found. However, subjective perception tests were not able to discriminate mat functionality between the six mats as no significant correlations between the mechanical mat properties with the subjective perception of these properties were found. This study demonstrated that plantar pressures are a useful tool for discriminating different landing mats. Using similar approaches, ideally including kinematics as well, could help us in our understanding about the influences of different mats upon gymnast-mat interaction.

  1. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections.

  2. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  3. Mat2exo

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    MAT2EXO is a program which translates mesh data from Matlab mat-file format to Exodus II format. This tool is the inverse of the commonly used tool exo2mat which translates Exodus II data to the Matlab mat-file format. These tools provide a means for preprocessing an Exodus II model file or postprocessing an Exodus II results file using Matlab

  4. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  5. Grade 9 Achievement Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test de Rendement. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This achievement test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination, with the use of calculators permitted. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical content including: positive and negative exponents; word…

  6. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  7. On the factor structure of standardized educational achievement tests.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Tim W; Cudeck, Robert; Ferrer, Emilio; Widaman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzed the factor structure at both the item- and subtest-level of California's norm- and criterion-referenced standardized educational achievement tests (SEAT) used in that state's high-stakes educational accountability assessments. It was shown through full information factor analysis and multidimensional IRT models (e.g., TESTFACT and NOHARM) that, at the item-level, SEATs are invariably highly unidimensional (i.e., they appear to tap a unidimensional theta scale) even when items representing such diverse content areas such as English, science, mathematics, and history are analyzed simultaneously as a single measure. These item-level factors also accounted for a relatively small proportion (1/4 to 1/3) of the variance. It was also shown that, when these tests are analyzed using more reliable indicators such as subtests, a much richer factor structure emerged that accounted for a larger portion (about 2/3) of the total common variance. As expected, these factor structure configurations (and underlying dimensionality) were preserved across the item- and subtest-levels. However, the factors emerging from both the item- and subtest-level analyses were highly correlated and produced strong second-order and general factors. The meaning underlying these results was examined, along with their implications with respect to the assumptions underlying modern approaches to test calibration, scaling, and score interpretation.

  8. Modeling Student Test-Taking Motivation in the Context of an Adaptive Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…

  9. Evidence of Construct Validity in Published Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolet, Victor; Tindal, Gerald

    Valid interpretation of test scores is the shared responsibility of the test designer and the test user. Test publishers must provide evidence of the validity of the decisions their tests are intended to support, while test users are responsible for analyzing this evidence and subsequently using the test in the manner indicated by the publisher.…

  10. In-situ Curing Strain Monitoring of a Flat Plate Residual Stress Specimen Using a Chopped Stand Mat Glass/Epoxy Composite as Test Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Skordos, A.; James, S.; Correia, R. G.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The curing stresses in a newly proposed bi-axial residual stress testing configuration are studied using a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy specimen. In-situ monitoring of the curing is conducted using dielectric and fibre Bragg grating sensors. It is confirmed that a bi-axial residual stress state can be introduced in the specimens during curing and a quantification of its magnitude is presented. An alternative decomposition method used for converting the dielectric signal into a material state variable is proposed and good agreement with models found in the literature is obtained. From the cure cycles chosen it is suggested that any stress build up in the un-vitrified state is relaxed immediately and only stress build up in the vitrified state contributes to the residual stress state in the specimen.

  11. Evaluation of Degradation of Ceramic Fiber Mat by Acoustic Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kaita; Enoki, Manabu; Takahashi, Hidetomo

    2005-04-09

    Alumina-silica fiber mat is widely used as thermal insulator because of its good stability under high temperature environment. However, this material degrades gradually during long-term use under pressure and elevated temperature. In this study, cyclic compression tests of the mat were conducted and monitored acoustic emission (AE) of the mat both at room temperature and elevated temperature. The degradation of mat was evaluated by AE parameters.

  12. Evaluation of Degradation of Ceramic Fiber Mat by Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kaita; Enoki, Manabu; Takahashi, Hidetomo

    2005-04-01

    Alumina-silica fiber mat is widely used as thermal insulator because of its good stability under high temperature environment. However, this material degrades gradually during long-term use under pressure and elevated temperature. In this study, cyclic compression tests of the mat were conducted and monitored acoustic emission (AE) of the mat both at room temperature and elevated temperature. The degradation of mat was evaluated by AE parameters.

  13. Achievement Testing for English Language Learners, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Sau-Lim; Katz, Anne; Stack, Jim

    2008-01-01

    School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out…

  14. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  15. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  16. HiMAT in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) subscale research vehicle, seen here during a research flight, was flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from mid 1979 to January 1983. The aircraft demonstrated advanced fighter technologies that have been used in the development of many modern high performance military aircraft. Two vehicles were used in the research program conducted jointly by NASA and the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The two vehicles, flown a total of 26 times, provided data on the use of composites, aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canards and winglets. They investigated the interaction of these then-new technologies upon each other. About one-half the size of a standard manned fighter and powered by a small jet engine, the HiMAT vehicles were launched from NASA's B-52 carrier aircraft at an altitude of about 45,000 feet. They were flown remotely by a NASA research pilot from a ground station with the aid of a television camera mounted in the HiMAT cockpits. Technologies tested on the HiMAT vehicles appearing later on other aircraft include the extensive use of composites common now on military and commercial aircraft; rear-mounted wing and forward canard configuration used very successfully on the X-29 research aircraft flown at Dryden; and winglets, now used on many private and commercial aircraft to lessen wingtip drag and enhance fuel savings.

  17. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  18. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  19. On Reporting Student Achievement: The Need for Meaningful Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, Kathryn W.; Garrison, Wayne M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides users of teacher-made tests with a computer program designed to improve reporting of student performance on academic tasks. Test planning and construction and form and technique for reporting student performance are described. (CHK)

  20. Mathematical Models of the Value of Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    The mathematical models of this paper were developed as an outgrowth of working with the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring project (Project CAM) which was conceived as a model and application of sampling procedures such as those used in industrial quality control techniques to educational measurement. This paper explores mathematical modeling…

  1. Challenging Masculinities: Disability and Achievement in Testing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Shereen

    2001-01-01

    Describes a feminist project on masculinities involving boys in a special education school. These labeled, segregated boys were invested in achieving successful positioning within a culture of hegemonic masculinity. Institutional and media preoccupations with quantifiable academic attainments had reinscribed them within a world of hetero/sexist…

  2. Testing the Connection: Student Achievement, Student Behavior, and New Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Edward P.; Landis, Lynn Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article asks the following questions: (1) Is there a link between new construction and student achievement? (2) What role does socioeconomics play in the answer? Data were collected for seven academic indicators and two behavioral indicators. The high schools ranked in the lowest wealth quartile were then divided into two groups: schools with…

  3. Food Service Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; personal…

  4. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service supervisor component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; nutrient…

  5. Cherry Creek Schools Student Achievement Testing, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.; And Others

    In order to assess the locally developed curricula, the Cherry Creek School District of Colorado developed several objective-referenced tests focused on objectives that instructional staff have identified as important for all district students. The local assessments are designed to work in conjunction with the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBSs) to…

  6. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  7. Test Review: Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2014), "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition." Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Laura B.; Vidrine, Stephanie M.; Hinojosa, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition (KTEA-3) is a revised and updated comprehensive academic achievement test (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2014). Authored by Drs. Alan and Nadeen Kaufman and published by Pearson, the KTEA-3 remains an individual achievement test normed for individuals of ages 4 through 25 years, or for those in…

  8. Pressure Sensitive Mats as Safety Devices in Danger Zones.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Stanisław; Brański, Zygfryd

    1998-01-01

    Developing prototypes of pressure sensitive mats and testing their practical application were the aims of this study. Two contact plate mats were designed and constructed: rubber-rubber (R) and metal-metal (M). A recipe for rubber mixes and the production technology were prepared. Two laboratory test stands for measuring the actuating force, response time, static pressure resistance, and the durability of the mats were constructed. Computer software was written to control the operation of those test stands. Methods of testing pressure sensitive mats were based on PrDIN 31 006 (Deutsches Institut fur Normung [DIN], 1990) and EN 1760-1 (Comite Europeen de Normalisation [CEN], 1997). Both prototypes of contact plate mats were tested under laboratory and industrial conditions. The test results proved that the design was correct, the setup requirements were fulfilled, and the mats were efficient and reliable in the industrial environment.

  9. Harmonization of laboratory testing - Current achievements and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jillian R; Johnson, Roger; Barth, Julian; Panteghini, Mauro

    2014-05-15

    Harmonization in laboratory testing is more far-reaching than merely analytical harmonization. It includes all aspects of the total testing process from the "pre-pre-analytical" phase through analysis to the "post-post-analytical" phase. Harmonizing the pre-analytical phase requires use of standardized operating procedures for correct test selection, sample collection and handling, while standardized test terminology, and units and traceability to ISO standard 17511 are required to ensure equivalency of measurement results. Use of harmonized reference intervals and decision limits for analytes where platforms share allowable bias requirements will reduce inaccurate clinical interpretation and unnecessary laboratory testing. In the post-analytical phase, harmonized procedures for the management of critical laboratory test results are required to improve service quality and ensure patient safety. Monitoring of the outcomes of harmonization activities is through surveillance by external quality assessment schemes that use commutable materials and auditing of the "pre-pre-analytical" and "post-post-analytical" phases. Successful implementation of harmonization in laboratory testing requires input by all stakeholders, including the clinical laboratory community, diagnostics industry, clinicians, professional societies, IT providers, consumer advocate groups and governmental bodies.

  10. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  11. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  12. Mechanized pivot shift test achieves greater accuracy than manual pivot shift test.

    PubMed

    Musahl, Volker; Voos, James; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Stueber, Volker; Kendoff, Daniel; Pearle, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to design a navigated mechanized pivot shift test setup and evaluate its repeatability in the ACL-deficient knee. It was hypothesized that translations and rotations measured with the mechanized pivot shift would be more repeatable when compared to those obtained with a manual pivot shift. Twelve fresh frozen cadaveric hip-to-toe whole lower extremities were used for this study. A manual pivot shift test was performed in the intact knee and in the ACL-deficient knee and was repeated three times. A navigation system simultaneously recorded tibial translation and rotation. The mechanized pivot shift test consists of a modified continuous passive motion (CPM) machine and a custom-made foot holder to allow for the application of internal rotation moments at the knee. Valgus moments were achieved by a 45 degrees tilt of the CPM machine with respect to the supine position and a Velcro strap secured across the proximal tibia. The mechanized pivot shift was repeated three times. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare manual and mechanized pivot shift testing. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine variability within each knee at each testing condition. In the ACL-deficient knee, translation with manual pivot shift testing (11.7 +/- 2.6 mm) was significantly higher than with mechanized pivot shift testing (7.4 +/- 2.5 mm; p < 0.05). Rotation with the manual pivot shift testing (18.6 +/- 5.4 degrees) was also significantly higher than with mechanized pivot shift testing (11.0 +/- 2.3 degrees; p < 0.05). The intra-class ICC for translations was 0.76 for manual pivot shift and 0.92 for the mechanized pivot shift test. The intra-class ICC for rotations was 0.89 for manual pivot shift and 0.82 for the mechanized pivot shift test. This study introduced a modified CPM for mechanized pivot shift testing. Although recorded translations and rotations with the mechanized pivot shift test were lower than with manual

  13. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  14. Ontario Pins Hopes on Practices, Not Testing, to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on Ontario's way of school improvement which focuses less on test-score results and more on engaging teachers and principals. Like the United States, the Canadian province of Ontario has committed itself to reaching key numeric targets: at least 75 percent of 6th graders able to read, write, and do mathematics at the…

  15. Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…

  16. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  17. Hypothetical Use of Multidimensional Adaptive Testing for the Assessment of Student Achievement in the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) for the assessment of student literacy in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was examined within a real data simulation study. The responses of N = 14,624 students who participated in the PISA assessments of the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 in Germany were used to…

  18. Testing a Motivational Model of Achievement: How Students' Mathematical Beliefs and Interests Are Related to Their Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Long, Margaret H.; Wang, Feihong

    2012-01-01

    Blackwell et al. (Child Development 78(1):246-263, 2007) tested a motivational model of achievement in which an incremental theory of intelligence leads to learning goals and positive effort beliefs, which leads to fewer ability-based, helpless attributions, and more positive strategies, which leads to improved grades. In the present study, we…

  19. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  20. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  1. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  2. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  3. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  4. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  5. MatMCNP

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-19

    A code for generating MCNP material cards (MatMCNP) has been written and verified for naturally occurring, stable isotopes. The program allows for material specification as either atomic or weight percent (fractions). MatMCNP also permits the specification of enriched lithium, boron, and/or uranium. In addition to producing the material cards for MCNP, the code calculates the atomic (or number) density in atoms/barn-cm as well as the multiplier that should be used to convert neutron and gamma fluences into dose in the material specified.

  6. The Ontario Test of English Achievement. The Final Report on Its Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, P.; And Others

    Information on the Ontario Test of English Achievement is presented. Attention is directed to the background and objectives of the test, test development, subtest characteristics and properties, validity, and recommendations concerning test use. The objective of the test was to determine the language competence of incoming students to assist…

  7. The Effect of the 4MAT Learning Model on the Achievement and Motivation of 7th Grade Students on the Subject of Particulate Nature of Matter and an Examination of Student Opinions on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktas, Idris; Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the "Particulate Nature of Matter" unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:…

  8. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth's environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microliters produce hydrogen, small organic acids, nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  9. Competency Level of Nigerian Primary 4 Pupils in Life Skills Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, J. Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…

  10. Grade 9 English Language Arts, Student Achievement Testing Program, 1985-86 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Piagetian and School Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes; Brownlee, Linda

    The relationship between Piagetian and school achievement tests was examined through a meta-analysis of correlational data between tests in these domains. Highlighted is the extent to which performance on Piagetian tasks was related to achievement in these areas. The average age for the subjects used in the analysis was 88 months, the average IQ…

  12. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  13. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  14. The National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills. March 1-3, 1978. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Extracts from the papers and position statements presented at the National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills are provided in an attempt to capture both the diversity and the consensus among the participants. Six sessions are summarized: (1) achievement tests and basic skills: the issues and the setting--by Harold Howe II; (2)…

  15. Correlation between Picture Use in Test Format and Students' Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedyanto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between picture use in test format and vocabulary achievement of 41 male and female seventh graders of Santu Petrus Junior High School. Hence, in this paper, the writer presents how strong the correlation between picture use in test format and vocabulary achievement of the seventh graders, and the students'…

  16. Health Instruction Packages: Test-Taking Strategies for the N. L. N. (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Leslie Miller

    As an informational aid for students who are planning to take NLN (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests, the text and accompanying exercises in this module describe NLN testing procedures and fundamental test-taking skills. After introductory material discussing the importance of mastering test-taking skills, the module describes how to…

  17. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.

  18. Flow-induced Development of Unicellular Cyanobacterial Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J.; Tice, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial mats/biofilms are abundant microbial growth structures throughout the history of life on Earth. Understanding the mechanisms for their morphogenesis and interactions with physical sedimentary forces are important topics that allow deeper understanding of related records. When subjected to hydrodynamic influences, mats are known to vary in morphology and structure in response to fluid shear, yet mechanistically, the underlying cellular architecture due to interactions with flow remain unexplained. Moreover, mats are found to emerge larger scale roughness elements and modified cohesive strength growing under flow. It is a mystery how and why these mat-community-level features are linked in association with modified boundary layers at the mats surface. We examined unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in a circular flow bioreactor designed to maintain a fixed set of hydrodynamic conditions. The use of monoculture strains and unidirectional currents, while not replicating natural mat systems (almost certainly multi-species and often multi-directional currents under complex wind or tidal wave actions), helps to simplify these systems and allows for specific testing of hypotheses regarding how mats evolve distinctive morphologies induced by flow. The unique design of the reactor also makes measurements such as critical erosional shear stress of the mats possible, in addition to microscopic, macroscopic imaging and weeks of continuous mats growth monitoring. We report the finding that linear chains, filament-like cell groups were present from unicellular cyanobacterial mats growing under flow (~1-5 cm/s) and these structures are organized within ~1-3mm size streamers and ~0.5-1mm size nodular macrostructures. Ultra-small, sub-micron thick EPS strings are observed under TEM and are likely the cohesive architectural elements in mats across different fluid regimes. Mat cohesion generally grows with and adapts to increasing flow shear stress within

  19. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This paper introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  20. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  1. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  2. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. PMID:27699177

  3. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., Mather, N., & McGrew, K. S. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH; Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014a) is an individually administered measure containing tests of reading, mathematics, written language, and academic knowledge. Areas of reading, mathematics, and written language each include tests of basic skills, fluency, and application. Academic…

  4. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  5. Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test. Center Technical Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard Arthur

    The Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test assesses an automobile mechanic's ability to determine mechanical faults from auditory cues alone. The 44-item test and its instructions are recorded on magnetic tape; answer choices are presented on tape, and are also written in the printed test booklets. The norming and validity…

  6. Achievement Testing in the No Child Left Behind Era: The Arkansas Benchmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Howerton, D. Lynn; Jones, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act and the accountability movement in public education caused many states to develop criterion-referenced academic achievement tests. Scores from these tests are often used to make high stakes decisions. Even so, these tests typically do not receive independent psychometric scrutiny. We evaluated the 2005 Arkansas…

  7. Psychometric Approach to Error Analysis on Response Patterns of Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; And Others

    Implementation of an adaptive achievement test for teaching signed-numbers operations to junior high students is described. A computer program capable of finding 240 basic errors in signed-number computations was written on the PLATO system and used for analyzing a 64-item conventional test, as well as an adaptive test of addition problems. The…

  8. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  9. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

  10. Dynamic heat and moisture transfer in bulky PAN nanofiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhani, Sedigheh; Etemad, Seyed Gholamreza; Ravandi, Seyed Abdolkarim Hosseini

    2011-07-01

    In this study a non-conventional electrospinning technique was designed for the production of high bulky polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber mats. Optimum nanofiber mats are achieved with 15 wt.% solution of PAN in dimethylformamide. Such mats result in a bulk porosity which is as high as 99.9 and a density as low as 0.84 × 10-3 g/cm3. The effect of the porosity of nanofiber mats on the air permeability and coupled heat and moisture transfer of fibers was investigated. Based on the results, high bulky nanofiber mats possess high heat and moisture transfer. Experimental data reveal that upon a slight decrease in the bulk porosity, air permeability and heat transfer decrease noticeably, while moisture transfer variation is low.

  11. An Introduction to Longitudinal Testing Using Item Sampling Techniques: Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. W.; and Others

    Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM), a new evaluation method, systematically and comprehensively measures student achievement. The unique characteristics of this model are described in detail, as are those of two more familiar models, classroom testing, and curriculum program evaluation. The amount and quality of information available from…

  12. Teachers' and School Administrators' Perspectives and Use of Standardized Achievement Tests: A Review of Published Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsey, Y. Kafui

    Stakeholders and practitioners are concerned about the extent to which standardized achievement tests are meeting the general and specific purposes they were designed to achieve. Several empirical studies have been conducted to this end. This study reviews this research to determine current trends in teachers' and school administrators'…

  13. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test and Bender-Gestalt: Relationship with Achievement Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Wallbrown, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Bender Gestalt (BD) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) in predicting academic achievement for younger children (N=69). Results suggested that the MPD is more sensitive than the Bender in identifying visual-motor perception areas of achievement performance problems. (LLL)

  14. The Role of Achievement Goals in Online Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of achievement goals in online test anxiety and help-seeking while controlling for self-efficacy and potential demographic differences. A total of 150 online students participated in the survey. Separate hierarchical regression analysis results suggested the differential roles of achievement goals…

  15. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  16. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  17. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special…

  18. Predicting Mathematical Achievement and Mathematical Learning Disability with a Simple Screening Tool: The Number Sets Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bailey, Drew H.; Hoard, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The Number Sets Test was developed to assess the speed and accuracy with which children can identify and process quantities represented by Arabic numerals and object sets. The utility of this test for predicting mathematics achievement and risk for mathematical learning disability (MLD) was assessed for a sample of 223 children. A signal detection…

  19. Relationships Between the Gesell School Readiness Test and Standardized Achievement and Intelligence Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between the Gesell School Readiness Test and standarized achievement and intelligence measures were examined. Children were tested before kindergarten, at the end of kindergarten, and at the end of first grade. Correlation coefficients varied from grade to grade, but did not show a higher correlation between related measures.…

  20. Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the…

  1. Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Social Support as Predictors of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak

    2008-01-01

    This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…

  2. Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are…

  3. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  4. Invariance of Equating Functions across Different Subgroups of Examinees Taking a Science Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Harris, Deborah J.; Gao, Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the group invariance of equating results using a science achievement test. Examinees were divided into different subgroups based on the average composite score for test centers, whether they had taken a physics course, and self-reported science grade point average. The reason for dividing examinees into subgroups using such…

  5. The Concurrent Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests by Content Area Using Teachers' Ratings as Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty-two fourth- and fifth-grade teachers rated their 1,032 students in the five curricular subjects: reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social science. The teachers' ratings substantially agreed with students' scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, indicating the concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests.…

  6. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  7. Student science achievement and the integration of indigenous knowledge in the classroom and on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Juliann

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous students' achievement in standardized assessments (Aikenhead, 1997, 2001b; Barnhardt, 2005b). This dissertation examines the achievement gap that is present between American Indian and White students in Montana. I use data from Montana eighth-grade standardized state science tests to determine whether incorporating indigenous material into classrooms and on state standardized science tests supported these initiatives and whether expected outcomes, such as a decrease in the achievement gap and in increase in Native student test scores, are being generated. Using a quantitative methodology, this study focuses on how American Indian students in Montana perform on standardized state science assessments when knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All," has been included on the tests. Montana is the first state in the United States to use a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to create standardized test items based on this curriculum. This study compares White and American Indian students' test scores on these particular test items and overall test scores to determine the effectiveness of the culturally relevant educational initiatives implemented by Montana's Office of Public Instruction in terms of student achievement on state standardized tests. Results of this study uncover the persistence of an achievement gap, with Native students still underperforming when compared to their majority counterparts. American Indian students continue to score at the "nearing proficiency" level, which is one level lower than White students are scoring, at the proficient level. When scores are investigated for items written

  8. State Report Appendix: Arizona Student Achievement Program, Spring 1997. Individual Percentile Rank Scores by School, District, County, and State, Grades 3 through 12. Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This is the 17th year of statewide student testing under the Arizona Student Achievement Program. To fulfill the requirements of Arizona law, a nationally standardized, norm-referenced achievement test in the subjects of reading, language, and mathematics must be adopted and implemented for Arizona schools. For the 1996-97 school year, the State…

  9. Role of microbial mats in the fossilization of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, Philip R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Bernier, Paul; Gaillard, Christian

    1996-09-01

    It has been speculated that microbial mats are an important agent in the fossilization of soft tissues, particularly when apatite (Ca5[CO3, PO4]3[OH, F]) is involved. This has been tested by chemical analyses of the Jurassic limestones of Cerin, France, where phosphatized soft tissues are abundant and are associated with unequivocal microbial mats. The sedimentary distribution of P, K, and Fe following deposition was controlled by the presence of the mats. P concentrations in the mats may approach 2.5 times those elsewhere in the sediment. The highest P concentrations correlate with the occurrence of phosphatized soft tissues. This is the first analytical evidence to demonstrate a fundamental role for microbial mats in the preservation of soft-bodied fossils.

