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Sample records for achievement test mat

  1. The Process of Customization of the "Metropolitan Achievement Test" (MAT-6) in Mathematics for New York City Public School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleporos, Betsy; And Others

    In the spring of 1986, New York City began using the Metropolitan Achievement Test-6 (MAT-6) series to assess achievement in mathematics as part of a continuing end-of-year testing program. During the first two years of the program, appropriate levels of the shelf version of MAT-6 (Forms L and M) were administered to second through eighth graders.…

  2. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  3. Correlations between the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Seventh Edition, and the Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Robert E.

    This study examines correlations between the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, seventh edition (MAT-7), and analogous portions of the 1995 Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Tests. The MAT-7 scores of 156 eighth-grade students who had completed both test batteries were paired with complementary sections of the Proficiency test. Correlations between the…

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. Flight control systems development and flight test experience with the HiMAT research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Two highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted vehicles were flown a total of 26 flights. These subscale vehicles were of advanced aerodynamic configuration with advanced technology concepts such as composite and metallic structures, digital integrated propulsion control, and ground (primary) and airborne (backup) relaxed static stability, digital fly-by-wire control systems. Extensive systems development, checkout, and flight qualification were required to conduct the flight test program. The design maneuver goal was to achieve a sustained 8-g turn at Mach 0.9 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. This goal was achieved, along with the acquisition of high-quality flight data at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. Control systems were modified in a variety of ways using the flight-determined aerodynamic characteristics. The HiMAT program was successfully completed with approximately 11 hours of total flight time.

  6. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  7. The role of simulation in the development and flight test of the HiMAT vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. B.; Schilling, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Real time simulations have been essential in the flight test program of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The HiMAT project makes extensive use of simulations in design, development, and qualification for flight, pilot training, and flight planning. Four distinct simulations, each with varying amounts of hardware in the loop, were developed for the HiMAT project. The use of simulations in detecting anomalous behavior of the flight software and hardware at the various stages of development, verification, and validation has been the key to flight qualification of the HiMAT vehicle.

  8. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p < .0001) and post-MotScl (ES = 0.32; p < .05) scores. According to data obtained from the questionnaire, the application of the 4MAT model increases student motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  9. A Psychometric Analysis of the Mat-Sea-Cal Oral Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Vincent

    The Mat-Sea-Cal Oral Proficiency Tests are a series of comparable grammatical structure tests. They have been developed in six languages: English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Ilokano and Tagalog. Their purpose is to identify linguistic skills and deficiencies of primary school children grades K through 4. This research reported on the…

  10. Is the microagglutination test (MAT) good for predicting the infecting serogroup for leptospirosis in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Galloway, Renee Lynn; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira spp. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of serology by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to predict the serogroups compared with results of identification of leptospires in São Paulo, Brazil. MAT correctly assigned the serogroup of the infecting isolate in 49/52 cases (94.23%). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the predominant serogroup (88.46%). This study showed the usefulness of the MAT to correctly identify the infecting serogroup with a good overall agreement between the serologically-identified infecting serogroup and by identification of the isolate and can be used in epidemiological surveys in São Paulo. However, it should be complemented by the identification of Leptospira isolates. PMID:26851592

  11. Multiarray on a test strip (MATS): rapid multiplex immunodetection of priority potato pathogens.

    PubMed

    Safenkova, Irina V; Pankratova, Galina K; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Vengerov, Yuri Y; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-09-01

    Multiarray on a test strip (MATS) was developed for the detection of eight important potato pathogens. The proposed assay combines the rapidity of immunochromatography with the high throughput of array techniques. The test zone of the immunochromatographic strip comprises ordered rows of spots containing antibodies specific for different potato pathogens. The assay benefits from the simplicity of immunochromatography; colored immune complexes form at the corresponding spots within the test zone. The presence and intensity of the coloration are used for identification of the target pathogens. The MATS was applied to the simultaneous detection of eight priority potato pathogens, characterized by the following limits of detection: 1 ng/mL for potato virus X and the ordinary type of potato virus Y, 10 ng/mL for potato virus M, 20 ng/mL for potato leaf roll virus, 40 ng/mL for necrotic-type potato virus Y, 100 ng/mL for potato virus S, 300 ng/mL for potato virus A, and 10(4) cells/mL for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Analysis time was 15 min. The observed sensitivity of the MATS was comparable to the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The developed technique was tested on potato leaf extracts, and its efficiency for on-site control of the pathogens was confirmed in 100 % by commercial LFIA test strips. Graphical abstract Location of binding zones in the developed multiarray on a test strip (MATS) for simultaneous detection of eight pathogens. PMID:27007732

  12. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  13. Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristiane Caldeira; Presgrave, Octavio Augusto França; Hartung, Thomas; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogen tests are safety assays performed during the routine quality control of injectable products required by regulatory agencies. Currently, there are three available testing possibilities: 1) the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT); 2) the Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET); and 3) test systems using human whole-blood or monocytes, termed Monocyte Activation Test (MAT). Although BET is often considered as a replacement for the animal test, it is unable to detect pyrogens other than endotoxin. MAT is based on the human fever reaction and thus, most closely reflects the human response. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel comparison of the RPT and MAT for hyperimmune sera (HS) batches analyzed during the routine of a quality control laboratory. MAT was performed in the same 43 batches of HS previously tested using RPT. The results showed that MAT presented 100% sensitivity and approximately 85% specificity as compared to RPT, i.e., no false-negative results were obtained. Few suspicious samples, which were negative in the RPT after retesting, provided divergent positive results suggesting a lower limit of detection of MAT. MAT is thus able to detect contaminants in biological products such as HS batches. PMID:26688320

  14. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  15. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  16. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  17. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  18. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    Reports study which compared the value of Piagetian tasks--seriation, conservation and multiple classification--to that of traditional intelligence tests--Cattell and PMA 5 to 7 subtests--as predictors of number language, simple computation, and verbal arithmetic achievement in 312 children from kindergarten to grade 4. Fifty references are…

  19. Testing the utility of matK and ITS DNA regions for discrimination of Allium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Allium L. has been mainly based on the nucleotide sequences of ITS region. In 2009 matK and rbcL were accepted as a two-locus DNA barcode to classify plant species by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group. MatK region has been ...

  20. Efficacy of serum samples stored on filter paper for the detection of antibody to Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT).

    PubMed

    Blanco, R M; Romero, E C

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microagglutination test (MAT) results in serum samples dried on filter paper and stored at different temperatures during 1day, 7days, 30days and 1year to determine the stability of sera antibody against leptospires. Serum samples collected onto filter paper for the detection of leptospires antibody was compared with MAT in a study of 300 serum samples from patients with suspected leptospirosis. Among 300 fresh serum samples analyzed by MAT 156 (52%) were positive and 144 (48%) negative. All the negative fresh serum samples were negative when dried on filter paper (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of MAT performed on dried serum samples was 100%. Storage on filter paper at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 and 7days did not affect the MAT titers. For up to 7days, 98.72% of dried serum samples had titers identical to those of the corresponding serum samples, and 1.18% of dried serum samples showed 1 dilution of difference. After a storage period of one month a prozone phenomenon was observed. After a storage period of one year all serum samples were negative. Serum samples collected onto filter paper are a convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:22960422

  1. Fast releasing oral electrospun PVP/CD nanofiber mats of taste-masked meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-06-20

    Fast release and taste masking of meloxicam (MX)-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/cyclodextrin (CD) nanofiber mats were developed using an electrospinning process. CDs were blended to improve the stability of the mats. The morphology and diameter of the mats were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); physical and mechanical properties were also studied. The MX content, disintegration time, MX release and cytotoxicity of the mats were investigated. In vivo studies were also performed in healthy human volunteers. The results indicated that the mats were successfully prepared with fiber in the nanometer range. MX was well incorporated into the mats, with an amorphous form. The mats showed suitable tensile strength. CDs improved the physical stability by their cage-like supramolecular structure to protect from humidity and moisture, and create bead free nanofiber mats. The nanofiber mats with CDs were physically stable without any hygroscopicity and fusion. A fast disintegration and release of MX was achieved. Moreover, this mat released MX faster than the MX powder and commercial tablets. The cytotoxicity test revealed that mats were safe for a 5-min incubation. The disintegration studies indicated that in vivo disintegration agreed with the in vitro studies; the mat rapidly disintegrated in the mouth. The less bitter of MX was occurred in the mats that incorporated CD, menthol and aspartame. In addition, this mat was physical stable for 6 months. The results suggest that these mats may be a good candidate for fast dissolving drug delivery systems of bitter drugs to increase the palatability of dosage forms.

  2. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  3. Toward Educational Testing Reform: Inside Reading Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.

  4. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  5. Testing the Reliability and Sensitivity of Foraminiferal Transfer Functions Based on the Modern Analog Technique (MAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, D.; Cullen, J. L.; Martin, A.

    2004-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of past sea-surface temperatures (SST's) based on surface sediment calibration data sets of planktic foraminifers and modern SST's have been widely used in the interpretation and modeling of past climates. One widely used approach, The Modern Analog Techniques (MAT) relies on comparing a downcore sample to the Brown University modern Global Data Base of 1265 seabed samples and choosing either the10 or 5 most similar modern samples using the squared-chord distance similarity metric. The SST's above the best modern analogs are then averaged to produce the downcore SST estimate. We have chosen a set of 8 modern sea-bed samples from the Global Data Base with a wide range of foraminiferal compositions; 3 from the Pacific, 3 from the Atlantic, and 2 from the Indian Ocean and have generated duplicate foraminiferal census counts from sets of 5-6 random splits from each of our 8 samples so that we can: 1. compare the degree of similarity between duplicate samples so that we can evaluate the differences in dissimilarity values that can be attributed to counting error and begin to better understand the sensitivity of the chosen dissimilarity measures to ecologically produced differences in foraminiferal composition, 2. evaluate differences in how the duplicate samples choose analogs from the Global Data Base, and 3. test the sensitivity of the MAT's ability to accurately and precisely predict SST's using analogs from the Global Data Base for each set of duplicate samples. Comparison of the dissimilarity coefficients within each set of duplicate samples produces maximum dissimilarity values that range from 0.03 to 0.14. Both mean and maximum dissimilarities are greatest in sample sets from the low latitudes. The 5 best analogs chosen from the Global Data Base for samples within each set of duplicates generate average dissimilarities that range from 0.01 to 0.04. However, between a total of 8 and 12 different modern analogs were needed to find the 5 best

  6. The Predictive Validity of the Stanford Early School Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A sample of first grade children were pretested with the Stanford Early School Achievement Test and posttested with the Stanford Achievement Test. Results demonstrated moderate validity of theformer for predicting first grade achievement. Prediction was better in verbal achievement than in mathematics achievement. (Author/JKS)

  7. Standardized Testing: Measurement of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Keshia

    2011-01-01

    Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…

  8. Directory of Achievement Tests for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L., Jr.; Shimberg, Benjamin

    This directory was compiled to assist vocational teachers and researchers in locating tests in various occupational fields. Test data was gathered from publishers, directors of vocational programs, union officials, and members of the American Vocational Association. Selection of the instruments depended on their availability and standardization,…

  9. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung

    1993-10-01

    According to the EPA-recommended closure cap design a waste site can either be covered with a single layer cap made of 36 inches of compacted soil (clay) or with a multilayer cap consisting of an upper vegetative layer underlain by a drainage layer over a low permeability layer. The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four-foot loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected. Currently, detailed soil test data and cavity configuration data are not available to validate the mathematical model. Since the configuration of the cavities created in the testing process is irregular and unpredictable, two extreme configurations are considered in this mathematical model, viz., the circular cavity and the infinitely long trench in the sand underneath the cap. This approach will provide bounds for the testing results.

  10. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  11. Fast releasing oral electrospun PVP/CD nanofiber mats of taste-masked meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-06-20

    Fast release and taste masking of meloxicam (MX)-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/cyclodextrin (CD) nanofiber mats were developed using an electrospinning process. CDs were blended to improve the stability of the mats. The morphology and diameter of the mats were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); physical and mechanical properties were also studied. The MX content, disintegration time, MX release and cytotoxicity of the mats were investigated. In vivo studies were also performed in healthy human volunteers. The results indicated that the mats were successfully prepared with fiber in the nanometer range. MX was well incorporated into the mats, with an amorphous form. The mats showed suitable tensile strength. CDs improved the physical stability by their cage-like supramolecular structure to protect from humidity and moisture, and create bead free nanofiber mats. The nanofiber mats with CDs were physically stable without any hygroscopicity and fusion. A fast disintegration and release of MX was achieved. Moreover, this mat released MX faster than the MX powder and commercial tablets. The cytotoxicity test revealed that mats were safe for a 5-min incubation. The disintegration studies indicated that in vivo disintegration agreed with the in vitro studies; the mat rapidly disintegrated in the mouth. The less bitter of MX was occurred in the mats that incorporated CD, menthol and aspartame. In addition, this mat was physical stable for 6 months. The results suggest that these mats may be a good candidate for fast dissolving drug delivery systems of bitter drugs to increase the palatability of dosage forms. PMID:25899284

  12. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  13. Provincial Report: Achievement Tests, September 1986. Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

    This document reports the provincial results of the June 1986 student achievement tests in Alberta in grade 3 mathematics, grade 6 science, and grade 9 English language arts. The achievement tests are specific to the program of studies prescribed by the Minister of Education. The document starts with general information about the testing program…

  14. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  15. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  16. Learned Helplessness, Test Anxiety, and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness of 82 children in third grade and later in fifth grade. Results indicate that teacher reports of helplessness had the strongest and most consistent relation to concurrent achievement and to achievement test scores two years later. (RJC)

  17. Grade 6 Social Studies Achievement Test. Part A: Multiple Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This test booklet contains 50 multiple choice items testing sixth grade social studies achievement. The test was administered by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in June 1985. The items concern early civilizations, Southeast Asia, and regulation by the government. Fifty minutes are allowed to complete this test. (GDC)

  18. An Analysis of Foreign Language Achievement Test Drafts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrette, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete information to improve test writing, this study analyzes 13 achievement test drafts written by graduate teaching assistants, lecturers, and adjunct faculty teaching introductory and intermediate college Spanish. The analysis focuses on factors of test method and content likely to create variance in test performance…

  19. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  20. Testing Accommodations for ELL Students on an Achievement Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Lori Lee

    2013-01-01

    How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to…

  1. Content Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests and Test Curriculum Overlap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    Discussions of "test curriculum overlap" that focus on the term "mismatch" tend to be based on several untenable premises. This paper addresses the issue of the degree to which standardized tests should reflect the specific content of a given school curriculum with regard to three points: (1) The idea of matching the content of standardized tests…

  2. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  3. Achievement Batteries, Grade 7 and Above. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The 93 test batteries described in this bibliography have a number of subjects that measure achievement in areas such as language skills, mathematics, social studies, science, and/or study skills. Several of the tests are in Spanish for students whose primary language is Spanish. Some of the tests may be used for preparatory work for the GEDs. A…

  4. K-12 Standardized Achievement and Aptitude Testing: The End Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, John B.

    Public policy and measurement community issues related to the use of standardized achievement tests for students in kindergarten through grade 12 are discussed, focusing on students and parents as the end-users of test data. The viewpoints expressed are based on 18 years of experience with test score interpretation. It is suggested that technical…

  5. Leptospirosis in Kuala Lumpur and the comparative evaluation of two rapid commercial diagnostic kits against the MAT test for the detection of antibodies to leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, W Y; Soo, E H; Gopalakrishnan, V; Devi, S

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to look into the epidemiology of serodiagnosed cases of leptospirosis at the University Hospital and compare two commercial ELISA Assays to the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Demographic data for all serodiagnosed cases for the years 1991-1997 were collected. From this data, 104 sera (n = 104) were selected as samples for comparative evaluation of the commercial ELISAs (INDX Dip-S-Ticks and PanBio ELISA) to the MAT test. Thirty two (n = 32) negative control sera were selected from serodiagnosed cases of other differential diagnosis of leptospira infection. The MAT test is a standard test that detects agglutination antibodies to leptospira biflexa, while the INDX Dip-S-Ticks is an ELISA dot test assaying for total anti-leptospira antibodies. The PanBio ELISA is a colorometric assay in test well strips to detect anti-leptospira IgM. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of tests were calculated at a MAT cut-off value of 1:320. Demographic data showed that leptospirosis peaks during March-May and Aug-Nov coinciding with the inter-monsoon period with more men being infected than women and more adults than children. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of test for the INDX Dip-S-Ticks were 83.3%, 93.8% and 87.5% while the values for the PanBio ELISA were 54.2%, 96.9% and 71.3%. The suboptimal PanBio result could be related to the blocking effect of high IgG titres or could be related to the diagnostic MAT cut-off values used in this study. The data hence reflects a pattern of transmission that is related to "wet" occupational risk factors. The commercial assays evaluated, are easier to perform but interpretation of results should be based on level of endemicity. The INDX Dip-S-Ticks allows this flexibility and is a practical alternative to the MAT test.

  6. Leptospirosis in Kuala Lumpur and the comparative evaluation of two rapid commercial diagnostic kits against the MAT test for the detection of antibodies to leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, W Y; Soo, E H; Gopalakrishnan, V; Devi, S

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to look into the epidemiology of serodiagnosed cases of leptospirosis at the University Hospital and compare two commercial ELISA Assays to the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Demographic data for all serodiagnosed cases for the years 1991-1997 were collected. From this data, 104 sera (n = 104) were selected as samples for comparative evaluation of the commercial ELISAs (INDX Dip-S-Ticks and PanBio ELISA) to the MAT test. Thirty two (n = 32) negative control sera were selected from serodiagnosed cases of other differential diagnosis of leptospira infection. The MAT test is a standard test that detects agglutination antibodies to leptospira biflexa, while the INDX Dip-S-Ticks is an ELISA dot test assaying for total anti-leptospira antibodies. The PanBio ELISA is a colorometric assay in test well strips to detect anti-leptospira IgM. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of tests were calculated at a MAT cut-off value of 1:320. Demographic data showed that leptospirosis peaks during March-May and Aug-Nov coinciding with the inter-monsoon period with more men being infected than women and more adults than children. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of test for the INDX Dip-S-Ticks were 83.3%, 93.8% and 87.5% while the values for the PanBio ELISA were 54.2%, 96.9% and 71.3%. The suboptimal PanBio result could be related to the blocking effect of high IgG titres or could be related to the diagnostic MAT cut-off values used in this study. The data hence reflects a pattern of transmission that is related to "wet" occupational risk factors. The commercial assays evaluated, are easier to perform but interpretation of results should be based on level of endemicity. The INDX Dip-S-Ticks allows this flexibility and is a practical alternative to the MAT test. PMID:11256343

  7. The Application of Item Analysis to Classroom Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Rosemarie K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for teachers writing machine-scored examinations. Explains the use of item analysis (discrimination index) to single test items that should be improved or eliminated. Discusses validity and reliability of classroom achievement tests in contrast to norm-referenced examinations. (JHZ)

  8. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  9. Problems and Issues in Translating International Educational Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews research and findings on problems and issues faced when translating international academic achievement tests. The purpose is to draw attention to the problems, to help to develop the procedures followed when translating the tests, and to provide suggestions for further research. The problems concentrate on the following: the…

  10. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  11. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve

  12. Teachers and Tests: Assessing Pupils' Reading Achievement in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…

  13. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  14. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  15. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  16. MSU-Test: A Tool for Measuring Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Morakot, Nongnit; Khamkong, Surasak

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to employ MSU-test as a tool to measure Mahasarakham student in secondary and high school levels to achieve their learning potential. The importance of this study will help university understanding school potential and provide information to increase students' score. Two thousand and seven hundred eight nine students participated in…

  17. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  18. Effects of mat characteristics on plantar pressure patterns and perceived mat properties during landing in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Perez-Turpin, Jose Antonio; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; van den Tillaar, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Shock absorption and stability during landings is provided by both, gymnast ability and mat properties. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of different mat constructions on their energy absorption and stability capabilities, and to analyse how these properties affect gymnast's plantar pressures as well as subjective mat perception during landing. Six mats were tested using a standard mechanical drop test. In addition, plantar pressures and subjective perception during landing were obtained from 15 expert gymnasts. The different mats influenced plantar pressures and gymnasts' subjective perception during landing of gymnasts. Significant correlations between plantar pressures at the medial metatarsal and lateral metatarsal zones of the gymnasts' feet with the different shock absorption characteristics of the mats were found. However, subjective perception tests were not able to discriminate mat functionality between the six mats as no significant correlations between the mechanical mat properties with the subjective perception of these properties were found. This study demonstrated that plantar pressures are a useful tool for discriminating different landing mats. Using similar approaches, ideally including kinematics as well, could help us in our understanding about the influences of different mats upon gymnast-mat interaction. PMID:21309299

  19. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  20. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  1. Mat2exo

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    MAT2EXO is a program which translates mesh data from Matlab mat-file format to Exodus II format. This tool is the inverse of the commonly used tool exo2mat which translates Exodus II data to the Matlab mat-file format. These tools provide a means for preprocessing an Exodus II model file or postprocessing an Exodus II results file using Matlab

  2. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  3. A Look at Student Achievement from the School Dimension: Demythologizing Standardized Tests. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Dee

    Issues emerging from a look at student achievement, which is defined in its usual school context as achievement on standardized tests, are addressed. A mythology about standardized testing has developed, in part because the metaphoric languages of medicine and business have been applied to education, defining it in terms of cure, efficiency, and…

  4. Modeling Student Test-Taking Motivation in the Context of an Adaptive Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…

  5. Boredom and Academic Achievement: Testing a Model of Reciprocal Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Perry, Raymond P.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model linking boredom and academic achievement is proposed. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, the model posits that boredom and achievement reciprocally influence each other over time. Data from a longitudinal study with college students (N = 424) were used to examine the hypothesized effects. The…

  6. Table of SAT and Achievement Test Scores for Samples of Candidates Taking Achievement Tests 1966-67 to 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, June

    This table provides the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Achievement Test means and standard deviations for samples of candidates taking each of the 15 achievement tests offered in the Admissions Testing Program battery during the period 1966-67 to 1975-76. The samples, drawn annually through 1971-72 and biennially thereafter, provide…

  7. Achievement Testing for English Language Learners, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Sau-Lim; Katz, Anne; Stack, Jim

    2008-01-01

    School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out…

  8. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  9. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  10. In-situ Curing Strain Monitoring of a Flat Plate Residual Stress Specimen Using a Chopped Stand Mat Glass/Epoxy Composite as Test Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Skordos, A.; James, S.; Correia, R. G.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The curing stresses in a newly proposed bi-axial residual stress testing configuration are studied using a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy specimen. In-situ monitoring of the curing is conducted using dielectric and fibre Bragg grating sensors. It is confirmed that a bi-axial residual stress state can be introduced in the specimens during curing and a quantification of its magnitude is presented. An alternative decomposition method used for converting the dielectric signal into a material state variable is proposed and good agreement with models found in the literature is obtained. From the cure cycles chosen it is suggested that any stress build up in the un-vitrified state is relaxed immediately and only stress build up in the vitrified state contributes to the residual stress state in the specimen.

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  12. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  13. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  14. Size, Expenditures, MAT6 Scores, and Dropout Rates: A Correlational Study of Arkansas School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; And Others

    This study investigated school district size, the consolidation of small school districts to make larger ones, and the linear relationships of school district size to expense per average daily attendance (ADA), basic and composite scores on the MAT6 standard achievement test, and secondary school dropout rate. Correlational analysis revealed that…

  15. A Test of a Model of Achievement Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.

    1991-01-01

    The work of J. Eccles and others (1983) in proposing an integrative theoretical model of achievement behaviors was extended using data from the Second International Mathematics Study. Strong support was found for the constructs identified by the model as determinants of the intention to take more mathematics courses. (SLD)

  16. Challenging Masculinities: Disability and Achievement in Testing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Shereen

    2001-01-01

    Describes a feminist project on masculinities involving boys in a special education school. These labeled, segregated boys were invested in achieving successful positioning within a culture of hegemonic masculinity. Institutional and media preoccupations with quantifiable academic attainments had reinscribed them within a world of hetero/sexist…

  17. Impact of Looping on Middle School Science Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Looping may be defined as a teacher remaining with a group of students for multiple academic years. In this quantitative study, looping was examined as a factor on science achievement. State-wide eighth grade school level 2010 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data were used. By responding to a mailing, school administrators…

  18. Food Service Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; personal…

  19. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  20. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service supervisor component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; nutrient…

  1. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  2. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  3. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    JANTZ, PAUL B.; FROEHLICH, ALYSON L.; CARIELLO, ANNAHIR N.; ANDERSON, JEFFREY; ALEXANDER, ANDREW L.; BIGLER, ERIN D.; PRIGGE, MOLLY B. D.; TRAVERS, BRITTANY G.; ZIELINSKI, BRANDON A.; LANGE, NICHOLAS; LAINHART, JANET E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT–3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N=31) were males ages 6–22years (M=15.2, SD=4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N=185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M=31.8mo., SD=4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT–3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  4. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  5. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  6. Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…

  7. The AMEG Commission Report on Sex Bias in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Esther E.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate a growing consciousness of the sex-bias issue on the part of most test publishers. Recommends that guidelines for editorial bias be issued for use by item writers, editors, and consultants. Where sex differences are found, separate normative information should be given. (Author)

  8. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  9. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  10. The effects of mats on back and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Stuart-Buttle, C; Marras, W S

    1994-02-01

    Prolonged standing is common in many industrial workplaces. It is also quite common for workers to complain of discomfort in the back and legs as a result of prolonged standing. Mats are often provided for the worker to relieve this fatigue. However, there is no quantitative evidence that these mats relieve leg and back fatigue. Five subjects were asked to stand on a concrete surface and two mat surfaces for prolonged periods of time. Spectral electromyographic analyses indicated that mats reduced localized muscle fatigue in the erector spinae muscle only. Furthermore, this fatigue reduction occurred only with the more compressible of the two mats tested. These results imply that localized muscular fatigue in the leg may not be relieved with 'anti-fatigue' mats, and some of these mats only benefit the back. PMID:15676945

  11. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  12. Helping Students Do Their Best on Standardized Achievement Tests. Bulletin No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Research and Evaluation Branch.

    The Research and Evaluation Branch of the Los Angeles Unified School District presents a bulletin to help prepare students to do their best on achievement tests. The bulletin is divided into five sections. After an introduction, section 2, "Characteristics of Today's Standardized Achievement Tests" discusses test content, test format, answer…

  13. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  14. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  15. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep through Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Mainar-Jaime, R C; Barberán, M

    2007-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracies of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and indirect ELISA test for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep were evaluated through Bayesian approaches on two populations of sheep created from three different groups of animals (T. gondii-aborted ewes, colostrums-deprived newborn lambs, and ewe-lambs and adult ewes with unknown T. gondii infection status). Tests showed a high degree of agreement (kappa statistic = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 0.98) and a significant specificity (Sp) correlation (gamma(Sp) = 0.26; 95% credibility interval = 0.017, 0.61). When prior information was used for all unknown parameters the posterior medians for the sensitivity (Se) and Sp of the MAT and ELISA were, respectively, 92.6% (95% credibility interval = 85.2, 96.9), 95.5% (89.9, 98.7), 90.5% (83.4, 95.6), and 97.8% (94.2, 99.5). These estimates remained similar when uninformative priors were included. The Se estimates of the MAT and ELISA were higher than those obtained on pigs in other study using the same approach (Se = 80.6% and Sp = 89.5% for the MAT, and Se = 71.5% and Sp = 85.5% for the ELISA [Georgiadis, M.P., Wesley, O.J., Gardner, I.A., Singh, R., 2003. Correlation-adjusted estimation of sensitivity and specificity of two diagnostic tests. Appl. Stat. 52, 63-78]. This finding supported the believe that test performances may vary when applied on different animal species. Thus, if these tests are planned to be used on animal species other than sheep or pigs, their diagnostic accuracy should be re-assessed to prevent biased inferences from their results.

  17. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  18. Using Achievement Tests/SAT® II: Subject Tests to Demonstrate Achievement and Predict College Grades: Sex, Language, Ethnic, and Parental Education Groups. Research Report No. 2001-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramist, Leonard; Lewis, Charles; McCamley-Jenkins, Laura

    2001-01-01

    There has been increased interest in emphasizing Achievement Tests, as SAT II: Subject Tests, for use in admission and placement. In this report, data was obtained from a comprehensive database of categorized course grades for a large number and great variety of colleges, with student groups identified. For each student group, the percentage of…

  19. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  20. The Effect of the 4MAT Learning Model on the Achievement and Motivation of 7th Grade Students on the Subject of Particulate Nature of Matter and an Examination of Student Opinions on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktas, Idris; Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the "Particulate Nature of Matter" unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:…

  1. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth's environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microliters produce hydrogen, small organic acids, nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  2. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  3. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  4. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  5. The National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills. March 1-3, 1978. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Extracts from the papers and position statements presented at the National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills are provided in an attempt to capture both the diversity and the consensus among the participants. Six sessions are summarized: (1) achievement tests and basic skills: the issues and the setting--by Harold Howe II; (2)…

  6. Grade 9 English Language Arts, Student Achievement Testing Program, 1985-86 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…

  7. Health Instruction Packages: Test-Taking Strategies for the N. L. N. (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Leslie Miller

    As an informational aid for students who are planning to take NLN (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests, the text and accompanying exercises in this module describe NLN testing procedures and fundamental test-taking skills. After introductory material discussing the importance of mastering test-taking skills, the module describes how to…

  8. Atlanta Public Schools' 1980 Achievement Testing Program: A Year of Test Adoption. Report No. 16-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA. Div. of Research, Evaluation, and Data Processing.

    This document reports on the procedures and results of the Atlanta Public Schools (APS) testing program in changing from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), administered to grades 1 through 7 from 1973-79, to the California Achievement Tests (CAT), Form C, administered in Spring 1980 to provide a continuous testing program from the elementary…

  9. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  10. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  11. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2011-01-01

    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  12. Validity Considerations in the Assessment of LEP Students Using Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    Validity and reliability issues in standardized testing of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) were studied. Existing data from four different school sites were obtained for LEP and non-LEP students for three different standardized tests, the Stanford Achievement Tests (Ninth edition), the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, and the Language…

  13. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., Mather, N., & McGrew, K. S. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH; Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014a) is an individually administered measure containing tests of reading, mathematics, written language, and academic knowledge. Areas of reading, mathematics, and written language each include tests of basic skills, fluency, and application. Academic…

  14. Swi6, a Gene Required for Mating-Type Switching, Prohibits Meiotic Recombination in the Mat2-Mat3 ``cold Spot'' of Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Klar, AJS.; Bonaduce, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Mitotic interconversion of the mating-type locus (mat1) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a double-strand break at mat1. The mat2 and mat3 loci act as nonrandom donors of genetic information for mat1 switching such that switches occur primarily (or only) to the opposite mat1 allele. Location of the mat1 ``hot spot'' for transposition should be contrasted with the ``cold spot'' of meiotic recombination located within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval. That is, meiotic interchromosomal recombination in mat2, mat3 and the intervening 15-kilobase region does not occur at all. swi2 and swi6 switching-deficient mutants possess the normal level of double-strand break at mat1, yet they fail to switch efficiently. By testing for meiotic recombination in the cold spot, we found the usual lack of recombination in a swi2 mutant but a significant level of recombination in a swi6 mutant. Therefore, the swi6 gene function is required to keep the donor loci inert for interchromosomal recombination. This finding, combined with the additional result that switching primarily occurs intrachromosomally, suggests that the donor loci are made accessible for switching by folding them onto mat1, thus causing the cold spot of recombination. PMID:1783290

  15. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  16. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  17. Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test. Center Technical Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard Arthur

    The Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test assesses an automobile mechanic's ability to determine mechanical faults from auditory cues alone. The 44-item test and its instructions are recorded on magnetic tape; answer choices are presented on tape, and are also written in the printed test booklets. The norming and validity…

  18. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively.

  19. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. PMID:27699177

  20. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test and Bender-Gestalt: Relationship with Achievement Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Wallbrown, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Bender Gestalt (BD) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) in predicting academic achievement for younger children (N=69). Results suggested that the MPD is more sensitive than the Bender in identifying visual-motor perception areas of achievement performance problems. (LLL)

  1. The Role of Achievement Goals in Online Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of achievement goals in online test anxiety and help-seeking while controlling for self-efficacy and potential demographic differences. A total of 150 online students participated in the survey. Separate hierarchical regression analysis results suggested the differential roles of achievement goals…

  2. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  3. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  4. Classroom attributes and achievement test scores for deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Holt, J

    1994-10-01

    This study examined reading comprehension and mathematics computation achievement of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in a variety of school settings. Data were collected by Gallaudet University's Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies during its 1990 standardization of the 8th Edition Stanford Achievement Test. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the relationships among achievement scores, classroom attributes, and demographic factors associated with achievement. Based on the results of this study, inclusion with hearing students in regular classrooms is related to a variety of demographic factors. When reading comprehension and mathematics computation scores are adjusted for these factors, they are higher for the deaf and hard-of-hearing students in regular classrooms. However, it is not known whether the higher achievement is due to inclusion or whether students were selected for inclusion due to their higher achievement levels.

  5. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  6. Some Considerations When Using A Domain-Referenced System of Achievement Tests in Instructional Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitko, Anthony J.

    The problem of using a domain-referenced system of achievement tests is discussed as it relates to the design of instruction. Testing problems are discussed from the point of view that the teacher, pupil, and/or automation needs certain kinds of information in order to make instructional decisions that are adaptive to the individual learner. The…

  7. Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the Roller Coaster"…

  8. Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Social Support as Predictors of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak

    2008-01-01

    This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…

  9. A Theoretical and Empirical Comparison of Three Approaches to Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Tom; Roid, Gale

    Three approaches to the construction of achievement tests are compared: construct, operational, and empirical. The construct approach is based upon classical test theory and measures an abstract representation of the instructional objectives. The operational approach specifies instructional intent through instructional objectives, facet design,…

  10. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  11. Developing Item Bank Based Achievement Tests and Curriculum-Based Measures: Lessons Learned Enroute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengel, Bill E.; Schorr, Larry L.

    The experience of the Colorado Springs (Colorado) Public Schools (CSPS) in using different assessment forms for different purposes is detailed. A small niche is reserved for national norm-referenced testing to fill the state achievement testing mandate and for Chapter 1 accountability. A second, and larger, part of the assessment program will be…

  12. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  13. Relationships Between the Gesell School Readiness Test and Standardized Achievement and Intelligence Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between the Gesell School Readiness Test and standarized achievement and intelligence measures were examined. Children were tested before kindergarten, at the end of kindergarten, and at the end of first grade. Correlation coefficients varied from grade to grade, but did not show a higher correlation between related measures.…

  14. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  15. Student science achievement and the integration of indigenous knowledge in the classroom and on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Juliann

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous students' achievement in standardized assessments (Aikenhead, 1997, 2001b; Barnhardt, 2005b). This dissertation examines the achievement gap that is present between American Indian and White students in Montana. I use data from Montana eighth-grade standardized state science tests to determine whether incorporating indigenous material into classrooms and on state standardized science tests supported these initiatives and whether expected outcomes, such as a decrease in the achievement gap and in increase in Native student test scores, are being generated. Using a quantitative methodology, this study focuses on how American Indian students in Montana perform on standardized state science assessments when knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All," has been included on the tests. Montana is the first state in the United States to use a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to create standardized test items based on this curriculum. This study compares White and American Indian students' test scores on these particular test items and overall test scores to determine the effectiveness of the culturally relevant educational initiatives implemented by Montana's Office of Public Instruction in terms of student achievement on state standardized tests. Results of this study uncover the persistence of an achievement gap, with Native students still underperforming when compared to their majority counterparts. American Indian students continue to score at the "nearing proficiency" level, which is one level lower than White students are scoring, at the proficient level. When scores are investigated for items written

  16. Component Prioritization Schema for Achieving Maximum Time and Cost Benefits from Software Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Praveen Ranjan; Pareek, Deepak

    Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Defining the end of software testing represents crucial features of any software development project. A premature release will involve risks like undetected bugs, cost of fixing faults later, and discontented customers. Any software organization would want to achieve maximum possible benefits from software testing with minimum resources. Testing time and cost need to be optimized for achieving a competitive edge in the market. In this paper, we propose a schema, called the Component Prioritization Schema (CPS), to achieve an effective and uniform prioritization of the software components. This schema serves as an extension to the Non Homogenous Poisson Process based Cumulative Priority Model. We also introduce an approach for handling time-intensive versus cost-intensive projects.

  17. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    PubMed

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement.

  18. Elastic-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-strain behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits elastic-plastic stress-strain behavior. The transverse strain behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial strain ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial strain of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial elastic-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse strain behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse strain behavior. Due to the direct connection between

  19. Academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students: the development and test of a causal model.

    PubMed

    Chacko, S B; Huba, M E

    1991-06-01

    This article tested relationships among variables depicted in a causal learning model of academic achievement developed by the authors. The Learning and Study Skills (LASSI), Life Experience Survey (LES), and ASSET test were administered to 134 first-semester nursing students at a 2-year community college. The path analysis supported 11 of the 14 pathways tested. Language ability, reading ability, and self-efficacy were found to be direct effects on academic achievement. When self-efficacy was the criterion, students' language ability, math ability, motivation, and concentration and preparation for class were direct effects. Life stress, motivation, and self-monitoring/use of study strategies were found to be direct effects on students' concentration and preparation for class. In turn, when the ability to self-monitor and use study strategies was the criterion, motivation was the only direct effect. Overall, the model explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement.

  20. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  1. Compositions of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  2. M.A.T. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    A proposal is presented for developing a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program at California State University, Bakersfield. The criteria for a MAT program are examined by outlining existing programs at: (1) Harvard Graduate School; (2) University of California, Berkeley; (3) Portland State University; (4) Stanford University; (5) University of…

  3. Hospital use of decontaminating mats.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M G; Finzi, G; Cugini, P; Manfrini, M; Salvatorelli, G

    2003-09-01

    Decontaminating mats made of several layers of adhesive sheets (water-based acrylic 6 g/m2) supplemented with a bactericidal agent (3-1 benzoisothiazolin) at a concentration of 25% were placed in the passages providing access to the operating rooms of an orthopaedic service. Contact plates containing tryptone soy agar were used to assess bacterial concentration at specific points in front of and beyond the mats. For trolley passageways two areas were defined: central and lateral paths, corresponding to the areas walked upon by the personnel pushing the trolleys and to the paths covered by the trolley wheels, respectively. In order to exclude a simple mechanical effect, a comparison of bacterial loads at defined sites beyond the mats was carried out in the presence and in the absence of decontaminating mats. Bacterial colony counts in the presence of decontaminating mats were substantially and statistically significantly reduced compared with the absence of mats. The lower mean number of colony-forming units detected at points located beyond the mats parallels this finding; this difference is also statistically significant. We thus conclude that decontaminating mats are potentially useful in decreasing micro-organism carry-over due to personnel or the passage of trolleys into areas at high risk of infection such as operating rooms.

  4. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(R) (MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many cou ntries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its re al strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbo x. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using s ymbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language fo rm (command interface) is similar with well known programming languag es such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define c lasses in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most ofthe essential constructs of a higher programming language. M atLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful t o perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We belie ve there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and ana lysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applicati ons. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientifi c problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabu lar format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed. The presentation will emphasize creating

  5. MueMat Multicrid Toolbox

    2010-11-23

    MueMat is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software can generate example linear systems and provides short programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueMat currently includes two types of algebraic multigrid methods and many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to be extensible, and new methods canmore » be incorporated easily. MueMat also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. MueMat has been designed for use within the programming environment of the Mathworks program MATLAB®. All algorithms and methods in MueMat have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.« less

  6. MueMat Multicrid Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-23

    MueMat is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software can generate example linear systems and provides short programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueMat currently includes two types of algebraic multigrid methods and many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to be extensible, and new methods can be incorporated easily. MueMat also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. MueMat has been designed for use within the programming environment of the Mathworks program MATLAB®. All algorithms and methods in MueMat have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.

  7. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  8. The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test: Implications for the Diagnosis and Prediction of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiak, Judi

    1984-01-01

    Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)

  9. Test Anxiety, Mathematics Anxiety, and Teacher Comments: Relationships to Achievement in Remedial Mathematics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, LuEthel Tate

    1990-01-01

    Investigates test anxiety, mathematics anxiety, and teacher feedback among university students enrolled in remedial mathematics classes to explore student motivation within an instructional framework. Results indicate that text anxiety has a significant effect on remedial mathematics students' mathematics achievement, and that informative feedback…

  10. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  11. Testing for All: The Emergence and Development of International Assessment of Student Achievement, 1958-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines a vital catalyst in the globalization of education: international assessments--that involve testing and rankings--of student achievement in academic subjects. Nearly all high-income countries participate in international assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Progress in…

  12. The Use of Achievement Test Results in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle; And Others

    Achievement test results, in combination with other data, are used to help guidance counselors plan students' future educational programs to the extent that such data assist school personnel in grouping students for optimal instructional benefits. Implementation of such plans may require fitting the curriculum to the student. Two types of schemata…

  13. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  14. Achievement-Based Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David; Banko, Katherine M.; Gear, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed how rewards impacted intrinsic motivation when students were rewarded for achievement while learning an activity, for performing at a specific level on a test, or for both. Undergraduate university students engaged in a problem-solving activity. The design was a 2 * 2 factorial with 2 levels of reward in a learning phase…

  15. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  16. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  17. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  18. Educational Assessment: Exploring the Relationship between Computer Adaptive Testing, Data Analysis, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhost, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The research on the potential relationship of the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (NWEA MAP) and the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) was conducted in two phases and focused on middle schools with a grade configuration of 6-8 in the state of Illinois. The first phase of the research examined whether or…

  19. School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Mejias, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior…

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EBBERT, J. MARVIN

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A STANDARDIZED, MULTIPLE-CHOICE ACHIEVEMENT TEST ON THE OPERATION, CARE, AND MAINTENANCE OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. OBJECTIVES AND A UNIT OUTLINE WERE DEVELOPED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 75 INDIANA VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS. A PANEL SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS, AND THE REFINED OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE WERE…

  1. l[subscript z] Person-Fit Index to Identify Misfit Students with Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi; Weiss, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the l[subscript z] person-fit index was investigated with achievement test data from 20 exams given to more than 3,200 college students. Results for three methods of estimating ? showed that the distributions of l[subscript z] were not consistent with its theoretical distribution, resulting in general overfit to the item response…

  2. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  3. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  4. The Correlation among EFL Learners' Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…

  5. Student science achievement and the integration of Indigenous knowledge on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Juliann; Abrams, Eleanor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we examine how American Indian students in Montana performed on standardized state science assessments when a small number of test items based upon traditional science knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All", were included. Montana is the first state in the US to mandate the use of a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to incorporate this curriculum into a portion of the standardized assessment items. This study compares White and American Indian student test scores on these particular test items to determine how White and American Indian students perform on culturally relevant test items compared to traditional standard science test items. The connections between student achievement on adapted culturally relevant science test items versus traditional items brings valuable insights to the fields of science education, research on student assessments, and Indigenous studies.

  6. Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2007-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, the author analyzed 18 response card articles, theses, or dissertations to determine the magnitude of effect that response card strategies have on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and intervals of off-task behavior. The author also determined whether the type of response cards used or the presence or…

  7. Gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats produce synergistic effects on hemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To improve the hemostatic function of chitosan nanofiber mats, we studied the synergetic effects of gelatin blending and porosity control. Gelatin-blended-chitosan (Chi-Gel) nanofiber mats were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, mechanical properties and wettability, and functionally tested in a blood clotting study. The blood clotting efficiency of Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using rabbit whole blood in vitro was superior to that of chitosan nanofibers. Moreover, Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with enlarged porosity, produced by ultra-sonication, showed improved blood clotting efficiency, cell viability and cell infiltration compared with non-sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a richer density of platelets on sonicated nanofiber mats than on non-sonicated nanofiber mats after 3 min of blood clotting. The proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells on sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using the DNA assay was higher than that on non-sonicated chitosan nanofiber mats after 7 days of culture. Confocal z-stack images showed that sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with high porosity supported active cell migration and infiltration into the 3-dimensional nanofiber mats. These results suggest that hydrophilic gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats yields synergistic effects that not only improve hemostatic function but also promote wound repair.

  8. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups. PMID:25636260

  9. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  10. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  11. Effects of Gender, Math Ability, Trait Test Anxiety, Statistics Course Anxiety, Statistics Achievement, and Perceived Test Difficulty on State Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook

    A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…

  12. Test of the definition of learning disability based on the difference between IQ and achievement.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2005-08-01

    A learning disability is commonly defined as a discrepancy between IQ and achievement. This has been criticized for identifying too many children as having a learning disability who have high IQs and average academic achievement. Such overidentification as actually occurred was assessed in 473 referred children (8-16 years, M= 10, SD=2) with normal intelligence. Learning disability was defined as a significant discrepancy (p<.05) between predicted and obtained achievement in reading, mathematics, or written expression on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. Predicted achievement was based on the child's WISC-III Full Scale IQ. Overidentification was considered to occur when a child scored at or above age level in reading, mathematics, and writing but still had a significant discrepancy between predicted and obtained achievement by virtue of a high IQ. Learning disability was diagnosed in 312 (66%) of the children. There was no overidentification because all children had one or more WIAT scores below the normative level for their age, i.e., < 100. Further, only 7% of the children were identified with a learning disability based on a WIAT score in the 90s. These children had a mean IQ of 123 and were rated by their teachers and parents as having learning problems.

  13. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers' knowledge level of earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloǧlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-04-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students' knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers' knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  14. A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles

    To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

  15. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing.