  10. Effects of preprocessing method on TVOC emission of car mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Jia, Li

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the mat preprocessing method on total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission of car mat are studied in this paper. An appropriate TVOC emission period for car mat is suggested. The emission factors for total volatile organic compounds from three kinds of new car mats are discussed. The car mats are preprocessed by washing, baking and ventilation. When car mats are preprocessed by washing, the TVOC emission for all samples tested are lower than that preprocessed in other methods. The TVOC emission is in stable situation for a minimum of 4 days. The TVOC emitted from some samples may exceed 2500μg/kg. But the TVOC emitted from washed Polyamide (PA) and wool mat is less than 2500μg/kg. The emission factors of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) are experimentally investigated in the case of different preprocessing methods. The air temperature in environment chamber and the water temperature for washing are important factors influencing on emission of car mats.

  11. A Theoretical Study of Landing Mat Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-07-01

    the end joint expcrience6 progressive eeteriora- tion uc ’-o - con:r ;itaticn oL mat breaks ( rivet filure, cracking, an. curling) [l21. The weakened...Establishment, Suffield s-69-4 Oct 1969 Dutch Friction -Cone Penetrometer Exploration of Research Area at Field 5, Eglin APB, Florida *S-69-5 Apr 1969 Cracking...Tests. 66 12. Comparison of Performance for Single- Wheel Tests . . . . . . . . .. . 67 13. End Joint Moment Transfer Deficiency Based Upon Uniform

  12. A Study of General Cognitive Operations in Two Achievement Test Batteries and Their Relationship to Item Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Jesse, Daniel M.

    In this study 6,942 items from two standardized achievement test batteries--the Stanford (Early School Achievement Battery, Achievement Battery, and Test of Academic Skills) and the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills--were analyzed. Focus was on determining: (1) the extent to which these test batteries included general cognitive operations (GCOs)…

  13. Elastic-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-strain behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits elastic-plastic stress-strain behavior. The transverse strain behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial strain ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial strain of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial elastic-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse strain behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse strain behavior. Due to the direct connection between

  14. Compositions of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  15. Validation of FRP Matting Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Civil Engineer Center to validate requirements for using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) matting as a foreign object debris cover when repairing damaged...19 2.8.2 Type B-3 polymer glue anchor...FOD cover matting solution, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), was identified as a potential replacement as the USAF airfield damage repair (ADR

  16. HiMAT on lakebed after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) subscale research vehicle, seen here after landing to conclude a research flight, was flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from mid 1979 to January 1983. The aircraft demonstrated advanced fighter technologies that have been used in the development of many modern high performance military aircraft. Two vehicles were used in the research program conducted jointly by NASA and the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The two vehicles, flown a total of 26 times, provided data on the use of composites, aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canards and winglets. They investigated the interaction of these then-new technologies upon each other. About one-half the size of a standard manned fighter and powered by a small jet engine, the HiMAT vehicles were launched from NASA's B-52 carrier aircraft at an altitude of about 45,000 feet. They were flown remotely by a NASA research pilot from a ground station with the aid of a television camera mounted in the HiMAT cockpits. Technologies tested on the HiMAT vehicles appearing later on other aircraft include the extensive use of composites common now on military and commercial aircraft; rear-mounted wing and forward canard configuration used very successfully on the X-29 research aircraft flown at Dryden; and winglets, now used on many private and commercial aircraft to lessen wingtip drag and enhance fuel savings.

  17. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(R) (MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many cou ntries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its re al strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbo x. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using s ymbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language fo rm (command interface) is similar with well known programming languag es such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define c lasses in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most ofthe essential constructs of a higher programming language. M atLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful t o perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We belie ve there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and ana lysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applicati ons. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientifi c problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabu lar format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed. The presentation will emphasize creating

  18. Factors Associated with Performance on the Educational Testing Service (ETS) Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2007-01-01

    Accrediting bodies, including Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-International (AACSB), require evidence that business schools fulfill their stated missions. This often involves using the Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B). In this article, the authors studied MFAT-B performance for its relationship to grade point…

  19. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    PubMed

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2016-08-29

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  20. Implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement: testing alternative models.

    PubMed

    Gonida, Eleftheria; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris; Leondari, Angeliki

    2006-01-01

    In the present study 3 alternative causal models concerning the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement were tested. The direction of changes in implicit theories and perceived competence during early adolescence also was examined. A total of 187 fifth and sixth graders were tested and retested a year later, when they were sixth and seventh graders, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that school achievement determined the adoption of a particular implicit theory through the mediation of perceived competence. Implicit theories were found to change toward the adoption of more incremental beliefs and perceived academic competence declined; however, high achievers, as compared with their low- and middle-level classmates, adopted more incremental beliefs and had significantly higher perceived competence.

  1. l[subscript z] Person-Fit Index to Identify Misfit Students with Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi; Weiss, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the l[subscript z] person-fit index was investigated with achievement test data from 20 exams given to more than 3,200 college students. Results for three methods of estimating ? showed that the distributions of l[subscript z] were not consistent with its theoretical distribution, resulting in general overfit to the item response…

  2. Testing for All: The Emergence and Development of International Assessment of Student Achievement, 1958-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines a vital catalyst in the globalization of education: international assessments--that involve testing and rankings--of student achievement in academic subjects. Nearly all high-income countries participate in international assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Progress in…

  3. The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test: Implications for the Diagnosis and Prediction of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiak, Judi

    1984-01-01

    Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)

  4. The Correlation among EFL Learners' Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…

  5. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  6. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  7. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  8. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  9. Untangling the Global-Distant-Local Knot: The Politics of National Academic Achievement Testing in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2013-01-01

    This study examines one of the most notable manifestations of Japanese education's incorporation into the global education restructuring movement: the 2007 reintroduction of national academic achievement testing ("zenkoku gakuryoku gakushuu joukyou chousa"). In so doing, I aim to untangle the complex intermingling of national and global…

  10. School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Mejias, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior studies…

  11. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  12. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  13. A Model for Incorporating Response-Time Data in Scoring Achievement Tests. Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice

    The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…

  14. The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Seven easily obtainable background variables, such as number of persons, rooms, or cars per family dwelling; kindergarten attendance; and sex were found to have a multiple correlation of .52 with a standard achievement test for a large sample of fourth grade pupils in a metropolitan school district. (JKS)

  15. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  16. Using State or Study-Administered Achievement Tests in Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Abt Associates for the Institute of Education Sciences' National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, takes an important first step in sorting out the implications of relying on state tests for general, student-level measures of reading and math achievement in evaluations of educational…

  17. Student science achievement and the integration of Indigenous knowledge on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Juliann; Abrams, Eleanor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we examine how American Indian students in Montana performed on standardized state science assessments when a small number of test items based upon traditional science knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All", were included. Montana is the first state in the US to mandate the use of a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to incorporate this curriculum into a portion of the standardized assessment items. This study compares White and American Indian student test scores on these particular test items to determine how White and American Indian students perform on culturally relevant test items compared to traditional standard science test items. The connections between student achievement on adapted culturally relevant science test items versus traditional items brings valuable insights to the fields of science education, research on student assessments, and Indigenous studies.

  18. On Science Achievement from the Perspective of Different Types of Tests: A Multidimensional Approach to Achievement Validation. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Carlos Cuauhtemoc; Yin, Yue; Schultz, Susan; Shavelson, Richard

    The focus in this study was on science achievement measures and their relationships to three reasoning dimensions: basic knowledge and reasoning, spatial-mechanical reasoning, and quantitative science reasoning. Thirty multiple-choice items, 8 constructed response items, and 3 performance assessments, each nominally assigned to 1 of the reasoning…

  19. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  20. Predicting Second Grade Achievement Scores with the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor and the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    The predictive validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Metropolitan Readiness Test was evaluated for use with kindergarten children. The criterion measure was the California Achievement Tests administered when the children…

  1. Gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats produce synergistic effects on hemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To improve the hemostatic function of chitosan nanofiber mats, we studied the synergetic effects of gelatin blending and porosity control. Gelatin-blended-chitosan (Chi-Gel) nanofiber mats were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, mechanical properties and wettability, and functionally tested in a blood clotting study. The blood clotting efficiency of Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using rabbit whole blood in vitro was superior to that of chitosan nanofibers. Moreover, Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with enlarged porosity, produced by ultra-sonication, showed improved blood clotting efficiency, cell viability and cell infiltration compared with non-sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a richer density of platelets on sonicated nanofiber mats than on non-sonicated nanofiber mats after 3 min of blood clotting. The proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells on sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using the DNA assay was higher than that on non-sonicated chitosan nanofiber mats after 7 days of culture. Confocal z-stack images showed that sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with high porosity supported active cell migration and infiltration into the 3-dimensional nanofiber mats. These results suggest that hydrophilic gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats yields synergistic effects that not only improve hemostatic function but also promote wound repair.

  2. Maladaptive achievement patterns: a test of a diathesis-stress analysis of helplessness.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, A K

    1998-06-01

    The present study tested the assumptions, derived from a diathesis-stress model, that students' perceptions of autonomy-support in their classroom produce a relatively intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic motivational approach to academic tasks and that this approach, in turn, predicts qualitatively different responses to uncontrollable events. It was further assumed that students' motivational orientation would be more reliable than attributional style or perceptions of competence in predicting achievement patterns, including performance level after failure, use of adaptive attributions, and overall achievement scores. Results supported these predictions and further demonstrated, in longitudinal analyses, that motivational orientation may contribute to the formation of perceptions of competence and attributional style in students.

  3. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Igor G.; Duran, Victor R.; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J.; Veloso, Tainã J.; Sarmento, Stella M. S.; Paget, Christine L.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed. PMID:27933004

  4. Manganese Influences Carbonate Precipitation in a Laminated Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusor, M.; Grim, S. L.; Wilmeth, D.; Johnson, H.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating mineralization within modern microbial mats informs our interpretation of ancient microbialites and the mineralization process. Microbial mats in Little Hot Creek (LHC), California contain 4 distinct layers with different microbiota. Each layer of the mat is supersaturated with regard to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which increases with depth. Total organic carbon decreases with depth through the mat. We used 13C-labeled bicarbonate incubations of each mat layer to calculate growth rates of organic carbon and CaCO3 within the mat. Incubations were also amended with Mn or Mg to test their effect on rates of CaCO3 and organic carbon formation. The Mn-amended top layer increased CaCO3 precipitation and organic carbon growth. Mn increased organic carbon production in the lowest layer to a lesser extent, but not growth of CaCO3. Mn addition had no effect on growth rates in the two intervening layers. Mg amendment stimulated only organic carbon formation in the top layer, with little to no effect on the lower layers or overall CaCO3 formation. We attribute the elevated CaCO3 precipitation noted after Mn addition to increased oxygenic photosynthetic activity. Oxygenic photosynthesis requires Mn as an enzyme cofactor and promotes carbonate precipitation. We propose that the phototrophic community was responsible for most of the CaCO3 precipitation in the upper layer. Phototrophs gradually moved upwards for optimal access to sunlight, and as the mat grew, "tenant" microorganisms inhabited the lower carbonate layers while the "builders" remained on top. The relatively constant percentages of inorganic carbon below the top layer combined with observed minimal CaCO3 precipitation under laboratory conditions suggest that additional research into potential metabolisms that impact carbonate formation would be informative. These results improve our understanding of the linkages between microbial metabolisms, carbonate precipitation in microbial mats, and the potential

  5. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  6. The Validity of the Beery Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Predicting Achievement in Kindergarten, First, and Second Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alice E.

    1978-01-01

    The Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration consists of 24 geometric forms that are to be copied into a test booklet. This study demonstrated the ability of the test to predict academic achievement in preschool children. (Author/JKS)

  7. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  8. Capillography of Mats of Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sansom, Elijah; Zhou, Jijie; Gharib, Mory

    2008-01-01

    Capillography (from the Latin capillus, 'hair', and the Greek graphein, to write ) is a recently conceived technique for forming mats of nanofibers into useful patterns. The concept was inspired by experiments on carpetlike mats of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Capillography may have the potential to be a less-expensive, less-time-consuming alternative to electron-beam lithography as a means of nanoscale patterning for the fabrication of small devices and instruments. In capillography, one exploits the lateral capillary forces exerted on small objects that pierce the surface of a liquid. If the small objects are identical, then the forces are always attractive. Two examples of the effects of such forces are the agglomeration of small particles floating on the surface of a pond and the drawing together of hairs of a wet paintbrush upon removal of the brush from water. Because nanoscale objects brought into contact remain stuck together indefinitely due to Van der Waals forces, patterns formed by capillography remain even upon removal of the liquid. For the experiments on the mats of carbon nanotubes, a surfactant solution capable of wetting carbon nanotubes (which are ultra-hydrophobic) was prepared. The mats were wetted with the solution, then dried. Once the mats were dry, it was found that the nanotubes had become ordered into various patterns, including nestlike indentations, trenches, and various combinations thereof. It may be possible to exploit such ordering effects through controlled wetting and drying of designated portions of mats of carbon nanotubes (and, perhaps, mats of nanofibers of other materials) to obtain patterns similar to those heretofore formed by use of electron-beam lithography. For making patterns that include nestlike indentations, it has been conjectured that it could be possible to control the nesting processes by use of electrostatic fields. Further research is needed to understand the physics of the patterning processes in order to

  9. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised and Bender-Gestalt in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1993-01-01

    Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…

  10. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance in a state-wide test of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E; Price, Gavin R

    2017-03-03

    The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade. Results show that increased GM volume in the bilateral hippocampal formation and the right inferior frontal gyrus, regions associated with learning and memory, is associated with higher TCAP math scores. Secondary analyses revealed that GM volume in the left angular gyrus had a stronger relationship to TCAP math in grades 3-4 than in grades 5-8 while the relationship between GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus and TCAP math was stronger for grades 5-8. These results suggest that the neuroanatomical architecture related to in-school math achievement differs from that related to math achievement measured by standardized tests, and that the most related neural structures differ as a function of grade level. We suggest, therefore, that the use of school-relevant outcome measures is critical if neuroscience is to bridge the gap to education.

  12. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part II. Results based on multiple regression analysis and tear-down analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In the first part of this work [1] a field operational test (FOT) on micro-HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) and conventional vehicles was introduced. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology and flooded batteries were applied. The FOT data were analyzed by kernel density estimation. In this publication multiple regression analysis is applied to the same data. Square regression models without interdependencies are used. Hereby, capacity loss serves as dependent parameter and several battery-related and vehicle-related parameters as independent variables. Battery temperature is found to be the most critical parameter. It is proven that flooded batteries operated in the conventional power system (CPS) degrade faster than VRLA-AGM batteries in the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). A smaller number of FOT batteries were applied in a vehicle-assigned test design where the test battery is repeatedly mounted in a unique test vehicle. Thus, vehicle category and specific driving profiles can be taken into account in multiple regression. Both parameters have only secondary influence on battery degradation, instead, extended vehicle rest time linked to low mileage performance is more serious. A tear-down analysis was accomplished for selected VRLA-AGM batteries operated in the MHPS. Clear indications are found that pSoC-operation with periodically fully charging the battery (refresh charging) does not result in sulphation of the negative electrode. Instead, the batteries show corrosion of the positive grids and weak adhesion of the positive active mass.

  13. Photosynthate Partitioning and Fermentation in Hot Spring Microbial Mat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    Patterns of (sup14)CO(inf2) incorporation into molecular components of the thermophilic cyanobacterial mat communities inhabiting hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park and Synechococcus sp. strain C1 were investigated. Exponentially growing Synechococcus sp. strain C1 partitioned the majority of incorporated (sup14)CO(inf2) into protein, low-molecular-weight metabolites, and lipid fractions (45, 22, and 18% of total incorporated carbon, respectively). In contrast, mat cores from various hot springs predominantly accumulated polyglucose during periods of illumination (between 77 and 85% of total incorporated (sup14)CO(inf2)). Although photosynthetically active, mat photoautotrophs do not appear to be rapidly growing, since we also detected only limited synthesis of macromolecules associated with growth (i.e., protein and rRNA). To test the hypothesis that polysaccharide reserves are fermented in situ under the dark anaerobic conditions cyanobacterial mats experience at night, mat cores were prelabeled with (sup14)CO(inf2) under illuminated conditions and then transferred to dark anaerobic conditions. Radiolabel in the polysaccharide fraction decreased by 74.7% after 12 h, of which 58.5% was recovered as radiolabeled acetate, CO(inf2), and propionate. These results indicate tightly coupled carbon fixation and fermentative processes and the potential for significant transfer of carbon from primary producers to heterotrophic members of these cyanobacterial mat communities. PMID:16535472

  14. Mechanical behavior of ultralong multiwalled carbon nanotube mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Christian P.; Flowers, Jason; McKee, Gregg S. B.; Vecchio, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been a subject of great interest partially due to their potential for exceptional material properties. Improvements in synthesis methods have facilitated the production of ultralong CNT mats, with lengths in the millimeter range. The increased length of these ultralong mats has, in return, opened the way to greater flexibility to probe their mechanical response. In this work, mats of dense, well-aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown with a vapor-phase chemical vapor deposition technique using ferrocene and benzene as reactants, and subsequently tested in both tension and compression using two methods, in a thermomechanical analyzer and in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. In compression, measured stiffness was very low, due to buckling of the nanotubes. In tension, the nanotube mats behaved considerably stiffer; however, they were still more compliant than expected for nanotubes (˜1TPa). Analysis of both the growth method used and the nanotube mat fracture surface suggests that the mats grown in this method are not composed of continuous nanotubes and their strengths actually closely match those of woven nanotube yarns and ropes.

  15. The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model in predicting online student test anxiety and help-seeking. Achievement goals refer to students' general aims for participating in learning and the standard by which they judge their achievement (Pintrich, 2000). According to Elliot and his colleagues (2011), there are six…

  16. An Examination of the Predictive Validity of the Keymath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test in Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Demuth, Dennis M.

    1976-01-01

    Title I elementary school children (N=37) were administered the Arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test and the Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test. One year later, the Metropolitan Achievement Test was administered. Correlations between the three measures are presented and discussed. (Author)

  17. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  18. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  19. ON TEACHING ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, TOMMY R.

    FRANCISCO ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS," LIKE ANY WELL-CONSTRUCTED SHORT STORY, CAN SERVE AS AN IMPORTANT TEACHING DEVICE IN GUIDING STUDENTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE, TO READ WITH UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION, THE TECHNIQUES OF CONVERTING VERBALS BACK INTO VERBS, REPLACING ALL PRONOUNS WITH THEIR ANTECEDENTS IN PARALLEL…

  20. Stiffness of compressed fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Mäkinen, J. P.; Hirvonen, H.; Timonen, J.

    2000-11-01

    We investigate, using an analytical and a numerical model, the in-plane stiffness of fiber mats. A mat is modeled by randomly depositing thin linear-elastic fibers on top of each other under the influence of an external pressure. The external pressure has the effect of bending the fibers over each other. The fibers are assumed rigidly bonded at contacts. For a low external pressure the stiffness of the mat deviates from that of its two-dimensional projection only by a geometrical factor, and the effective Poisson contraction is close to zero. For higher pressures, stiffness is governed by two competing effects and a maximum appears in the stiffness. The effective Poisson ratio is clearly negative in this range. An approximative analytical description is developed for the stiffness of mats formed under low external pressure. The stiffness is given as a function of only a few parameters: the degree of bonding, the dimensions of the fibers, the elastic constants of the fiber material, and the density of fibers.

  1. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling-based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from the pairs of foreground ( F ) and background ( B ) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected ( F,B ) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to ( F,B ) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms the current stateoftheart in image and video matting.

  2. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-04-21

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  3. Dynamics of archaea at fine spatial scales in Shark Bay mat microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hon Lun; Visscher, Pieter T.; White III, Richard Allen; Smith, Daniela-Lee; Patterson, Molly M.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    The role of archaea in microbial mats is poorly understood. Delineating the spatial distribution of archaea with mat depth will enable resolution of putative niches in these systems. In the present study, high throughput amplicon sequencing was undertaken in conjunction with analysis of key biogeochemical properties of two mats (smooth and pustular) from Shark Bay, Australia. One-way analysis of similarity tests indicated the archaeal community structures of smooth and pustular mats were significantly different (global R = 1, p = 0.1%). Smooth mats possessed higher archaeal diversity, dominated by Parvarchaeota. The methanogenic community in smooth mats was dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales, as well as methylotrophic Methanosarcinales, Methanococcales, Methanobacteriales and Methanomassiliicoccaceae. Pustular mats were enriched with Halobacteria and Parvarchaeota. Key metabolisms (bacterial and archaeal) were measured, and the rates of oxygen production/consumption and sulfate reduction were up to four times higher in smooth than in pustular mats. Methane production peaked in the oxic layers and was up to seven-fold higher in smooth than pustular mats. The finding of an abundance of anaerobic methanogens enriched at the surface where oxygen levels were highest, coupled with peak methane production in the oxic zone, suggests putative surface anoxic niches in these microbial mats.

  4. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading Subtest “Holds” in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135

  5. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-02

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  6. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, James W; Gosling, Samuel D; Ferrell, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  7. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  8. Stress-strain dependence for soy-protein nanofiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, S.; Sinha-Ray, S.; Yarin, A. L.; Pourdeyhimi, B.