  16. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  17. Manganese Influences Carbonate Precipitation in a Laminated Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusor, M.; Grim, S. L.; Wilmeth, D.; Johnson, H.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating mineralization within modern microbial mats informs our interpretation of ancient microbialites and the mineralization process. Microbial mats in Little Hot Creek (LHC), California contain 4 distinct layers with different microbiota. Each layer of the mat is supersaturated with regard to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which increases with depth. Total organic carbon decreases with depth through the mat. We used 13C-labeled bicarbonate incubations of each mat layer to calculate growth rates of organic carbon and CaCO3 within the mat. Incubations were also amended with Mn or Mg to test their effect on rates of CaCO3 and organic carbon formation. The Mn-amended top layer increased CaCO3 precipitation and organic carbon growth. Mn increased organic carbon production in the lowest layer to a lesser extent, but not growth of CaCO3. Mn addition had no effect on growth rates in the two intervening layers. Mg amendment stimulated only organic carbon formation in the top layer, with little to no effect on the lower layers or overall CaCO3 formation. We attribute the elevated CaCO3 precipitation noted after Mn addition to increased oxygenic photosynthetic activity. Oxygenic photosynthesis requires Mn as an enzyme cofactor and promotes carbonate precipitation. We propose that the phototrophic community was responsible for most of the CaCO3 precipitation in the upper layer. Phototrophs gradually moved upwards for optimal access to sunlight, and as the mat grew, "tenant" microorganisms inhabited the lower carbonate layers while the "builders" remained on top. The relatively constant percentages of inorganic carbon below the top layer combined with observed minimal CaCO3 precipitation under laboratory conditions suggest that additional research into potential metabolisms that impact carbonate formation would be informative. These results improve our understanding of the linkages between microbial metabolisms, carbonate precipitation in microbial mats, and the potential

  18. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  19. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  20. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl). The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels), ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were approximately 1. Thus, when the

  1. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous conduits manufacture. PMID:22567047

  2. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised and Bender-Gestalt in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1993-01-01

    Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…

  3. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  4. Capillography of Mats of Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sansom, Elijah; Zhou, Jijie; Gharib, Mory

    2008-01-01

    Capillography (from the Latin capillus, 'hair', and the Greek graphein, to write ) is a recently conceived technique for forming mats of nanofibers into useful patterns. The concept was inspired by experiments on carpetlike mats of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Capillography may have the potential to be a less-expensive, less-time-consuming alternative to electron-beam lithography as a means of nanoscale patterning for the fabrication of small devices and instruments. In capillography, one exploits the lateral capillary forces exerted on small objects that pierce the surface of a liquid. If the small objects are identical, then the forces are always attractive. Two examples of the effects of such forces are the agglomeration of small particles floating on the surface of a pond and the drawing together of hairs of a wet paintbrush upon removal of the brush from water. Because nanoscale objects brought into contact remain stuck together indefinitely due to Van der Waals forces, patterns formed by capillography remain even upon removal of the liquid. For the experiments on the mats of carbon nanotubes, a surfactant solution capable of wetting carbon nanotubes (which are ultra-hydrophobic) was prepared. The mats were wetted with the solution, then dried. Once the mats were dry, it was found that the nanotubes had become ordered into various patterns, including nestlike indentations, trenches, and various combinations thereof. It may be possible to exploit such ordering effects through controlled wetting and drying of designated portions of mats of carbon nanotubes (and, perhaps, mats of nanofibers of other materials) to obtain patterns similar to those heretofore formed by use of electron-beam lithography. For making patterns that include nestlike indentations, it has been conjectured that it could be possible to control the nesting processes by use of electrostatic fields. Further research is needed to understand the physics of the patterning processes in order to

  5. Maladaptive achievement patterns: a test of a diathesis-stress analysis of helplessness.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, A K

    1998-06-01

    The present study tested the assumptions, derived from a diathesis-stress model, that students' perceptions of autonomy-support in their classroom produce a relatively intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic motivational approach to academic tasks and that this approach, in turn, predicts qualitatively different responses to uncontrollable events. It was further assumed that students' motivational orientation would be more reliable than attributional style or perceptions of competence in predicting achievement patterns, including performance level after failure, use of adaptive attributions, and overall achievement scores. Results supported these predictions and further demonstrated, in longitudinal analyses, that motivational orientation may contribute to the formation of perceptions of competence and attributional style in students. PMID:9654766

  6. Molecular ecology of microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Henk; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Stal, Lucas J

    2014-11-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep and fluctuating physicochemical microgradients, that are the result of the ever changing environmental conditions and of the microorganisms' own activities, give rise to a plethora of potential niches resulting in the formation of one of the most diverse microbial ecosystems known to date. For several decades, microbial mats have been studied extensively and more recently molecular biological techniques have been introduced that allowed assessing and investigating the diversity and functioning of these systems. These investigations also involved metagenomics analyses using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing. Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring, and hypersaline). We also present a comparison of the available metagenomic data sets from mats emphasizing the major differences between them as well as elucidating the overlap in overall community composition. PMID:25109247

  7. Molecular ecology of microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Henk; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Stal, Lucas J

    2014-11-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep and fluctuating physicochemical microgradients, that are the result of the ever changing environmental conditions and of the microorganisms' own activities, give rise to a plethora of potential niches resulting in the formation of one of the most diverse microbial ecosystems known to date. For several decades, microbial mats have been studied extensively and more recently molecular biological techniques have been introduced that allowed assessing and investigating the diversity and functioning of these systems. These investigations also involved metagenomics analyses using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing. Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring, and hypersaline). We also present a comparison of the available metagenomic data sets from mats emphasizing the major differences between them as well as elucidating the overlap in overall community composition.

  8. The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model in predicting online student test anxiety and help-seeking. Achievement goals refer to students' general aims for participating in learning and the standard by which they judge their achievement (Pintrich, 2000). According to Elliot and his colleagues (2011), there are six…

  9. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  10. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  11. Evaluation of Science Achievement and Science Test Development in an International Context: The IEA Study in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of cognitive tests and their administration to four student populations in a cross-nation study on science achievement by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Included are illustrative items, a table of behavior-subject area grid, and test scores by countries. (CC)

  12. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  13. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading Subtest “Holds” in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135

  14. What Do We Know About Teaching and Learning in Urban Schools? Volume 4: Achievement Tests in Urban Schools: New Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva

    This paper reviews the research in the area of achievement tests. The findings indicate: (1) there is little evidence that educational decision makers use the large amount of test data collected; (2) a larger number of tests are being required of students for personal certification; (3) reasons for the lack of application of test results include…

  15. Effectiveness of a test-taking strategy on achievement in essay tests for students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Therrien, William J; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning disabilities nominated by teachers as average writers. A 6-step essay strategy was taught that included analyzing the essay prompt, outlining, writing a response, and reviewing the answer. On the posttest, intervention group students significantly outperformed control group students on essay measures related to strategy use, content, and organization. There was no significant difference between treatment group and students without learning disabilities on posttest measures of content and organization.

  16. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  17. ON TEACHING ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, TOMMY R.

    FRANCISCO ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS," LIKE ANY WELL-CONSTRUCTED SHORT STORY, CAN SERVE AS AN IMPORTANT TEACHING DEVICE IN GUIDING STUDENTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE, TO READ WITH UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION, THE TECHNIQUES OF CONVERTING VERBALS BACK INTO VERBS, REPLACING ALL PRONOUNS WITH THEIR ANTECEDENTS IN PARALLEL…

  18. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  19. Stress-strain dependence for soy-protein nanofiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, S.; Sinha-Ray, S.; Yarin, A. L.; Pourdeyhimi, B.

    2012-02-01

    Soy protein/nylon 6 monolithic and core-shell nanofibers were solution-blown and collected on a rotating drum as fiber mats. Tensile tests of rectangular strips of these mats revealed their stress-strain dependences. These dependences were linear at low strains which correspond to their elastic behavior. Then, a plastic-like nonlinearity sets in, which is followed by catastrophic rupture. Parameters such as Young's modulus, yield stress, and specific strain energy were measured. The results were rationalized in the framework of the phenomenological elastic-plastic model, as well as a novel micromechanical model (the latter attributes plasticity to bond rapture between the individual overstressed fibers in the mat). Besides, the effects of stretching history, rate of stretching, and winding velocity of the collector drum on the strength-related parameters are studied. The results for soy protein/nylon 6 nanofiber mats are also compared to those for solution blown pure nylon 6 mats, which were produced and tested in the same way.

  20. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects.

  1. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  2. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  3. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  4. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  5. Relationship between Patterns of Personality of Campus Leaders and Scholastic Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Test of Holland's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Linda Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement as a function of principal personality and assistant principal personality in an elementary school setting. Student achievement, the dependent variable, was fifth grade campus mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test for reading, math, and science. Holland's…

  6. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  7. The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…

  8. BOTH MAT1-1 AND MAT1-2 MATING TYPES OF MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA OCCUR AT EQUAL FREQUENCIES IN ALGERIA.

    PubMed

    Allioui, N; Siah, A; Brinis, L; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2014-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is currently the most devastating disease on wheat crops worldwide. Mycosphaerella graminicola sexual reproduction involves two mating type idiomorphs that were previously studied in several areas around the world, but not in Algeria so far. The objective of this study was thus to determine the frequencies and distribution of M. graminicola mating types in this country. One hundred and twenty monoconidial isolates of this fungus (60 from bread wheat and 60 from durum wheat) were collected during the 2012 growing season from five distinct geographical locations in Algeria. The mating type of each isolate was identified using a multiplex PCR that amplifies either MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 fragment from mating type loci. Both idiomorphs were found at equal frequencies according to the chi-square test at the whole country level (46% MAT1-1 and 54% MAT1-2) and in each of the sampled locations. The two mating types were also detected at equal frequencies on both host species (47% MAT1-1 vs 53% MAT1-2 on bread wheat and 45% MAT1-1 vs 55% MAT1-2 on durum wheat). Our study showed that the two mating types of M. graminicola occur at equal proportions in Algeria and suggests a strong potential for sexual reproduction of the pathogen in this country that may eventually lead to either adaptation to local conditions, plant resistance overcoming or the emergence of resistance to fungicides.

  9. Electrospun chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibre mats for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) aqueous salt blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibre mats was prepared by electrospinning. CS was dissolved with hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in distilled water without the use of toxic or hazardous solvents. The CS aqueous salts were blended with PVA at different weight ratios, and the effect of the solution ratios was investigated. The morphologies and mechanical and swelling properties of the generated fibres were analysed. Indirect cytotoxicity studies indicated that the CS/PVA nanofibre mats were non-toxic to normal human fibroblast cells. The CS-HOBt/PVA and CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and an in vivo wound healing test showed that the CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats performed better than gauze in decreasing acute wound size during the first week after tissue damage. In conclusion, the biodegradable, biocompatible and antibacterial CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats have potential for use as wound dressing materials.

  10. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  11. Low-molecular-weight sulfonates, a major substrate for sulfate reducers in marine microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Visscher, P T; Gritzer, R F; Leadbetter, E R

    1999-08-01

    Several low-molecular-weight sulfonates were added to microbial mat slurries to investigate their effects on sulfate reduction. Instantaneous production of sulfide occurred after taurine and cysteate were added to all of the microbial mats tested. The rates of production in the presence of taurine and cysteate were 35 and 24 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a stromatolite mat, 38 and 36 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt pond mat, and 27 and 18 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt marsh mat, respectively. The traditionally used substrates lactate and acetate stimulated the rate of sulfide production 3 to 10 times more than taurine and cysteate stimulated the rate of sulfide production in all mats, but when ethanol, glycolate, and glutamate were added to stromatolite mat slurries, the resulting increases were similar to the increases observed with taurine and cysteate. Isethionate, sulfosuccinate, and sulfobenzoate were tested only with the stromatolite mat slurry, and these compounds had much smaller effects on sulfide production. Addition of molybdate resulted in a greater inhibitory effect on acetate and lactate utilization than on sulfonate use, suggesting that different metabolic pathways were involved. In all of the mats tested taurine and cysteate were present in the pore water at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. An enrichment culture from the stromatolite mat was obtained on cysteate in a medium lacking sulfate and incubated anaerobically. The rate of cysteate consumption by this enrichment culture was 1.6 pmol cell(-1) h(-1). Compared to the results of slurry studies, this rate suggests that organisms with properties similar to the properties of this enrichment culture are a major constituent of the sulfidogenic population. In addition, taurine was consumed at some of highest dilutions obtained from most-probable-number enrichment cultures obtained from stromatolite samples. Based on our comparison of the sulfide production rates found in various mats, low

  12. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang

    2005-01-01

    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  13. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  14. Big fish in big ponds: a multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Zeidner, Moshe; Schleyer, Esther

    2008-04-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual achievement and achievement level of student reference group on test anxiety in a national sample of 769 gifted Israeli students (grade levels 4-9), which was previously investigated by Zeidner and Schleyer (1999a). We hypothesized that when controlling for individual achievement, students' experiences of test anxiety should increase with the increasing ability level of their peer reference group. It was assumed that this effect was largely mediated by reference group effects on academic self-concept (big-fish-little-pond effect). Zeidner and Schleyer found that gifted students within a gifted peer reference group showed higher levels of test anxiety than gifted students within a non-gifted peer reference group. Of note, the present study focused exclusively on gifted students attending special gifted classes. The main research question was whether or not the assumed effects of individual and class achievement can be found for gifted students in special gifted classes when taking the variance of achievement level (grades) of the special gifted classes into account. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methodology, the assumed effects were vindicated for this special group of high ability students. Thus, in line with previous results, the Worry component of test anxiety was more highly reactive to the effects of individual achievement than the Emotionality component. Also, in line with our theoretical assumptions, achievement/anxiety relations were largely mediated by the effects of academic self-concept. PMID:18350396

  15. The Extracellular Matrix in Photosynthetic Mats: A Cyanobacterial Gingerbread House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, R.; Stannard, W.; Bebout, B.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, M. S.; Lee, J.; Everroad, R. C.; Thelen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline laminated cyanobacterial mats are excellent model systems for investigating photoautotrophic contributions to biogeochemical cycling on a millimeter scale. These self-sustaining ecosystems are characterized by steep physiochemical gradients that fluctuate dramatically on hour timescales, providing a dynamic environment to study microbial response. However, elucidating the distribution of energy from light absorption into biomass requires a complete understanding of the various constituents of the mat. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and DNA are a major component of these mats and may function in the redistribution of nutrients and metabolites within the community. To test this notion, we established a model mat-building culture for comparison with the phylogenetically diverse natural mat communities. In these two systems we determined how proteins and glycans in the matrix changed as a function of light and tracked nutrient flow from the matrix. Using mass spectrometry metaproteomics analysis, we found homologous proteins in both field and culture extracellular matrix that point to cyanobacterial turnover of amino acids, inorganic nutrients, carbohydrates and nucleic acids from the EPS. Other abundant functions identified included oxidative stress response from both the cyanobacteria and heterotrophs and cyanobacterial structural proteins that may play a role in mat cohesion. Several degradative enzymes also varied in abundance in the EPS in response to light availability, suggesting active secretion. To further test cyanobacterial EPS turnover, we generated isotopically-labeled EPS and used NanoSIMS to trace uptake of this labeled EPS. Our findings suggest Cyanobacteria may facilitate nutrient transfer to other groups, as well as uptake of their own products through degradation of EPS components. This work provides evidence for the essential roles of EPS for storage, structural

  16. Testing Structural Invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in American, Chinese, and Dutch College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huaping; Hernandez, Diley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structural invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) in American, Chinese, and Dutch college students. Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), the authors found evidence for the four-factor structure of achievement goals in all three samples. Subsequent multigroup CFAs supported structural invariance of…

  17. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  19. The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

  20. Achievement at Whose Expense? A Literature Review of Test-Based Grade Retention Policies in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Maxwell's method of literature reviews for educational research to focus on literature relevant to test-based grade retention policies to make the following argument: although some studies have documented average gains in academic achievement through test-based grade retention, there is increasing evidence that these gains…

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  2. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  3. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  4. Effects of tacky mat contamination on bond degradation for Chemlok/liner and NBR/liner bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tacky mats are placed by the rubber lay-up areas for the solid rocket motor segments. These mats dust off the shoes prior to entering the platform where the lay-up work is performed. The possibility exists that a tacky mat could be touched with gloved hands prior to handling the uncured nitride butadiene rubber (NBR). Tests were run to determine if NBR were accidentally touched would there be any degradation of the liner/NBR bond. The tacky mats were judged solely on the basis of bond degradation caused by either direct or indirect contamination. Test results all indicate that there was no notable NBR/Chemlok or liner/NBR bond degradation on samples that came into contact with the tacky mat material. Testing procedures are described. The tacky mat adhesive composition does not contain fluorocarbons or release agents that would affect bonding.

  5. Bacterial contamination control mats: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Meddick, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of six different types of contamination control mats currently in use at the entrances to theatre suites and other clean areas to remove bacteria-carrying particles from theatre trolley wheeels was compared. Marked differences in the effectiveness of this property were obtained; and all mats showed some disadvantages. Modification of one of the mats has resulted in improved efficiency under working conditions. Images Plate 1 PMID:267665

  6. Archaean metabolic evolution of microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea date back to the early Archaean: many of the major steps in early evolution probably took place within them. The earliest mats may have formed as biofilms of cooperative chemolithotrophs in hyperthermophile settings, with microbial exploitation of diversifying niches. Anoxygenic photosynthesis using bacteriochlorophyll could have allowed mats, including green gliding bacteria, to colonize anaerobic shallow-water mesothermophile habitats. Exploitation of the Calvin–Benson cycle by purple bacteria allowed diversification of microbial mats, with some organisms in more aerobic habitats, while green sulphur bacteria specialized in anaerobic niches. Cyanobacterial evolution led to more complex mats and plankton, allowing widespread colonization of the globe and the creation of further aerobic habitat. Microbial mat structure may reflect this evolutionary development in broad terms, with anaerobic lower levels occupied by archaeal and bacterial respirers, fermenters and green bacteria, while the higher levels contain aerobic purple bacteria and are dominated by cyanobacteria. A possible origin of eukaryotes is from a fusion of symbiotic partners living across a redox boundary in a mat. The geological record of Archaean mats may be present as isotopic fingerprints: with the presence of cyanobacteria, mats may have had a nearly modern structure as early as 3.5 Ga ago (1 Ga = 109 years).

  7. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  9. Collaborative Testing and Achievement: Are Two Heads Really Better than One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberyan, April; Barnett, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of collaborative testing on exam scores for psychology students at a moderately selectivue Midwestern University. The first study was a replication of previous classroom research where students could choose to test with a partner or alone. No significant differences were found between those taking tests alone or…

  10. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  11. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  12. Relationship Between the Clinical Components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns and the Stanford Achievement Test: Validity of the Boder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the diagnostic components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns with the reading and spelling measures of the Stanford Achievement Reading Test (SAT) in 87 reading-disabled elementary school students. Results indicated the relationship between the reading components of the Boder and SAT were…

  13. Organization and evolutionary trajectory of the mating type (MAT) locus in dermatophyte and dimorphic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size ( approximately 3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  14. Relationships between Teacher-Assigned Grades and Academic Achievement as Determined by AIMS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between student achievement, as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards, and teacher-assigned grades within a large, urban Phoenix, Arizona school district. For the quantitative component of the study, a proportionate stratified random sample of 3rd grade students from…

  15. Relationships Among Simple Measures of Reading and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading. Correlational analyses for five formative measures and three standardized measures provided evidence for the validity of Words in Isolation, Words in Context, and…

  16. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  17. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide…

  18. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  19. Attacking the African American-White Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Millett, Catherine M.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    The African American-white achievement gap exists even among the youngest children; African American students arrive at kindergarten considerably behind their white peers in measurable cognitive skills. Although the gap has narrowed somewhat over the past several decades, the average African American still scores below 75 percent of white students…

  20. Homogeneous Grouping in the Context of High-Stakes Testing: Does It Improve Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Gonzalez, Trena

    2012-01-01

    As accountability reform intensifies, urban school districts strive to meet No Child Left Behind mandates to avoid severe penalties. This study investigated the resurgence of homogeneous grouping methods as a means to increase reading achievement and meet English Language Arts Adequate Yearly Progress requirements. Specifically, this study…

  1. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  2. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  3. The importance of thermal-vacuum testing in achieving high reliability of spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work performed on thermal vacuum testing of complex mechanisms is described. The objective of these tests is to assess the mechanism reliability by monitoring performance in an environment that closely resembles the environment that will occur during flight. To be both valid and cost effective, these tests are performed in a detailed, formally controlled manner. A review of the major test observations is given, during which time some failure modes are detected. Full confidence now exists in many mechanism and component designs, and much valuable data obtained.

  4. A technique to achieve uniform stress distribution in compressive creep testing of advanced ceramics at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.C.; Stevens, C.O.; Brinkman, C.R.; Holshauser, N.E.

    1996-05-01

    A technique to achieve stable and uniform uniaxial compression is offered for creep testing of advanced ceramic materials at elevated temperatures, using an innovative self-aligning load-train assembly. Excellent load-train alignment is attributed to the inherent ability of a unique hydraulic universal coupler to maintain self-aligning. Details of key elements, design concept, and pricniples of operation of the self-aligning coupler are described. A method of alignment verification using a strain-gaged specimen is then discussed. Results of verification tests indicate that bending below 1.5% is routinely achievable usin the load-train system. A successful compression creep test is demonstrated using a dumbbell-shpaed Si nitride specimen tested at 1300 C for over 4000 h.

  5. A Case Study to Explore Rigorous Teaching and Testing Practices to Narrow the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Tesha

    2012-01-01

    The problem examined in this study: Does the majority of teachers use rigorous teaching and testing practices? The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the classroom techniques of six effective teachers who use rigorous teaching and testing practices. The hypothesis for this study is that the examination of the…

  6. Write on Target: Preparing Young Writers To Succeed on State Writing Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Tommy; York, Carol

    This handbook guides teachers through nine workshops designed to share strategies for success on writing tests. The workshops in the handbook give practical ideas that can be implemented in the elementary classroom to set the stage for test success without compromising children's growth as writers. Following a foreword by Michael R. Sampson and…

  7. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  8. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  9. Claims, Evidence, and Achievement-Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) explicates a transparent evidentiary argument to warrant the inferences we make from student test performance. This article describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed. Task models, which are the basis for item development, flow directly…

  10. Tests Built from Piaget's and Gesell's Tasks as Predictors of First-Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Kaufman, Nadeen L.

    1972-01-01

    Results offer empirical support to Ilg and Ames's claim that the Gesell battery is an excellent predictor of school readiness. The close similarity of the Piaget and Gesell tests accords well with previous findings that the two tests have much in common. (Authors/MB)

  11. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  12. An MAT Program to Meet Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    1981-01-01

    The history of Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) programs is outlined. The areas in which teaching shortages continue to exist are identified and MAT programs are urged to work to alleviate these shortages. Teacher shortages for prison inmates, youngsters with reading and language handicaps, and ghetto children are described. (MLW)

  13. User's guide to the MATS data

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S. )

    1990-08-01

    Data collected for the 37 Mesoscale Transport Studies (MATS) experiments are available on a single, double-sided, high-density (1.2MB), IBM-formatted, 5.25 in. floppy disk (MATS disk). Standard ASCII characters are used. This report discusses how to install this disk, symbols used, format of the ratio, and the sample experiment.

  14. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  15. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  16. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  17. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  18. The Tested Achievement of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Eighth Grade Class. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald A.; And Others

    Sixty tables are presented, which examine the test achievement of a national probability sample of eighth graders in public and private schools. Statistics were obtained from the base-year student survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). The NELS:88 monitors the transition of a national sample of young adults as they…

  19. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  20. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  1. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  2. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  3. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  5. Differential Validity and Utility of Successive and Simultaneous Approaches to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Gierl, Mark J.; Tardif, Claudette; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Described in this paper are the first three activities of a research program designed to assess the differential validity and utility of successive and simultaneous approaches to the development of equivalent achievement tests in the French and English languages. Two teams of multilingual/multicultural French-English teachers used the simultaneous…

  6. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

  7. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  8. Predictive Validity of Pre-University Examinations Test Scores for University Science Undergraduates' Academic Achievement in South West, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of pre-university examinations test scores (university matriculation examination (UME), Post-UME and pre-degree) for undergraduate academic achievement. The study is planned along the lines of correlational and ex-post-facto research design. A sample of four hundred university science based…

  9. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  10. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  11. Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Sharon J.

    Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

  12. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Thermoresponsive Polystyrene Nanofibrous Mats for Cultured Cell Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hwan Hee; Uyama, Hiroshi; Park, Won Ho; Cho, Donghwan; Kwon, Oh Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Rapid cell growth and rapid recovery of intact cultured cells are an invaluable technique to maintain the biological functions and viability of cells. To achieve this goal, thermoresponsive polystyrene (PS) nanofibrous mat was fabricated by electrospinning of PS solution, followed by the graft polymerization of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PIPAAm) on PS nanofibrous mats. Image analysis of the PS nanofiber revealed a unimodal distribution pattern with 400 nm average fiber diameter. Graft polymerization of PIPAAm on PS nanofibrous mats was confirmed by spectroscopic methods such as ATR-FTIR, ESCA, and AFM. Human fibroblasts were cultured on four different surfaces, PIPAAm-grafted and ungrafted PS dishes and PIPAAm-grafted and ungrafted PS nanofibrous mats, respectively. Cells on PIPAAm-grafted PS nanofibrous mats were well attached, spread, and proliferated significantly much more than those on other surfaces. Cultured cells were easily detached from the PIPAAm-grafted surfaces by decreasing culture temperature to 20°C, while negligible cells were detached from ungrafted surfaces. Moreover, cells on PIPAAm-grafted PS nanofibrous mats were detached more rapidly than those on PIPAAm-grafted PS dishes. These results suggest that thermoresponsive nanofibrous mats are attractive cell culture substrates which enable rapid cell growth and recovery from the culture surface for application to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24696851

  14. Claims, Evidence and Achievement Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Ric

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed.

  15. The MAT1-1:MAT1-2 ratio of Sporothrix globosa isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hamelin, Richard C; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the reproductive biology of pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, we characterized the partial mating type (MAT1-1) loci of Sporothrix schenckii, as well as the S. globosa MAT1-1-1 gene, which encoded 262 amino acid sequences. The data confirmed that the MAT1-1 locus of S. globosa was divergent from the MAT1-2 locus of the opposite mating type, suggesting that the fungus is heterothallic. To determine the mating type ratio of 20 isolates from Japanese patients, we analyzed the MAT loci by specific PCR amplification of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes. The MAT1-1-1 was detected in 5 isolates but not in the other 15 isolates with the presence of MAT1-2-1. The MAT1-1:1-2 ratio of S. globosa isolates in Japan was estimated to be 1:3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of the MAT1-1-1 were identical among S. globosa isolates but different from S. schenckii and Ophiostoma montium.

  16. The Development, Validation and Application of an External Criterion Measure of Achievement Test Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Robert A.

    Based on John Rawls' theory of justice as fairness, a nine-item rating scale was developed to serve as a criterion in studies of test item bias. Two principles underlie the scale: (1) Within a defined usage, test items should not affect students so that they are unable to do as well as their abilities would indicate; and (2) within the domain of a…

  17. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. Objectives: This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. Results: The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. Conclusions: The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change). PMID:26715970

  18. Georgia High-Stakes Testing: The Correlation between Eighth Grade and Ninth Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Venita L.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized tests are an education reality and an important accountability consideration in most states and school systems. Most states require standardized assessments to meet requirements of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Changes to curriculum and instruction and to the school culture frequently occur through a school…

  19. The Influence of Multiple Administrations of a State Achievement Test on Passing Rates for Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Tindal, Gerald; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The stakes of large-scale testing programs have grown considerably in the past decade with the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Race To The Top (RTTT) legislations. A significant component of NCLB has been required reporting of annual yearly progress (AYP) of student subgroups disaggregated by sex, special education status, English…

  20. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  1. Validity of the Simultaneous Approach to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christia M.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence gathered in the present study supports the use of the simultaneous development of test items for different languages. The simultaneous approach used in the present study involved writing an item in one language (e.g., French) and, before moving to the development of a second item, translating the item into the second language (e.g.,…

  2. Predictive Validity of the Vane for the Stanford Early School Achievement Test. Report No. l25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Leonard R.

    Evidence on the predictive validity of the Vane Kindergarten Test (VKT) as a part of the comprehensive screening and assessment battery administered by the Horseheads Central School District in New York is presented. Variable numbers of students at each of six elementary schools were administered the VKT. At the end of the kindergarten year, all…

  3. The Benefits of Preschool: Do Children Who Attend Preschool Prior to Kindergarten Achieve Higher Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine what, if any, impact that attending a four year old kindergarten program had on five year old kindergarteners reading ability as measured by Dominie testing, compared to those five year olds who did not attend a four year old program at Inman Elementary School. The significance of this study…

  4. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  5. Evaluation of Madison Park PLATO Training on August 2000 BPS City Algebra Test Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Christopher F.

    This report presents empirical findings from the analysis of the performance of 85 students from Madison Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts, on the Boston Public Schools City Algebra Test (BPSCAT) in June and August 2000, and how their participation in Jobs for Youths Boston PLATO computer-based instruction in the intervening months may have…

  6. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  7. Microbial communities and exopolysaccharides from Polynesian mats.

    PubMed

    Rougeaux, H; Guezennec, M; Che, L M; Payri, C; Deslandes, E; Guezennec, J

    2001-03-01

    Microbial mats present in two shallow atolls of French Polynesia were characterized by high amounts of exopolysaccharides associated with cyanobacteria as the predominating species. Cyanobacteria were found in the first centimeters of the gelatinous mats, whereas deeper layers showing the occurrence of the sulfate reducers Desulfovibrio and Desulfobacter species as determined by the presence of specific biomarkers. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from these mats and partially characterized. All fractions contained both neutral sugars and uronic acids with a predominance of the former. The large diversity in monosaccharides can be interpreted as the result of exopolymer biosynthesis by either different or unidentified cyanobacterial species. PMID:14961381

  8. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  9. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  10. Cyanobacterial mats: Microanalysis of community metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.; Bermudes, D.; Fischer, U.; Haddad, R.; Prufert, L.; Scheulderman-Suylen, T.; Shaw, T.

    1985-01-01

    The microbial communities in two sites were studied using several approaches: (1) light microscopy; (2) the measurement of microprofiles of oxygen and sulfide at the surface of the microbial mat; (3) the study of diurnal variation of oxygen and sulfides; (4) in situ measurement of photosynthesis and sulfate reduction and study of the coupling of these two processes; (5) measurement of glutathione in the upper layers of the microbial mat as a possible oxygen quencher; (6) measurement of reduced iron as a possible intermediate electron donor along the established redoxcline in the mats; (7) measurement of dissolved phosphate as an indicator of processes of break down of organic matter in these systems; and (8) measurement of carbon dioxide in the interstitial water and its delta C-13 in an attempt to understand the flow of CO2 through the systems. Microbial processes of primary production and initial degradation at the most active zone of the microbial mat were analyzed.

  11. Thermal actuation of graphene oxide nanoribbon mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-03-01

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GOr), obtained by chemically unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes, were assembled into macroscopic mats by vacuum filtration. These mats exhibited up to 1.6% reversible contraction when electrically heated at ambient. The experimentally derived work capacity of the mats was about 40 J/kg, which is similar to that of natural muscle. It was limited by the mechanical strength of mats and can be increased upon optimization of their preparation conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated reversible changes in the interplanar spacing of GOr layers during heating. These dimensional changes can be associated with reversible adsorption/desorption of water molecules between GOr layers and used in thermally-driven high performance artificial muscles and moisture sensors.

  12. Electrospun poly(l-lactide)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Li, Xueqi; Li, Siming; Liu, Yongjia; Hao, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun nanofiber mats can display impressive performance as an ideal wound dressing. In this study, poly(l-lactide)(PLLA)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides (RCSPs) were successfully produced by two different electrospinning techniques, blend and coaxial, with the goal of developing a wound dressing material. The nanofiber mats were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), water contact angle, mechanical tests and cell viability. The resulting nanofiber mats exhibited smooth surfaces, tiny diameters and different cross-sectional shapes from pure PLLA and zein nanofibers. The FTIR result showed that PLLA, zein and RCSPs were well dispersed, without chemical interactions. Compared with coaxial nanofiber mats, blending zein-RCSPs with PLLA enhanced hydrophilicity but decreased mechanical properties. Adding RCSPs into the electrospun nanofibers significantly improved the mechanical properties of the mats. Cell viability studies with human foreskin fibroblasts demonstrated that cell growth on PLLA/zein-RCSPs nanofiber mats was significantly higher than that on PLLA/zein nanofiber mats. The results indicate that nanofiber mats containing RCSPs are potential candidates for wound dressing. PMID:27432415

  13. Estimation of axial stiffness of plant fibres from compaction of non-woven mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamstedt, E. K.; Bommier, E.; Madsen, B.

    2014-03-01

    Plant fibres are known to show a large variability in stiffness, which makes it time-consuming to experimentally characterize this property by conventional tensile testing. In this work, an alternative method is used, where the average fibre stiffness is back-calculated from compaction tests of in-plane randomly oriented fibre mats. The model by Toll is used to relate the load-displacement curve from the test to the Young modulus of the fibre, taking into account the natural variability in fibre cross section. Several tests have been performed on hemp fibre mats and compared with results from single-fibre tensile testing. The average back-calculated Young's modulus of the fibres was 45 GPa, whereas the average value from tensile testing ranged from 30 to 60 GPa. The straightforward compaction test can be useful in ranking of fibre stiffness, provided that the mat is composed of well-separated fibres and not of twisted yarns.

  14. Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-06-01

    The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

  15. Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yehuda

    2002-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mats developing in oil-contaminated sabkhas along the African coasts of the Gulf of Suez and in the pristine Solar Lake, Sinai, were collected for laboratory studies. Samples of both mats showed efficient degradation of crude oil in the light, followed by development of an intense bloom of Phormidium spp. and Oscillatoria spp. Isolated cyanobacterial strains, however, did not degrade crude oil in axenic cultures. Strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophs were capable of degrading model compounds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Results indicate that degradation of oil was done primarily by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. The oxygenic photosynthesis of oil-insensitive cyanobacteria supplied the molecular oxygen for the efficient aerobic metabolism of organisms, such as Marinobacter sp. The diurnal shifts in environmental conditions at the mat surface, from highly oxic conditions in the light to anaerobic sulfide-rich habitat in the dark, may allow the combined aerobic and anaerobic degradation of crude oil at the mat surface. Hence, coastal cyanobacterial mats may be used for the degradation of coastline oil spills. Oxygen microelectrodes detected a significant inhibition of photosynthetic activity subsequent to oil addition. This prevailed for a few hours and then rapidly recovered. In addition, shifts in bacterial community structure following exposure to oil were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fractions of 16S rRNA from eubacteria, cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Since the mats used for the present study were obtained from oil-contaminated environments, they were believed to be preequilibrated for petroleum remediation. The mesocosm system at Eilat provided a unique opportunity to study petroleum degradation by mats formed under different salinities (up to 21%). These mats, dominated by cyanobacteria, can serve as close analogues to the sabkhas contaminated during the

  16. Flow visualization study of the HiMAT RPRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT RPRV). Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/15 scale model of the HiMAT RPRV. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 5 deg. The HiMAT model was investigated in detail to determine the canard and wing vortex flow field development, vortex paths, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. The presence of the canard caused the wing vortex to form further outboard and delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. An increase in leading edge camber of the maneuver configuration delayed both the formation and the breakdown of the wing and canard vortices. Additional tests showed that the canard vortex was sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and canard flap deflection angle.

  17. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  18. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(TradeMark)(MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many countries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its real strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbox. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using symbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language form (command interface) is similar with well known programming languages such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define classes in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most of the essential constructs of a higher programming language. MatLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful to perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We believe there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and analysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applications. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientific problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabular format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed.

  19. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Educational Testing in America: State Assessments, Achievement Gaps, National Policy and Innovations. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 17, Number 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; Pliskin, Richard, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Annual standardized testing lies at the heart of the accountability system that American education reformers and policymakers have established during the past decade in an effort to ensure equal opportunity for all students, no matter their race, ethnicity or wealth. The new testing regime has brought national attention to the schooling of…

  20. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development. PMID:26603783

  1. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development.

  2. rMATS: robust and flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Lin, Lan; Henry, Michael D; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhou, Qing; Xing, Yi

    2014-12-23

    Ultra-deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We previously developed multivariate analysis of transcript splicing (MATS), a statistical method for detecting differential alternative splicing between two RNA-Seq samples. Here we describe a new statistical model and computer program, replicate MATS (rMATS), designed for detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data. rMATS uses a hierarchical model to simultaneously account for sampling uncertainty in individual replicates and variability among replicates. In addition to the analysis of unpaired replicates, rMATS also includes a model specifically designed for paired replicates between sample groups. The hypothesis-testing framework of rMATS is flexible and can assess the statistical significance over any user-defined magnitude of splicing change. The performance of rMATS is evaluated by the analysis of simulated and real RNA-Seq data. rMATS outperformed two existing methods for replicate RNA-Seq data in all simulation settings, and RT-PCR yielded a high validation rate (94%) in an RNA-Seq dataset of prostate cancer cell lines. Our data also provide guiding principles for designing RNA-Seq studies of alternative splicing. We demonstrate that it is essential to incorporate biological replicates in the study design. Of note, pooling RNAs or merging RNA-Seq data from multiple replicates is not an effective approach to account for variability, and the result is particularly sensitive to outliers. The rMATS source code is freely available at rnaseq-mats.sourceforge.net/. As the popularity of RNA-Seq continues to grow, we expect rMATS will be useful for studies of alternative splicing in diverse RNA-Seq projects. PMID:25480548

  3. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  4. Modifying Achievement Test Items: A Theory-Guided and Data-Based Approach for Better Measurement of What Students with Disabilities Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Beddow, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Federal regulations allow up to 2% of the student population of a state to achieve proficiency for adequate yearly progress by taking an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). Such tests are likely to be easier, but as long as a test is considered a valid measure of grade level content, it is allowable as…

  5. The Role of Stanford Achievement Test 10[TM] Subtests in Sixth Grade as a Predictor of Success on ACT's Eighth Grade Explore Exam[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive correlation between a specific sixth grade achievement test known as the Stanford Achievement Test 10 and the eighth grade college readiness assessment instrument known as the Explore Exam for a group of North Texas students. Following an assessment during sixth grade, via the…

  6. Identification of the Mating-Type (MAT) Locus That Controls Sexual Reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Walton, Eric; Averette, Anna Floyd; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Cuomo, Christina A.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada. While the genes controlling sexual development have been known for a long time, the genes controlling sexual reproduction of B. dermatitidis (teleomorph, Ajellomyces dermatitidis) are unknown. We identified the mating-type (MAT) locus in the B. dermatitidis genome by comparative genomic approaches. The B. dermatitidis MAT locus resembles those of other dimorphic fungi, containing either an alpha-box (MAT1-1) or an HMG domain (MAT1-2) gene linked to the APN2, SLA2, and COX13 genes. However, in some strains of B. dermatitidis, the MAT locus harbors transposable elements (TEs) that make it unusually large compared to the MAT locus of other dimorphic fungi. Based on the MAT locus sequences of B. dermatitidis, we designed specific primers for PCR determination of the mating type. Two B. dermatitidis isolates of opposite mating types were cocultured on mating medium. Immature sexual structures were observed starting at 3 weeks of coculture, with coiled-hyphae-containing cleistothecia developing over the next 3 to 6 weeks. Genetic recombination was detected in potential progeny by mating-type determination, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, suggesting that a meiotic sexual cycle might have been completed. The F1 progeny were sexually fertile when tested with strains of the opposite mating type. Our studies provide a model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the dimorphic and closely related fungi and open the door to classic genetic analysis and studies on the possible roles of mating and mating type in infection and virulence. PMID:23143684

  7. Targeting accurate object extraction from an image: a comprehensive study of natural image matting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingsong; Shao, Ling; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    With the development of digital multimedia technologies, image matting has gained increasing interests from both academic and industrial communities. The purpose of image matting is to precisely extract the foreground objects with arbitrary shapes from an image or a video frame for further editing. It is generally known that image matting is inherently an ill-posed problem because we need to output three images out of only one input image. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the existing image matting algorithms and evaluate their performance. In addition to the blue screen matting, we systematically divide all existing natural image matting methods into four categories: 1) color sampling-based; 2) propagation-based; 3) combination of sampling-based and propagation-based; and 4) learning-based approaches. Sampling-based methods assume that the foreground and background colors of an unknown pixel can be explicitly estimated by examining nearby pixels. Propagation-based methods are instead based on the assumption that foreground and background colors are locally smooth. Learning-based methods treat the matting process as a supervised or semisupervised learning problem. Via the learning process, users can construct a linear or nonlinear model between the alpha mattes and the image colors using a training set to estimate the alpha matte of an unknown pixel without any assumption about the characteristics of the testing image. With three benchmark data sets, the various matting algorithms are evaluated and compared using several metrics to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each method both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, we conclude this paper by outlining the research trends and suggesting a number of promising directions for future development. PMID:25423658

  8. Ecological succession leads to chemosynthesis in mats colonizing wood in sea water.

    PubMed

    Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Dupraz, Marlène; Le Bris, Nadine; Petetin, Carole; Rose, Christophe; West, Nyree J; Galand, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic mats involved in cycling sulfur compounds are often found in hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and whale falls. However, there are only few records of wood fall mats, even though the presence of hydrogen sulfide at the wood surface should create a perfect niche for sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Here we report the growth of microbial mats on wood incubated under conditions that simulate the Mediterranean deep-sea temperature and darkness. We used amplicon and metagenomic sequencing combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to test whether a microbial succession occurs during mat formation and whether the wood fall mats present chemosynthetic features. We show that the wood surface was first colonized by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Arcobacter genus after only 30 days of immersion. Subsequently, the number of sulfate reducers increased and the dominant Arcobacter phylotype changed. The ecological succession was reflected by a change in the metabolic potential of the community from chemolithoheterotrophs to potential chemolithoautotrophs. Our work provides clear evidence for the chemosynthetic nature of wood fall ecosystems and demonstrates the utility to develop experimental incubation in the laboratory to study deep-sea chemosynthetic mats. PMID:26905628

  9. MatLab program for precision calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2004-06-01

    Optical tweezers are used as force transducers in many types of experiments. The force they exert in a given experiment is known only after a calibration. Computer codes that calibrate optical tweezers with high precision and reliability in the ( x, y)-plane orthogonal to the laser beam axis were written in MatLab (MathWorks Inc.) and are presented here. The calibration is based on the power spectrum of the Brownian motion of a dielectric bead trapped in the tweezers. Precision is achieved by accounting for a number of factors that affect this power spectrum. First, cross-talk between channels in 2D position measurements is tested for, and eliminated if detected. Then, the Lorentzian power spectrum that results from the Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck theory, is fitted to the low-frequency part of the experimental spectrum in order to obtain an initial guess for parameters to be fitted. Finally, a more complete theory is fitted, a theory that optionally accounts for the frequency dependence of the hydrodynamic drag force and hydrodynamic interaction with a nearby cover slip, for effects of finite sampling frequency (aliasing), for effects of anti-aliasing filters in the data acquisition electronics, and for unintended "virtual" filtering caused by the position detection system. Each of these effects can be left out or included as the user prefers, with user-defined parameters. Several tests are applied to the experimental data during calibration to ensure that the data comply with the theory used for their interpretation: Independence of x- and y-coordinates, Hooke's law, exponential distribution of power spectral values, uncorrelated Gaussian scatter of residual values. Results are given with statistical errors and covariance matrix. Program summaryTitle of program: tweezercalib Catalogue identifier: ADTV Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland. Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTV Computer for

  10. Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers

    DOEpatents

    Langton, Christine A.; Narasimhan, Rajendran; Karraker, David G.

    2001-01-01

    A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

  11. Nitrogen cycle in microbial mats: completely unknown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coban, O.; Bebout, B.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are thought to have originated around 3.7 billion years ago, most likely in the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents, which supplied a source of energy in the form of reduced chemical species from the Earth's interior. Active hydrothermal vents are also believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, Saturn's moon Enceladus, and on Mars, earlier in that planet's history. Microbial mats have been an important force in the maintenance of Earth's ecosystems and the first photosynthesis was also originated there. Microbial mats are believed to exhibit most, if not all, biogeochemical processes that exist in aquatic ecosystems, due to the presence of different physiological groups of microorganisms therein. While most microbially mediated biogeochemical transformations have been shown to occur within microbial mats, the nitrogen cycle in the microbial mats has received very little study in spite of the fact that nitrogen usually limits growth in marine environments. We will present the first results in the determination of a complete nitrogen budget for a photosynthetic microbial mat. Both in situ sources and sinks of nitrogen in photosynthetic microbial mats are being measured using stable isotope techniques. Our work has a particular focus on recently described, but poorly understood, processes, e.g., anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and an emphasis on understanding the role that nitrogen cycling may play in generating biogenic nitrogen isotopic signatures and biomarker molecules. Measurements of environmental controls on nitrogen cycling should offer insight into the nature of co-evolution of these microbial communities and their planets of origin. Identifying the spatial (microscale) as well as temporal (diel and seasonal) distribution of nitrogen transformations, e.g., rates of nitrification and denitrification, within mats, particularly with respect to the distribution of photosynthetically-produced oxygen, is anticipated. The results

  12. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  13. The Effect of Achievement Test Selection on Identification of Learning Disabilities within a Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability of LD classification decisions of the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) across different psychoeducational assessment batteries. Methods C/DM criteria were applied to assessment data from 177 second grade students based on two psychoeducational assessment batteries. The achievement tests were different, but were highly correlated and measured the same latent construct. Resulting LD identifications were then evaluated for agreement across batteries on LD status and the academic domain of eligibility. Results The two batteries identified a similar number of participants as having LD (80 and 74). However, indices of agreement for classification decisions were low (kappa = .29), especially for percent positive agreement (62%). The two batteries demonstrated agreement on the academic domain of eligibility for only 25 participants. Conclusions Cognitive discrepancy frameworks for LD identification are inherently unstable because of imperfect reliability and validity at the observed level. Methods premised on identifying a PSW profile may never achieve high reliability because of these underlying psychometric factors. An alternative is to directly assess academic skills to identify students in need of intervention. PMID:25243467

  14. A Study of Gender-Based and Ethnic-Based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in the Spring 2003 Idaho Standards Achievement Tests Applying the Simultaneous Bias Test (SIBTEST) and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi Square Test: Idaho Standards Achievement Tests; Reading, Language Usage, and Mathematics, Grades 4, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2004-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the responses of students with approximately equal ability differ systematically based on their group membership. Idaho contracted with the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) to provide the Idaho Standards Achievement Tests of reading, language arts and mathematics at grades 4, 8 and 10. The…

  15. Bacillamides from a hypersaline microbial mat bacterium.

    PubMed

    Socha, Aaron M; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

    2007-11-01

    Chemical studies of a Bacillus endophyticus isolated from a Bahamian hypersaline microbial mat led to the isolation of bacillamides B and C, new tryptamide thiazole metabolites. Bioassay-guided fractionation using a HPLC-UV-MS bioassay technique enabled the detection of these trace fermentation products, and their total structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  17. Investigating Linguistic Sources of Differential Item Functioning Using Expert Think-Aloud Protocols in Science Achievement Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Dallie Sandilands, Debra; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2013-03-01

    Even if national and international assessments are designed to be comparable, subsequent psychometric analyses often reveal differential item functioning (DIF). Central to achieving comparability is to examine the presence of DIF, and if DIF is found, to investigate its sources to ensure differentially functioning items that do not lead to bias. In this study, sources of DIF were examined using think-aloud protocols. The think-aloud protocols of expert reviewers were conducted for comparing the English and French versions of 40 items previously identified as DIF (N = 20) and non-DIF (N = 20). Three highly trained and experienced experts in verifying and accepting/rejecting multi-lingual versions of curriculum and testing materials for government purposes participated in this study. Although there is a considerable amount of agreement in the identification of differentially functioning items, experts do not consistently identify and distinguish DIF and non-DIF items. Our analyses of the think-aloud protocols identified particular linguistic, general pedagogical, content-related, and cognitive factors related to sources of DIF. Implications are provided for the process of arriving at the identification of DIF, prior to the actual administration of tests at national and international levels.