    2012-02-01

    Soy protein/nylon 6 monolithic and core-shell nanofibers were solution-blown and collected on a rotating drum as fiber mats. Tensile tests of rectangular strips of these mats revealed their stress-strain dependences. These dependences were linear at low strains which correspond to their elastic behavior. Then, a plastic-like nonlinearity sets in, which is followed by catastrophic rupture. Parameters such as Young's modulus, yield stress, and specific strain energy were measured. The results were rationalized in the framework of the phenomenological elastic-plastic model, as well as a novel micromechanical model (the latter attributes plasticity to bond rapture between the individual overstressed fibers in the mat). Besides, the effects of stretching history, rate of stretching, and winding velocity of the collector drum on the strength-related parameters are studied. The results for soy protein/nylon 6 nanofiber mats are also compared to those for solution blown pure nylon 6 mats, which were produced and tested in the same way.

  9. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test and Bender-Gestalt: relationship with achievement criteria.

    PubMed

    Fuller, G B; Wallbrown, F H

    1983-11-01

    Administered the Bender-Gestalt (BG) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 69 first-grade children prior to administration of the California Achievement Test (CAT). Order of administration for the BG and MPD was counterbalanced to control for practice effects. Correlations (rs) were computed between the 9 CAT subtests and scores from the BG and MPD. The DD score from the MPD correlated significantly with all 9 CAT subtests. The SpCD score from the MPD correlated significantly with 6 of the 9 CAT subtests. The BG Koppitz score correlated significantly with 6 of the 9 CAT subtests. Both the DD and SpCD scores showed a significantly higher negative r with Reading Vocabulary, Total Reading, and Arithmetic Computation than the BG. Furthermore, both types of MPD scores showed a much higher average r with the 9 CAT subtests than was evident for the BG. These findings suggest that DD and SpCD scores from the MPD provide a more sensitive measure of deficits in visual-motor perception than the Koppitz score from the BG.

  10. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects.

  11. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  12. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior

    2015-01-01

    In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…

  13. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  14. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  15. The Effect of Varying the Response Format on the Statistical Characteristics of the Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacko, Edward J.; Huck, Schuyler W.

    The Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Test was developed to measure the extent to which individuals experience test anxiety. In at least two published studies, the authors claim to have used the test when in fact the response format was changed from that used in the original instrument and the "buffer" items were omitted. To investigate…

  16. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  17. Foam-mat Drying Technology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2015-07-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method which allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40 -90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25 - 2%), egg white (3 - 20%), maltodextrin (0.5 - 05%) and gum Arabic (2 - 9%) are the commonly utilised additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous and sticky products which cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying and improved product quality it provides.

  18. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  19. The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…

  20. Relationship between Patterns of Personality of Campus Leaders and Scholastic Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Test of Holland's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Linda Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement as a function of principal personality and assistant principal personality in an elementary school setting. Student achievement, the dependent variable, was fifth grade campus mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test for reading, math, and science. Holland's…

  1. Electrospun chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibre mats for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) aqueous salt blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibre mats was prepared by electrospinning. CS was dissolved with hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in distilled water without the use of toxic or hazardous solvents. The CS aqueous salts were blended with PVA at different weight ratios, and the effect of the solution ratios was investigated. The morphologies and mechanical and swelling properties of the generated fibres were analysed. Indirect cytotoxicity studies indicated that the CS/PVA nanofibre mats were non-toxic to normal human fibroblast cells. The CS-HOBt/PVA and CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and an in vivo wound healing test showed that the CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats performed better than gauze in decreasing acute wound size during the first week after tissue damage. In conclusion, the biodegradable, biocompatible and antibacterial CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats have potential for use as wound dressing materials.

  2. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-02-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex.

  3. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Horizontal Stability of Landing Mats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    1974. A rmathematical 11aodel tio silluatet the buckling response oif thte tria’i to th;: hora /ttntal ltAds way, atso elp. 1 h reuls o th...NO. 19R-20-0 MAT XU19, 4-FT X 4*PT ZERO ECCENTRICITY WIT420T EJGH48F NOTE NUMBERS SL LINES .RE HORIZONTAL FORC~E (LEFT) AND HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT ,RIGH...connector bars 14- TEST NO. 19-20-0 MAT XM19, 4-FT X 4-FT WIDTH 20-FT, LENGTH 48-FT ZERO ECCENTRICITY S-NG NUMBERS BYLINES ARE HORIZONTAL FORCE (LEFT) AND

  4. New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. Part II: mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Donius, Amalie E.; Kiechel, Marjorie A.; Schauer, Caroline L.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies exist on the mechanical performance of crosslinked electrospun chitosan (CS) fibre mats. In this study, we show that the mat structure and mechanical performance depend on the different crosslinking agents genipin, epichlorohydrin (ECH), and hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS), as well as the post-electrospinning heat and base activation treatments. The mat structure was imaged by field emission scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical performance was tested in tension. The elastic modulus, tensile strength, strain at failure and work to failure were found to range from 52 to 592 MPa, 2 to 30 MPa, 2 to 31 per cent and 0.041 to 3.26 MJ m−3, respectively. In general, neat CS mats were found to be the stiffest and the strongest, though least ductile, while CS–ECH mats were the least stiff, weakest, but the most ductile, and CS–HDACS fibre mats exhibited intermediary mechanical properties. The mechanical performance of the mats is shown to reflect differences in the fibre diameter, number of fibre–fibre contacts formed within the mat, as well as varying intermolecular bonding and moisture content. The findings reported here complement the chemical properties of the mats, described in part I of this study. PMID:23349435

  5. New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. Part II: mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Donius, Amalie E; Kiechel, Marjorie A; Schauer, Caroline L; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2013-04-06

    Few studies exist on the mechanical performance of crosslinked electrospun chitosan (CS) fibre mats. In this study, we show that the mat structure and mechanical performance depend on the different crosslinking agents genipin, epichlorohydrin (ECH), and hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS), as well as the post-electrospinning heat and base activation treatments. The mat structure was imaged by field emission scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical performance was tested in tension. The elastic modulus, tensile strength, strain at failure and work to failure were found to range from 52 to 592 MPa, 2 to 30 MPa, 2 to 31 per cent and 0.041 to 3.26 MJ m(-3), respectively. In general, neat CS mats were found to be the stiffest and the strongest, though least ductile, while CS-ECH mats were the least stiff, weakest, but the most ductile, and CS-HDACS fibre mats exhibited intermediary mechanical properties. The mechanical performance of the mats is shown to reflect differences in the fibre diameter, number of fibre-fibre contacts formed within the mat, as well as varying intermolecular bonding and moisture content. The findings reported here complement the chemical properties of the mats, described in part I of this study.

  6. Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Nanofiber Mats through Controllable Welding at the Cross Points.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Chunlei; Xue, Jiajia; Ke, Qinfei; Xia, Younan

    2017-03-10

    This communication describes a simple and effective method for welding electrospun nanofibers at the cross points to enhance the mechanical properties of their nonwoven mats. The welding is achieved by placing a nonwoven mat of the nanofibers in a capped vial with the vapor of a proper solvent. For polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers, the solvent is dichloromethane (DCM). The welding can be managed in a controllable fashion by simply varying the partial pressure of DCM and/or the exposure time. Relative to the pristine nanofiber mat, the mechanical strength of the welded PCL nanofiber mat can be increased by as much as 200%. Meanwhile, such a treatment does not cause any major structural changes, including morphology, fiber diameter, and pore size. This study provides a generic method for improving the mechanical properties of nonwoven nanofiber mats, holding great potential in various applications.

  7. The Extracellular Matrix in Photosynthetic Mats: A Cyanobacterial Gingerbread House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, R.; Stannard, W.; Bebout, B.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, M. S.; Lee, J.; Everroad, R. C.; Thelen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline laminated cyanobacterial mats are excellent model systems for investigating photoautotrophic contributions to biogeochemical cycling on a millimeter scale. These self-sustaining ecosystems are characterized by steep physiochemical gradients that fluctuate dramatically on hour timescales, providing a dynamic environment to study microbial response. However, elucidating the distribution of energy from light absorption into biomass requires a complete understanding of the various constituents of the mat. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and DNA are a major component of these mats and may function in the redistribution of nutrients and metabolites within the community. To test this notion, we established a model mat-building culture for comparison with the phylogenetically diverse natural mat communities. In these two systems we determined how proteins and glycans in the matrix changed as a function of light and tracked nutrient flow from the matrix. Using mass spectrometry metaproteomics analysis, we found homologous proteins in both field and culture extracellular matrix that point to cyanobacterial turnover of amino acids, inorganic nutrients, carbohydrates and nucleic acids from the EPS. Other abundant functions identified included oxidative stress response from both the cyanobacteria and heterotrophs and cyanobacterial structural proteins that may play a role in mat cohesion. Several degradative enzymes also varied in abundance in the EPS in response to light availability, suggesting active secretion. To further test cyanobacterial EPS turnover, we generated isotopically-labeled EPS and used NanoSIMS to trace uptake of this labeled EPS. Our findings suggest Cyanobacteria may facilitate nutrient transfer to other groups, as well as uptake of their own products through degradation of EPS components. This work provides evidence for the essential roles of EPS for storage, structural

  8. Big fish in big ponds: a multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Zeidner, Moshe; Schleyer, Esther

    2008-04-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual achievement and achievement level of student reference group on test anxiety in a national sample of 769 gifted Israeli students (grade levels 4-9), which was previously investigated by Zeidner and Schleyer (1999a). We hypothesized that when controlling for individual achievement, students' experiences of test anxiety should increase with the increasing ability level of their peer reference group. It was assumed that this effect was largely mediated by reference group effects on academic self-concept (big-fish-little-pond effect). Zeidner and Schleyer found that gifted students within a gifted peer reference group showed higher levels of test anxiety than gifted students within a non-gifted peer reference group. Of note, the present study focused exclusively on gifted students attending special gifted classes. The main research question was whether or not the assumed effects of individual and class achievement can be found for gifted students in special gifted classes when taking the variance of achievement level (grades) of the special gifted classes into account. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methodology, the assumed effects were vindicated for this special group of high ability students. Thus, in line with previous results, the Worry component of test anxiety was more highly reactive to the effects of individual achievement than the Emotionality component. Also, in line with our theoretical assumptions, achievement/anxiety relations were largely mediated by the effects of academic self-concept.

  9. Large-scale academic achievement testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny. Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. This study has three objectives: (a) it will summarize the historical data over the last three decades to indicate trends in academic achievement for this special population, (b) it will analyze the current federal laws and regulations related to educational testing and special education, thereby identifying gaps between policy and practice in the field, especially identifying the limitations of current testing programs in assessing what deaf and hard-of-hearing students know, and (c) it will offer some insights and suggestions for future testing programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  10. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  11. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  12. Relationship of Oral Reading Fluency Probes on Students' Reading Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…

  13. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  14. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  15. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  16. Achievement at Whose Expense? A Literature Review of Test-Based Grade Retention Policies in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Maxwell's method of literature reviews for educational research to focus on literature relevant to test-based grade retention policies to make the following argument: although some studies have documented average gains in academic achievement through test-based grade retention, there is increasing evidence that these gains have…

  17. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  18. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  19. Marianas Test of English Achievement: Listening Comprehension, Structure and Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension. Manual, 1979 Edition, Forms A and B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Klingbergs, Imants E.

    This manual for the Marianas Test of English Achievement (MTEA) provides a description of the tests, directions for administration and scoring, a discussion of the interpretation of scores, and norms based on all 1,780 children in grades 6 through 9 in the Northern Marianas Islands in October 1977 and May 1978. There are two equivalent forms of…

  20. Biosocial Influences on Sex Differences for Ability and Achievement Test Results as Well as Marks at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of ability and achievement test results and school grades for 323 pairs of Swedish male and female twins and 740 controls in relation to social background. An interaction effect of sex and social background was found for verbal ability and mathematics test results. (SLD)

  1. Improving Achievement and Attitudes in Elementary Algebra through Written Error-Correcting Feedback and Free Comments on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueher, Jane

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which written error-correcting feedback on teacher-made criterion-referenced tests results in increased achievement of high school students taking algebra. In addition, student attitudes toward chapter tests and changes that may occur in those attitudes resulting from teacher treatment of…

  2. Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul J

    2015-02-02

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species.

  3. The Use of the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test as a Predictor of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Glenn B.; Bemis, Katherine A.

    In an attempt to find a test which minimized cultural bias, three tests were administered to 335 first grade pupils. The subjects comprised 2 groups (123 Anglo children and 212 Spanish surnamed children). The Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (GDAM) and the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test (LT), Form A, were administered as measures of intelligence. The…

  4. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  5. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  6. Raising the stakes: How students' motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement.

    PubMed

    Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M

    2015-04-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.

  7. Effects of tacky mat contamination on bond degradation for Chemlok/liner and NBR/liner bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tacky mats are placed by the rubber lay-up areas for the solid rocket motor segments. These mats dust off the shoes prior to entering the platform where the lay-up work is performed. The possibility exists that a tacky mat could be touched with gloved hands prior to handling the uncured nitride butadiene rubber (NBR). Tests were run to determine if NBR were accidentally touched would there be any degradation of the liner/NBR bond. The tacky mats were judged solely on the basis of bond degradation caused by either direct or indirect contamination. Test results all indicate that there was no notable NBR/Chemlok or liner/NBR bond degradation on samples that came into contact with the tacky mat material. Testing procedures are described. The tacky mat adhesive composition does not contain fluorocarbons or release agents that would affect bonding.

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  9. Self-Efficacy, Test Anxiety, and Self-Reported Test-Taking Ability: How Do They Differ between High- and Low-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuk, Jasna; Morse, David T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high- and low-achieving undergraduate college students on selfefficacy, test anxiety, and self-reported test-taking ability. Eighty students from 2 sections of educational psychology course participated in the study; complete data were collected for 76 students. Before taking their first exam, students…

  10. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  11. Relationships between Teacher-Assigned Grades and Academic Achievement as Determined by AIMS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between student achievement, as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards, and teacher-assigned grades within a large, urban Phoenix, Arizona school district. For the quantitative component of the study, a proportionate stratified random sample of 3rd grade students from schools…

  12. Aggregating Student Achievement Trends across States with Different Tests: Using Standardized Slopes as Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Schmidt, R. James; Besag, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The study of federal education initiatives that takes place over multiple years in multiple settings often calls for aggregating and comparing data-in particular, student achievement data-across a broad set of schools, districts, and states. The need to track the trends over time is complicated by the fact that the data from the different schools,…

  13. Using Formative Reading Assessments and Data Utilization to Improve ELL Spanish Speaking Students' Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Maureen Dugan

    2013-01-01

    The demands and expectations placed on all schools in the United States to meet the needs of a growing and diverse population continue to raise the questions, what needs to be done in order for all students to achieve success, and how can this success be measured? This study, researched and reported in the form of a dissertation, was performed on…

  14. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  15. Standardized Tests as Measurements of Achievement: Does the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Susan Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between HSAP scores and various measures of classroom achievement such as overall GPA, End Of Course Scores and SAT/ACT scores of Berea High School [BHS] students in the classes of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Methodology: The researcher collected the following data for random samples…

  16. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide achievement…

  17. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  18. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  19. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  20. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  1. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  2. Performance of ballast mats on passenger railroads: Measurement vs. projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. E.; Singleton, H. L.

    2006-06-01

    Ballast mats have been installed on urban railway systems throughout the world to provide isolation of ground-borne vibrations from trains. In general, the performance has been found to be satisfactory. However, often there is a variance between the claims of the suppliers of ballast mats and the actual performance of the product in the real world. The classic case involves an infinite terminal impedance applicable to a tunnel configuration. However, a ballast mat installation outdoors on surface track with sub-grade slabs may not have the same performance as a tunnel base where sides are stiffened by walls. In order to represent this situation, Kimura developed a simplified prediction procedure based on an original Wettschureck/Kurze model, with a finite termination impedance based on a flat beam model. This prediction procedure has been tested against measurements on at-grade installations on light rail transit and commuter railway installations in Baltimore and Boston. In both cases, the model showed good agreement with measured values for the resonant frequency dip and the mid-frequency insertion loss. At higher frequencies, however, the model over-predicted the insertion loss, as do many of the models used by ballast mat suppliers. Suggestions are made to account for the discrepancies between predicted and measured values.

  3. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Common Mistakes in Achievement Tests Prepared by School Teachers and Corporate Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Test development has been an important part of measurement and evaluation in any educational setting, whether its purpose is instruction or training. Both teachers and trainers are expected to have certain level of mastery in developing reliable and valid tests for assessing performance of learners adequately. However, it has often been reported…

  5. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  6. Prediction of Post-High School Educational Experiences from an Aptitude/Achievement Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    This study is the third in a series to assess the relationship between educational criteria other than grades and the Washington Pre-College (WPC) test battery. Five hundred and ninety-seven returned questionnaires from Seattle-area schools provided post-high school educational criteria to be correlated with WPC test scores and high school grades.…

  7. Contracting for Statewide Student Achievement Tests: A Review. Department of Public Instruction 98-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Legislative Audit Bureau, Madison.

    The Wisconsin legislature has required the Department of Public Instruction to adopt or approve standardized tests for statewide use to measure student attainment of knowledge and concepts in grades 4, 8, and 10. Although school districts generally gave high ratings to the contents of TerraNova (McGraw Hill), the testing instrument most recently…

  8. Tests Built from Piaget's and Gesell's Tasks as Predictors of First-Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Kaufman, Nadeen L.

    1972-01-01

    Results offer empirical support to Ilg and Ames's claim that the Gesell battery is an excellent predictor of school readiness. The close similarity of the Piaget and Gesell tests accords well with previous findings that the two tests have much in common. (Authors/MB)

  9. Write on Target: Preparing Young Writers To Succeed on State Writing Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Tommy; York, Carol

    This handbook guides teachers through nine workshops designed to share strategies for success on writing tests. The workshops in the handbook give practical ideas that can be implemented in the elementary classroom to set the stage for test success without compromising children's growth as writers. Following a foreword by Michael R. Sampson and…

  10. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  11. Assessment Gaze, Refraction, and Blur: The Course of Achievement Testing in the Past 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses assessment (testing) with an emphasis on the 100-year period since the American Education Research Association was formed. The authors start with definitions and explanations of contemporary tests. They then look backward into the 19th century to significant work by Horace Mann and Herbert Spencer, who engendered two…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  13. Classroom Management, School Staff Relations, School Climate, and Academic Achievement: Testing A Model with Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Lindsey T.; Polk, Elizabeth; Keys, Christopher B.; McMahon, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Urban learning environments pose distinct instructional challenges for teachers and administrators, and can lead to lower achievement compared to suburban or rural schools. Today's educational climate increasingly emphasises a need for positive academic outcomes, often measured by standardised tests, on which student educational opportunities,…

  14. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  15. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  16. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  17. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  18. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  20. A Systematic Approach for Measuring Sustained Effect and for Comparing Compensatory Education Programs Using Achievement Test Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Al

    The system discussed in this paper was successfully used to track approximately 17,000 students participating in various educational programs and to measure their gains through achievement test results. It was developed for a school district with twelve supplementary instruction programs, and has been in use since the 1975-76 school year. The…

  1. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  2. Comparability of Bilingual Versions of Assessments: Sources of Incomparability of English and French Versions of Canada's National Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Gierl, Mark J.; McCreith, Tanya; Puhan, Gautam; Koh, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the degree of comparability and sources of incomparability of English and French versions of reading, mathematics, and science tests that were administered as part of a survey of achievement in Canada. The results point to substantial psychometric differences between the 2 language versions. Approximately 18% to 36% of the…

  3. Differential Validity and Utility of Successive and Simultaneous Approaches to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Gierl, Mark J.; Tardif, Claudette; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Described in this paper are the first three activities of a research program designed to assess the differential validity and utility of successive and simultaneous approaches to the development of equivalent achievement tests in the French and English languages. Two teams of multilingual/multicultural French-English teachers used the simultaneous…

  4. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  5. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Woodcock-Johnson Mathematics Achievement Tests for Children Aged 6 to 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Pina, Violeta; Valero-Garcia, Ana V.; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2012-01-01

    This study validated the four mathematics tests of the Spanish version of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement (ACH) battery for use in the first six grades of school in Spain. Developmental effects and gender differences were also examined. Participants were a normal population sample of 424 (216 boys) children aged 6 to 13 years.…

  6. Full-Scale Instrumented Evaluations of Multiple Airfield Matting Systems on Soft Soil to Characterize Permanent Deformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    experienced by the subgrade. The matting systems were tested on a California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 6 and subjected to simulated F-15E aircraft traffic...subgrade to a California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 6, surfacing it with airfield matting, and applying simulated F-15E aircraft traffic on the mat surface...California Bearing Ratio; Gs = specific gravity. aASTM D1557. Figure 11. Compaction curve for CH subgrade material. ERDC/GSL TR-16-15 22 Figure 12

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Ions Released from Zeolites Immobilized on Cellulose Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Katrina A; Cho, Hong Je; Yeung, Hiu Fai; Fan, Wei; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-02-10

    In this study, we exploit the high silver ion exchange capability of Linde Type A (LTA) zeolites and present, for the first time, electrospun nanofiber mats decorated with in-house synthesized silver (Ag(+)) ion exchanged zeolites that function as molecular delivery vehicles. LTA-Large zeolites with a particle size of 6.0 μm were grown on the surface of the cellulose nanofiber mats, whereas LTA-Small zeolites (0.2 μm) and three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous-imprinted (LTA-Meso) zeolites (0.5 μm) were attached to the surface of the cellulose nanofiber mats postsynthesis. After the three zeolite/nanofiber mat assemblies were ion-exchanged with Ag(+) ions, their ion release profiles and ability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 were evaluated as a function of time. LTA-Large zeolites immobilized on the nanofiber mats displayed more than an 11 times greater E. coli K12 inactivation than the Ag-LTA-Large zeolites that were not immobilized on the nanofiber mats. This study demonstrates that by decorating nanometer to micrometer scale Ag(+) ion-exchanged zeolites on the surface of high porosity, hydrophilic cellulose nanofiber mats, we can achieve a tunable release of Ag(+) ions that inactivate bacteria faster and are more practical to use in applications over powder zeolites.

  8. Claims, Evidence and Achievement Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Ric

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed.

  9. The Development, Validation and Application of an External Criterion Measure of Achievement Test Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Robert A.

    Based on John Rawls' theory of justice as fairness, a nine-item rating scale was developed to serve as a criterion in studies of test item bias. Two principles underlie the scale: (1) Within a defined usage, test items should not affect students so that they are unable to do as well as their abilities would indicate; and (2) within the domain of a…

  10. PROJECT TOBI, THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PRE-SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT TEST. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSS, MARGARET H.

    THE TEST OF BASIC INFORMATION (TOBI) IS A 54-ITEM, MULTIPLE-CHOICE PICTURE TEST DEVELOPED TO MEASURE PREACADEMIC, SCHOOL-RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE. IT CAN BE USED TO ASSESS PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS BY GIVING IT AS A PRE- AND POSTTEST. IT CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY, OR TO GROUPS OF UP TO 15 IF THERE IS 1 ADULT FOR 3 OR 4 CHILDREN, AND TAKES FROM 15 TO…

  11. Grain trapping by filamentous cyanobacterial and algal mats: implications for stromatolite microfabrics through time.

    PubMed

    Frantz, C M; Petryshyn, V A; Corsetti, F A

    2015-09-01

    Archean and Proterozoic stromatolites are sparry or fine-grained and finely laminated; coarse-grained stromatolites, such as many found in modern marine systems, do not appear until quite late in the fossil record. The cause of this textural change and its relevance to understanding the evolutionary history of stromatolites is unclear. Cyanobacteria are typically considered the dominant stromatolite builders through time, but studies demonstrating the trapping and binding abilities of cyanobacterial mats are limited. With this in mind, we conducted experiments to test the grain trapping and binding capabilities of filamentous cyanobacterial mats and trapping in larger filamentous algal mats in order to better understand grain size trends in stromatolites. Mats were cut into squares, inclined in saltwater tanks at angles from 0 to 75° (approximating the angle of lamina in typical stromatolites), and grains of various sizes (fine sand, coarse sand, and fine pebbles) were delivered to their surface. Trapping of grains by the cyanobacterial mats depended strongly on (i) how far filaments protruded from the sediment surface, (ii) grain size, and (iii) the mat's incline angle. The cyanobacterial mats were much more effective at trapping fine grains beyond the abiotic slide angle than larger grains. In addition, the cyanobacterial mats actively bound grains of all sizes over time. In contrast, the much larger algal mats trapped medium and coarse grains at all angles. Our experiments suggest that (i) the presence of detrital grains beyond the abiotic slide angle can be considered a biosignature in ancient stromatolites where biogenicity is in question, and, (ii) where coarse grains are present within stromatolite laminae at angles beyond the abiotic angle of slide (e.g., most modern marine stromatolites), typical cyanobacterial-type mats are probably not solely responsible for the construction, giving insight into the evolution of stromatolite microfabrics through time.

  12. Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?

    PubMed

    Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy.

  13. MATS: a Bayesian framework for flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Huang, Jian; Dittmar, Kimberly A.; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, Qing; Carstens, Russ P.; Xing, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-deep RNA sequencing has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We develop MATS (multivariate analysis of transcript splicing), a Bayesian statistical framework for flexible hypothesis testing of differential alternative splicing patterns on RNA-Seq data. MATS uses a multivariate uniform prior to model the between-sample correlation in exon splicing patterns, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method coupled with a simulation-based adaptive sampling procedure to calculate the P-value and false discovery rate (FDR) of differential alternative splicing. Importantly, the MATS approach is applicable to almost any type of null hypotheses of interest, providing the flexibility to identify differential alternative splicing events that match a given user-defined pattern. We evaluated the performance of MATS using simulated and real RNA-Seq data sets. In the RNA-Seq analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1, we obtained a high RT–PCR validation rate of 86% for differential exon skipping events with a MATS FDR of <10%. Additionally, over the full list of RT–PCR tested exons, the MATS FDR estimates matched well with the experimental validation rate. Our results demonstrate that MATS is an effective and flexible approach for detecting differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data. PMID:22266656

  14. Comparison of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Test among Typically Achieving and Gifted Students

    PubMed Central

    KHOSRAVI FARD, Elham; L. KEELOR, Jennifer; Akbarzadeh BAGHEBAN, Alireza; W. KEITH, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, different kinds of memory were evaluated using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT) test and were compared between two groups of typical and gifted students using Digit Span test. Finally, we determined if working memory interfered with scores in different Rey stages or not. Material & Methods This study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran in 2013. Scores on RAVLT were compared with WISC- R digit span results in a sample of 148 male students aged 12-14 yr old divided into two groups including 75 students in typical school (IQ ranging between 90 and 110) and 73 gifted students (IQs ranging between 110 and 130). Results Gifted students obtained higher scores than typical students in both Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) and all 9 stages of RAVLT comparing with typical students (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different ages (P> 0.05). The 14 yr old students in both groups had the highest score. There was a high correlation between FDS and the first stage of RAVLT as well as high correlation between BDS and seventh stage of RAVLT. Conclusion Intelligence has effect on better score of memory and gifted subjects had better scores in memory tests, although the intelligence effect in learning was quantitative rather than qualitative. RAVLT is a comprehensive test, which evaluates short-term memory, working memory and long-term memory and besides Digit span test provides precious information about memory and learning of subjects in order to program different student’s educational schedules. PMID:27247581

  15. Predictive Validity of the Vane for the Stanford Early School Achievement Test. Report No. l25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Leonard R.

    Evidence on the predictive validity of the Vane Kindergarten Test (VKT) as a part of the comprehensive screening and assessment battery administered by the Horseheads Central School District in New York is presented. Variable numbers of students at each of six elementary schools were administered the VKT. At the end of the kindergarten year, all…

  16. An Exploration of How School District Leaders Are Responding to the Connecticut Academic Achievement Test (CAPT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negroni, Italia A.; Iwanicki, Edward F.

    This study focused on how school district leaders in Connecticut are translating educational reform policies into instructional practice. It explored how school improvement initiatives were being implemented to improve student performance on the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT) and examined the ways in which these initiatives were…

  17. Applied Cognition: Testing the Effects of Independent Silent Reading on Secondary Students' Achievement and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.; Irving, Miles A.; Russell, L. Roxanne

    2014-01-01

    This study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program with 145 10th grade students. Students were measured on total reading ability, vocabulary, reading comprehension, a state-mandated high stakes end-of-course test (EOCT), and reading attribution. After controlling for initial skill and disposition levels, the results indicated that…

  18. Validity of the Simultaneous Approach to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christia M.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence gathered in the present study supports the use of the simultaneous development of test items for different languages. The simultaneous approach used in the present study involved writing an item in one language (e.g., French) and, before moving to the development of a second item, translating the item into the second language (e.g.,…

  19. The Influence of Multiple Administrations of a State Achievement Test on Passing Rates for Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Tindal, Gerald; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The stakes of large-scale testing programs have grown considerably in the past decade with the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Race To The Top (RTTT) legislations. A significant component of NCLB has been required reporting of annual yearly progress (AYP) of student subgroups disaggregated by sex, special education status, English…

  20. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  1. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  2. Mathematics Achievement Test Scores of American Indian and Anglo Students: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Patrick B.

    1983-01-01

    Reports a preliminary study of possible differences in the performance in mathematics between American Indian Pueblo and Anglos. Sample evaluated consisted of 65 Pueblos and 59 Anglos that excluded highest and lowest scores on Form B of the College Qualification Tests from Fall 1977 to Spring 1981 at the University of New Mexico. (ERB)

  3. The Arithmetic Achievement Test and the Effective Placement of Students in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce D.

    This study addresses the placement of students in remedial education among community colleges in the United States. Of specific interest is the appropriate entry-level placement of students in math courses. Citing that traditional standardized placement tests are overly broad and thus of questionable value for placing community college students in…

  4. Efficiency of Students' Achievement Using Black/White and Color Coded Learning and Test Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberski, Richard J.; Roberts, Dennis M.

    The purpose of this study was to compute and analyze descriptive indices of efficiency assessing the relative effectiveness of a verbal and visual color code applied to self-paced learning and testing materials. The sample consisted of 176 college subjects randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions receiving black/white (B) or color…

  5. Evaluation of Madison Park PLATO Training on August 2000 BPS City Algebra Test Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Christopher F.

    This report presents empirical findings from the analysis of the performance of 85 students from Madison Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts, on the Boston Public Schools City Algebra Test (BPSCAT) in June and August 2000, and how their participation in Jobs for Youths Boston PLATO computer-based instruction in the intervening months may have…

  6. The Benefits of Preschool: Do Children Who Attend Preschool Prior to Kindergarten Achieve Higher Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine what, if any, impact that attending a four year old kindergarten program had on five year old kindergarteners reading ability as measured by Dominie testing, compared to those five year olds who did not attend a four year old program at Inman Elementary School. The significance of this study…

  7. Polymer-inorganic core-shell nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition: flexible nylon-ZnO core-shell nanofiber mats and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kayaci, Fatma; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Uyar, Tamer

    2012-11-01

    Polymer-inorganic core-shell nanofibers were produced by two-step approach; electrospinning and atomic layer deposition (ALD). First, nylon 6,6 (polymeric core) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning, and then zinc oxide (ZnO) (inorganic shell) with precise thickness control was deposited onto electrospun nylon 6,6 nanofibers using ALD technique. The bead-free and uniform nylon 6,6 nanofibers having different average fiber diameters (∼80, ∼240 and ∼650 nm) were achieved by using two different solvent systems and polymer concentrations. ZnO layer about 90 nm, having uniform thickness around the fiber structure, was successfully deposited onto the nylon 6,6 nanofibers. Because of the low deposition temperature utilized (200 °C), ALD process did not deform the polymeric fiber structure, and highly conformal ZnO layer with precise thickness and composition over a large scale were accomplished regardless of the differences in fiber diameters. ZnO shell layer was found to have a polycrystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The core-shell nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mats were flexible because of the polymeric core component. Photocatalytic activity of the core-shell nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mats were tested by following the photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine-B dye. The nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mat, having thinner fiber diameter, has shown better photocatalytic efficiency due to higher surface area of this sample. These nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mats have also shown structural stability and kept their photocatalytic activity for the second cycle test. Our findings suggest that core-shell nylon 6,6-ZnO nanofiber mat can be a very good candidate as a filter material for water purification and organic waste treatment because of their photocatalytic properties along with structural flexibility and stability.

  8. AM2 Brickwork Pattern Evaluation with Refurbished Matting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    and Jeb S. Tingle Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS ...Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg, MS from 1961 through 1971, with major procurements beginning in 1965. The original AM2 mat has been modified...from a local source in Vicksburg, MS , and was subjected to laboratory tests including grain-size analysis (hydrometer), Atterberg Limits, modified

  9. Effect of sticky mat usage in control of nosocomial infection in Motahary Burn Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Alinejad, Faranak; Ansari, Fereshteh; Bahramian, Mahnaz; Barati, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Infection is the most common cause of death among burnt patients and infection control decrease the rate of mortality. The use of sticky mat can control contamination by preventing the entrance microorganisms into the hospital wards. This study was designed to evaluate the sticky mats effect in reduction of microorganism’s entry by personnel shoes to burn intensive care unit (BICU). Materials and Methods: This is a simple cross sectional study. We tested outer soles of personnel’s shoes with swap and cultured them before and after sticky mat contact in the entrance of BICU. Results were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 22 software. McNemar and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests were used. Results: We analyzed 60 outer soles of the shoes before and after contact with sticky mats. Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated before contact from 57 (95%), 32 (53%), 4 (6.7%) and 3 (5%) cases, respectively. Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated after contact from 36 (60%), 30 (50%), 16 (26.6%), 2 (3.3%) and 3 (5%) cases, respectively. No Acinetobacter was isolated after contact with sticky mat. Total isolated colonies before and after contact with sticky mats were 2573 and 830, respectively. There were significant statistically differences between the colony counts of coagulase ngative staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, and Staphylococci aureus before and after contact with sticky mats (P. < 0.001). Conclusion: Regarding to statistical analysis, the effect of mat in removing the microorganisms was 56%. It confirms the effectiveness of sticky mat controlling the infection and reducing the amount of hospital contamination. PMID:27928489

  10. Cyanobacterial mats: Microanalysis of community metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.; Bermudes, D.; Fischer, U.; Haddad, R.; Prufert, L.; Scheulderman-Suylen, T.; Shaw, T.

    1985-01-01

    The microbial communities in two sites were studied using several approaches: (1) light microscopy; (2) the measurement of microprofiles of oxygen and sulfide at the surface of the microbial mat; (3) the study of diurnal variation of oxygen and sulfides; (4) in situ measurement of photosynthesis and sulfate reduction and study of the coupling of these two processes; (5) measurement of glutathione in the upper layers of the microbial mat as a possible oxygen quencher; (6) measurement of reduced iron as a possible intermediate electron donor along the established redoxcline in the mats; (7) measurement of dissolved phosphate as an indicator of processes of break down of organic matter in these systems; and (8) measurement of carbon dioxide in the interstitial water and its delta C-13 in an attempt to understand the flow of CO2 through the systems. Microbial processes of primary production and initial degradation at the most active zone of the microbial mat were analyzed.

  11. Estimating Premorbid Functioning in Huntington's Disease: The Relationship between Disease Progression and the Wide Range Achievement Test Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861

  12. The effects of monitoring and ability to achieve cognitive structure on the psychological distress during HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Eileen; O'Brien, William H

    2009-10-01

    Many people undergoing HIV testing experience substantial psychological distress. The psychological distress associated with testing may be influenced by monitoring. Monitoring refers to a strategy wherein a person tends to seek out information concerning threatening events. Furthermore, the ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS) may influence the relationship between monitoring and psychological distress. The present study examined individuals who were undergoing HIV testing. Specifically, the researchers examined the association among monitoring and AACS on psychological distress during HIV testing. Results indicated that there was no interaction between monitoring and AACS on psychological distress. It was found that AACS was related to participants' level of psychological distress. However, the level of monitoring was not related to participants' psychological distress. Limitations of the study, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  13. Depth of penetration achieved by instrumented seabed penetrators during initial systems demonstration tests

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.M.

    1984-02-01

    Two versions of a gun-launched Instrumented Seabed Penetrator (ISP-1 and ISP-2) were tested in the Gulf of Mexico in May 1982. In each case the gun was loaded with propellant and a penetrator, lowered to the seabed, then fired. ISP-1 traveled 28 m into the seabed, and ISP-2 traveled 36 m. ISP-1 determined its displacement from the gun by means of an on-board accelerometer and microprocessor; after coming to rest, it used an Explosive Acoustic Telemetry System to transmit this information. ISP-2 was connected to the gun with a wire rope which unspooled during flight, allowing the instrumentation package to be retrieved. The measured deceleration profiles from the instrumentation's data memory were then processed off-line to compute the speed and displacement of ISP-2 as a function of time. 14 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-06-01

    The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

  15. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  16. Exploring defocus matting: nonparametric acceleration, super-resolution, and off-center matting.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neel; Matusik, Wojciech; Avidan, Shai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Freeman, William T

    2007-01-01

    Defocus matting is a fully automatic and passive method for pulling mattes from video captured with coaxial cameras that have different depths of field and planes of focus. Nonparametric sampling can accelerate the video-matting process from minutes to seconds per frame. In addition a super-resolution technique efficiently bridges the gap between mattes from high-resolution video cameras and those from low-resolution cameras. Off-center matting pulls mattes for an external high-resolution camera that doesn't share the same center of projection as the low-resolution cameras used to capture the defocus matting data.

  17. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  18. Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2012-11-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats are multilayered three-dimensional structures with the filamentous cyanobacteria embedded in a gel-like matrix. Although early descriptions mentioned the presence of larger organisms including metazoans living in the mats, there have been few studies specifically focused on the microbial eukaryotes, which are often small cells with few morphological features suitable for identification by microscopy. Here, we applied 18S rRNA gene clone library analysis to identify eukaryotes in cyanobacterial mat communities from both the Antarctic and the extreme High Arctic. We identified 39 ribotypes at the level of 99% sequence similarity. These consisted of taxa within algal and other protist groups including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi were also recovered, as were 21 metazoan ribotypes. The eukaryotic taxa appeared habitat-specific with little overlap between lake, pond, and ice shelf communities. Some ribotypes were common to both Arctic and Antarctic mats, suggesting global dispersal of these taxa and similarity in the environmental filters acting on protist communities. Many of these eukaryotic taxa likely benefit from protected, nutrient-rich microhabitats within the cyanobacterial mat environment.

  19. Growth, composition and metal removal potential of a Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat at elevated levels of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Yadav, Arpana; Gaur, J P

    2012-07-15

    Prompted by the fact that interaction of metals with cyanobacterial mats has been little studied, the present study evaluates the response of a cyanobacterial mat, dominated by Phormidium bigranulatum, to elevated concentrations of Cd²⁺ in the medium. The mat failed to grow at 7 μM of Cd²⁺ when the metal as also the mat inoculum were simultaneously added to the medium right in the beginning of the experiment due to marked sensitivity of P. bigranulatum, the main constituent of the mat, to high concentrations of Cd²⁺. However, the mat previously grown in Cd²⁺-free medium for a time period of 1-4 weeks grew successfully when exposed to media containing very high concentrations of Cd²⁺. Four-week-old mat could grow at 250 μM of Cd²⁺, which has been found toxic to many cyanobacteria and algae by previous researchers. Greater tolerance of older mats to Cd²⁺ may be due to greater proportion of exopolysaccharides, which are well known to sequester metal ions extracellularly, in them. Whereas the relative proportion of P. bigranulatum declined at high concentrations of the test metal that of green algae increased due most likely to their tolerance to Cd²⁺. Air bubbles were seen entrapped in the mat due obviously to photosynthetic activity. Elevated concentrations of Cd²⁺ reduced the number of air bubbles in the mat. Decline in number of air bubbles at high concentrations of metal ions was more prominent in the case of younger mat than in the older one. The present study also evaluated changes in species composition of mats of different age that were subsequently grown in Cd²⁺ enriched culture medium. Younger mats showed change in species composition at very low concentrations of Cd²⁺, but older mats showed little changes even at very high concentrations of the test metal. Hence older mats more strongly resisted to changes in its species composition than the younger ones upon exposure to high concentrations of Cd²⁺. The growing mat

  20. Estimation of axial stiffness of plant fibres from compaction of non-woven mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamstedt, E. K.; Bommier, E.; Madsen, B.

    2014-03-01

    Plant fibres are known to show a large variability in stiffness, which makes it time-consuming to experimentally characterize this property by conventional tensile testing. In this work, an alternative method is used, where the average fibre stiffness is back-calculated from compaction tests of in-plane randomly oriented fibre mats. The model by Toll is used to relate the load-displacement curve from the test to the Young modulus of the fibre, taking into account the natural variability in fibre cross section. Several tests have been performed on hemp fibre mats and compared with results from single-fibre tensile testing. The average back-calculated Young's modulus of the fibres was 45 GPa, whereas the average value from tensile testing ranged from 30 to 60 GPa. The straightforward compaction test can be useful in ranking of fibre stiffness, provided that the mat is composed of well-separated fibres and not of twisted yarns.

  1. Flow visualization study of the HiMAT RPRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT RPRV). Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/15 scale model of the HiMAT RPRV. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 5 deg. The HiMAT model was investigated in detail to determine the canard and wing vortex flow field development, vortex paths, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. The presence of the canard caused the wing vortex to form further outboard and delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. An increase in leading edge camber of the maneuver configuration delayed both the formation and the breakdown of the wing and canard vortices. Additional tests showed that the canard vortex was sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and canard flap deflection angle.

  2. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  3. Removal of metal ions by Phormidium bigranulatum (cyanobacteria)-dominated mat in batch and continuous flow systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Rai, Jyoti; Gaur, J P

    2012-01-01

    Live Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat successfully removed Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Percent metal removal approached equilibrium within 4h, independent of mat thickness (0.2-1.6 mm), in batch system. But % metal removal increased with increase in mat thickness due to enhancement of biomass, which provided more metal binding sites. Metal accumulation decreased with increase in mat thickness due to lessened metal availability vis-à-vis biomass. Metal removal (%) increased with increasing mat area, but decreased with increasing metal concentration in the solution. In continuous flow system, metal accumulation increased with increasing volume of single or multi-metal solution passed over the mat. The mat removed all the tested metals from the multi-metal solution with almost the same efficiency. The maximum removal of the test metals occurred at the lowest tested flow rate. Raceway type ponds can be employed for large-scale use of Phormidium mat in bioremediation of metalliferous wastewaters.

  4. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(TradeMark)(MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many countries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its real strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbox. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using symbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language form (command interface) is similar with well known programming languages such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define classes in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most of the essential constructs of a higher programming language. MatLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful to perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We believe there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and analysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applications. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientific problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabular format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed.

  5. Single-Element Characterization of the LS-DYNA MAT54 Material Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Morgan

    Research was completed to characterize the root behavior of the LS-DYNA MAT54 composite orthotropic material model. This primarily involved investigating the constitutive relations, ply failure (damage onset), ply deletion, damage factors, and element deletion. A single shell element under uniaxial tensile and compressive loading was employed to isolate MAT54 behavior for three different idealized laminates. Simulation results were compared against expected behavior from published material properties and experimental testing. A parametric study was also conducted to confirm the behavior of all other MAT54 inputs. Overall the LS-DYNA MAT54 material model adequately predicted Unidirectional (UD), cross-ply, and fabric laminate behavior for the majority of cases. However, results showed pronounced plasticity when the strength-based Chang-Chang ply-failure criteria was reached prior to the strain-based ply-deletion parameters. This led to significant energy and failure strain errors in some cases.

  6. Achievement of VO2max criteria during a continuous graded exercise test and a verification stage performed by college athletes.

    PubMed

    Mier, Constance M; Alexander, Ryan P; Mageean, Amanda L

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meeting specific VO2max criteria and to test the effectiveness of a VO2max verification stage in college athletes. Thirty-five subjects completed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion. The frequency of achieving various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) criteria and a VO2 plateau within 2 and 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (<2SD of the expected increase in VO2) were measured and tested against expected frequencies. After 10 minutes of active recovery, 10 subjects who did not demonstrate a plateau completed a verification stage performed at supramaximal intensity. From the GXT, the number of subjects meeting VO2max plateau was 5 (≤2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 7 (≤2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), RER criteria 34 (≥1.05), 32 (≥1.10), and 24 (≥1.15), HRmax criteria, 35 (<85%), 29 (<10 b·min(-1)) and 9 (HRmax). The VO2max and HRmax did not differ between GXT and the verification stage (53.6 ± 5.6 vs. 55.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 187 ± 7 vs. 187 ± 6 b·min(-1)); however, the RER was lower during the verification stage (1.15 ± 0.06 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, p = 0.004). Six subjects achieved a similar VO2 (within 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whereas 4 achieved a higher VO2 compared with the GXT. These data demonstrate that a continuous GXT limits the college athlete's ability to achieve VO2max plateau and certain RER and HR criteria. The use of a verification stage increases the frequency of VO2max achievement and may be an effective method to improve the accuracy of VO2max measurements in college athletes.