  18. Development and validation of an achievement test in introductory quantum mechanics: The Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataloglu, Erdat

    The purpose of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple-choice achievement test to assess students' understanding of core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics. Development of the Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI) occurred across four successive semesters in 1999--2001. During this time 213 undergraduate and graduate students attending the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) at University Park and Arizona State University (ASU) participated in this development and validation study. Participating students were enrolled in four distinct groups of courses: Modern Physics, Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics. Expert panels of professors of physics experienced in teaching quantum mechanics courses and graduate students in physics and science education established the core content and assisted in the validating of successive versions of the 24-question QMVI. Instrument development was guided by procedures outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA-APA-NCME, 1999). Data gathered in this study provided information used in the development of successive versions of the QMVI. Data gathered in the final phase of administration of the QMVI also provided evidence that the intended score interpretation of the QMVI achievement test is valid and reliable. A moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.49 was observed between the students' QMVI scores and their confidence levels. Analyses of variance indicated that students' scores in Graduate Quantum Mechanics and Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics courses were significantly higher than the mean scores of students in Modern Physics and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics courses (p < 0.05). That finding is consistent with the additional understanding and experience that should be anticipated in graduate students and junior-senior level students over sophomore physics majors and majors in another field. The moderate

  19. Closing the design loop on HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Robinson, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design methodology used in the HiMAT program and the wind tunnel development activities are discussed. Selected results from the flight test program are presented and the strengths and weaknesses of testing advanced technology vehicles using the RPV concept is examined. The role of simulation on the development of digital flight control systems and in RPV's in particular is emphasized.

  20. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  1. Diversity techniques for omnidirectional telemetry coverage of the HiMAT research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) was flight tested and a number of technological advances applicable to future fighter aircraft were demonstrated. The aircraft control system uses airborne and ground-based computers which communicate via uplink and downlink telemetry. Antenna radiation patterns are normally much less than ideal for continuous reception or transmission for all aircraft attitudes. After flight qualification and testing on other aircraft, a frequency diversity concept and an antenna diversity concept were implemented on the HiMAT vehicle to obtain omnidirectional telemetry coverage.

  2. Are Cognitive "g" and Academic Achievement "g" One and the Same "g"? An Exploration on the Woodcock-Johnson and Kaufman Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Xin; Kaufman, Alan S.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the conventional notion of g associated with IQ tests and general cognitive ability tests ("COG-g") relate to the general ability that underlies tests of reading, math, and writing achievement ("ACH-g"). Two large, nationally representative data sets and two independent individually-administered set of test…

  3. MAT - MULTI-ATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY FOR HUMAN OPERATOR WORKLOAD AND STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR RESEARCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    MAT, a Multi-Attribute Task battery, gives the researcher the capability of performing multi-task workload and performance experiments. The battery provides a benchmark set of tasks for use in a wide range of laboratory studies of operator performance and workload. MAT incorporates tasks analogous to activities that aircraft crew members perform in flight, while providing a high degree of experiment control, performance data on each subtask, and freedom to use non-pilot test subjects. The MAT battery primary display is composed of four separate task windows which are as follows: a monitoring task window which includes gauges and warning lights, a tracking task window for the demands of manual control, a communication task window to simulate air traffic control communications, and a resource management task window which permits maintaining target levels on a fuel management task. In addition, a scheduling task window gives the researcher information about future task demands. The battery also provides the option of manual or automated control of tasks. The task generates performance data for each subtask. The task battery may be paused and onscreen workload rating scales presented to the subject. The MAT battery was designed to use a serially linked second computer to generate the voice messages for the Communications task. The MATREMX program and support files, which are included in the MAT package, were designed to work with the Heath Voice Card (Model HV-2000, available through the Heath Company, Benton Harbor, Michigan 49022); however, the MATREMX program and support files may easily be modified to work with other voice synthesizer or digitizer cards. The MAT battery task computer may also be used independent of the voice computer if no computer synthesized voice messages are desired or if some other method of presenting auditory messages is devised. MAT is written in QuickBasic and assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The

  4. Predictive Indicators of High Performing Schools: A Study of Evaluative Inquiry and the Effective Use of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research suggests a link between evaluative inquiry (EI) and student achievement, where EI is defined as the practice of analyzing student achievement data to identify ways to improve instruction. However, researchers lacked empirical evidence regarding the relationship between specific EI indicators and student achievement. The purpose…

  5. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  6. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  7. Quality Teaching in Addressing Student Achievement: A Comparative Study between National Board Certified Teachers and Other Teachers on the Kentucky Core Content Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buecker, Harrie Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the link between quality teaching and its potential impact on student achievement. National Board Certification is used to represent quality teaching and student achievement is measured by the Kentucky Core Content Test. Data were gathered on the reading and mathematics scores of students of National Board Teachers who…

  8. The Relationship of Teachers' Assigned Marks to Tested Achievement Among Educationally and Culturally Disadvantaged Children in the Elementary Grades. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Enrica

    This study investigated the relationship between (1) achievement marks assigned by teachers to elementary grade, lower socio-economic status boys and girls, and (2) pupils' racial background, sex, intelligence quotient, and tested achievement. A pupil and a teacher sample were chosen from five Minneapolis inner-city schools. The pupil sample…

  9. The Relationship of Teachers' Assigned Marks to Tested Achievement among Elementary Grade, Racially Divergent Lower Socio-Economic Status Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Enrica

    An investigation was made of the relationship of achievement marks assigned by teachers to elementary grade, lower socioeconomic status boys and girls to pupils' (1) racial background, (2) sex, (3) intelligence quotient, and (4) tested achievement. Teacher marking procedures were studied. The rationale was to inquire whether or not characteristics…

  10. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  11. Indications for near-surface fluid circulation cells at bacterial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubsch, S.; Haeckel, M.; Wallmann, K.

    2009-04-01

    At submarine cold vents off Costa Rica detailed sediment sampling along transects across bacterial mats was conducted during expedition M66/2 with RV METEOR deploying a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Bacterial mats occurred in patches of several m2 in size covering the sediment surface. Porewater analyses of the pushcore sediments revealed rapid sulfate consumption due to anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) below the bacterial mats. SO4 was depleted at ~5 cm sediment depth in the center of the mat and penetrating deeper into the sediment towards the rim of the mat. Pushcores taken in the center of these mats, however, showed a subsequent increase of sulfate concentrations below a sediment depth of ~10 cm. Other dissolved compounds, such as Cl, Br, H2S, TA, NH4, PO4, and SiO4, showed a similar behaviour with concentrations returning towards bottomwater values. Since this trend is common to all of the solutes, it is most likely explained by a physical process. We assume that focussed fluid outflow near the center of the bacterial mat creates a convective flow cell with bottom waters penetrating into the adjacent sediment area and directed towards the flow channel. A set of different 2-D and 3-D transport-reaction models were developed to test this hypothesis. Fluid flow in the central channel turned out to be homogeneous and thus, could be resembled as boundary condition of the surrounding sediment domain. The model also includes AMO as the most important reaction of a cold vent system. Model results indicate that the observed porewater sulfate and chloride profiles can be reproduced fairly well, for example, when applying an advection velocity of 100 cm/a in the central fluid channel and a mean background advection of 3 cm/a in the sediment domain. A detailed sensitivity study has been performed determining the parameters dominating the establishment of the near-surface flow cell.

  12. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  13. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  14. A Study of Gender-Based and Ethnic-Based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in the Spring 2003 Idaho Standards Achievement Tests Applying the Simultaneous Bias Test (SIBTEST) and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi Square Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen for gender-based (female-male) and ethnic-based (Hispanic-White) differential item functioning (DIF) in the 2003 Idaho Standards Achievement Tests of reading, language arts and mathematics at grades 4, 8 and 10. The vendor, the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA), assembled the computer-administered…

  15. ChemMatCARS Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

  16. Bioflumology: Microbial mat growth in flumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airo, A.; Weigert, S.; Beck, C.

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in a transformational change of Earth's geochemical cycles and the subsequent evolution of life. However, it remains vigorously debated when this metabolic ability had evolved in cyanobacteria. This is largely because studies of Archean microfossil morphology, molecular biomarkers, and isotopic characteristics are frequently ambiguous. However, the high degree of morphological similarities between modern photosynthetic and Archean fossil mats has been interpreted to indicate phototactic microbial behavior or oxygenic photosynthesis. In order to better evaluate the relationship between mat morphology and metabolism, we here present a laboratory set-up for conducting month-long experiments in several sterilizable circular flumes designed to allow single-species cyanobacterial growth under adjustable fluid-flow conditions and protected from contamination.

  17. Microbial mats: an ecological niche for fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Sharon A.; Duval-Pérez, Lisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Fungi were documented in tropical hypersaline microbial mats and their role in the degradation of complex carbohydrates (exopolymeric substance – EPS) was explored. Fungal diversity is higher during the wet season with Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium among the more common genera. Diversity is also higher in the oxic layer and in young and transient mats. Enrichments with xanthan (a model EPS) show that without antibiotics (full community) degradation is faster than enrichments with antibacterial (fungal community) and antifungal (bacterial community) agents, suggesting that degradation is performed by a consortium of organisms (bacteria and fungi). The combined evidence from all experiments indicates that bacteria carried out approximately two-third of the xanthan degradation. The pattern of degradation is similar between seasons and layers but degradation is faster in enrichments from the wet season. The research suggests that fungi thrive in these hypersaline consortia and may participate in the carbon cycle through the degradation of complex carbohydrates. PMID:23577004

  18. Commander Mattingly prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly, wearing flight coveralls, opens beverage container using a pair of scissors in front of middeck lockers (covered with spacecrew supplies, meal tray assemblies, and additional food items). Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and control panel ML86B appear on port side wall. CFES is designed to separate biological materials according to their surface electrical charges as they pass through an electrical field.

  19. The Archaea of a Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C.; Spear, J. R.; Pace, N. R.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of this work is to describe and understand the organismal composition within the domain Archaea for the microbial ecosystem of a hypersaline microbial mat. Sea salt is crystallized by solar evaporation at North America's largest saltworks, the Exportadora de Sal, in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur. Sea water flows through a series of evaporative basins with an increase in salinity until saturation is reached and halite crystallization begins. Several of these ponds are underlined with thick microbial mats. To date, it has not been known what kinds of organisms comprise these complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we report a survey of the stratified microbial communities for the distribution of representatives of Archaea in layers of the mats. This survey uses molecular approaches, based on cloning and sequencing of SSU rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and extent of archaeal diversity that constitute these ecosystems. We compiled an altogether new phylogenetic backbone for the domain Archaea and placed representative sequences from this hypersaline analysis onto that framework. Analyses to date indicate the ubiquitous dominance of uncultured organisms of phylogenetic kinds not generally thought to be associated with hypersaline environments. Collectively, the results indicate that the diversity of life is extensive even in this seemingly inhospitable "extreme" environment.

  20. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  1. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  2. Quantity and Quality of Computer Use and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale International Test Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of both quantity and quality of computer use on achievement. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student survey comprising of 4,356 students (boys, n = 2,129; girls, n = 2,227) was used to predict academic achievement from quantity and quality of computer use while controlling for…

  3. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  4. Do Inequalities in Parents' Education Play an Important Role in PISA Students' Mathematics Achievement Test Score Disparities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Lurdes; Veiga, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This paper measures and decomposes socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement in 15 European Union member states. Data is taken from the 2003 wave of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). There is socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement, favoring the higher socioeconomic groups in each…

  5. Relationships between Language Background, Secondary School Scores, Tutorial Group Processes, and Students' Academic Achievement in PBL: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaram, Veena S.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of language background in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups on group processes and students' academic achievement. This study investigated the relationship between language background, secondary school score, tutorial group processes, and students' academic achievement in PBL. A validated tutorial…

  6. Description of the HiMAT Tailored composite structure and laboratory measured vehicle shape under load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The aeroelastically tailored outer wing and canard of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle are closely examined and a general description of the overall structure of the vehicle is provided. Test data in the form of laboratory measured twist under load and predicted twist from the HiMAT NASTRAN structural design program are compared. The results of this comparison indicate that the measured twist is generally less than the NASTRAN predicted twist. These discrepancies in twist predictions are attributed, at least in part, to the inability of current analytical composite materials programs to provide sufficiently accurate properties of matrix dominated laminates for input into structural programs such as NASTRAN.

  7. Superhydrophobic PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibrous mats with antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, M.; Manolova, N.; Markova, N.; Rashkov, I.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic nanofibrous materials of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were prepared by one-pot electrospinning technique. The mats were decorated with ZnO nanoparticles with silanized surface and a model drug - 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinol (5Cl8HQ). The obtained hybrid nanofibrous materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, mechanical and microbiological tests. The results showed that the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibers increased the hydrophobicity (contact angle 152°), improved the thermal stability and imparted to the nanofibrous materials anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties. The mats containing the model drug possessed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggested that the obtained hybrid mats could find potential biomedical applications requiring antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

  8. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  9. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  10. Diagnostic Classification Models and Multidimensional Adaptive Testing: A Commentary on Rupp and Templin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2009-01-01

    On a general level, the objective of diagnostic classifications models (DCMs) lies in a classification of individuals regarding multiple latent skills. In this article, the authors show that this objective can be achieved by multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) as well. The authors discuss whether or not the restricted applicability of DCMs can…

  11. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  12. Optimization and characterization of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) heat-resistant porous fiberous mat by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, R.; Bin, Y. Z.; Yang, W. X.; Wang, D.; Wang, J. Y.; Jian, X. G.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) is noted for its outstanding heat-resistance property and mechanical strength. A one-step electrospinning method was conducted to produce PPEK micro-nano porous fibrous mat. We gave emphasis study on the spinnability, optimized conditions, fibers' morphology, surface science and fracture mechanism. The uniform electrospun fibrous mat resulted from PPEK/chloroform binary system indicated that PPEK would be a prospective material to be applied in electrospinning. Addition of a small amount of non-solvent (ethanol) turned out to be advantageous to the reduction of fiber diameter and the alleviation of choking during spinning process. Organic salt (benzyltrimethylammonium chloride) was employed to increase the conductivity of solution for the formation of thin fiber. After trials, PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system with salt and PPEK/NMP system were taken as two optimized systems. These two systems showed different pore fraction in N2 adsorption test, and displayed different mechanical behaviors in uniaxial tension test. The fibrous mat from PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system showed a feature of ductile fracture with relatively low fracture strength but long fracture deformation, while the fibrous mat from PPEK/NMP system showed a feature of brittle fracture with small deformation but quite large fracture strength of ca. 6 MPa. Finally thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the resultant PPEK fibrous mat did not decompose until the temperature reached 478 °C, which qualified the resultant fibrous mat as a promising material used under high-temperature condition.

  13. Relevance of Item Analysis in Standardizing an Achievement Test in Teaching of Physical Science in B.Ed Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, S. Maria Josephine Arokia; Edannur, Sreekala

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on the analysis of test items constructed in the paper of teaching Physical Science for B.Ed. class. It involved the analysis of difficulty level and discrimination power of each test item. Item analysis allows selecting or omitting items from the test, but more importantly item analysis is a tool to help the item writer improve…

  14. MATS: Global coverage estimates for 4CMenB, a novel multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Medini, Duccio; Stella, Maria; Wassil, James

    2015-05-28

    Recently approved in the EU, US, Australia, and Canada, 4CMenB (Bexsero(®), GSK Vaccines) is a multi-component meningococcal B (MenB) vaccine containing 3 surface exposed recombinant proteins (fHbp, NadA, and NHBA) and New Zealand strain outer membrane vesicles (NZ OMV) containing PorA 1.4. The accepted correlate of protection to assess response to MenB vaccines, the serum bactericidal assay with human complement, is impractical for large panels of strains with diverse antigenic profile and expression. Therefore, the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was developed to identify MenB strains with a high likelihood of being covered by 4CMenB. MATS is used to assess MenB strain coverage without requiring sera, an advantage for testing large panels of bacterial isolates. MATS provides an accurate, conservative estimate of 4CMenB coverage. In a public-private partnership, 10 reference laboratories around the world were established and standardized to facilitate the timely collection and analysis of regional data. MATS has global public health implications for informing local policy makers of the predicted effect of the implementation of the 4CMenB vaccine. Coverage estimates are similar to or better than other recently approved vaccines, ranging from 66% to 91%. The use of MATS in post-vaccine implementation surveillance could provide data regarding vaccine effectiveness in the field and duration of protection on a global scale that will aid in the development of vaccine booster schedules, if necessary. This MATS approach could potentially be applied rapidly to assess epidemiology of other bacterial pathogens and coverage by other protein-based vaccines.

  15. Using polymer mats to biodegrade atrazine in groundwater: laboratory column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Franzmann, P. D.; Davis, G. B.; Elbers, J.; Zappia, L. R.

    2002-02-01

    Large-scale column experiments were undertaken to evaluate the potential of in situ polymer mats to deliver oxygen into groundwater to induce biodegradation of the pesticides atrazine, terbutryn and fenamiphos contaminating groundwater in Perth, Western Australia. The polymer mats, composed of woven silicone (dimethylsiloxane) tubes and purged with air, were installed in 2-m-long flow-through soil columns. The polymer mats proved efficient in delivering dissolved oxygen to anaerobic groundwater. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased from <0.2 mg l -1 to approximately 4 mg l -1. Degradation rates of atrazine in oxygenated groundwater were relatively high with a zero-order rate of 240-380 μg l -1 or a first-order half-life of 0.35 days. Amendment with an additional carbon source showed no significant improvement in biodegradation rates, suggesting that organic carbon was not limiting biodegradation. Atrazine degradation rates estimated in the column experiments were similar to rates determined in laboratory culture experiments, using pure cultures of atrazine-mineralising bacteria. No significant degradation of terbutryn or fenamiphos was observed under the experimental conditions within the time frames of the study. Results from these experiments indicate that remediation of atrazine in a contaminated aquifer may be achievable by delivery of oxygen using an in situ polymer mat system.

  16. Multi-excitation magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; He, B.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an approach proposed to do non-invasive electrical conductivity imaging of biological tissue using magnetic induction and ultrasound measurements. In the present study, based on the analysis of the relationship between the conductivity distribution and the generated MAT-MI acoustic source, we propose a new multi-excitation algorithm to achieve better reconstruction of the conductivity distribution. In this algorithm, multiple magnetic excitations using different coil configurations are employed and the ultrasound measurements corresponding to each excitation are collected to derive the conductivity distribution inside the sample. The corresponding modified algorithm is also proposed for MAT-MI imaging when only limited bandwidth acoustic measurements data are available. Computer simulations have been done to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that using this algorithm and unlimited bandwidth data, we can accurately reconstruct the internal conductivity contrast of the object. With limited bandwidth data and using the modified algorithm we can also reconstruct the relative conductivity contrast of the object instead of only the boundaries at the conductivity heterogeneity. Benefits come with this new algorithm include better differentiation of different tissue types with conductivity contrast using MAT-MI approach, specifically for the potential breast cancer screening application in the future.

  17. Using polymer mats to biodegrade atrazine in groundwater: laboratory column experiments.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Franzmann, P D; Davis, G B; Elbers, J; Zappia, L R

    2002-02-01

    Large-scale column experiments were undertaken to evaluate the potential of in situ polymer mats to deliver oxygen into groundwater to induce biodegradation of the pesticides atrazine, terbutryn and fenamiphos contaminating groundwater in Perth, Western Australia. The polymer mats, composed of woven silicone (dimethylsiloxane) tubes and purged with air, were installed in 2-m-long flow-through soil columns. The polymer mats proved efficient in delivering dissolved oxygen to anaerobic groundwater. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased from <0.2 mg l(-1) to approximately 4 mg l(-1). Degradation rates of atrazine in oxygenated groundwater were relatively high with a zero-order rate of 240-380 microg l(-1) or a first-order half-life of 0.35 days. Amendment with an additional carbon source showed no significant improvement in biodegradation rates, suggesting that organic carbon was not limiting biodegradation. Atrazine degradation rates estimated in the column experiments were similar to rates determined in laboratory culture experiments, using pure cultures of atrazine-mineralising bacteria. No significant degradation of terbutryn or fenamiphos was observed under the experimental conditions within the time frames of the study. Results from these experiments indicate that remediation of atrazine in a contaminated aquifer may be achievable by delivery of oxygen using an in situ polymer mat system.