  7. PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

    2002-02-24

    be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

  8. Novel wound dressing based on nanofibrous PHBV-keratin mats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiang; Geng, Jia; Xing, Zhicai; Shim, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Insook; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Shen, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Keratin is an important protein used for wound healing and tissue recovery. In this study, keratin was first extracted from raw materials and chemically modified to obtain stable keratin (m-keratin). The raw and m-keratin were examined by Raman spectroscopy. The molecular weight of the m-keratin was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The m-keratin was then blended with poly(hydroxybutylate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and electrospun to afford nanofibrous mats. These mats were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) data, it was found that introduction of keratin enhanced cell proliferation. From wound-healing test and histological examination results, it was shown that the composite mats accelerated wound recovery remarkably as compared to the PHBV control. It was concluded that PHBV-keratin may be a good candidate as a wound dressing.

  9. The effect of grade norms in college students: using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Markus N; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition Full Scale IQ and the Woodcock-Johnson III Total Achievement, Broad Reading, Math, and Written Language scores. The proportion meeting the substantial discrepancy criterion of two standard deviations plus or minus the standard error of the difference between means was 7.9% using age norms and 37.6% using grade norms. Using mixed analyses of variance, the authors found main effects for type of norm for all difference scores, with grade norms yielding significantly higher difference scores than age norms. A main effect for student status (traditional-age students n = 124, non-traditional-age students n = 78) was found for Total Achievement, Broad Reading, and Math such that traditional-age students had greater discrepancies. Discrepancy scores are contrasted with absolute scores (SS < 85) in the identification of learning disabilities as well. Implications of using grade versus age norms are discussed.

  10. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Educational Testing in America: State Assessments, Achievement Gaps, National Policy and Innovations. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 17, Number 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; Pliskin, Richard, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Annual standardized testing lies at the heart of the accountability system that American education reformers and policymakers have established during the past decade in an effort to ensure equal opportunity for all students, no matter their race, ethnicity or wealth. The new testing regime has brought national attention to the schooling of…

  11. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development.

  12. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  13. Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Christine A.; Narasimhan, Rajendran; Karraker, David G.

    2001-01-01

    A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

  14. Nitrogen cycle in microbial mats: completely unknown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coban, O.; Bebout, B.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are thought to have originated around 3.7 billion years ago, most likely in the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents, which supplied a source of energy in the form of reduced chemical species from the Earth's interior. Active hydrothermal vents are also believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, Saturn's moon Enceladus, and on Mars, earlier in that planet's history. Microbial mats have been an important force in the maintenance of Earth's ecosystems and the first photosynthesis was also originated there. Microbial mats are believed to exhibit most, if not all, biogeochemical processes that exist in aquatic ecosystems, due to the presence of different physiological groups of microorganisms therein. While most microbially mediated biogeochemical transformations have been shown to occur within microbial mats, the nitrogen cycle in the microbial mats has received very little study in spite of the fact that nitrogen usually limits growth in marine environments. We will present the first results in the determination of a complete nitrogen budget for a photosynthetic microbial mat. Both in situ sources and sinks of nitrogen in photosynthetic microbial mats are being measured using stable isotope techniques. Our work has a particular focus on recently described, but poorly understood, processes, e.g., anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and an emphasis on understanding the role that nitrogen cycling may play in generating biogenic nitrogen isotopic signatures and biomarker molecules. Measurements of environmental controls on nitrogen cycling should offer insight into the nature of co-evolution of these microbial communities and their planets of origin. Identifying the spatial (microscale) as well as temporal (diel and seasonal) distribution of nitrogen transformations, e.g., rates of nitrification and denitrification, within mats, particularly with respect to the distribution of photosynthetically-produced oxygen, is anticipated. The results

  15. The Role of Stanford Achievement Test 10[TM] Subtests in Sixth Grade as a Predictor of Success on ACT's Eighth Grade Explore Exam[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive correlation between a specific sixth grade achievement test known as the Stanford Achievement Test 10 and the eighth grade college readiness assessment instrument known as the Explore Exam for a group of North Texas students. Following an assessment during sixth grade, via the…

  16. Testing the Mediating Role of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Relationship between Sources of Efficacy Information and Students Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamadi, Fatemeh Shaterian; Asadzadeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the mediating role of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between sources of efficacy information and students achievement. For achieving this aim, this study suggests two alternative models, tested by Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. In the first model, sources of efficacy…

  17. MatLab program for precision calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2004-06-01

    Optical tweezers are used as force transducers in many types of experiments. The force they exert in a given experiment is known only after a calibration. Computer codes that calibrate optical tweezers with high precision and reliability in the ( x, y)-plane orthogonal to the laser beam axis were written in MatLab (MathWorks Inc.) and are presented here. The calibration is based on the power spectrum of the Brownian motion of a dielectric bead trapped in the tweezers. Precision is achieved by accounting for a number of factors that affect this power spectrum. First, cross-talk between channels in 2D position measurements is tested for, and eliminated if detected. Then, the Lorentzian power spectrum that results from the Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck theory, is fitted to the low-frequency part of the experimental spectrum in order to obtain an initial guess for parameters to be fitted. Finally, a more complete theory is fitted, a theory that optionally accounts for the frequency dependence of the hydrodynamic drag force and hydrodynamic interaction with a nearby cover slip, for effects of finite sampling frequency (aliasing), for effects of anti-aliasing filters in the data acquisition electronics, and for unintended "virtual" filtering caused by the position detection system. Each of these effects can be left out or included as the user prefers, with user-defined parameters. Several tests are applied to the experimental data during calibration to ensure that the data comply with the theory used for their interpretation: Independence of x- and y-coordinates, Hooke's law, exponential distribution of power spectral values, uncorrelated Gaussian scatter of residual values. Results are given with statistical errors and covariance matrix. Program summaryTitle of program: tweezercalib Catalogue identifier: ADTV Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland. Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTV Computer for

  18. Ecological succession leads to chemosynthesis in mats colonizing wood in sea water.

    PubMed

    Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Dupraz, Marlène; Le Bris, Nadine; Petetin, Carole; Rose, Christophe; West, Nyree J; Galand, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic mats involved in cycling sulfur compounds are often found in hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and whale falls. However, there are only few records of wood fall mats, even though the presence of hydrogen sulfide at the wood surface should create a perfect niche for sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Here we report the growth of microbial mats on wood incubated under conditions that simulate the Mediterranean deep-sea temperature and darkness. We used amplicon and metagenomic sequencing combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to test whether a microbial succession occurs during mat formation and whether the wood fall mats present chemosynthetic features. We show that the wood surface was first colonized by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Arcobacter genus after only 30 days of immersion. Subsequently, the number of sulfate reducers increased and the dominant Arcobacter phylotype changed. The ecological succession was reflected by a change in the metabolic potential of the community from chemolithoheterotrophs to potential chemolithoautotrophs. Our work provides clear evidence for the chemosynthetic nature of wood fall ecosystems and demonstrates the utility to develop experimental incubation in the laboratory to study deep-sea chemosynthetic mats.

  19. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  20. Proficiency testing linked to the national reference system for the clinical laboratory: a proposal for achieving accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lasky, F D

    1992-07-01

    I propose using proficiency testing (PT) to achieve one of the important goals of CLIA: accurate and reliable clinical testing. Routine methods for the clinical laboratory are traceable to Definitive (DM) or Reference Methods (RM) or to Methodological Principles (MP) through a modification of the National Reference System for the Clinical Laboratory. PT is the link used to monitor consistent field performance. Although PT has been effective as a relative measure of laboratory performance, the technical limitations of PT fluids and of routine methods currently in use make it unlikely that PT alone can be used as a reliable measure of laboratory accuracy. Instead, I recommend calibration of routine systems through correlation to DM, RM, or MP with use of patients' specimens. The manufacturer is in the best position to assume this responsibility because of also being responsible for consistent, reliable product. Analysis of different manufactured batches of reagent would be compared with predetermined goals for precision and accuracy, as illustrated with data from product testing of Kodak Ektachem clinical chemistry slides. Adoption of this proposal would give manufacturers of PT materials, manufacturers of analytical systems, PT providers, and government agencies time to understand and resolve sources of error that limit the utility of PT for the job required by law.

  1. The Effect of Achievement Test Selection on Identification of Learning Disabilities within a Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability of LD classification decisions of the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) across different psychoeducational assessment batteries. Methods C/DM criteria were applied to assessment data from 177 second grade students based on two psychoeducational assessment batteries. The achievement tests were different, but were highly correlated and measured the same latent construct. Resulting LD identifications were then evaluated for agreement across batteries on LD status and the academic domain of eligibility. Results The two batteries identified a similar number of participants as having LD (80 and 74). However, indices of agreement for classification decisions were low (kappa = .29), especially for percent positive agreement (62%). The two batteries demonstrated agreement on the academic domain of eligibility for only 25 participants. Conclusions Cognitive discrepancy frameworks for LD identification are inherently unstable because of imperfect reliability and validity at the observed level. Methods premised on identifying a PSW profile may never achieve high reliability because of these underlying psychometric factors. An alternative is to directly assess academic skills to identify students in need of intervention. PMID:25243467

  2. Towards 20 A negative hydrogen ion beams for up to 1 h: Achievements of the ELISE test facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U. Heinemann, B.; Wünderlich, D.; Riedl, R.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Bonomo, F.

    2016-02-15

    The large-scale RF-driven ion source of the test facility extraction from a large ion source experiment is aimed to deliver an accelerated ion current of 20 A D{sup −} (23 A H{sup −}) with an extracted electron-to-ion ratio below one for up to 1 h. Since the first plasma pulses for 20 s in volume operation in early 2013, followed by caesiation of the ion source, substantial progress has been achieved in extending the pulse length and the RF power. The record pulses in hydrogen are stable 400 s pulses with an extracted ion current of 18.3 A at 180 kW total RF power and 9.3 A at 80 kW stable for 1 h. For deuterium pulse, length and RF power are limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons.

  3. HazMatID (trademark) Replacement Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-09

    uses FTIR spectroscopy. It has the capability to identify chemical warfare agents, explosives , toxic industrial chemicals, narcotics, and...off-the-shelf, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) instruments 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...replacement for the Smiths Detection HazMatIDTM on the 886H allowance standard, a search of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) instruments was

  4. Tensile and compressive behavior of a swirl mat composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the US Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on one representative reference material--an isocyanurate (polyurethane) reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass. The present report describes tensile and compressive testing and results for the reference composite. Behavior trends and proportional limit are established for both tension and compression. Damage development due to tensile loading and strain rate effects are discussed.

  5. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  6. Growth and metal removal potential of a Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat following long-term exposure to elevated levels of copper.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

    2014-09-01

    The present study explores the tolerance and metal removal response of a well-developed 2-week-old Phormidium mat after long-term exposure to Cu(2+)-enriched medium. Cu(2+) enrichment inhibited increase in mat biomass in a concentration-dependent manner. Mat area and the number of entrapped air bubbles decreased as Cu(2+) concentration increased in the medium. Decrease in number of air bubbles obviously reflects the adverse effect of Cu(2+) on photosynthetic performance of the mat. Metal enrichment did not substantially alter the amount of pigments, such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and phycocyanin, in the mat. Enhancement of Cu(2+) concentration in the medium led to changes in species composition of the test mat; however, Phormidium bigranulatum always remained the dominant organism. Relative share of green algae and some cyanobacterial taxa, namely, Lyngbya sp. and Oscillatoria tenuis, in the mat were increased by Cu(2+) enrichment. The mat successfully removed 80 to 94 % Cu(2+) from the growth medium containing 10 to 100 μM Cu(2+). Extracellular polysaccharides, whose share increased in the mat community after metal addition, seem to have contributed substantially to metal binding by the mat biomass.

  7. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  8. Investigating Linguistic Sources of Differential Item Functioning Using Expert Think-Aloud Protocols in Science Achievement Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Dallie Sandilands, Debra; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2013-03-01

    Even if national and international assessments are designed to be comparable, subsequent psychometric analyses often reveal differential item functioning (DIF). Central to achieving comparability is to examine the presence of DIF, and if DIF is found, to investigate its sources to ensure differentially functioning items that do not lead to bias. In this study, sources of DIF were examined using think-aloud protocols. The think-aloud protocols of expert reviewers were conducted for comparing the English and French versions of 40 items previously identified as DIF (N = 20) and non-DIF (N = 20). Three highly trained and experienced experts in verifying and accepting/rejecting multi-lingual versions of curriculum and testing materials for government purposes participated in this study. Although there is a considerable amount of agreement in the identification of differentially functioning items, experts do not consistently identify and distinguish DIF and non-DIF items. Our analyses of the think-aloud protocols identified particular linguistic, general pedagogical, content-related, and cognitive factors related to sources of DIF. Implications are provided for the process of arriving at the identification of DIF, prior to the actual administration of tests at national and international levels.

  9. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  10. Antimicrobial Electrospun Biopolymer Nanofiber Mats Functionalized with Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Andreia F; Perreault, François; Shaulsky, Evyatar; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-06-17

    Functionalization of electrospun mats with antimicrobial nanomaterials is an attractive strategy to develop polymer coating materials to prevent bacterial colonization on surfaces. In this study we demonstrated a feasible approach to produce antimicrobial electrospun mats through a postfabrication binding of graphene-based nanocomposites to the nanofibers' surface. A mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan was electrospun to yield cylindrical and narrow-diameter (356 nm) polymeric fibers. To achieve a robust antimicrobial property, the PLGA-chitosan mats were functionalized with graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) via a chemical reaction between the carboxyl groups of graphene and the primary amine functional groups on the PLGA-chitosan fibers using 3-(dimethylamino)propyl-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide as cross-linking agents. The attachment of GO-Ag sheets to the surface of PLGA-chitosan fibers was successfully revealed by scanning and transmission electron images. Upon direct contact with bacterial cells, the PLGA-chitosan mats functionalized with GO-Ag nanocomposites were able to effectively inactivate both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Our results suggest that covalent binding of GO-Ag nanocomposites to the surface of PLGA-chitosan mats opens up new opportunities for the production of cost-effective, scalable, and biodegradable coating materials with the ability to hinder microbial proliferation on solid surfaces.

  11. Closing the design loop on HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Robinson, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design methodology used in the HiMAT program and the wind tunnel development activities are discussed. Selected results from the flight test program are presented and the strengths and weaknesses of testing advanced technology vehicles using the RPV concept is examined. The role of simulation on the development of digital flight control systems and in RPV's in particular is emphasized.

  12. Diversity techniques for omnidirectional telemetry coverage of the HiMAT research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) was flight tested and a number of technological advances applicable to future fighter aircraft were demonstrated. The aircraft control system uses airborne and ground-based computers which communicate via uplink and downlink telemetry. Antenna radiation patterns are normally much less than ideal for continuous reception or transmission for all aircraft attitudes. After flight qualification and testing on other aircraft, a frequency diversity concept and an antenna diversity concept were implemented on the HiMAT vehicle to obtain omnidirectional telemetry coverage.

  13. MAT - MULTI-ATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY FOR HUMAN OPERATOR WORKLOAD AND STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR RESEARCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    MAT, a Multi-Attribute Task battery, gives the researcher the capability of performing multi-task workload and performance experiments. The battery provides a benchmark set of tasks for use in a wide range of laboratory studies of operator performance and workload. MAT incorporates tasks analogous to activities that aircraft crew members perform in flight, while providing a high degree of experiment control, performance data on each subtask, and freedom to use non-pilot test subjects. The MAT battery primary display is composed of four separate task windows which are as follows: a monitoring task window which includes gauges and warning lights, a tracking task window for the demands of manual control, a communication task window to simulate air traffic control communications, and a resource management task window which permits maintaining target levels on a fuel management task. In addition, a scheduling task window gives the researcher information about future task demands. The battery also provides the option of manual or automated control of tasks. The task generates performance data for each subtask. The task battery may be paused and onscreen workload rating scales presented to the subject. The MAT battery was designed to use a serially linked second computer to generate the voice messages for the Communications task. The MATREMX program and support files, which are included in the MAT package, were designed to work with the Heath Voice Card (Model HV-2000, available through the Heath Company, Benton Harbor, Michigan 49022); however, the MATREMX program and support files may easily be modified to work with other voice synthesizer or digitizer cards. The MAT battery task computer may also be used independent of the voice computer if no computer synthesized voice messages are desired or if some other method of presenting auditory messages is devised. MAT is written in QuickBasic and assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The

  14. Are Cognitive "g" and Academic Achievement "g" One and the Same "g"? An Exploration on the Woodcock-Johnson and Kaufman Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Xin; Kaufman, Alan S.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the conventional notion of g associated with IQ tests and general cognitive ability tests ("COG-g") relate to the general ability that underlies tests of reading, math, and writing achievement ("ACH-g"). Two large, nationally representative data sets and two independent individually-administered…

  15. Non-woven nanofiber mats - a new perspective for experimental studies of the central nervous system?

    PubMed

    Rafalowska, Janina; Sulejczak, Dorota; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Gadamski, Roman; Taraszewska, Anna; Nakielski, Paweł; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Dziewulska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    (Sub)chronic local drug application is clearly superior to systemic administration, but may be associated with substantial obstacles, particularly regarding the applications to highly sensitive central nervous system (CNS) structures that are shielded from the outer environment by the blood-brain barrier. Violation of the integrity of the barrier and CNS tissues by a permanently implanted probe or cannula meant for prolonged administration of drugs into specific CNS structures can be a severe confounding factor because of the resulting inflammatory reactions. In this study, we tested the utility of a novel way for (sub)chronic local delivery of highly active (i.e., used in very low amounts) drugs to the rat spinal cord employing a non-woven nanofiber mat dressing. To this end, we compared the morphology and motoneuron ( + ) counts in spinal cord cervical and lumbar segments between rats with glutamate-loaded nanofiber mats applied to the lumbar enlargement and rats with analogical implants carrying no glutamate. Half of the rats with glutamate-loaded implants were given daily valproate treatment to test its potential for counteracting the detrimental effects of glutamate excess. The mats were prepared in-house by electrospinning of an emulsion made of a solution of the biocompatible and biodegradable poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer in a mixture of organic solvents, an aqueous phase with or without monosodium glutamate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate as an emulsifier; the final glutamate content was 1.4 µg/mg of the mat. Three weeks after mat implantation there was no inflammation or considerable damage of the spinal cord motoneuron population in the rats with the subarachnoid dressing of a glutamate-free mat, whereas the spinal cords of the rats with glutamate-loaded nanofiber mats showed clear symptoms of excitotoxic damage and a substantial increase in dying/damaged motoneuron numbers in both segments studied. The rats given systemic valproate

  16. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  17. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  18. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  19. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  20. ChemMatCARS Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

  1. Microbial mats: an ecological niche for fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Sharon A.; Duval-Pérez, Lisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Fungi were documented in tropical hypersaline microbial mats and their role in the degradation of complex carbohydrates (exopolymeric substance – EPS) was explored. Fungal diversity is higher during the wet season with Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium among the more common genera. Diversity is also higher in the oxic layer and in young and transient mats. Enrichments with xanthan (a model EPS) show that without antibiotics (full community) degradation is faster than enrichments with antibacterial (fungal community) and antifungal (bacterial community) agents, suggesting that degradation is performed by a consortium of organisms (bacteria and fungi). The combined evidence from all experiments indicates that bacteria carried out approximately two-third of the xanthan degradation. The pattern of degradation is similar between seasons and layers but degradation is faster in enrichments from the wet season. The research suggests that fungi thrive in these hypersaline consortia and may participate in the carbon cycle through the degradation of complex carbohydrates. PMID:23577004

  2. Bioflumology: Microbial mat growth in flumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airo, A.; Weigert, S.; Beck, C.

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in a transformational change of Earth's geochemical cycles and the subsequent evolution of life. However, it remains vigorously debated when this metabolic ability had evolved in cyanobacteria. This is largely because studies of Archean microfossil morphology, molecular biomarkers, and isotopic characteristics are frequently ambiguous. However, the high degree of morphological similarities between modern photosynthetic and Archean fossil mats has been interpreted to indicate phototactic microbial behavior or oxygenic photosynthesis. In order to better evaluate the relationship between mat morphology and metabolism, we here present a laboratory set-up for conducting month-long experiments in several sterilizable circular flumes designed to allow single-species cyanobacterial growth under adjustable fluid-flow conditions and protected from contamination.

  3. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  4. Oklahoma School Testing Program: Writing Assessment Component. 1993 Summary Report. Stanford Writing Assessment Program for Grades 7 and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report provides an overview of the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP) and summarizes students' average writing assessment scores from 1987 through 1993. In 1992, the Stanford Writing Assessment replaced the MAT-6 Writing Test as the instrument for measuring writing achievement for 7th and 10th graders in Oklahoma. Student papers were hand…

  5. Fabrication and Evaluation of Nanostructured Herbal Oil/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/Polyvinylpyrrolidone Mats for Denture Stomatitis Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2016-12-01

    This work aims to develop the herbal oil-incorporated nanostructure mats with antifungal activity for the prevention and treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The nanofiber mats loaded with betel oil or clove oil were fabricated via electrospinning process. The morphologies and physicochemical properties of the herbal oil loaded nanofiber mats were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. The release characteristic, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity were also investigated. The SEM images confirmed the homogeneous and smooth nanoscale fibers. The addition of the herbal oil into the nanofiber mats reduced the fiber diameters. The DSC and FT-IR results confirmed the presence of the oil in the nanofiber mats. The herbal oils can be released from the mats in a very fast manner and inhibit the growth of candida cells within only few minutes after contact. These nanofiber mats may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of denture stomatitis.

  6. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  7. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  8. Relationships between Language Background, Secondary School Scores, Tutorial Group Processes, and Students' Academic Achievement in PBL: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaram, Veena S.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of language background in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups on group processes and students' academic achievement. This study investigated the relationship between language background, secondary school score, tutorial group processes, and students' academic achievement in PBL. A validated tutorial…

  9. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  10. Quantity and Quality of Computer Use and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale International Test Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of both quantity and quality of computer use on achievement. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student survey comprising of 4,356 students (boys, n = 2,129; girls, n = 2,227) was used to predict academic achievement from quantity and quality of computer use while controlling for…

  11. Description of the HiMAT Tailored composite structure and laboratory measured vehicle shape under load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The aeroelastically tailored outer wing and canard of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle are closely examined and a general description of the overall structure of the vehicle is provided. Test data in the form of laboratory measured twist under load and predicted twist from the HiMAT NASTRAN structural design program are compared. The results of this comparison indicate that the measured twist is generally less than the NASTRAN predicted twist. These discrepancies in twist predictions are attributed, at least in part, to the inability of current analytical composite materials programs to provide sufficiently accurate properties of matrix dominated laminates for input into structural programs such as NASTRAN.

  12. Superhydrophobic PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibrous mats with antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, M.; Manolova, N.; Markova, N.; Rashkov, I.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic nanofibrous materials of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were prepared by one-pot electrospinning technique. The mats were decorated with ZnO nanoparticles with silanized surface and a model drug - 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinol (5Cl8HQ). The obtained hybrid nanofibrous materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, mechanical and microbiological tests. The results showed that the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibers increased the hydrophobicity (contact angle 152°), improved the thermal stability and imparted to the nanofibrous materials anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties. The mats containing the model drug possessed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggested that the obtained hybrid mats could find potential biomedical applications requiring antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

  13. Experimental evaluation of the anti-attachment effect of microalgal mats on grazing activity of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus in oscillating flows.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Shigeru

    2012-05-01

    Algal mats can hinder the adhesion of the tube feet of sea urchins. This leads to the hypothesis that the restriction of sea urchin feeding activity by wave action can potentially be enhanced by the presence of algal mats, which will facilitate the survival of kelp recruits at sites with wave action in urchin barrens. To evaluate the potential anti-attachment effect of algal mats on sea urchins, a laboratory tank experiment was performed on the movement of Strongylocentrotus nudus sea urchins and their grazing on juvenile kelp plants at the center of 30×30 cm flat test substrates with or without a thin-layer microalgal mat at four levels of oscillatory flow (maximum orbital velocity: 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm s(-1)). The grazing loss of kelp slightly increased with increasing velocity up to 30 cm s(-1) in the absence of microalgal mats, while in contrast the loss substantially decreased at 30 cm s(-1) in their presence. Sea urchins were dislodged more frequently at 20 cm s(-1) or higher velocities in the presence of microalgal mats. Mats were frequently abraded by scraping by the adoral spines during urchin movement at high velocities (30 and 40 cm s(-1)) but were subject to no or only slight urchin grazing in most cases. The results indicate that the overall decrease in grazing loss of kelp within the microalgal mats was attributable to the anti-attachment effect on urchins during incursions rather than due to urchins grazing on the mats.

  14. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  15. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  16. Using the Comprehensive Nursing Achievement Test as a Predictor of Success on the National Council Licensure Examination. Learning Theory and Applications Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balint, Marilyn

    A study examined the feasibility of using the Comprehensive Nursing Achievement Test as a predictor of nursing students' eventual success on the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN). The predictive validity of other factors, such as age, college entrance test scores, and grades in second-year nursing courses, was also examined.…

  17. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  18. A Comparison of Performance on Cloze Tests, Group Reading Inventories and Standardized Reading Achievement in Grades Seven, Eight and Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.

    A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…

  19. Diagnostic Classification Models and Multidimensional Adaptive Testing: A Commentary on Rupp and Templin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2009-01-01

    On a general level, the objective of diagnostic classifications models (DCMs) lies in a classification of individuals regarding multiple latent skills. In this article, the authors show that this objective can be achieved by multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) as well. The authors discuss whether or not the restricted applicability of DCMs can…

  20. Electrospun Fibrous Mat with pH-Switchable Superwettability That Can Separate Layered Oil/Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhou, Yin-Ning; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Luo, Zheng-Hong

    2016-12-20

    Oil/water separation has inspired much research interest because of the damages caused to our natural environment due to oily wastewater. As a leader of advanced separation materials, electrospun polymeric fibrous mats having the properties of special surface wettability, high specific surface area, and high porosity will be a good membrane material for the separation of oily wastewater. Herein, we first prepared pH-responsive polymer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PDMS-b-P4VP) mat using electrospinning technology. The PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat with a thickness of around 250 μm exhibits good pH-switchable oil/water wettability and is able to effectively separate oil or water from layered oil/water mixtures by gravity driven through adjusting the pH value. Stemming from its porous structure and pH-switchable superwettability, the electrospun PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat achieved controllable separations with high fluxes of approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for oil (hexane) and 27 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water. In addition, extended studies on the polymer/silica nanoparticulate (silica NP) composite fibrous mats show that the addition of an inorganic component improves the thermal stability, pH-switchable wettability, and separation performance of the fibrous mats (approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for hexane and 32 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water). It can be concluded from the results that both polymer fibrous mats and silica-filled composite fibrous mats are good candidates for on-demand layered oil/water mixture separation.

  1. Differential microbial communities in hot spring mats from Western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M C; Sririn, V; Kanoksilapatham, W; Gonzalez, J M

    2009-03-01

    The microbial communities of freshwater hot spring mats from Boekleung (Western Thailand) were studied. Temperatures ranged from over 50 up to 57 degrees C. Green-, red-, and yellow colored mat layers were analyzed. In order to detect the major components of the microbial communities constituting the mat as well as the microorganisms showing significant metabolic activity, samples were analyzed using DNA- and RNA-based molecular techniques, respectively. Microbial community fingerprints, performed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), revealed clear differences among mat layers. Thermophilic phototrophic microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi, constituted the major groups in these communities (on average 65 and 51% from DNA and RNA analyses, respectively). Other bacteria detected in the mat were Bacteroidetes, members of the Candidate Division OP10, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Differently colored mat layers showed characteristic bacterial communities and the major components of the metabolically active fraction of these communities have been identified.

  2. Optimization and characterization of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) heat-resistant porous fiberous mat by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, R.; Bin, Y. Z.; Yang, W. X.; Wang, D.; Wang, J. Y.; Jian, X. G.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) is noted for its outstanding heat-resistance property and mechanical strength. A one-step electrospinning method was conducted to produce PPEK micro-nano porous fibrous mat. We gave emphasis study on the spinnability, optimized conditions, fibers' morphology, surface science and fracture mechanism. The uniform electrospun fibrous mat resulted from PPEK/chloroform binary system indicated that PPEK would be a prospective material to be applied in electrospinning. Addition of a small amount of non-solvent (ethanol) turned out to be advantageous to the reduction of fiber diameter and the alleviation of choking during spinning process. Organic salt (benzyltrimethylammonium chloride) was employed to increase the conductivity of solution for the formation of thin fiber. After trials, PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system with salt and PPEK/NMP system were taken as two optimized systems. These two systems showed different pore fraction in N2 adsorption test, and displayed different mechanical behaviors in uniaxial tension test. The fibrous mat from PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system showed a feature of ductile fracture with relatively low fracture strength but long fracture deformation, while the fibrous mat from PPEK/NMP system showed a feature of brittle fracture with small deformation but quite large fracture strength of ca. 6 MPa. Finally thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the resultant PPEK fibrous mat did not decompose until the temperature reached 478 °C, which qualified the resultant fibrous mat as a promising material used under high-temperature condition.

  3. The Stability of Pretest Statistics Generated from College Samples as a Measure for Predicting Final Form Statistics for Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Nancy S.

    How accurately deltas (statistics measuring the difficulty of items) established by pre-test populations reflect deltas obtained from final form populations, and the consequent utility of pre-test deltas for constructing final (operational test) forms to meet developed statistical specifications were studied. Data were examined from five subject…

  4. Relevance of Item Analysis in Standardizing an Achievement Test in Teaching of Physical Science in B.Ed Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, S. Maria Josephine Arokia; Edannur, Sreekala

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on the analysis of test items constructed in the paper of teaching Physical Science for B.Ed. class. It involved the analysis of difficulty level and discrimination power of each test item. Item analysis allows selecting or omitting items from the test, but more importantly item analysis is a tool to help the item writer improve…

  5. Allelopathy-mediated Competition in Microbial Mats from Antarctic Lakes.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2017-02-18

    Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, that compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream. Microbial mats were collected from these lakes, and cultured under identical conditions at the McMurdo Station laboratory. Replicate pairings of the microbial mats exhibited consistent patterns of growth inhibition indicative of competitive dominance. Natural products were extracted from the microbial mats, and a disc diffusion assay was utilized to show that allelochemical compounds mediate competitive interactions. Both microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing show that these mats contain significant populations of cyanobacteria known to produce allelochemicals. Two compounds were isolated from these microbial mats that might be important in the chemical ecology of these psychrophiles. In other disc:mat pairings, including extract versus mat of origin, the allelochemicals exhibited no effect. Taken together, these results indicate that Antarctic lake microbial mats can compete via allelopathy.

  6. Reduced Gas Cycling in Microbial Mats: Implications for Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    For more than half the history of life on Earth, biological productivity was dominated by photosynthetic microbial mats. During this time, mats served as the preeminent biological influence on earth's surface and atmospheric chemistry and also as the primary crucible for microbial evolution. We find that modern analogs of these ancient mat communities generate substantial quantities of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. Escape of these gases from the biosphere would contribute strongly to atmospheric evolution and potentially to the net oxidation of earth's surface; sequestration within the biosphere carries equally important implications for the structure, function, and evolution of anaerobic microbial communities within the context of mat biology.

  7. Bioremediation of metals, organic and mixed contaminants with microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Cyanobacteria mats are generated for bioremediation applications by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats have been used to reduce selenate to elemental selenium, remove Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe and Mn from water and to remove Pb from sediments of shallow laboratory ponds. Uranium, U{sup 238}, was removed from groundwater samples at the rate of 3.19 Mg/m{sup 2}/h. Degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants by mats is relatively rapid under both dark and light conditions. The following contaminants have been degraded in water and/or soil media by constructed mats: TNT, chrysene, naphthalene, hexadecane, phenanthrene, PCB, TCE, pulp and paper mill wastes, and three pesticides: chlordane, carbofuran and paraquat. Radio-labeled experiments with mat-treated carbofuran, petroleum distillates, TNT, chlordane, PCB and TCE show that these compounds are mineralized by the constructed mats. Mats applied to mixed contaminant solutions (TCE + Zn and TNT + pb) sequestered the metal while mineralizing the TCE. Remediation rates of the organic and inorganic components were the same in mixed solution as they were in single application.

  8. Examining the Contribution of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Achievement as Measured by District Level TAKS Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  9. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  10. The Symbols Are in the Music: An Investigation of Eighth Graders' Mathematics Connecticut Mastery Test Achievement and Musical Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical achievement is a student's success or failure on an examination of performance in the area of mathematics (Jensen, 1993). In order for students to be successful in the area of mathematics, they benefit substantially from participating in high-interest activities (Trautwein, Ludtke, & Marsh, 2006). Music is one high-interest…

  11. The Rigor/Relevance Framework(c): Its Relationship to K-12 Student Achievement on Statewide Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Catherine Colagross

    2013-01-01

    This study generated empirical evidence about the characteristics of effective professional development for K-12 teachers and explored the relationship between professional development and student achievement. This study provided evidence about whether characteristics found in past studies could also be found in the Rigor/Relevance Framework, a…

  12. Investigating Linguistic Sources of Differential Item Functioning Using Expert Think-Aloud Protocols in Science Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Sandilands, Debra Dallie; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2013-01-01

    Even if national and international assessments are designed to be comparable, subsequent psychometric analyses often reveal differential item functioning (DIF). Central to achieving comparability is to examine the presence of DIF, and if DIF is found, to investigate its sources to ensure differentially functioning items that do not lead to bias.…

  13. Standard Setting and Risk Preference: An Elaboration of the Theory of Achievement Motivation and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Julius

    1978-01-01

    A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)

  14. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  15. Test Drive: Six States Pilot Better Ways to Measure and Compare Community College Performance. An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demand for at least some postsecondary education in today's labor market has met with stagnating college completion rates. As a result, states have a growing interest in better understanding the challenges to improving graduation rates and in tracking student progress and success. Six states in the "Achieving the Dream: Community…

  16. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  17. Stromatolites, Metals, Statistics and Microbial Mats: A Complex Interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Initially thought to be relatively 'simple' ecosystems for study, microbial mats have long been considered ideal for any number of research questions. Microbial mats can be found in any number of environments, both natural and manmade, and are typically dependent upon the physiochemical environment for their structure, maintenance and longevity. Ultimately, these and other parameters govern community whereby a microbial mat provides overall ecosystem services to their environment. On the edge of a hotspring in Yellowstone National Park we have found an active microbial mat community that can form a laminated, lithified, accretionary structure that is likely the best example of a living and growing stromatolite. In the outfall channel of the sulfidic Stinking Spring, Utah, we have found examples of both naturally occurring laminated and floating mats where the carbon flux is controlled by abiotic degassing of CO2 rather than metabolism. δ13C-bicarbonate uptake experiments reveal an autotrophic growth rate of 0 - 0.16%/day while δ13C-acetate reveals a higher heterotrophic growth rate of 0.03 - 0.65%/day, which highlights the role of heterotrophs in these mats. Similar growth experiments on Little Hot Creek, California laminated microbial mats reveal a trend for top-down microbial growth with similar microbial taxonomy and diversity to other mat-types. Of a curious note is that incubation experiments with Little Hot Creek mats reveals the importance of particular metals in mat structure and function. Statistically, alpha- and beta-diversity metrics are often used to characterize microbial communities in such systems, but from an analysis of a wastewater treatment system, Hill diversities can better interpret the effective number of species to produce an ecologically intuitive quantity to better understand a microbial mat ecosystem.

  18. Following the kinetics: iron-oxidizing microbial mats in cold icelandic volcanic habitats and their rock-associated carbonaceous signature.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Kelly, Laura C; Summers, Stephen; Marteinsson, Viggo

    2011-09-01

    Icelandic streams with mean annual temperatures of less than 5 °C, which receive the cationic products of basaltic rock weathering, were found to host mats of iron-cycling microorganisms. We investigated two representative sites. Iron-oxidizing Gallionella and iron-reducing Geobacter species were present. The mats host a high bacterial diversity as determined by culture-independent methods. β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were abundant microbial taxa. The mat contained a high number of phototroph sequences. The carbon compounds in the mat displayed broad G and D bands with Raman spectroscopy. This signature becomes incorporated into the weathered oxidized surface layer of the basaltic rocks and was observed on rocks that no longer host mats. The presence of iron-oxidizing taxa in the stream microbial mats, and the lack of them in previously studied volcanic rocks in Iceland that have intermittently been exposed to surface water flows, can be explained by the kinetic limitations to the extraction of reduced iron from rocks. This type of ecosystem illustrates key factors that control the distribution of chemolithotrophs in cold volcanic environments. The data show that one promising sample type for which the hypothesis of the existence of past life on Mars can be tested is the surface of volcanic rocks that, previously, were situated within channels carved by flowing water. Our results also show that the carbonaceous signatures of life, if life had occurred, could be found in or on these rocks.

  19. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  20. An Examination of Successful Leadership Behaviors Exhibited by Middle School Principals in Stimulating and Sustaining African-American Students' Achievement on the California Standards Test in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine leadership behaviors of middle school principals who have been successful in stimulating and sustaining African-American students' mathematics achievement on the California Standards Test. Specifically, this research sought to answer the following questions: 1) How do middle school principal…

  1. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students"…

  2. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  3. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment). Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly…

  4. The Role of Test Hope and Hopelessness in Self-Regulated Learning: Relations between Volitional Strategies, Cognitive Appraisals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buric, Irena; Soric, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships amongst students' test emotions of hope and hopelessness, their antecedents of cognitive control and value appraisals and volitional strategies during learning, as well as their effects on academic achievement in the domain of mathematics, using the control-value theoretical framework. Sample…

  5. Threats to Validity When Using Open-Ended Items in International Achievement Studies: Coding Responses to the PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Test in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended (OE) items are widely used to gather data on student performance in international achievement studies. However, several factors may threaten validity when using such items. This study examined Finnish coders' opinions about threats to validity when coding responses to OE items in the PISA 2012 problem-solving test. A total of 6…

  6. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  7. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  8. Influence of layer-by-layer assembled electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber mats on the bioactivity of endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keke; Zhang, Xiazhi; Yang, Wufeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber mats were successfully modified by deposition of multilayers with chitosan (CS), heparin (Hep) and graphene oxide (GO) through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method. In this study, the surface properties of PLLA nanofiber mats before and after modification were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. In addition, the cytocompatibility of the modified PLLA nanofiber mats were investigated by testing endothelial cells compatibility, including cell attachment, cell proliferation and cell cycle. The results revealed that the surfaces of modified PLLA nanofiber mats become much rougher, stifiness and the hydrophilicity of the LBL modified PLLA nanofiber mats were improved compared to original PLLA one. Moreover, the modified PLLA nanofiber mats had promoted the endothelial cells viability attachment significantly. Besides, we studied the PLLA nanofiber mats on the expression of necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukine-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. The results showed that modified PLLA nanofiber mats had inhibited the inflammatory response to some extent.

  9. Use of palm-mat geotextiles for rainsplash erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Fullen, M. A.; Davies, K.; Booth, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    Soil detachment by raindrop action (rainsplash erosion) is a very important subprocess of erosion by water. It is a particular problem in the UK as most soils are sandy or loamy sand in texture and lands have gentle to medium slope. However, few studies report potential rainsplash erosion control options under field conditions. Hence, the utilization of palm-mat geotextiles as a rainsplash erosion control technique was investigated at Hilton, east Shropshire, U.K. (52°33'5.7″ N, 2°19'18.3″ W). Geotextile-mats constructed from Borassus aethiopum (Borassus palm of West Africa) and Mauritia flexuosa (Buriti palm of South America) leaves are termed Borassus mats and Buriti mats, respectively. Two-year field experiments were conducted at Hilton to study the effects of emplacing Borassus and Buriti mats on rainsplash erosion of a loamy sand soil. Two sets (12 plots each) of experiments were established to study the effects of these mats on splash height and splash erosion. Splash height needs to be known to assess the transport mechanism of major soil fraction and its constituents on sloping land by rainsplash. In both sets, six randomly-selected plots were covered with mats, and the rest were bare. Results (during 22/01/2007‒23/01/2009; total precipitation = 1731.5 mm) show that Borassus mat-covered plots had ˜ 89% ( P < 0.001) less total splash erosion (2.97 kg m - 2 ) than bare plots (27.02 kg m - 2 ). Comparatively, mean splash height from Borassus mat-covered plots (0.12 m) was significantly ( P < 0.001) less than the bare plots, by ˜ 54%. However, Buriti mat-cover on bare plots had no significant ( P > 0.05) effect in rainsplash erosion control during that period, although plots with Buriti mats significantly ( P < 0.05) decreased splash height (by ˜ 18%) compared with bare plots (0.26 m). Buriti mats, probably due to their ˜ 43, 62 and 50% lower cover percentage (44%), mass per unit area (413 g - 2 ) and thickness (10 mm), respectively, compared with

  10. Intelligence and Achievement Test Results of Kindergarten-Age Children in England, Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane, Julia R.

    1973-01-01

    Results support the hypothesis that the differences between the test results of the middle and lower classes in the individual countries are greater than the differences between the same classes in the three different countries. (Author)

  11. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  12. 30 CFR 77.513 - Insulating mats at power switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulating mats at power switches. 77.513... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.513 Insulating mats at power switches. Dry wooden... switchboards and power-control switches where shock hazards exist. However, metal plates on which a...

  13. 30 CFR 77.513 - Insulating mats at power switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulating mats at power switches. 77.513... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.513 Insulating mats at power switches. Dry wooden... switchboards and power-control switches where shock hazards exist. However, metal plates on which a...

  14. 30 CFR 77.513 - Insulating mats at power switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulating mats at power switches. 77.513... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.513 Insulating mats at power switches. Dry wooden... switchboards and power-control switches where shock hazards exist. However, metal plates on which a...

  15. Compositions and method of use of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  16. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  17. 30 CFR 77.513 - Insulating mats at power switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulating mats at power switches. 77.513... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.513 Insulating mats at power switches. Dry wooden... switchboards and power-control switches where shock hazards exist. However, metal plates on which a...

  18. 30 CFR 77.513 - Insulating mats at power switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulating mats at power switches. 77.513... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.513 Insulating mats at power switches. Dry wooden... switchboards and power-control switches where shock hazards exist. However, metal plates on which a...

  19. A Comparison of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Stanford-Binet, a Two-Subtest Short Form, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) Brief Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.; McCaffery, Lucy K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship between Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Stanford-Binet, two-subtests short form, and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) with population of 75 academically referred students. K-BIT correlated significantly with Stanford-Binet and K-TEA Math, Reading, and Spelling scores. Results support use of K-BIT as…

  20. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  1. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  2. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  3. Electrospun fibrous mats with high porosity as potential scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinli; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Xiaohong; Jin, Yan

    2008-07-01

    Diffusional limitations of mass transport have adverse effects on engineering tissues that normally have high vascularity and cellularity. The current electrospinning method is not always successful to create micropores to encourage cell infiltration within the scaffold, especially when relatively large-sized pores are required. In this study, a slow rotating frame cylinder was developed as the collector to extend the pore size and increase the porosity of electrospun fibrous scaffolds. Fibrous mats with porosity as high as 92.4% and average pore size of 132.7 microm were obtained. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were seeded onto these mats, which were fixed on a cell-culture ring to prevent the shrinkage and contraction during the incubation. The viability test indicated that significantly more HDFs were generated on highly porous fibrous mats. Toluidine blue staining showed that the highly porous scaffold provided mechanical support for cells to maintain uniform distribution. The cross-section observations indicated that cells migrated and infiltrated more than 100 microm inside highly porous fibrous mats after 5 d incubation. The immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that cells began secreting collagen, which is the main constituent of extracellular matrix. It is supposed that highly porous electrospun fibrous scaffolds could be constructed by this elaboration and may be used for skin tissue engineering.