  18. Relationships Among Test Anxiety, Evaluative Experiences, and Achievement Motivation of Children in Grades 2 Through 6. Final Report and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kennedy T.; And Others

    This research seeks to develop a theory of children's achievement motivation and to move research in the direction of greater educational application. Five studies demonstrate that: (1) high anxious children function very poorly on basic arithmetic skills in conditions involving time pressure and some failure but do almost as well as low anxious…

  19. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  20. Standard Setting and Risk Preference: An Elaboration of the Theory of Achievement Motivation and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Julius

    1978-01-01

    A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)

  1. The Validity of the Elementary Modern Language Aptitude Test for French Language Achievement in Grades Seven and Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Frank B. W.; Kieser, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the EMLAT, its content, norms used, types of questions and results. Statistical tables are included. The conclusion is that the EMLAT has predictive validity for achievement in French language whether the method used is traditional or audio-lingual. The first two subtests contribute most as predictors. (AMH)

  2. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  3. The Rigor/Relevance Framework(c): Its Relationship to K-12 Student Achievement on Statewide Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Catherine Colagross

    2013-01-01

    This study generated empirical evidence about the characteristics of effective professional development for K-12 teachers and explored the relationship between professional development and student achievement. This study provided evidence about whether characteristics found in past studies could also be found in the Rigor/Relevance Framework, a…

  4. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  5. The Symbols Are in the Music: An Investigation of Eighth Graders' Mathematics Connecticut Mastery Test Achievement and Musical Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical achievement is a student's success or failure on an examination of performance in the area of mathematics (Jensen, 1993). In order for students to be successful in the area of mathematics, they benefit substantially from participating in high-interest activities (Trautwein, Ludtke, & Marsh, 2006). Music is one high-interest activity…

  6. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  7. Bioremediation of metals, organic and mixed contaminants with microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Cyanobacteria mats are generated for bioremediation applications by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats have been used to reduce selenate to elemental selenium, remove Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe and Mn from water and to remove Pb from sediments of shallow laboratory ponds. Uranium, U{sup 238}, was removed from groundwater samples at the rate of 3.19 Mg/m{sup 2}/h. Degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants by mats is relatively rapid under both dark and light conditions. The following contaminants have been degraded in water and/or soil media by constructed mats: TNT, chrysene, naphthalene, hexadecane, phenanthrene, PCB, TCE, pulp and paper mill wastes, and three pesticides: chlordane, carbofuran and paraquat. Radio-labeled experiments with mat-treated carbofuran, petroleum distillates, TNT, chlordane, PCB and TCE show that these compounds are mineralized by the constructed mats. Mats applied to mixed contaminant solutions (TCE + Zn and TNT + pb) sequestered the metal while mineralizing the TCE. Remediation rates of the organic and inorganic components were the same in mixed solution as they were in single application.

  8. Reduced Gas Cycling in Microbial Mats: Implications for Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    For more than half the history of life on Earth, biological productivity was dominated by photosynthetic microbial mats. During this time, mats served as the preeminent biological influence on earth's surface and atmospheric chemistry and also as the primary crucible for microbial evolution. We find that modern analogs of these ancient mat communities generate substantial quantities of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. Escape of these gases from the biosphere would contribute strongly to atmospheric evolution and potentially to the net oxidation of earth's surface; sequestration within the biosphere carries equally important implications for the structure, function, and evolution of anaerobic microbial communities within the context of mat biology.

  9. Following the kinetics: iron-oxidizing microbial mats in cold icelandic volcanic habitats and their rock-associated carbonaceous signature.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Kelly, Laura C; Summers, Stephen; Marteinsson, Viggo

    2011-09-01

    Icelandic streams with mean annual temperatures of less than 5 °C, which receive the cationic products of basaltic rock weathering, were found to host mats of iron-cycling microorganisms. We investigated two representative sites. Iron-oxidizing Gallionella and iron-reducing Geobacter species were present. The mats host a high bacterial diversity as determined by culture-independent methods. β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were abundant microbial taxa. The mat contained a high number of phototroph sequences. The carbon compounds in the mat displayed broad G and D bands with Raman spectroscopy. This signature becomes incorporated into the weathered oxidized surface layer of the basaltic rocks and was observed on rocks that no longer host mats. The presence of iron-oxidizing taxa in the stream microbial mats, and the lack of them in previously studied volcanic rocks in Iceland that have intermittently been exposed to surface water flows, can be explained by the kinetic limitations to the extraction of reduced iron from rocks. This type of ecosystem illustrates key factors that control the distribution of chemolithotrophs in cold volcanic environments. The data show that one promising sample type for which the hypothesis of the existence of past life on Mars can be tested is the surface of volcanic rocks that, previously, were situated within channels carved by flowing water. Our results also show that the carbonaceous signatures of life, if life had occurred, could be found in or on these rocks.

  10. The Administration and Interpretation of Standardized Achievement Tests with Learning Disabled and Behaviorally Disordered Elementary School Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E.

    Several experiments were carried out to determine: (1) whether learning disabled (LD) and behaviorally disordered (BD) students exhibit deficiencies with respect to appropriate test-taking strategies and (2) if so, whether these strategies could be successfully trained. In the test-training evaluation, 92 LD or BD elementary-age students…

  11. Validation of an electronic jump mat to assess stretch-shortening cycle function.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Ian C; Ó Cairealláin, Ainle; Comyns, Thomas M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the concurrent validity of a commonly used electronic switch mat (ESM), or jump mat, compared with force plate (FP) data. The efficiency of collection and accuracy of data are paramount to athlete and player field testing for the strength and conditioning coach who often has access only to a jump mat. Ten subjects from 5 different sporting backgrounds completed 3 squat jumps (SJs), 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs), and 3 drop jumps (DJs). The jumps were performed on an AMTI FP operating at 1,000 Hz with an ESM positioned on top of the platform. All the subjects were experienced with the protocols involved with jump testing. The resulting absolute errors between FP and ESM data were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 m for CMJ, SJ, and DJ heights, respectively. However, the coefficient of variation for the DJ contact time (CT) was 57.25%, CMJ (r = 0.996), and SJ (r = 0.958) heights correlated very strongly with force platform data, and DJ data were not as strong (r = 0.683). Confidence interval tests revealed bias toward CMJ and SJ (p < 0.05). The jump mat can accurately calculate the CMJ height, SJ height, and reactive strength index for all the 3 jump protocols. However, the faster CTs and rapid movements involved in a DJ may limit its reliability when giving measures of CT, flight time, and height jumped for DJs. Strength and conditioning coaches can use such a jump mat device with the confidence that it is accurately producing valid measurements of their athlete's performance for CMJ and SJ slow SSC protocols.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Medium of Instruction on the Science Learning of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Performance on the Science Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan; Tsang, Wing Kwong; Cheung, Sin Pui

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effects of a new Hong Kong policy requiring Chinese as the language of instruction on secondary students' learning of science. Science achievement test scores at 100 secondary schools indicate that previous use of English to teach science may have hampered students' ability to grasp material due to the high-level thinking…

  13. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  14. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  16. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  17. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  18. Gender Differences on the College Board Achievement Tests and the Advanced Placement Examinations: Effect Sizes Versus Some Upper-Tail Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    Gender differences were determined for scores on the 14 College Entrance Examination Board achievement tests taken between 1982 and 1985. Effect sizes showed a tendency for males to score higher relative to females, while the percentage of male examinees increased. Based on Cohen's classification of effect sizes, differences in six of the 14 tests…

  19. What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education. CEE DP 102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarz, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Ouazad, Amine

    2009-01-01

    What makes a test score? There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the exact contribution of school quality, pupil background, and peers in educational achievement. If peers make most of the difference, then diversity and heterogeneous classrooms may narrow the gap between high- and low-performing students. If pupil background is the first…

  20. The Role of Test Hope and Hopelessness in Self-Regulated Learning: Relations between Volitional Strategies, Cognitive Appraisals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buric, Irena; Soric, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships amongst students' test emotions of hope and hopelessness, their antecedents of cognitive control and value appraisals and volitional strategies during learning, as well as their effects on academic achievement in the domain of mathematics, using the control-value theoretical framework. Sample…

  1. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for…

  2. An Examination of the Influence of Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities and Success on Standards Based Achievement Tests in a Suburban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardi, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a difference in high school students' achievement and retention on standardized tests between students who participate in inquiry-based laboratory activities and those that participate in traditional style laboratory activities. Additionally, student and teacher opinions of…

  3. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment). Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly…

  4. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  5. Stromatolites, Metals, Statistics and Microbial Mats: A Complex Interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Initially thought to be relatively 'simple' ecosystems for study, microbial mats have long been considered ideal for any number of research questions. Microbial mats can be found in any number of environments, both natural and manmade, and are typically dependent upon the physiochemical environment for their structure, maintenance and longevity. Ultimately, these and other parameters govern community whereby a microbial mat provides overall ecosystem services to their environment. On the edge of a hotspring in Yellowstone National Park we have found an active microbial mat community that can form a laminated, lithified, accretionary structure that is likely the best example of a living and growing stromatolite. In the outfall channel of the sulfidic Stinking Spring, Utah, we have found examples of both naturally occurring laminated and floating mats where the carbon flux is controlled by abiotic degassing of CO2 rather than metabolism. δ13C-bicarbonate uptake experiments reveal an autotrophic growth rate of 0 - 0.16%/day while δ13C-acetate reveals a higher heterotrophic growth rate of 0.03 - 0.65%/day, which highlights the role of heterotrophs in these mats. Similar growth experiments on Little Hot Creek, California laminated microbial mats reveal a trend for top-down microbial growth with similar microbial taxonomy and diversity to other mat-types. Of a curious note is that incubation experiments with Little Hot Creek mats reveals the importance of particular metals in mat structure and function. Statistically, alpha- and beta-diversity metrics are often used to characterize microbial communities in such systems, but from an analysis of a wastewater treatment system, Hill diversities can better interpret the effective number of species to produce an ecologically intuitive quantity to better understand a microbial mat ecosystem.

  6. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  7. A Comparison of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Stanford-Binet, a Two-Subtest Short Form, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) Brief Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.; McCaffery, Lucy K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship between Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Stanford-Binet, two-subtests short form, and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) with population of 75 academically referred students. K-BIT correlated significantly with Stanford-Binet and K-TEA Math, Reading, and Spelling scores. Results support use of K-BIT as…

  8. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  9. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  10. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  11. Matting of hair: what is the role of conditioners?

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, D; Kontochristopoulos, G; Kalogirou, O; Gregoriou, S; Katsambas, A

    2006-03-01

    Matting of the hair is a very rare and multifactorial condition affecting usually women. We present three female patients with matting of the hair as a result of the shampoo used. In all three cases, cutting of the affected hair was unavoidable. PMID:16503900

  12. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  13. User`s guide to the MATS data

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.

    1990-08-01

    Data collected for the 37 Mesoscale Transport Studies (MATS) experiments are available on a single, double-sided, high-density (1.2MB), IBM-formatted, 5.25 in. floppy disk (MATS disk). Standard ASCII characters are used. This report discusses how to install this disk, symbols used, format of the ratio, and the sample experiment.

  14. Use of constructed mixed microbial mats for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goodroad, L.; Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1995-12-31

    BIOMAT{trademark} (Mats) is a system of constructed microbial mats which are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Mats constructed with specific microbial components have been developed for various bioremediation applications: removal of metals, organic degradation, removal of radionuclides, treatment of mixed contaminants, biological treatment ponds, and soil remediation. Based on the potential applications of the constructed microbial mat system, a pilot scale leachate treatment system has been constructed at the Waste Management, Inc. Outer Loop RDF near Louisville, KY in conjunction with M.A.T.S., Inc. The system consists of two lined lagoons with various constructed mat configurations. Changes in leachate chemistry including: pH, dissolved oxygen, color, nitrate/nitrite and ammonium concentration were monitored on influent and effluent leachate streams and within the pilot system to determine operational characteristics of the constructed microbial mat system. The M.A.T.S., Inc. treatment system is expected to reduce capital costs for leachate treatment plants, decrease leachate treatment operating costs, and create a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} self-contained image for landfills.

  15. Compositions and method of use of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  16. Microbial mats for multiple applications in aquaculture and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Bender, Judith; Phillips, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Microbial mats occur in nature as stratified communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria, but they can be cultured on large-scale and manipulated for a variety of functions. They are complex systems, but require few external inputs. The functional uses of mats broadly cover the areas of aquaculture and bioremediation. Preliminary research also points to promising uses in agriculture and energy production. Regarding aquaculture, mats were shown to produce protein, via nitrogen fixation, and were capable of supplying nutrition to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Current research is examining the role of mats in the nitrification of nutrient-enriched effluents from aquaculture. Most research has addressed bioremediation, within which two majors categories of contaminants were examined: metals and radionuclides, and organic contaminants. Mats sequester or precipitate metals/radionuclides by surface absorption or by conditioning the surrounding chemical environment, thus bioconcentrating the metal/radionuclide in a small volume. Organic contaminants are degraded and may be completely mineralized. For agriculture mats hold promise as a soil amendment and nitrogen fertilizer. The use of mats in biohydrogen production has been verified, but is in a preliminary phase of development. We propose a comprehensive closed system based on microbial mats for aquaculture and waste management.

  17. Biofunctionalized electrospun silk mats as a topical bioactive dressing for accelerated wound healing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A; Wang, X Y; Kaplan, D L; Garlick, J A; Egles, C

    2009-09-01

    Materials able to deliver topically bioactive molecules represent a new generation of biomaterials. In this article, we describe the use of silk mats, made of electrospun nanoscale silk fibers containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), for the promotion of wound healing processes. In our experiments, we demonstrated that EGF is incorporated into the silk mats and slowly released in a time-dependent manner (25% EGF release in 170h). We tested these materials using a new model of wounded human skin-equivalents displaying the same structure as human skin and able to heal using the same molecular and cellular mechanisms found in vivo. This human three-dimensional model allows us to demonstrate that the biofunctionalized silk mats, when placed on the wounds as a dressing, aid the healing by increasing the time of wound closure by the epidermal tongue by 90%. The preservation of the structure of the mats during the healing period as demonstrated by electronic microscopy, the biological action of the dressing, as well as the biocompatibility of the silk demonstrate that this biomaterial is a new and very promising material for medical applications, especially for patients suffering from chronic wounds.

  18. How does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessner, Micheal J.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the affects of hands-on, inquiry-based instruction on student science achievement in a high-stakes testing environment. Hands-on, inquiry-based science has become a popular way of teaching science because it is inviting and interesting for students. However, the question remains: Does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement? A quasi-experimental design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative portion consisted of data collected from Student Surveys and individual science achievement scores for fifth-grade students at three participating schools in a large, suburban school district. The qualitative portion consisted of data collected using a Science Kit Usage Checklist, an open ended Teacher Survey of 5 fifth-grade science teachers, and Teacher Interviews for 3 fifth-grade science teachers. Descriptive analysis was utilized, and emerging codes and themes were identified for teacher education, science kit training, and understanding and implementation of science kits. Data and methods triangulation were employed (Berg, 2006; Patten, 2005) All data were utilized to determine if implementation of Science Kits impacted science achievement scores in a high stakes testing environment. Results indicated a general improvement of students meeting mastery of the fifth-grade science state assessment when kits were implemented. Teacher fidelity and high implementation were validated with Student and Teacher Surveys. Themes emerged involving training, time, student response, impact on instruction, impact on achievement scores, instructional organization, and instructional changes in future implementation. District supported training and materials led to teacher and student enjoyment of science kits, which led to implementation. Implementation then led to higher fifth-grade science achievement scores.

  19. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet:IV, and academic achievement test scores in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for young children (3-7 years of age) on the Stanford-Binet:IV (n = 53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n = 63). Stanford-Binet:IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ (< 80) and high-IQ (> or = 80) groups, with high scores on visual matching tests (Bead Memory and Quantitative Reasoning). The low- and high-WISC-III IQ groups both performed well relative to IQ on tests of lexical knowledge (Similarities, Information, and Vocabulary), but not on language comprehension and social reasoning (Comprehension). The low-IQ group did best on visuo-motor subtests (Object Assembly and Block Design), but the high-IQ group did not. The high-IQ group had significantly low scores on the Digit Span, Arithmetic, Coding, VMI, and WIAT Written Expression tests, suggesting attention and writing weaknesses.

  20. Insights about fracture shape and aperture from push-pull thermal tracer tests achieved at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bour, Olivier; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Lavenant, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of transport patterns in fractured media is a challenging task. Different transport mechanisms are generally contributing: dispersion at fracture scale related to aperture variability, dispersion at network scale due to transport in different flowpaths and matrix diffusion. It is however difficult to know which mechanism is dominant. In this study we test the interest of heat tracer tests for providing new constraints on transport in fractured media by interpreting three push-pull tests of different duration. A series of heat and solute push-pull tracer test with Dirac-type injection was conducted in fractured aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The comparison of solute and heat breakthrough curves shows that due to thermal loss to the rock matrix temperature recovery peak arrives earlier than concentration peak. Moreover, the peak is significantly smaller for temperature recovery while it exhibits a longest tailing. Finally, we found that the recovered peak temperature decreases with scale and has a power law slope of -1 on a log-log plot. By means of flow and heat numerical model, we investigate the relevance of different conceptual models: single 'plate', 'tube' and 'ellipse' homogeneous fracture models at different scales. For all tested fracture geometries temperature breakthrough curves were found to be sensitive to fracture aperture. An 'elliptical tube' fracture model was found to provide the best fit to the data and based on this model, we were able to estimate the aperture of the fracture in the present case. Moreover, the comparison of experimental breakthrough curves and modelling results also suggests that the effective fracture aperture may increase with scale. This work emphasizes that multiple-scale push-pull thermal tests can provide valuable insights on fracture geometry and fracture aperture.

  1. Comparison of experimental and analytical temperatures achieved by DT-18 and PC-1 shipping containers during hypothetical thermal accident tests

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    Temperatures were monitored at various locations on DT-18 and PC-1 shipping packages during furnace tests at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The furnace tests are intended to simulate hypothetical thermal accident conditions specified in Title 10 CFR, Pt. 71.73 (c)(3). Maximum temperatures of the outer containers ranged from 750 to 965{degrees}C while typical maximum temperatures recorded on the inner containers were 60 to 77{degrees}C. One exceptionally high temperature of 196{degrees}C occurred on the PC-1 inner container. Heating 7.1 models of both the DT-18 and PC-1 packages were developed. Models with and without heat generation in the inner containers were developed for each shipping package. The models with heat generation are intended to simulate condensation and convection of hot vapors generated during the heating of the Celotex{trademark} insulating material used in the packages. In general, the analytical models calculate temperatures for the outer containers which agree well with the test data. The HEATING models with and without heat generation bound the inner container test data. These findings are significant in that they lead to the conclusion that heat is transferred to the inner containers through a mechanism other than conduction alone. The high temperature of 196{degrees}C recorded at the PC-1 inner container is within 4{degrees}C of the maximum temperature calculated by the PC-1 HEATING model with heat generation.

  2. Applied Cognition: Testing the Effects of Independent Silent Reading on Secondary Students' Achievement and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.; Irving, Miles A.; Russell, L. Roxanne

    2014-01-01

    This study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program with 145 10th grade students. Students were measured on total reading ability, vocabulary, reading comprehension, a state-mandated high stakes end-of-course test (EOCT), and reading attribution. After controlling for initial skill and disposition levels, the results indicated that…

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Word-Association Test as a Measure of Academic Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, William N.

    A simply constructed, psychometrically sound testing procedure which enables the instructor to assess higher cognitive process with respect to the material in questions, and which is amenable to machine scoring, is described. It involves the application of the word association technique long used in psychoanalysis to the classroom setting. The…

  4. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  5. A Historical Perspective of Testing and Assessment Including the Impact of Summative and Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Carole Sanger

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, Georgia developed a comprehensive framework to define what students need to know. One component of this framework emphasizes the use of both formative and summative assessments as part of an integral and specific component of the teachers. performance evaluation. Georgia administers the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) to every…

  6. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  7. The Development and Testing of Laboratory Performance Tasks for the Assessment of Achievement in High School Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, Joan Marie

    The quest to stem "the rising tide of mediocrity" described in A Nation at Risk has prompted a myriad of changes in secondary science instruction. Appropriate assessments of these changes in curriculum are crucial to a meaningful evaluation of their effectiveness. Because the nature of many of the improvements has been to engage students in higher order thinking skills, simple paper and pencil tests are often inconclusive evaluation measures. Research has shown a more definitive assessment of a student's ability to apply higher order thinking skills is possible with tests of performance in problem-solving tasks in a science laboratory. The Physics Laboratory Skills Test (PLST) was developed as a prototype assessment instrument for evaluation of student ability to perform a range of process skills in the high school physics laboratory setting. The PLST included seven different items based on topics presented in a typical high school physics course. Each item constituted a separate laboratory performance test and was completed by individual students in a 40 minute class period. A sample of 219 physics students from rural, urban, public, and private schools in NY and PA were tested with the PLST in May 1990. Results of this study show that the PLST has usability, validity, and reliability as an assessment of basic skills (measuring and reporting) and higher order skills (planning and analysis). Participating teachers determined the PLST to be an appropriate and useful tool in evaluating individual student abilities. Content validity was established via evaluation by 'expert' high school physics teachers. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to verify construct validity (r =.49) and inter-rater reliability (r =.81). The Cronbach Coefficient Alpha, which was used to determine internal consistency of each item, yielded strong positive results for the PLST. The outcomes of this study will be of particular interest to curriculum developers and classroom teachers

  8. Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

  9. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  10. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1–4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  11. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

  12. Using State Tests vs. Study-Administered Tests to Measure Student Achievement: An Empirical Assessment Based on Four Recent Randomized Evaluations of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Pei; Somers, Marie-Andree; Wong, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    For this project, the authors use data from four IES-sponsored randomized studies to examine some of the key issues identified in May et. al. (2009). The first set of questions focuses on issues related to using state tests: (1) Do studies meet the assumptions needed for combining impacts on state tests across grades and/or states?; (2) How…

  13. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  14. Benthic Marine Cyanobacterial Mat Ecosystems: Biogeochemistry and Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are complete ecosystems that can include processes of primary production, diagenesis and lithification. Light sustains oxygenic photosynthesis, which in turn provides energy, organic matter and oxygen to the community. Due to both absorption and scattering phenomena, incident light is transformed with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition. Mobile photo synthesizers optimize their position with respect to this light gradient. When photosynthesis ceases at night, the upper layers of the mat become reduced and sulfidic. Counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide combine to provide daily-contrasting environments separated on a scale of a few mm. The functional complexity of mats, coupled with the highly proximal and ordered spatial arrangement of biota, offers the potential for a staggering number of interactions. At a minimum, the products of each functional group of microorganisms affect the other groups both positively and negatively. For example, cyanobacteria generate organic matter (potential substrates) but also oxygen (a toxin for many anaerobes). Anaerobic activity recycles nutrients to the photosynthesizers but also generates potentially toxic sulfide. The combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods, and to various depths in the mat. Observations of mats have produced numerous surprises. For example, obligately anaerobic processes can occur in the presence of abundant oxygen, highly reduced gases are produced in the presence of abundant sulfate, meiofauna thrive at high sulfide concentrations, and the mats' constituent populations respond to environmental changes in complex ways. While photosynthetic bacteria dominate the biomass and productivity of the mat, nonphotosynthetic, anaerobic processes constitute the ultimate biological filter on the ecosystem's emergent biosignatures, including those

  15. Characterization and Modification of Electrospun Fiber Mats for Use in Composite Proton Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarino, Matthew Marchand

    conducting material or forms a continuous fuel-blocking film. The LbL component consists of a proton-conducting, methanolimpermeable poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)/sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (PDAC/sPPO) thin film. The electrospun fiber component consists of PA 6(3)T fibers of average diameter between 400 and 800 nm, in a nonwoven matrix of 60-90% porosity depending on the temperature of thermal annealing utilized to improve the mechanical properties. This thesis demonstrates the versatility and flexibility of this fabrication technique, since any ion conducting LbL system may be sprayed onto any electrospun fiber mat, allowing for independent control of functionality and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the spray coated electrospun mats are shown to be superior to the LbL-only system, and possess intrinsically greater dimensional stability and lower mechanical hysteresis than Nafion under hydration cycling. The electrochemical selectivity of the composite LbL-electrospun membrane is found to be superior to Nafion, which makes them a viable alternative proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications. The composite proton exchange membranes fabricated in this work were tested in an operational direct methanol fuel cell, with results showing the capability for higher open circuit voltages (OCV) and comparable cell resistances when compared to Nafion. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

  16. Electrospun lignin-derived carbon nanofiber mats surface-decorated with MnO2 nanowhiskers as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Kolla, Praveen; Zhao, Yong; Smirnova, Alevtina L.; Fong, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore innovative materials for the development of next-generation supercapacitor electrodes. The hypothesis is that, upon the surface-decoration with appropriate amount of MnO2 nanowhiskers, freestanding and highly graphitic electrospun carbon nanofiber (ECNF) mats (with fiber diameters of ∼200 nm and BET specific surface areas of ∼583 m2 g-1) derived from a natural product of lignin would be binder-free supercapacitor electrodes with high performance. To test the hypothesis, the ECNF mats have been prepared first; thereafter, the acquired ECNF mats have been surface-decorated with varied amounts of MnO2 nanowhiskers to prepare three types of ECNF/MnO2 mats. The morphological and structural properties of ECNF and ECNF/MnO2 mats are characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD, the weight percentages of MnO2 nanowhiskers in three ECNF/MnO2 mats are determined by thermal gravimetric analysis; while the electrochemical performance of each mat/electrode is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge method, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study reveals that, all of the three ECNF/MnO2 mats/electrodes have significantly enhanced electrochemical performances compared to the ECNF mat/electrode; while the ECNF/MnO2 (1:1) mat/electrode exhibits the highest gravimetric capacitance of 83.3 F g-1, energy density of 84.3 W h kg-1, and power density of 5.72 kW kg-1.