  4. Research on Bayes matting algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Jiang, Shan; Han, Cheng; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Zhengang

    2015-12-01

    The digital matting problem is a classical problem of imaging. It aims at separating non-rectangular foreground objects from a background image, and compositing with a new background image. Accurate matting determines the quality of the compositing image. A Bayesian matting Algorithm Based on Gaussian Mixture Model is proposed to solve this matting problem. Firstly, the traditional Bayesian framework is improved by introducing Gaussian mixture model. Then, a weighting factor is added in order to suppress the noises of the compositing images. Finally, the effect is further improved by regulating the user's input. This algorithm is applied to matting jobs of classical images. The results are compared to the traditional Bayesian method. It is shown that our algorithm has better performance in detail such as hair. Our algorithm eliminates the noise well. And it is very effectively in dealing with the kind of work, such as interested objects with intricate boundaries.

  5. How does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessner, Micheal J.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the affects of hands-on, inquiry-based instruction on student science achievement in a high-stakes testing environment. Hands-on, inquiry-based science has become a popular way of teaching science because it is inviting and interesting for students. However, the question remains: Does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement? A quasi-experimental design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative portion consisted of data collected from Student Surveys and individual science achievement scores for fifth-grade students at three participating schools in a large, suburban school district. The qualitative portion consisted of data collected using a Science Kit Usage Checklist, an open ended Teacher Survey of 5 fifth-grade science teachers, and Teacher Interviews for 3 fifth-grade science teachers. Descriptive analysis was utilized, and emerging codes and themes were identified for teacher education, science kit training, and understanding and implementation of science kits. Data and methods triangulation were employed (Berg, 2006; Patten, 2005) All data were utilized to determine if implementation of Science Kits impacted science achievement scores in a high stakes testing environment. Results indicated a general improvement of students meeting mastery of the fifth-grade science state assessment when kits were implemented. Teacher fidelity and high implementation were validated with Student and Teacher Surveys. Themes emerged involving training, time, student response, impact on instruction, impact on achievement scores, instructional organization, and instructional changes in future implementation. District supported training and materials led to teacher and student enjoyment of science kits, which led to implementation. Implementation then led to higher fifth-grade science achievement scores.

  6. Carbon nanotubes based transistors composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes mats as gas sensors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondavalli, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    This contribution presents the main studies on the CNTFET based gas sensors obtained using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes mats (SWCNTs) as channel. Although these devices have allowed one to achieve sensors with an impressive sensitivity compared to existing technologies, the physical interpretation of the effect of interaction between the gas molecules and the CNTFETs has not yet been clarified. Concerning selectivity, we will deal with the main routes that have been proposed to overcome this problem: functionalization using polymers, electrodes metal diversification, metal decoration of SWCNT mats.

  7. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet:IV, and academic achievement test scores in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for young children (3-7 years of age) on the Stanford-Binet:IV (n = 53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n = 63). Stanford-Binet:IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ (< 80) and high-IQ (> or = 80) groups, with high scores on visual matching tests (Bead Memory and Quantitative Reasoning). The low- and high-WISC-III IQ groups both performed well relative to IQ on tests of lexical knowledge (Similarities, Information, and Vocabulary), but not on language comprehension and social reasoning (Comprehension). The low-IQ group did best on visuo-motor subtests (Object Assembly and Block Design), but the high-IQ group did not. The high-IQ group had significantly low scores on the Digit Span, Arithmetic, Coding, VMI, and WIAT Written Expression tests, suggesting attention and writing weaknesses.

  8. Insights about fracture shape and aperture from push-pull thermal tracer tests achieved at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bour, Olivier; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Lavenant, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of transport patterns in fractured media is a challenging task. Different transport mechanisms are generally contributing: dispersion at fracture scale related to aperture variability, dispersion at network scale due to transport in different flowpaths and matrix diffusion. It is however difficult to know which mechanism is dominant. In this study we test the interest of heat tracer tests for providing new constraints on transport in fractured media by interpreting three push-pull tests of different duration. A series of heat and solute push-pull tracer test with Dirac-type injection was conducted in fractured aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The comparison of solute and heat breakthrough curves shows that due to thermal loss to the rock matrix temperature recovery peak arrives earlier than concentration peak. Moreover, the peak is significantly smaller for temperature recovery while it exhibits a longest tailing. Finally, we found that the recovered peak temperature decreases with scale and has a power law slope of -1 on a log-log plot. By means of flow and heat numerical model, we investigate the relevance of different conceptual models: single 'plate', 'tube' and 'ellipse' homogeneous fracture models at different scales. For all tested fracture geometries temperature breakthrough curves were found to be sensitive to fracture aperture. An 'elliptical tube' fracture model was found to provide the best fit to the data and based on this model, we were able to estimate the aperture of the fracture in the present case. Moreover, the comparison of experimental breakthrough curves and modelling results also suggests that the effective fracture aperture may increase with scale. This work emphasizes that multiple-scale push-pull thermal tests can provide valuable insights on fracture geometry and fracture aperture.

  9. Benthic Marine Cyanobacterial Mat Ecosystems: Biogeochemistry and Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are complete ecosystems that can include processes of primary production, diagenesis and lithification. Light sustains oxygenic photosynthesis, which in turn provides energy, organic matter and oxygen to the community. Due to both absorption and scattering phenomena, incident light is transformed with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition. Mobile photo synthesizers optimize their position with respect to this light gradient. When photosynthesis ceases at night, the upper layers of the mat become reduced and sulfidic. Counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide combine to provide daily-contrasting environments separated on a scale of a few mm. The functional complexity of mats, coupled with the highly proximal and ordered spatial arrangement of biota, offers the potential for a staggering number of interactions. At a minimum, the products of each functional group of microorganisms affect the other groups both positively and negatively. For example, cyanobacteria generate organic matter (potential substrates) but also oxygen (a toxin for many anaerobes). Anaerobic activity recycles nutrients to the photosynthesizers but also generates potentially toxic sulfide. The combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods, and to various depths in the mat. Observations of mats have produced numerous surprises. For example, obligately anaerobic processes can occur in the presence of abundant oxygen, highly reduced gases are produced in the presence of abundant sulfate, meiofauna thrive at high sulfide concentrations, and the mats' constituent populations respond to environmental changes in complex ways. While photosynthetic bacteria dominate the biomass and productivity of the mat, nonphotosynthetic, anaerobic processes constitute the ultimate biological filter on the ecosystem's emergent biosignatures, including those

  10. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  11. MAT2A Mutations Predispose Individuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Johnson, Ralph J.; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Raman, C.S.; Swindell, Eric C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:25557781

  12. What Lies behind Graphicacy? Relating Students' Results on a Test of Graphically Represented Quantitative Information to Formal Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny

    2006-01-01

    Based on studies carried out on qualitative data an instrument was constructed for investigating how larger numbers of students handle graphics. This test, consisting of 18 pages, each with its own graphic display(s) and a set of tasks, was distributed to 363 students, 15-16 years of age, from five different schools. The format of the questions…

  13. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school…

  14. Comparison of experimental and analytical temperatures achieved by DT-18 and PC-1 shipping containers during hypothetical thermal accident tests

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    Temperatures were monitored at various locations on DT-18 and PC-1 shipping packages during furnace tests at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The furnace tests are intended to simulate hypothetical thermal accident conditions specified in Title 10 CFR, Pt. 71.73 (c)(3). Maximum temperatures of the outer containers ranged from 750 to 965{degrees}C while typical maximum temperatures recorded on the inner containers were 60 to 77{degrees}C. One exceptionally high temperature of 196{degrees}C occurred on the PC-1 inner container. Heating 7.1 models of both the DT-18 and PC-1 packages were developed. Models with and without heat generation in the inner containers were developed for each shipping package. The models with heat generation are intended to simulate condensation and convection of hot vapors generated during the heating of the Celotex{trademark} insulating material used in the packages. In general, the analytical models calculate temperatures for the outer containers which agree well with the test data. The HEATING models with and without heat generation bound the inner container test data. These findings are significant in that they lead to the conclusion that heat is transferred to the inner containers through a mechanism other than conduction alone. The high temperature of 196{degrees}C recorded at the PC-1 inner container is within 4{degrees}C of the maximum temperature calculated by the PC-1 HEATING model with heat generation.

  15. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  16. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  17. Recasting the Vision for Achieving Equity: A Historical Analysis of Testing and Impediments to Process-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, T. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This article explores past and current education testing frameworks as a pretext for constructing a policy platform with the efficacy to transform systems and structures that hinder opportunities and resist equitable practices. The rise of accountability in education public policy has brought about intended and unintended outcomes. As prescribed,…

  18. Trends in Advanced Mathematics and Science Course Taking and Achievement among ACT-Tested High School Students: 1987-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Gail T.; Sun, Anji; Valiga, Michael J.

    This study investigated changes between 1987 and 1996 in the proportions of ACT-tested students taking or planning to take high school mathematics and science courses prior to high school graduation. The changes in course-taking patterns among racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were also compared. The seven courses studied were Algebra II,…

  19. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  20. Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

  1. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills.

  2. Characterization and Modification of Electrospun Fiber Mats for Use in Composite Proton Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarino, Matthew Marchand

    conducting material or forms a continuous fuel-blocking film. The LbL component consists of a proton-conducting, methanolimpermeable poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)/sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (PDAC/sPPO) thin film. The electrospun fiber component consists of PA 6(3)T fibers of average diameter between 400 and 800 nm, in a nonwoven matrix of 60-90% porosity depending on the temperature of thermal annealing utilized to improve the mechanical properties. This thesis demonstrates the versatility and flexibility of this fabrication technique, since any ion conducting LbL system may be sprayed onto any electrospun fiber mat, allowing for independent control of functionality and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the spray coated electrospun mats are shown to be superior to the LbL-only system, and possess intrinsically greater dimensional stability and lower mechanical hysteresis than Nafion under hydration cycling. The electrochemical selectivity of the composite LbL-electrospun membrane is found to be superior to Nafion, which makes them a viable alternative proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications. The composite proton exchange membranes fabricated in this work were tested in an operational direct methanol fuel cell, with results showing the capability for higher open circuit voltages (OCV) and comparable cell resistances when compared to Nafion. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

  3. The Effects of Violating Standard Item Writing Principles on Tests and Students: The Consequences of Using Flawed Test Items on Achievement Examinations in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of violations of standard multiple-choice item writing principles on test characteristics, student scores, and pass-fail outcomes. Four basic science examinations, administered to year-one and year-two medical students, were randomly selected for study. Test items were classified as either…

  4. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

  5. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

  6. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  7. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet: IV, and Academic Achievement Test Scores in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for children (ages 3-7) on the Stanford-Binet: IV (n=53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n=63). Stanford-Binet: IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ and high-IQ groups with high scores on visual matching tests. (Contains…

  8. Electrospun lignin-derived carbon nanofiber mats surface-decorated with MnO2 nanowhiskers as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Kolla, Praveen; Zhao, Yong; Smirnova, Alevtina L.; Fong, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore innovative materials for the development of next-generation supercapacitor electrodes. The hypothesis is that, upon the surface-decoration with appropriate amount of MnO2 nanowhiskers, freestanding and highly graphitic electrospun carbon nanofiber (ECNF) mats (with fiber diameters of ∼200 nm and BET specific surface areas of ∼583 m2 g-1) derived from a natural product of lignin would be binder-free supercapacitor electrodes with high performance. To test the hypothesis, the ECNF mats have been prepared first; thereafter, the acquired ECNF mats have been surface-decorated with varied amounts of MnO2 nanowhiskers to prepare three types of ECNF/MnO2 mats. The morphological and structural properties of ECNF and ECNF/MnO2 mats are characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD, the weight percentages of MnO2 nanowhiskers in three ECNF/MnO2 mats are determined by thermal gravimetric analysis; while the electrochemical performance of each mat/electrode is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge method, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study reveals that, all of the three ECNF/MnO2 mats/electrodes have significantly enhanced electrochemical performances compared to the ECNF mat/electrode; while the ECNF/MnO2 (1:1) mat/electrode exhibits the highest gravimetric capacitance of 83.3 F g-1, energy density of 84.3 W h kg-1, and power density of 5.72 kW kg-1.

  9. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions.

  10. Identification of the DNA sequences controlling the expression of the MAT alpha locus of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Siliciano, P G; Tatchell, K

    1986-01-01

    We have excised a 28-base-pair DNA fragment from the MAT alpha intergenic region and tested its ability to direct diploid-specific transcriptional repression. This fragment (1643-1671, 5'-GCTTCCCAATGTAGAAAAGTACA-TCATA-3') lies within a region required for the normal diploid-specific repression of the MAT alpha transcripts. First, the fragment was inserted into a 53-base-pair MAT alpha deletion that expresses alpha 1 and alpha 2 constitutively. Insertion of the fragment restores proper diploid regulation to the MAT alpha transcripts: alpha 1 mRNA is strongly repressed and alpha 2 mRNA is reduced by a factor of approximately equal to 10 from its haploid level. The fragment works equally well in either orientation, and two copies of the fragment do not lead to stronger repression than a single copy. We also inserted the fragment at three sites upstream of the CYC1-lacZ fusion gene. Insertions placing the regulatory fragment between the CYC1 upstream activator sequence (UAS) and the coding region make beta-galactosidase efficiently in alpha haploids but produce 1/40th the enzyme in a/alpha diploids. This diploid-specific repression requires functional MATa-1 gene product. Insertion of the MAT fragment on the opposite side of the UAS (37 base pairs upstream of the UAS) also caused diploid repression of the fusion gene, but only by a factor of 7. When the regulatory fragment is inserted at a large distance on the far side of the UAS (375 base pairs), it has little if any effect on beta-galactosidase expression. We postulate that this sequence is the operator recognized by the diploid-specific repressor. Images PMID:3517864

  11. Metagenomic analysis of stress genes in microbial mat communities from Antarctica and the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Lovejoy, Connie; Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Corbeil, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Polar and alpine microbial communities experience a variety of environmental stresses, including perennial cold and freezing; however, knowledge of genomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of cyanobacterial mats from Arctic and Antarctic ice shelves, using high-throughput pyrosequencing to test the hypotheses that consortia from these extreme polar habitats were similar in terms of major phyla and subphyla and consequently in their potential responses to environmental stresses. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes showed similarities between the mats from the two poles, with the majority of genes derived from Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria; however, the relative proportions differed, with cyanobacterial genes more prevalent in the Antarctic mat metagenome. Other differences included a higher representation of Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria in the Arctic metagenomes, which may reflect the greater access to diasporas from both adjacent ice-free lands and the open ocean. Genes coding for functional responses to environmental stress (exopolysaccharides, cold shock proteins, and membrane modifications) were found in all of the metagenomes. However, in keeping with the greater exposure of the Arctic to long-range pollutants, sequences assigned to copper homeostasis genes were statistically (30%) more abundant in the Arctic samples. In contrast, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the Antarctic mat, likely reflecting the more severe osmotic stress during freeze-up of the Antarctic ponds. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to cold and other stresses in polar mats, consistent with the proportional representation of major bacterial groups.

  12. The effects of violating standard item writing principles on tests and students: the consequences of using flawed test items on achievement examinations in medical education.

    PubMed

    Downing, Steven M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of violations of standard multiple-choice item writing principles on test characteristics, student scores, and pass-fail outcomes. Four basic science examinations, administered to year-one and year-two medical students, were randomly selected for study. Test items were classified as either standard or flawed by three independent raters, blinded to all item performance data. Flawed test questions violated one or more standard principles of effective item writing. Thirty-six to sixty-five percent of the items on the four tests were flawed. Flawed items were 0-15 percentage points more difficult than standard items measuring the same construct. Over all four examinations, 646 (53%) students passed the standard items while 575 (47%) passed the flawed items. The median passing rate difference between flawed and standard items was 3.5 percentage points, but ranged from -1 to 35 percentage points. Item flaws had little effect on test score reliability or other psychometric quality indices. Results showed that flawed multiple-choice test items, which violate well established and evidence-based principles of effective item writing, disadvantage some medical students. Item flaws introduce the systematic error of construct-irrelevant variance to assessments, thereby reducing the validity evidence for examinations and penalizing some examinees.

  13. First insights into fern matK phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Yaung; Li, Fay-Wei; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Wang, Chun-Neng

    2011-06-01

    MatK, the only maturase gene in the land plant plastid genome, is a very popular phylogenetic marker that has been extensively applied in reconstructing angiosperm phylogeny. However, the use of matK in fern phylogeny is largely unknown, due to difficulties with amplification: ferns have lost the flanking trnK exons, typically the region used for designing stable priming sites. We developed primers that are either universal or lineage-specific that successfully amplify matK across all fern families. To evaluate whether matK is as powerful a phylogenetic marker in ferns as in angiosperms, we compared its sequence characteristics and phylogenetic performance to those of rbcL and atpA. Among these three genes, matK has the highest variability and substitution evenness, yet shows the least homoplasy. Most importantly, applying matK in fern phylogenetics better resolved relationships among families, especially within eupolypods I and II. Here we demonstrate the power of matK for fern phylogenetic reconstruction, as well as provide primers and extensive sequence data that will greatly facilitate future evolutionary studies of ferns.

  14. Using Intact Iron Microbial Mats to Gain Insights Into Mat Ecology and Geochemical Niche at the Microbial Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, B. T.; Chan, C. S. Y.; Mcallister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are formed by microorganisms working in coordinated symbiosis, often benefitting the community by controlling the local geochemical or physical environment. Thus, the ecology of the mat depends on the individual roles of microbes organized into niches within a larger architecture. Chemolithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) form distinctive Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals which constitute the building blocks of the mat. However, the majority of our progress has been in understanding the overall community structure. Understanding the physical mat structure on the microbial scale is important to unraveling FeOB evolution, the biogeochemistry and ecology of Fe-rich habitats, and ultimately interpreting FeOB biosignatures in the rock record. Mats in freshwater and marine environments contain strikingly similar biomineral morphologies, yet they are formed by phylogenetically distinct microorganisms. This suggests that the overall architecture and underlying genetics of freshwater and marine mats has evolved to serve particular roles specific to Fe oxidation. Thus, we conducted a comparative study of Fe seep freshwater mats and marine hydrothermal mats. We have developed a new approach to sampling Fe mats in order to preserve the delicate structure for analysis by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Our analyses of these intact mats show that freshwater and marine mats are similarly initiated by a single type of structure-former. These ecosystem engineers form either a hollow sheath or a twisted stalk biomineral during mat formation, with a highly directional structure. These microbes appear to be the vanguard organisms that anchor the community within oxygen/Fe(II) gradients, further allowing for community succession in the mat interior as evidenced by other mineralized morphologies. Patterns in biomineral thickness and directionality were indicative of redox gradients and temporal changes in the geochemical environment. These observations show that

  15. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks.

  16. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  17. Electrospun graphene-ZnO nanofiber mats for photocatalysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Min Wook; Kim, Na Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2014-03-01

    Graphene-decorated zinc oxide (G-ZnO) nanofibers were fabricated, for the first time, by electrospinning. The effect of graphene concentration on the properties of G-ZnO mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis. The G-ZnO mats decorated with 0.5 wt.% of graphene showed excellent photocatalytic activity through degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity (80% degradation) was observed for 0.5 wt.% G-ZnO mats annealed at 400 °C after 4 h of UV irradiation.

  18. Protocyanobacteria: Oxygenic and Anoxygenic photosynthesis in mat-forming bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The oldest record of life is preserved in prePhanerozoic stromatolites dated 3500 million years old and is most likely of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria. The sedimentary records of cyanobacterial mats in stromatolites are the most abundant record of life throughout the prePhanerozoic. Stromatolites persisted into the Phanerozoic Eon, yet they become much less pronounced relative to earlier ones. The abundance and persistence of cyanobacterial mats throughout most of geological time point to the evolutionary success of these kinds of microbial communities and their possible role in the evolution of the earth and atmosphere.

  19. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    Floating fens are valuable wetlands, found in North-Western Europe, that are formed by floating root mats when old turf ponds are colonized by plants. These terrestrialization ecosystems are known for their biodiversity and the presence of rare plant species, and the root mats reveal different vegetation zones at a small scale. The vegetation zones are a result of strong gradients in abiotic conditions, including groundwater dynamics, nutrients and pH. To prevent irreversible drought effects such as land subsidence and mineralization of peat, water management involves import of water from elsewhere to maintain constant surface water levels. Imported water may have elevated levels of salinity during dry summers, and salt exposure may threaten the vegetation. To assess the risk of exposure of the rare plant species to salinity, the hydrology of such root mats must be understood. Physical properties of root mats have scarcely been investigated. We have measured soil characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, vertical root mat movement and groundwater dynamics in a floating root mat in the nature reserve Nieuwkoopse Plassen, in the Netherlands. The root mat mostly consists of roots and organic material, in which the soil has a high saturated water content, and strongly varies in its stage of decomposition. We have found a distinct negative correlation between degree of decomposition and hydraulic conductivity, similar to observations for bogs in the literature. Our results show that the relatively young, thin edge of the root mat that colonizes the surface water has a high hydraulic conductivity and floats in the surface water, resulting in very small groundwater fluctuations within the root mat. The older part of the root mat, that is connected to the deeper peat layers is hydrologically more isolated and the material has a lower conductivity. Here, the groundwater fluctuates strongly with atmospheric forcing. The zones of hydraulic properties and vegetation, appear to

  20. Benchscale Assessment of the Efficacy of a Reactive Core Mat to Isolate PAH-spiked Aquatic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Meric, Dogus; Barbuto, Sara; Sheahan, Thomas C.; Shine, James P.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a benchscale testing program to assess the efficacy of a reactive core mat (RCM) for short term isolation and partial remediation of contaminated, subaqueous sediments. The 1.25 cm thick RCM (with a core reactive material such as organoclay with filtering layers on top and bottom) is placed on the sediment, and approximately 7.5 – 10 cm of overlying soil is placed on the RCM for stability and protection. A set of experiments were conducted to measure the sorption characteristics of the mat core (organoclay) and sediment used in the experiments, and to determine the fate of semi-volatile organic contaminants and non-reactive tracers through the sediment and reactive mat. The experimental study was conducted on naphthalene-spiked Neponset River (Milton, MA) sediment. The results show nonlinear sorption behavior for organoclay, with sorption capacity increasing with increasing naphthalene concentration. Neponset River sediment showed a notably high sorption capacity, likely due to the relatively high organic carbon fraction (14%). The fate and transport experiments demonstrated the short term efficiency of the reactive mat to capture the contamination that is associated with the post-capping period during which the highest consolidation-induced advective flux occurs, driving solid particles, pore fluid and soluble contaminants toward the reactive mat. The goal of the mat placement is to provide a physical filtering and chemically reactive layer to isolate contamination from the overlying water column. An important finding is that because of the high sorption capacity of the Neponset River sediment, the physical filtering capability of the mat is as critical as its chemical reactive capacity. PMID:24367237

  1. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  2. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  3. An Innovative Method for Testing Children's Achievement-Related Reactions: Recording Feelings of Helplessness by Means of an Intelligence Test-Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titscher, Anna; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based on the work of Dweck (2000) and her description of helpless and mastery-orientated children, was designed to find a new, simple and economic way of assessing helplessness while testing a child's intelligence. Two hundred and thirty-two Austrian grammar-school children, previously classified as either helpless or…

  4. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies.