  17. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  18. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  19. Mobile multimedia antenna systems for station wagons and the achievable diversity effectiveness obtained by analysis of virtual test drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, J. F.; Lindenmeier, H. K.; Reiter, L. M.

    2003-04-01

    For modern cars, antennas are required for AM reception, FM and TV diversity reception, weatherband reception (USA), terrestrial digital radio, remote control functions, keyless entry, mobile phone for all worldwide used systems, GPS, and in the future, satellite broadcast radio services. Those services cover the frequency range from 150 kHz up to 2.4 GHz. Such kind of a multiantenna system developed for station wagons is presented in this paper. The obtainable FM and TV diversity effectiveness is discussed for several types of antenna arrangements in detail. This value is the number of fictitious completely decorrelated antenna signals and is obtained by virtual test drives. The characteristic of the respective antennas under test is introduced in the software as antenna pattern, measured or calculated with respect to amplitude and phase. During the computer analysis the car with the antennas is driven virtually through a Rayleigh field scenario with desired and undesired signals.

  20. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet: IV, and Academic Achievement Test Scores in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for children (ages 3-7) on the Stanford-Binet: IV (n=53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n=63). Stanford-Binet: IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ and high-IQ groups with high scores on visual matching tests. (Contains…

  1. A Recombinationally Repressed Region between Mat2 and Mat3 Loci Shares Homology to Centromeric Repeats and Regulates Directionality of Mating-Type Switching in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, SIS.; Klar, AJS.

    1997-01-01

    Cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switch mating type by replacing genetic information at the transcriptionally active mat1 locus with sequences copied from one of two closely linked silent loci, mat2-P or mat3-M. By a process referred to as directionality of switching, cells predominantly switch to the opposite mat1 allele; the mat1-P allele preferentially recombines with mat3, while mat1-M selects the mat2. In contrast to efficient recombination at mat1, recombination within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval is undetectable. We defined the role of sequences between mat2 and mat3, designated the K-region, in directionality as well as recombinational suppression. Cloning and sequencing analysis revealed that a part of the K-region is homologous to repeat sequences present at centromeres, which also display transcriptional and recombinational suppression. Replacement of 7.5 kb of the K-region with the ura4(+) gene affected directionality in a variegated manner. Analysis of the swi6-mod locus, which was previously shown to affect directionality, in KΔ::ura4(+) strains suggested the existence of at least two overlapping directionality mechanisms. Our work furthers the model that directionality is regulated by cell-type-specific organization of the heterochromatin-like structure in the mating-type region and provides evidence that the K-region contributes to silencing of the mat2-mat3 interval. PMID:9258669

  2. Identification of the DNA sequences controlling the expression of the MAT alpha locus of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Siliciano, P G; Tatchell, K

    1986-01-01

    We have excised a 28-base-pair DNA fragment from the MAT alpha intergenic region and tested its ability to direct diploid-specific transcriptional repression. This fragment (1643-1671, 5'-GCTTCCCAATGTAGAAAAGTACA-TCATA-3') lies within a region required for the normal diploid-specific repression of the MAT alpha transcripts. First, the fragment was inserted into a 53-base-pair MAT alpha deletion that expresses alpha 1 and alpha 2 constitutively. Insertion of the fragment restores proper diploid regulation to the MAT alpha transcripts: alpha 1 mRNA is strongly repressed and alpha 2 mRNA is reduced by a factor of approximately equal to 10 from its haploid level. The fragment works equally well in either orientation, and two copies of the fragment do not lead to stronger repression than a single copy. We also inserted the fragment at three sites upstream of the CYC1-lacZ fusion gene. Insertions placing the regulatory fragment between the CYC1 upstream activator sequence (UAS) and the coding region make beta-galactosidase efficiently in alpha haploids but produce 1/40th the enzyme in a/alpha diploids. This diploid-specific repression requires functional MATa-1 gene product. Insertion of the MAT fragment on the opposite side of the UAS (37 base pairs upstream of the UAS) also caused diploid repression of the fusion gene, but only by a factor of 7. When the regulatory fragment is inserted at a large distance on the far side of the UAS (375 base pairs), it has little if any effect on beta-galactosidase expression. We postulate that this sequence is the operator recognized by the diploid-specific repressor. Images PMID:3517864

  3. Metagenomic analysis of stress genes in microbial mat communities from Antarctica and the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Lovejoy, Connie; Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Corbeil, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Polar and alpine microbial communities experience a variety of environmental stresses, including perennial cold and freezing; however, knowledge of genomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of cyanobacterial mats from Arctic and Antarctic ice shelves, using high-throughput pyrosequencing to test the hypotheses that consortia from these extreme polar habitats were similar in terms of major phyla and subphyla and consequently in their potential responses to environmental stresses. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes showed similarities between the mats from the two poles, with the majority of genes derived from Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria; however, the relative proportions differed, with cyanobacterial genes more prevalent in the Antarctic mat metagenome. Other differences included a higher representation of Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria in the Arctic metagenomes, which may reflect the greater access to diasporas from both adjacent ice-free lands and the open ocean. Genes coding for functional responses to environmental stress (exopolysaccharides, cold shock proteins, and membrane modifications) were found in all of the metagenomes. However, in keeping with the greater exposure of the Arctic to long-range pollutants, sequences assigned to copper homeostasis genes were statistically (30%) more abundant in the Arctic samples. In contrast, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the Antarctic mat, likely reflecting the more severe osmotic stress during freeze-up of the Antarctic ponds. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to cold and other stresses in polar mats, consistent with the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. PMID:22081564

  4. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions.

  5. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO2/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-Il; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-15

    Silver-impregnated TiO(2)/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO(2)/nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO(2) NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO(3) to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO(2) NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO(2)/nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO(2)/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused.

  6. First insights into fern matK phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Yaung; Li, Fay-Wei; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Wang, Chun-Neng

    2011-06-01

    MatK, the only maturase gene in the land plant plastid genome, is a very popular phylogenetic marker that has been extensively applied in reconstructing angiosperm phylogeny. However, the use of matK in fern phylogeny is largely unknown, due to difficulties with amplification: ferns have lost the flanking trnK exons, typically the region used for designing stable priming sites. We developed primers that are either universal or lineage-specific that successfully amplify matK across all fern families. To evaluate whether matK is as powerful a phylogenetic marker in ferns as in angiosperms, we compared its sequence characteristics and phylogenetic performance to those of rbcL and atpA. Among these three genes, matK has the highest variability and substitution evenness, yet shows the least homoplasy. Most importantly, applying matK in fern phylogenetics better resolved relationships among families, especially within eupolypods I and II. Here we demonstrate the power of matK for fern phylogenetic reconstruction, as well as provide primers and extensive sequence data that will greatly facilitate future evolutionary studies of ferns.

  7. Potential for bioremediating using constructed mixed microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Goodroad, L.; Bender, J.; Phillips, P.; Gould, J.; Saha, G.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Vatcharapijarn, Y.; Lee, R.; Word, J.

    1994-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various Microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Constructed microbial mats can be generated rapidly by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats are durable, tolerant to a variety of toxins and resilient under changing environmental conditions. The mats can he designed for specific tasks by inoculating the cyanobacteria/silage with selected microorganisms. Mats constructed with specific microbial components have been developed for various bioremediation applications: removal of metals, organic degradation, treatment of mixed contaminants, biological treatment ponds, and soil remediation. Constructed mats offer a broad range of mechanisms related to the sequestration of heavy metals, the biodegradation of recalcitrant organic compounds, and the remediation of mixed organic/inorganic contaminants such as TCE and carbofuran with heavy metals.

  8. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  9. The MAT Locus Genes Play Different Roles in Sexual Reproduction and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  10. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks.

  11. Benchscale Assessment of the Efficacy of a Reactive Core Mat to Isolate PAH-spiked Aquatic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Meric, Dogus; Barbuto, Sara; Sheahan, Thomas C; Shine, James P; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a benchscale testing program to assess the efficacy of a reactive core mat (RCM) for short term isolation and partial remediation of contaminated, subaqueous sediments. The 1.25 cm thick RCM (with a core reactive material such as organoclay with filtering layers on top and bottom) is placed on the sediment, and approximately 7.5 - 10 cm of overlying soil is placed on the RCM for stability and protection. A set of experiments were conducted to measure the sorption characteristics of the mat core (organoclay) and sediment used in the experiments, and to determine the fate of semi-volatile organic contaminants and non-reactive tracers through the sediment and reactive mat. The experimental study was conducted on naphthalene-spiked Neponset River (Milton, MA) sediment. The results show nonlinear sorption behavior for organoclay, with sorption capacity increasing with increasing naphthalene concentration. Neponset River sediment showed a notably high sorption capacity, likely due to the relatively high organic carbon fraction (14%). The fate and transport experiments demonstrated the short term efficiency of the reactive mat to capture the contamination that is associated with the post-capping period during which the highest consolidation-induced advective flux occurs, driving solid particles, pore fluid and soluble contaminants toward the reactive mat. The goal of the mat placement is to provide a physical filtering and chemically reactive layer to isolate contamination from the overlying water column. An important finding is that because of the high sorption capacity of the Neponset River sediment, the physical filtering capability of the mat is as critical as its chemical reactive capacity.

  12. Benchscale Assessment of the Efficacy of a Reactive Core Mat to Isolate PAH-spiked Aquatic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Meric, Dogus; Barbuto, Sara; Sheahan, Thomas C.; Shine, James P.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a benchscale testing program to assess the efficacy of a reactive core mat (RCM) for short term isolation and partial remediation of contaminated, subaqueous sediments. The 1.25 cm thick RCM (with a core reactive material such as organoclay with filtering layers on top and bottom) is placed on the sediment, and approximately 7.5 – 10 cm of overlying soil is placed on the RCM for stability and protection. A set of experiments were conducted to measure the sorption characteristics of the mat core (organoclay) and sediment used in the experiments, and to determine the fate of semi-volatile organic contaminants and non-reactive tracers through the sediment and reactive mat. The experimental study was conducted on naphthalene-spiked Neponset River (Milton, MA) sediment. The results show nonlinear sorption behavior for organoclay, with sorption capacity increasing with increasing naphthalene concentration. Neponset River sediment showed a notably high sorption capacity, likely due to the relatively high organic carbon fraction (14%). The fate and transport experiments demonstrated the short term efficiency of the reactive mat to capture the contamination that is associated with the post-capping period during which the highest consolidation-induced advective flux occurs, driving solid particles, pore fluid and soluble contaminants toward the reactive mat. The goal of the mat placement is to provide a physical filtering and chemically reactive layer to isolate contamination from the overlying water column. An important finding is that because of the high sorption capacity of the Neponset River sediment, the physical filtering capability of the mat is as critical as its chemical reactive capacity. PMID:24367237

  13. Using Intact Iron Microbial Mats to Gain Insights Into Mat Ecology and Geochemical Niche at the Microbial Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, B. T.; Chan, C. S. Y.; Mcallister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are formed by microorganisms working in coordinated symbiosis, often benefitting the community by controlling the local geochemical or physical environment. Thus, the ecology of the mat depends on the individual roles of microbes organized into niches within a larger architecture. Chemolithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) form distinctive Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals which constitute the building blocks of the mat. However, the majority of our progress has been in understanding the overall community structure. Understanding the physical mat structure on the microbial scale is important to unraveling FeOB evolution, the biogeochemistry and ecology of Fe-rich habitats, and ultimately interpreting FeOB biosignatures in the rock record. Mats in freshwater and marine environments contain strikingly similar biomineral morphologies, yet they are formed by phylogenetically distinct microorganisms. This suggests that the overall architecture and underlying genetics of freshwater and marine mats has evolved to serve particular roles specific to Fe oxidation. Thus, we conducted a comparative study of Fe seep freshwater mats and marine hydrothermal mats. We have developed a new approach to sampling Fe mats in order to preserve the delicate structure for analysis by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Our analyses of these intact mats show that freshwater and marine mats are similarly initiated by a single type of structure-former. These ecosystem engineers form either a hollow sheath or a twisted stalk biomineral during mat formation, with a highly directional structure. These microbes appear to be the vanguard organisms that anchor the community within oxygen/Fe(II) gradients, further allowing for community succession in the mat interior as evidenced by other mineralized morphologies. Patterns in biomineral thickness and directionality were indicative of redox gradients and temporal changes in the geochemical environment. These observations show that

  14. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  15. 1974-75 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program; February 1975 Achievement Testing Program. School Performance Distributions: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Jules

    This is a report of pupil performance in Philadelphia schools based upon the February 1975 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program involving all pupils in kindergarten through grade 12. School performance distributions show the combined percentages of pupils in each school scoring within various national percentile rank ranges. The performance…

  16. An Innovative Method for Testing Children's Achievement-Related Reactions: Recording Feelings of Helplessness by Means of an Intelligence Test-Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titscher, Anna; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based on the work of Dweck (2000) and her description of helpless and mastery-orientated children, was designed to find a new, simple and economic way of assessing helplessness while testing a child's intelligence. Two hundred and thirty-two Austrian grammar-school children, previously classified as either helpless or…

  17. Hydrogel–Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Coatings for Neural Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ning; Rao, Shreyas S.; Johnson, Jed; Parikh, Kunal S.; Bradley, Patrick A.; Lannutti, John J.; Winter, Jessica O.

    2011-01-01

    Achieving stable, long-term performance of implanted neural prosthetic devices has been challenging because of implantation related neuron loss and a foreign body response that results in encapsulating glial scar formation. To improve neuron–prosthesis integration and form chronic, stable interfaces, we investigated the potential of neurotrophin-eluting hydrogel–electrospun fiber mat (EFM) composite coatings. In particular, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEGPCL) hydrogel–poly(ε-caprolactone) EFM composites were applied as coatings for multielectrode arrays. Coatings were stable and persisted on electrode surfaces for over 1 month under an agarose gel tissue phantom and over 9 months in a PBS immersion bath. To demonstrate drug release, a neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), was loaded in the PEGPCL hydrogel layer, and coating cytotoxicity and sustained NGF release were evaluated using a PC12 cell culture model. Quantitative MTT assays showed that these coatings had no significant toxicity toward PC12 cells, and neurite extension at day 7 and 14 confirmed sustained release of NGF at biologically significant concentrations for at least 2 weeks. Our results demonstrate that hydrogel–EFM composite materials can be applied to neural prostheses to improve neuron–electrode proximity and enhance long-term device performance and function. PMID:21441993

  18. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  19. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    Floating fens are valuable wetlands, found in North-Western Europe, that are formed by floating root mats when old turf ponds are colonized by plants. These terrestrialization ecosystems are known for their biodiversity and the presence of rare plant species, and the root mats reveal different vegetation zones at a small scale. The vegetation zones are a result of strong gradients in abiotic conditions, including groundwater dynamics, nutrients and pH. To prevent irreversible drought effects such as land subsidence and mineralization of peat, water management involves import of water from elsewhere to maintain constant surface water levels. Imported water may have elevated levels of salinity during dry summers, and salt exposure may threaten the vegetation. To assess the risk of exposure of the rare plant species to salinity, the hydrology of such root mats must be understood. Physical properties of root mats have scarcely been investigated. We have measured soil characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, vertical root mat movement and groundwater dynamics in a floating root mat in the nature reserve Nieuwkoopse Plassen, in the Netherlands. The root mat mostly consists of roots and organic material, in which the soil has a high saturated water content, and strongly varies in its stage of decomposition. We have found a distinct negative correlation between degree of decomposition and hydraulic conductivity, similar to observations for bogs in the literature. Our results show that the relatively young, thin edge of the root mat that colonizes the surface water has a high hydraulic conductivity and floats in the surface water, resulting in very small groundwater fluctuations within the root mat. The older part of the root mat, that is connected to the deeper peat layers is hydrologically more isolated and the material has a lower conductivity. Here, the groundwater fluctuates strongly with atmospheric forcing. The zones of hydraulic properties and vegetation, appear to

  20. Electrospun graphene-ZnO nanofiber mats for photocatalysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Min Wook; Kim, Na Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2014-03-01

    Graphene-decorated zinc oxide (G-ZnO) nanofibers were fabricated, for the first time, by electrospinning. The effect of graphene concentration on the properties of G-ZnO mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis. The G-ZnO mats decorated with 0.5 wt.% of graphene showed excellent photocatalytic activity through degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity (80% degradation) was observed for 0.5 wt.% G-ZnO mats annealed at 400 °C after 4 h of UV irradiation.

  1. Protocyanobacteria: Oxygenic and Anoxygenic photosynthesis in mat-forming bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The oldest record of life is preserved in prePhanerozoic stromatolites dated 3500 million years old and is most likely of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria. The sedimentary records of cyanobacterial mats in stromatolites are the most abundant record of life throughout the prePhanerozoic. Stromatolites persisted into the Phanerozoic Eon, yet they become much less pronounced relative to earlier ones. The abundance and persistence of cyanobacterial mats throughout most of geological time point to the evolutionary success of these kinds of microbial communities and their possible role in the evolution of the earth and atmosphere.

  2. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  3. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  4. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  5. A pilot study on the improvement of the lying area of finishing pigs by a soft lying mat.

    PubMed

    Savary, Pascal; Gygax, Lorenz; Jungbluth, Thomas; Wechsler, Beat; Hauser, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested whether a soft mat (foam covered with a heat-sealed thermoplastic) reduces alterations and injuries at the skin and the leg joints.The soft mat in the lying area of partly slatted pens was compared to a lying area consisting of either bare or slightly littered (100 g straw per pig and day) concrete flooring. In this study we focused on skin lesions on the legs of finishing pigs as indicators of impaired welfare. Pigs were kept in 19 groups of 8-10 individuals and were examined for skin lesions around the carpal and tarsal joints either at a weight of <35 kg, or at close to 100 kg. The likelihood of hairless patches and wounds at the tarsal joints was significantly lower in pens with the soft lying mat than in pens with a bare concrete floor. Pens with a littered concrete floor did not differ compared to pens with a bare concrete floor. The soft lying mat thus improved floor quality in the lying area in terms of preventing skin lesions compared to bare and slightly littered concrete flooring. Such soft lying mats have thus the potential to improve lying comfort and welfare of finishing pigs.

  6. Silver ions/ovalbumin films layer-by-layer self-assembled polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous mats and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Rukun; Yan, Jinjiao; Xu, Shasha; Wang, Yuntao; Ye, Ting; Chang, Jing; Deng, Hongbing; Li, Bin

    2013-08-01

    The CN groups of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can strongly adsorb silver ions. The possibility of using this attraction as a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly driving force was investigated. Firstly, the surface of the PAN nanofibrous mats was modified by silver ions to make sure it was positively charged. Then oppositely charged ovalbumin (OVA) and silver ions in aqueous media were alternatively deposited onto the surface of the obtained composite mats by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The morphology of the LBL films coating mats was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The deposition of silver ions and OVA was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal degradation properties were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Besides these, the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of the prepared mats were studied via flow cytometry (FCM) and inhibition zone test, respectively. The results showed that the composite mats after LBL self-assembly processing exhibited improved thermal stability, slightly decreased cytotoxicity, and excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coil and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23563300

  7. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. Methods We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Results Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals’ general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Conclusions Home HTC with follow

  8. Scribble tracker: a matting-based approach for robust tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jialue; Shen, Xiaohui; Wu, Ying

    2012-08-01

    Model updating is a critical problem in tracking. Inaccurate extraction of the foreground and background information in model adaptation would cause the model to drift and degrade the tracking performance. The most direct yet difficult solution to the drift problem is to obtain accurate boundaries of the target. We approach such a solution by proposing a novel model adaptation framework based on the combination of matting and tracking. In our framework, coarse tracking results automatically provide sufficient and accurate scribbles for matting, which makes matting applicable in a tracking system. Meanwhile, accurate boundaries of the target can be obtained from matting results even when the target has large deformation. An effective model combining short-term features and long-term appearances is further constructed and successfully updated based on such accurate boundaries. The model can successfully handle occlusion by explicit inference. Extensive experiments show that our adaptation scheme largely avoids model drift and significantly outperforms other discriminative tracking models. PMID:22745003

  9. A Modular Sensorized Mat for Monitoring Infant Posture

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants. PMID:24385029

  10. BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

  11. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, D J

    1990-05-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  12. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  13. The MATS satellite mission - tomographic perspectives on the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ole Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Murtagh, Donal P.; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2016-04-01

    MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) is a Swedish satellite mission scheduled for launch in 2019. MATS science focuses on mesospheric wave activity and noctilucent clouds. Primary measurement targets are O2 Atmospheric band dayglow and nightglow in the near infrared (759-767 nm) and sunlight scattered from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet (270-300 nm). While tomography provides horizontally and vertically resolved data, spectroscopy allows analysis in terms of mesospheric composition, temperature and cloud properties. During 2015, the design of the MATS instrument was finalized, and the first complete instrument design will be shown in this presentation. As a part of this work, simulated measurements were performed and inverted using a 3 dimensional tomographic algorithm based on the optimal estimation method. As a result, the first quantitative estimation of the instruments capabilities and performance figures can now be presented, and hence give a more accurate picture of the scientific opportunities that the MATS mission provides.