  5. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan.

  6. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  7. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  8. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). Total rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P < 0.01), and it decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). The ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.05) and feeding AH (P < 0.05). Thickness of the ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P < 0.05). Simple linear regression of ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P < 0.001; n = 16). The results demonstrated that increasing the PRV of the ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  9. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  10. BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

  11. A Modular Sensorized Mat for Monitoring Infant Posture

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants. PMID:24385029

  12. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  13. The MATS satellite mission - tomographic perspectives on the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ole Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Murtagh, Donal P.; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2016-04-01

    MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) is a Swedish satellite mission scheduled for launch in 2019. MATS science focuses on mesospheric wave activity and noctilucent clouds. Primary measurement targets are O2 Atmospheric band dayglow and nightglow in the near infrared (759-767 nm) and sunlight scattered from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet (270-300 nm). While tomography provides horizontally and vertically resolved data, spectroscopy allows analysis in terms of mesospheric composition, temperature and cloud properties. During 2015, the design of the MATS instrument was finalized, and the first complete instrument design will be shown in this presentation. As a part of this work, simulated measurements were performed and inverted using a 3 dimensional tomographic algorithm based on the optimal estimation method. As a result, the first quantitative estimation of the instruments capabilities and performance figures can now be presented, and hence give a more accurate picture of the scientific opportunities that the MATS mission provides.

  14. The biogeochemistry of microbial mats, stromatolites and the ancient biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Canfield, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    Stromatolites offer an unparalleled geologic record of early life, because they constitute the oldest and most abundant recognizable remains of microbial ecosystems. Microbial mats are living homologs of stromatolites; thus, the physiology of the microbiota as well as the processes which create those features of mats (e.g., biomarker organic compounds, elemental and stable isotopic compositions) which are preserved in the ancient record. Observations of the carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13) of stromatolites and microbial mats were made and are consistent with the hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have declined by at least one to two orders of magnitude during the past 2.5 Ga. Whereas delta C-13 values of carbonate carbon average about 0 permil during both the early and mid-Proterozoic, the delta C-13 values of stromatolitic organic matter increase from an average of -35 between 2.0 and 2.6 Ga ago to an average of about -28 about 1.0 Ga ago. Modern microbial mats in hypersaline environments have delta C-13 values typically in the range of -5 to -9, relative to an inorganic bicarbonate source at 0 permil. Both microbial mats and pur cultures of cyanobacteria grown in waters in near equilibrium with current atmospheric CO2 levels exhibit minimal discrimination against C-13. In contrast, hot spring cyanobacterial mats or cyanobacterial cultures grown under higher CO2 levels exhibit substantially greater discrimination. If care is taken to compare modern mats with stromatolites from comparable environments, it might be possible to estimate ancient levels of atmospheric CO2. In modern microbial mats, a tight coupling exists between photosynthetic organic carbon production and subsequent carbon oxidation, mostly by sulfate reduction. The rate of one process fuels a high rate of the other, with much of the sulfate reduction occurring within the same depth interval as oxygenic photosynthesis. Other aspects of this study are presented.

  15. Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J.

    2015-01-01

    The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats. PMID:26648931

  16. Antifouling Electrospun Nanofiber Mats Functionalized with Polymer Zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Kolewe, Kristopher W; Dobosz, Kerianne M; Rieger, Katrina A; Chang, Chia-Chih; Emrick, Todd; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-10-06

    In this study, we exploit the excellent fouling resistance of polymer zwitterions and present electrospun nanofiber mats surface functionalized with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC). This zwitterionic polymer coating maximizes the accessibility of the zwitterion to effectively limit biofouling on nanofiber membranes. Two facile, scalable methods yielded a coating on cellulose nanofibers: (i) a two-step sequential deposition featuring dopamine polymerization followed by the physioadsorption of polyMPC, and (ii) a one-step codeposition of polydopamine (PDA) with polyMPC. While the sequential and codeposited nanofiber mat assemblies have an equivalent average fiber diameter, hydrophilic contact angle, surface chemistry, and stability, the topography of nanofibers prepared by codeposition were smoother. Protein and microbial antifouling performance of the zwitterion modified nanofiber mats along with two controls, cellulose (unmodified) and PDA coated nanofiber mats were evaluated by dynamic protein fouling and prolonged bacterial exposure. Following 21 days of exposure to bovine serum albumin, the sequential nanofiber mats significantly resisted protein fouling, as indicated by their 95% flux recovery ratio in a water flux experiment, a 300% improvement over the cellulose nanofiber mats. When challenged with two model microbes Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for 24 h, both zwitterion modifications demonstrated superior fouling resistance by statistically reducing microbial attachment over the two controls. This study demonstrates that, by decorating the surfaces of chemically and mechanically robust cellulose nanofiber mats with polyMPC, we can generate high performance, free-standing nanofiber mats that hold potential in applications where antifouling materials are imperative, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and water purification technologies.

  17. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. Methods We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Results Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals’ general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Conclusions Home HTC with follow

  18. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  19. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  20. Methane Production by Microbial Mats Under Low Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Thamdrup, Bo; Albert, Dan; Carpenter, Steven P.; Hogan, Mary; Turk, Kendra; DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats collected in hypersaline salterns were incubated in a greenhouse under low sulfate concentrations ([SO4]) and examined for their primary productivity and emissions of methane and other major carbon species. Atmospheric greenhouse warming by gases such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been greater during the Archean than today in order to account for a record of moderate to warm paleoclemates, despite a less luminous early sun. It has been suggested that decreased levels of oxygen and sulfate in Archean oceans could have significantly stimulated microbial methanogenesis relative to present marine rates, with a resultant increase in the relative importance of methane in maintaining the early greenhouse. We maintained modern microbial mats, models of ancient coastal marine communities, in artificial brine mixtures containing both modern [SO4=] (ca. 70 mM) and "Archean" [SO4] (less than 0.2 mM). At low [SO4], primary production in the mats was essentially unaffected, while rates of sulfate reduction decreased by a factor of three, and methane fluxes increased by up to ten-fold. However, remineralization by methanogenesis still amounted to less than 0.4 % of the total carbon released by the mats. The relatively low efficiency of conversion of photosynthate to methane is suggested to reflect the particular geometry and chemical microenvironment of hypersaline cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, such mats w-ere probably relatively weak net sources of methane throughout their 3.5 Ga history, even during periods of low- environmental levels oxygen and sulfate.

  1. Invasive algal mats degrade coral reef physical habitat quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jonathan A.; Smith, Celia M.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2012-03-01

    Invasive species alter the ecology of marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms or combination of mechanisms. This study documented critical physical parameters altered by the invasive red macroalga Gracilaria salicornia in situ, including: reduced irradiance, increased sedimentation, and marked variation in diurnal dissolved oxygen and pH cycles in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Paired studies showed that algal mats reduced irradiance by 99% and doubled sediment accumulation. Several mats developed hypoxia and hyperoxia in the extreme minima and maxima, though there was no statistical difference detected in the mean or the variability of dissolved oxygen between different 30 min time points of 24 h cycles between algal mat-open reef pairs. The algal mat significantly acidified the water under the algal mat by decreasing pH by 0.10-0.13 pH units below open reef pH. A minimum of pH 7.47 occurred between 14 and 19 h after sunrise. Our combined results suggest that mats of G. salicornia can alter various physical parameters on a fine scale and time course not commonly detected. These changes in parameters give insight into the underlying basis for negative impact, and suggest new ways in which the presence of invasive species leads to decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  2. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  3. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  4. Highly Porous Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Mats via the Co-Forcespinning of Cellulose Acetate for Separator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Mao, Yuanbing

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary for the transition away from a fossil fuel based economy. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency is the quality of the separator, which separates the cathode and anode to prevent a short-circuit while still allowing the ions in solution to flow as close to unabated as possible. In this work solutions of cellulose acetate, polyvinyldiflourine (pvdf), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) dissolved in a 2:1 v/v acetone/dimethylacetamide solvent mixture were Forcespun to create nonwoven fiber mats of nanoscale diameter. These mats were then soaked in a NaOH solution so as to both strip the pvp from the fiber as well as regenerate cellulose from its acetate derivative for the purpose of creating high surface area, nanoporous, hydrophilic, and ioniclly conductive cellulose/pvdf nonwoven mats for the purposes of testing their suitability as battery separators

  5. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms1

    PubMed Central

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. Methods and Results: We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. Conclusions: These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification. PMID:27347449

  6. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  7. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  8. ERB master archival tape specification no. T 134081 ERB MAT, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth radiation budget (ERB)MAT tapes are generated by the ERB MATGEN software using the IBM 3081 computer system operated by the Science and Applications Computer Center at Goddard Space Flight Center. All MAT's are 9-track and MAT data are in ascending time order. The gross tape format for NIMBUS year-1 and year-2 MAT's is different from the format of MAT's starting with year-3. The MATs from the first two years are to contain one day's worth of data while all other MATs are to contain multiple day's worth of data stacked onto the tapes.

  9. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  10. Photosynthetic Microbial Mats are Exemplary Sources of Diverse Biosignatures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Marine cyanobacterial microbial mats are widespread, compact, self-contained ecosystems that create diverse biosignatures and have an ancient fossil record. Within the mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides organic substrates and O2 to the community. Both the absorption and scattering of light change the intensity and spectral composition of incident radiation as it penetrates a mat. Some phototrophs utilize infrared light near the base of the photic zone. A mat's upper layers can become highly reduced and sulfidic at night. Counteracting gradients of O2 and sulfide shape the chemical environment and provide daily-contrasting microenvironments separated on a scale of a few mm. Radiation hazards (UV, etc.), O2 and sulfide toxicity elicit motility and other physiological responses. This combination of benefits and hazards of light, O2 and sulfide promotes the allocation of various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Associated nonphotosynthetic communities, including anaerobes, strongly influence many of the ecosystem's overall characteristics, and their processes affect any biosignatures that enter the fossil record. A biosignature is an object, substance and/or pattern whose origin specifically requires a biological agent. The value of a biosignature depends not only on the probability of life creating it, but also on the improbability of nonbiological processes producing it. Microbial mats create biosignatures that identify particular groups of organisms and also reveal attributes of the mat ecosystem. For example, branched hydrocarbons and pigments can be diagnostic of cyanobacteria and other phototrophic bacteria, and isoprenoids can indicate particular groups of archea. Assemblages of lipid biosignatures change with depth due to changes in microbial populations and diagenetic transformations of organic matter. The 13C/12C values of organic matter and carbonates reflect isotopic discrimination by particular

  11. Sulphur cycling in a Neoarchaean microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N R; Zerkle, A L; Fike, D A

    2017-01-27

    Multiple sulphur (S) isotope ratios are powerful proxies to understand the complexity of S biogeochemical cycling through Deep Time. The disappearance of a sulphur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) signal in rocks <~2.4 Ga has been used to date a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen levels. However, intricacies of the S-cycle before the Great Oxidation Event remain poorly understood. For example, the isotope composition of coeval atmospherically derived sulphur species is still debated. Furthermore, variation in Archaean pyrite δ(34) S values has been widely attributed to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). While petrographic evidence for Archaean early-diagenetic pyrite formation is common, textural evidence for the presence and distribution of MSR remains enigmatic. We combined detailed petrographic and in situ, high-resolution multiple S-isotope studies (δ(34) S and Δ(33) S) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to document the S-isotope signatures of exceptionally well-preserved, pyritised microbialites in shales from the ~2.65-Ga Lokammona Formation, Ghaap Group, South Africa. The presence of MSR in this Neoarchaean microbial mat is supported by typical biogenic textures including wavy crinkled laminae, and early-diagenetic pyrite containing <26‰ μm-scale variations in δ(34) S and Δ(33) S = -0.21 ± 0.65‰ (±1σ). These large variations in δ(34) S values suggest Rayleigh distillation of a limited sulphate pool during high rates of MSR. Furthermore, we identified a second, morphologically distinct pyrite phase that precipitated after lithification, with δ(34) S = 8.36 ± 1.16‰ and Δ(33) S = 5.54 ± 1.53‰ (±1σ). We propose that the S-MIF signature of this secondary pyrite does not reflect contemporaneous atmospheric processes at the time of deposition; instead, it formed by the influx of later-stage sulphur-bearing fluids containing an inherited atmospheric S-MIF signal and/or from magnetic isotope effects during

  12. Children's mapping between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitudes and its association with timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children's mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children's performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children's mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills.

  13. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-06-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  14. Vertical differences in species turnover and diversity of amphipod assemblages associated with coralline mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Tanaka, M. O.; Flores, A. A. V.; Leite, F. P. P.

    2016-11-01

    Environmental gradients are common in rocky shore habitats and may determine species spatial distributions at different scales. In this study, we tested whether environmental filtering affects amphipod assemblages inhabiting coralline algal mats at different vertical heights in southeastern Brazil. Samples obtained from the upper and lower zones of the infralittoral fringe were used to estimate mat descriptors (algal mass, sediment retention, organic matter contents, grain size and sediment sorting) and describe amphipod assemblages (abundance, species richness and diversity indices). Coralline algal mats and amphipod assemblages were similar between intertidal zones in several aspects. However, a more variable retention of sediment (positively related to algal mass), together with the accumulation of larger grains lower on the shore, likely provide higher habitat heterogeneity that hosts generally more diverse (both α- and β-diversity, as well as higher species turnover) amphipod assemblages in the lower intertidal zone. Poorer assemblages in the upper intertidal zone are dominated by omnivores, while carnivorous species are more often found in richer assemblages in the lower intertidal zone, as predicted by traditional niche theory.

  15. An Energy Balance Model to Predict Chemical Partitioning in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; DesMarais, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of biosignature formation in photosynthetic microbial mat communities offer potentially useful insights with regards to both solar and extrasolar astrobiology. Biosignature formation in such systems results from the chemical transformation of photosynthetically fixed carbon by accessory microorganisms. This fixed carbon represents a source not only of reducing power, but also energy, to these organisms, so that chemical and energy budgets should be coupled. We tested this hypothesis by applying an energy balance model to predict the fate of photosynthetic productivity under dark, anoxic conditions. Fermentation of photosynthetically fixed carbon is taken to be the only source of energy available to cyanobacteria in the absence of light and oxygen, and nitrogen fixation is the principal energy demand. The alternate fate for fixed carbon is to build cyanobacterial biomass with Redfield C:N ratio. The model predicts that, under completely nitrogen-limited conditions, growth is optimized when 78% of fixed carbon stores are directed into fermentative energy generation, with the remainder allocated to growth. These predictions were compared to measurements made on microbial mats that are known to be both nitrogen-limited and populated by actively nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. In these mats, under dark, anoxic conditions, 82% of fixed carbon stores were diverted into fermentation. The close agreement between these independent approaches suggests that energy balance models may provide a quantitative means of predicting chemical partitioning within such systems - an important step towards understanding how biological productivity is ultimately partitioned into biosignature compounds.

  16. Younger Dryas "black mats" and the Rancholabrean termination in North America.

    PubMed

    Haynes, C Vance

    2008-05-06

    Of the 97 geoarchaeological sites of this study that bridge the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (last deglaciation), approximately two thirds have a black organic-rich layer or "black mat" in the form of mollic paleosols, aquolls, diatomites, or algal mats with radiocarbon ages suggesting they are stratigraphic manifestations of the Younger Dryas cooling episode 10,900 B.P. to 9,800 B.P. (radiocarbon years). This layer or mat covers the Clovis-age landscape or surface on which the last remnants of the terminal Pleistocene megafauna are recorded. Stratigraphically and chronologically the extinction appears to have been catastrophic, seemingly too sudden and extensive for either human predation or climate change to have been the primary cause. This sudden Rancholabrean termination at 10,900 +/- 50 B.P. appears to have coincided with the sudden climatic switch from Allerød warming to Younger Dryas cooling. Recent evidence for extraterrestrial impact, although not yet compelling, needs further testing because a remarkable major perturbation occurred at 10,900 B.P. that needs to be explained.

  17. Use of Lightweight Cellular Mats to Reduce the Settlement of Structure on Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganasan, R.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Construction of structures on soft soils gives rise to some difficulties in Malaysia and other country especially in settlement both in short and long term. The focus of this research is to minimize the differential and non-uniform settlement on peat soil with the use of an innovative cellular mat. The behaviour and performance of the lightweight geo-material (in block form) is critically investigated and in particular the use as a fill in embankment on soft ground. Hemic peat soil, sponge and innovative cellular mat will be used as the main material in this study. The monitoring in settlement behavior from this part of research will be done as laboratory testing only. The uneven settlement in this problem was uniquely monitored photographically using spot markers. In the end of the research, it is seen that the innovative cellular mat has reduce the excessive and differential settlement up to 50% compare to flexible and rigid foundations. This had improve the stiffness of soils as well as the porous contain in cellular structure which help in allowing water/moisture to flow through in or out thus resulting in prevent the condition of floating.

  18. Swiss Ball Versus Mat Exercises For Core Activation of Transverse Abdominis in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nirmala; Nair, Sudeep; Sherpa, Lobsang Bhuti; Dsouza, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Core stability is an essential component for improving athletic performance and injury prevention. Exercises on a Swiss ball and on the mat are two different ways of improving core stability. Comparison of these methods can help physiotherapists incorporate the better method for athletic training and rehabilitation. Aim To compare swiss ball and mat exercises for core stability of transverse abdominis in recreational athletes. Materials and Methods This pilot randomized control trial was performed on a total of 25 recreational athletes. Subjects were alternatively allocated into three different groups: group A performed swiss ball exercises; group B performed mat exercises; and group C was the control group. Statistical analysis Paired t-test for pre and post values within the group and one-way ANOVA for between the groups comparison was used. Results There was significant improvement in the core stability in Group A (Pre values: 3.6±2.06; Post values: 8.3±3.02; p-value: <0.05) and Group B (Pre values: 2.1±2.4; Post values: 4.3±2.5; p-value<0.05), however, improvement was more in group A compared to group B. Conclusion There was significant improvement seen in the recreational athletes performing exercises on Swiss ball as compared to athletes performing exercises on mat. Therefore, Swiss ball exercises can be included in the prehabilitation and rehabilitation stages of athletic training to prevent injury and enhanced recovery post injury, thereby, improving performance of the athletes. PMID:28208990

  19. Millimeter-scale patterns of phylogenetic and trait diversity in a salt marsh microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Armitage, David W; Gallagher, Kimberley L; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal microbial mats are comprised of distinctly colored millimeter-thick layers whose communities organize in response to environmental gradients such as light availability, oxygen/sulfur concentrations, and redox potential. Here, slight changes in depth correspond to sharp niche boundaries. We explore the patterns of biodiversity along this depth gradient as it relates to functional groups of bacteria, as well as trait-encoding genes. We used molecular techniques to determine how the mat's layers differed from one another with respect to taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity, and used these metrics to assess potential drivers of community assembly. We used a range of null models to compute the degree of phylogenetic and functional dispersion for each layer. The SSU-rRNA reads were dominated by Cyanobacteria and Chromatiales, but contained a high taxonomic diversity. The composition of each mat core was significantly different for developmental stage, year, and layer. Phylogenetic richness and evenness positively covaried with depth, and trait richness tended to decrease with depth. We found evidence for significant phylogenetic clustering for all bacteria below the surface layer, supporting the role of habitat filtering in the assembly of mat layers. However, this signal disappeared when the phylogenetic dispersion of particular functional groups, such as oxygenic phototrophs, was measured. Overall, trait diversity measured by orthologous genes was also lower than would be expected by chance, except for genes related to photosynthesis in the topmost layer. Additionally, we show how the choice of taxa pools, null models, spatial scale, and phylogenies can impact our ability to test hypotheses pertaining to community assembly. Our results demonstrate that given the appropriate physiochemical conditions, strong phylogenetic, and trait variation, as well as habitat filtering, can occur at the millimeter-scale.

  20. Development and characterization of cefazolin loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles composite gelatin nanofiber mats for postoperative surgical wounds.

    PubMed

    Rath, Goutam; Hussain, Taqadus; Chauhan, Gaurav; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy in post-operative wound care remain controversial leading to escalation in levels of multi-resistant bacteria with unwanted morbidity and mortality. Recently zinc (Zn) because of multiple biophysiological functions, gain considerable interest for wound care. Based on our current understanding, the present study was designed with an intent to produce improve therapeutic approaches for post-operative wound management using composite multi-functional antibiotic carrier. The study involved the fabrication, characterization and pre-clinical evaluation of cefazolin nanofiber mats loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) and comparing co-formulated mats with individual component, enable a side by side comparison of the benefits of our intervention. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and drug-ZnONP mixture against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using micro dilution assay. The fabricated nanofibers were then evaluated for in-vitro antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of inhibition was predicted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further these nanofiber mats were evaluated in-vivo for wound healing efficacy in Wistar rats. Study revealed that the average diameter of the nanofibers is around 200-900 nm with high entrapment efficiency and display sustained drug release behavior. The combination of ZnO and cefazolin in 1:1 weight ratio showed higher anti-bacterial activity of 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells taken from the zone of inhibition revealed the phenomenon of cell lysis in tested combination related to cell wall disruption. Further composite medicated nanofiber mats showed an accelerated wound healing as compared to plain cefazolin and ZnONP loaded mats. Macroscopical and histological evaluations demonstrated that ZnONP hybrid cefazolin nanofiber showed enhanced cell adhesion, epithelial migration, leading to faster and more efficient collagen synthesis