  14. Fabrication of nanofiber mats from electrospinning of functionalized polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktay, Burcu; Kayaman-Apohan, Nilhan; Erdem-Kuruca, Serap

    2014-08-01

    Electrospinning technique enabled us to prepare nanofibers from synthetic and natural polymers. In this study, it was aimed to fabricate electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based nanofibers by reactive electrospinning process. To improve endurance of fiber toward to many solvents, PVA was functionalized with photo-crosslinkable groups before spinning. Afterward PVA was crosslinked by UV radiation during electrospinning process. The nanofiber mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that homogenous, uniform and crosslinked PVA nanofibers in diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. Thermal stability of the nanofiber mat was investigated with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Also the potential use of this nanofiber mats for tissue engineering was examined. Osteosarcoma (Saos) cells were cultured on the nanofiber mats.

  15. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  16. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  17. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  18. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  19. Poly(L-lactide)/halloysite nanotube electrospun mats as dual-drug delivery systems and their therapeutic efficacy in infected full-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiazhi; Guo, Rui; Xu, Jiqing; Lan, Yong; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren; Zhao, Yaowu

    2015-11-01

    In this study, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/halloysite nanotube (HNT) electrospun mats were prepared as a dual-drug delivery system. HNTs were used to encapsulate polymyxin B sulphate (a hydrophilic drug). Dexamethasone (a hydrophobic drug) was directly dissolved in the PLLA solution. The drug-loaded HNTs with optimised encapsulation efficiency were then mixed with the PLLA solution for subsequent electrospinning to form composite dual-drug-loaded fibre mats. The structure, morphology, degradability and mechanical properties of the electrospun composite mats were characterised in detail. The results showed that the HNTs were uniformly distributed in the composite PLLA mats. The HNTs content in the mats could change the morphology and average diameter of the electrospun fibres. The HNTs improved both the tensile strength of the PLLA electrospun mats and their degradation ratio. The drug-release kinetics of the electrospun mats were investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The HNTs/PLLA ratio could be varied to adjust the release of polymyxin B sulphate and dexamethasone. The antibacterial activity in vitro of the mats was evaluated using agar diffusion and turbidimetry tests, which indicated the antibacterial efficacy of the dual-drug delivery system against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Healing in vivo of infected full-thickness burns and infected wounds was investigated by macroscopic observation, histological observation and immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that the electrospun mats were capable of co-loading and co-delivering hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, and could potentially be used as novel antibacterial wound dressings.

  20. Commander Mattingly tangles with NOSL experiment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly uses Nighttime / Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment on aft flight deck. Cables connecting the data recorder to 16mm data aquisition camera (DAC), electronic package, and optical sensor package become tangled as Mattingly points NOSL instrument out overhead aft flight deck window. His cap is also lost amidst the maze of wiring, tape recorder, and camera equipment onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  1. Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

    2015-01-01

    The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats. PMID:26648931

  2. The biogeochemistry of microbial mats, stromatolites and the ancient biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Canfield, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    Stromatolites offer an unparalleled geologic record of early life, because they constitute the oldest and most abundant recognizable remains of microbial ecosystems. Microbial mats are living homologs of stromatolites; thus, the physiology of the microbiota as well as the processes which create those features of mats (e.g., biomarker organic compounds, elemental and stable isotopic compositions) which are preserved in the ancient record. Observations of the carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13) of stromatolites and microbial mats were made and are consistent with the hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have declined by at least one to two orders of magnitude during the past 2.5 Ga. Whereas delta C-13 values of carbonate carbon average about 0 permil during both the early and mid-Proterozoic, the delta C-13 values of stromatolitic organic matter increase from an average of -35 between 2.0 and 2.6 Ga ago to an average of about -28 about 1.0 Ga ago. Modern microbial mats in hypersaline environments have delta C-13 values typically in the range of -5 to -9, relative to an inorganic bicarbonate source at 0 permil. Both microbial mats and pur cultures of cyanobacteria grown in waters in near equilibrium with current atmospheric CO2 levels exhibit minimal discrimination against C-13. In contrast, hot spring cyanobacterial mats or cyanobacterial cultures grown under higher CO2 levels exhibit substantially greater discrimination. If care is taken to compare modern mats with stromatolites from comparable environments, it might be possible to estimate ancient levels of atmospheric CO2. In modern microbial mats, a tight coupling exists between photosynthetic organic carbon production and subsequent carbon oxidation, mostly by sulfate reduction. The rate of one process fuels a high rate of the other, with much of the sulfate reduction occurring within the same depth interval as oxygenic photosynthesis. Other aspects of this study are presented.

  3. Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J.

    2015-01-01

    The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats. PMID:26648931

  4. Highly Porous Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Mats via the Co-Forcespinning of Cellulose Acetate for Separator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Mao, Yuanbing

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary for the transition away from a fossil fuel based economy. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency is the quality of the separator, which separates the cathode and anode to prevent a short-circuit while still allowing the ions in solution to flow as close to unabated as possible. In this work solutions of cellulose acetate, polyvinyldiflourine (pvdf), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) dissolved in a 2:1 v/v acetone/dimethylacetamide solvent mixture were Forcespun to create nonwoven fiber mats of nanoscale diameter. These mats were then soaked in a NaOH solution so as to both strip the pvp from the fiber as well as regenerate cellulose from its acetate derivative for the purpose of creating high surface area, nanoporous, hydrophilic, and ioniclly conductive cellulose/pvdf nonwoven mats for the purposes of testing their suitability as battery separators

  5. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  6. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms1

    PubMed Central

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. Methods and Results: We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. Conclusions: These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification. PMID:27347449

  7. Diversity and Distribution in Hypersaline Microbial Mats of Bacteria Related to Chloroflexus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.; Kühl, Michael; Ward, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of “green nonsulfur bacteria.” PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a saltern in Guerrero Negro, Mexico, were subjected to cloning or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and then sequenced. We found evidence of a high diversity of bacteria related to Chloroflexus which exhibit different distributions along a gradient of salinity from 5.5 to 16%. PMID:11526049

  8. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  9. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  10. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  11. Methane Production by Microbial Mats Under Low Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Thamdrup, Bo; Albert, Dan; Carpenter, Steven P.; Hogan, Mary; Turk, Kendra; DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats collected in hypersaline salterns were incubated in a greenhouse under low sulfate concentrations ([SO4]) and examined for their primary productivity and emissions of methane and other major carbon species. Atmospheric greenhouse warming by gases such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been greater during the Archean than today in order to account for a record of moderate to warm paleoclemates, despite a less luminous early sun. It has been suggested that decreased levels of oxygen and sulfate in Archean oceans could have significantly stimulated microbial methanogenesis relative to present marine rates, with a resultant increase in the relative importance of methane in maintaining the early greenhouse. We maintained modern microbial mats, models of ancient coastal marine communities, in artificial brine mixtures containing both modern [SO4=] (ca. 70 mM) and "Archean" [SO4] (less than 0.2 mM). At low [SO4], primary production in the mats was essentially unaffected, while rates of sulfate reduction decreased by a factor of three, and methane fluxes increased by up to ten-fold. However, remineralization by methanogenesis still amounted to less than 0.4 % of the total carbon released by the mats. The relatively low efficiency of conversion of photosynthate to methane is suggested to reflect the particular geometry and chemical microenvironment of hypersaline cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, such mats w-ere probably relatively weak net sources of methane throughout their 3.5 Ga history, even during periods of low- environmental levels oxygen and sulfate.

  12. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  13. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  14. Invasive algal mats degrade coral reef physical habitat quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jonathan A.; Smith, Celia M.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2012-03-01

    Invasive species alter the ecology of marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms or combination of mechanisms. This study documented critical physical parameters altered by the invasive red macroalga Gracilaria salicornia in situ, including: reduced irradiance, increased sedimentation, and marked variation in diurnal dissolved oxygen and pH cycles in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Paired studies showed that algal mats reduced irradiance by 99% and doubled sediment accumulation. Several mats developed hypoxia and hyperoxia in the extreme minima and maxima, though there was no statistical difference detected in the mean or the variability of dissolved oxygen between different 30 min time points of 24 h cycles between algal mat-open reef pairs. The algal mat significantly acidified the water under the algal mat by decreasing pH by 0.10-0.13 pH units below open reef pH. A minimum of pH 7.47 occurred between 14 and 19 h after sunrise. Our combined results suggest that mats of G. salicornia can alter various physical parameters on a fine scale and time course not commonly detected. These changes in parameters give insight into the underlying basis for negative impact, and suggest new ways in which the presence of invasive species leads to decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  15. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  16. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    PubMed

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  17. ERB master archival tape specification no. T 134081 ERB MAT, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth radiation budget (ERB)MAT tapes are generated by the ERB MATGEN software using the IBM 3081 computer system operated by the Science and Applications Computer Center at Goddard Space Flight Center. All MAT's are 9-track and MAT data are in ascending time order. The gross tape format for NIMBUS year-1 and year-2 MAT's is different from the format of MAT's starting with year-3. The MATs from the first two years are to contain one day's worth of data while all other MATs are to contain multiple day's worth of data stacked onto the tapes.

  18. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  19. Children’s Mapping between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Numerical Magnitudes and Its Association with Timed and Untimed Tests of Mathematics Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children’s mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children’s performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children’s mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills. PMID:24699664

  20. Children's mapping between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitudes and its association with timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children's mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children's performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children's mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills.

  1. Photosynthetic Microbial Mats are Exemplary Sources of Diverse Biosignatures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Marine cyanobacterial microbial mats are widespread, compact, self-contained ecosystems that create diverse biosignatures and have an ancient fossil record. Within the mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides organic substrates and O2 to the community. Both the absorption and scattering of light change the intensity and spectral composition of incident radiation as it penetrates a mat. Some phototrophs utilize infrared light near the base of the photic zone. A mat's upper layers can become highly reduced and sulfidic at night. Counteracting gradients of O2 and sulfide shape the chemical environment and provide daily-contrasting microenvironments separated on a scale of a few mm. Radiation hazards (UV, etc.), O2 and sulfide toxicity elicit motility and other physiological responses. This combination of benefits and hazards of light, O2 and sulfide promotes the allocation of various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Associated nonphotosynthetic communities, including anaerobes, strongly influence many of the ecosystem's overall characteristics, and their processes affect any biosignatures that enter the fossil record. A biosignature is an object, substance and/or pattern whose origin specifically requires a biological agent. The value of a biosignature depends not only on the probability of life creating it, but also on the improbability of nonbiological processes producing it. Microbial mats create biosignatures that identify particular groups of organisms and also reveal attributes of the mat ecosystem. For example, branched hydrocarbons and pigments can be diagnostic of cyanobacteria and other phototrophic bacteria, and isoprenoids can indicate particular groups of archea. Assemblages of lipid biosignatures change with depth due to changes in microbial populations and diagenetic transformations of organic matter. The 13C/12C values of organic matter and carbonates reflect isotopic discrimination by particular

  2. Diel Migrations of Microorganisms within a Benthic, Hypersaline Mat Community

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Mechling, Margaret; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the diel migrations of several species of microorganisms in a hypersaline, layered microbial mat. The migrations were quantified by repeated coring of the mat with glass capillary tubes. The resulting minicores were microscopically analyzed by using bright-field and epifluorescence (visible and infrared) microscopy to determine depths of coherent layers and were later dissected to determine direct microscopic counts of microorganisms. Microelectrode measurements of oxygen concentration, fiber optic microprobe measurements of light penetration within the mat, and incident irradiance measurements accompanied the minicore sampling. In addition, pigment content, photosynthesis and irradiance responses, the capacity for anoxygenic photosynthesis, and gliding speeds were determined for the migrating cyanobacteria. Heavily pigmented Oscillatoria sp. and Spirulina cf. subsalsa migrated downward into the mat during the early morning and remained deep until dusk, when upward migration occurred. The mean depth of the migration (not more than 0.4 to 0.5 mm) was directly correlated with the incident irradiance over the mat surface. We estimated that light intensity at the upper boundary of the migrating cyanobacteria was attenuated to such an extent that photoinhibition was effectively avoided but that intensities which saturated photosynthesis were maintained through most of the daylight hours. Light was a cue of paramount importance in triggering and modulating the migration of the cyanobacteria, even though the migrating phenomenon could not be explained solely in terms of a light response. We failed to detect diel migration patterns for other cyanobacterial species and filamentous anoxyphotobacteria. The sulfide-oxidizing bacterium Beggiatoa sp. migrated as a band that followed low oxygen concentrations within the mat during daylight hours. During the nighttime, part of this population migrated toward the mat surface, but a significant proportion remained deep

  3. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  4. Experimental Studies on Geocells and Mat Systems for Stabilization of Unpaved Shoulders and Temporary Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun

    Geosynthetics have been used to improve the performance of geomaterials, especially when weak soil exists in roadway applications. In this study, two types of geosynthetic materials, geocell and a mat system, were studied for their applications for unpaved roads and shoulders. The study of geocell was focused on its application for unpaved shoulders. The ability of geocell to improve different geomaterials over intermediate strength subgrade and its possible effect on vegetation were investigated. The study of the mat system was focused on investigating the performance of the mat system over soft and intermediate subgrade with different strengths under cyclic loading to simulate temporary roadway conditions. In the study of geocell for the application for unpaved shoulders, six large scale plate loading tests were conducted on a single type of geocell on target 5% CBR subgrade to investigate the benefits of geocell reinforcement on different base course and topsoil combinations. Different base course and topsoil combinations were investigated including: 200-mm thick unreinforced aggregate, 200-mm thick soil-aggregate mixture (50% aggregate and 50% top soil) with and without geocell reinforcement, 200-mm thick geocell-reinforced topsoil, 50-mm thick aggregate over 150-mm soil-aggregate mixture (50% aggregate and 50% top soil), and 50-mm thick top soil over 150-mm thick geocell-reinforced soil-aggregate mixture (50% aggregate and 50% top soil). Earth pressure cells were install at the interface between subgrade and base course to monitor the load distribution. The cyclic plate loading tests showed that geocell effectively reduced the permanent deformation and the geocell-reinforced soil-aggregate mixture slightly outperformed the unreinforced aggregate at the same thickness. The plate loading tests also suggested the topsoil cover resulted in large permanent deformations. A one-year long outdoor field vegetation test was conducted on base courses with different

  5. An Energy Balance Model to Predict Chemical Partitioning in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; DesMarais, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of biosignature formation in photosynthetic microbial mat communities offer potentially useful insights with regards to both solar and extrasolar astrobiology. Biosignature formation in such systems results from the chemical transformation of photosynthetically fixed carbon by accessory microorganisms. This fixed carbon represents a source not only of reducing power, but also energy, to these organisms, so that chemical and energy budgets should be coupled. We tested this hypothesis by applying an energy balance model to predict the fate of photosynthetic productivity under dark, anoxic conditions. Fermentation of photosynthetically fixed carbon is taken to be the only source of energy available to cyanobacteria in the absence of light and oxygen, and nitrogen fixation is the principal energy demand. The alternate fate for fixed carbon is to build cyanobacterial biomass with Redfield C:N ratio. The model predicts that, under completely nitrogen-limited conditions, growth is optimized when 78% of fixed carbon stores are directed into fermentative energy generation, with the remainder allocated to growth. These predictions were compared to measurements made on microbial mats that are known to be both nitrogen-limited and populated by actively nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. In these mats, under dark, anoxic conditions, 82% of fixed carbon stores were diverted into fermentation. The close agreement between these independent approaches suggests that energy balance models may provide a quantitative means of predicting chemical partitioning within such systems - an important step towards understanding how biological productivity is ultimately partitioned into biosignature compounds.

  6. Vertical differences in species turnover and diversity of amphipod assemblages associated with coralline mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Tanaka, M. O.; Flores, A. A. V.; Leite, F. P. P.

    2016-11-01

    Environmental gradients are common in rocky shore habitats and may determine species spatial distributions at different scales. In this study, we tested whether environmental filtering affects amphipod assemblages inhabiting coralline algal mats at different vertical heights in southeastern Brazil. Samples obtained from the upper and lower zones of the infralittoral fringe were used to estimate mat descriptors (algal mass, sediment retention, organic matter contents, grain size and sediment sorting) and describe amphipod assemblages (abundance, species richness and diversity indices). Coralline algal mats and amphipod assemblages were similar between intertidal zones in several aspects. However, a more variable retention of sediment (positively related to algal mass), together with the accumulation of larger grains lower on the shore, likely provide higher habitat heterogeneity that hosts generally more diverse (both α- and β-diversity, as well as higher species turnover) amphipod assemblages in the lower intertidal zone. Poorer assemblages in the upper intertidal zone are dominated by omnivores, while carnivorous species are more often found in richer assemblages in the lower intertidal zone, as predicted by traditional niche theory.

  7. Use of Lightweight Cellular Mats to Reduce the Settlement of Structure on Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganasan, R.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Construction of structures on soft soils gives rise to some difficulties in Malaysia and other country especially in settlement both in short and long term. The focus of this research is to minimize the differential and non-uniform settlement on peat soil with the use of an innovative cellular mat. The behaviour and performance of the lightweight geo-material (in block form) is critically investigated and in particular the use as a fill in embankment on soft ground. Hemic peat soil, sponge and innovative cellular mat will be used as the main material in this study. The monitoring in settlement behavior from this part of research will be done as laboratory testing only. The uneven settlement in this problem was uniquely monitored photographically using spot markers. In the end of the research, it is seen that the innovative cellular mat has reduce the excessive and differential settlement up to 50% compare to flexible and rigid foundations. This had improve the stiffness of soils as well as the porous contain in cellular structure which help in allowing water/moisture to flow through in or out thus resulting in prevent the condition of floating.

  8. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  9. Millimeter-scale patterns of phylogenetic and trait diversity in a salt marsh microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Armitage, David W; Gallagher, Kimberley L; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal microbial mats are comprised of distinctly colored millimeter-thick layers whose communities organize in response to environmental gradients such as light availability, oxygen/sulfur concentrations, and redox potential. Here, slight changes in depth correspond to sharp niche boundaries. We explore the patterns of biodiversity along this depth gradient as it relates to functional groups of bacteria, as well as trait-encoding genes. We used molecular techniques to determine how the mat's layers differed from one another with respect to taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity, and used these metrics to assess potential drivers of community assembly. We used a range of null models to compute the degree of phylogenetic and functional dispersion for each layer. The SSU-rRNA reads were dominated by Cyanobacteria and Chromatiales, but contained a high taxonomic diversity. The composition of each mat core was significantly different for developmental stage, year, and layer. Phylogenetic richness and evenness positively covaried with depth, and trait richness tended to decrease with depth. We found evidence for significant phylogenetic clustering for all bacteria below the surface layer, supporting the role of habitat filtering in the assembly of mat layers. However, this signal disappeared when the phylogenetic dispersion of particular functional groups, such as oxygenic phototrophs, was measured. Overall, trait diversity measured by orthologous genes was also lower than would be expected by chance, except for genes related to photosynthesis in the topmost layer. Additionally, we show how the choice of taxa pools, null models, spatial scale, and phylogenies can impact our ability to test hypotheses pertaining to community assembly. Our results demonstrate that given the appropriate physiochemical conditions, strong phylogenetic, and trait variation, as well as habitat filtering, can occur at the millimeter-scale.

  10. Heterolayered, one-dimensional nanobuilding block mat batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Chun, Sang-Jin; Yoo, Jong Tae; Lee, Chang Kee; Kim, Woong; Wu, Qinglin; Park, Sang-Bum; Choi, Don-Ha; Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-10-01

    The rapidly approaching smart/wearable energy era necessitates advanced rechargeable power sources with reliable electrochemical properties and versatile form factors. Here, as a unique and promising energy storage system to address this issue, we demonstrate a new class of heterolayered, one-dimensional (1D) nanobuilding block mat (h-nanomat) battery based on unitized separator/electrode assembly (SEA) architecture. The unitized SEAs consist of wood cellulose nanofibril (CNF) separator membranes and metallic current collector-/polymeric binder-free electrodes comprising solely single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-netted electrode active materials (LiFePO4 (cathode) and Li4Ti5O12 (anode) powders are chosen as model systems to explore the proof of concept for h-nanomat batteries). The nanoporous CNF separator plays a critical role in securing the tightly interlocked electrode-separator interface. The SWNTs in the SEAs exhibit multifunctional roles as electron conductive additives, binders, current collectors and also non-Faradaic active materials. This structural/physicochemical uniqueness of the SEAs allows significant improvements in the mass loading of electrode active materials, electron transport pathways, electrolyte accessibility and misalignment-proof of separator/electrode interface. As a result, the h-nanomat batteries, which are easily fabricated by stacking anode SEA and cathode SEA, provide unprecedented advances in the electrochemical performance, shape flexibility and safety tolerance far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies. We anticipate that the h-nanomat batteries will open 1D nanobuilding block-driven new architectural design/opportunity for development of next-generation energy storage systems.

  11. Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information.

    PubMed

    Hilu, Khidir W; Borsch, Thomas; Müller, Kai; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent; Chase, Mark W; Powell, Martyn P; Alice, Lawrence A; Evans, Rodger; Sauquet, Hervé; Neinhuis, Christoph; Slotta, Tracey A B; Rohwer, Jens G; Campbell, Christopher S; Chatrou, Lars W

    2003-12-01

    Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in angiosperms. The matK gene evolves approximately three times faster than the widely used plastid genes rbcL and atpB. The MP and BI trees are highly congruent. The robustness of the strict consensus tree supercedes all individual gene analyses and is comparable only to multigene-based phylogenies. Of the 385 nodes resolved, 79% are supported by high jackknife values, averaging 88%. Amborella is sister to the remaining angiosperms, followed by a grade of Nymphaeaceae and Austrobaileyales. Bayesian inference resolves Amborella + Nymphaeaceae as sister to the rest, but with weak (0.42) posterior probability. The MP analysis shows a trichotomy sister to the Austrobaileyales representing eumagnoliids, monocots + Chloranthales, and Ceratophyllum + eudicots. The matK gene produces the highest internal support yet for basal eudicots and, within core eudicots, resolves a crown group comprising Berberidopsidaceae/Aextoxicaceae, Santalales, and Caryophyllales + asterids. Moreover, matK sequences provide good resolution within many angiosperm orders. Combined analyses of matK and other rapidly evolving DNA regions with available multigene data sets have strong potential to enhance resolution and internal support in deep level angiosperm phylogenetics and provide additional insights into angiosperm evolution.

  12. Counting Viruses and Bacteria in Photosynthetic Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Marc; Middelboe, Mathias; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures typically used in benthic viral ecology were applied to the complex matrix of microbial mats but were found to inefficiently extract viruses. Here, we present a method for extraction and quantification of viruses from photosynthetic microbial mats using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM). A combination of EDTA addition, probe sonication, and enzyme treatment applied to a glutaraldehyde-fixed sample resulted in a substantially higher viral (5- to 33-fold) extraction efficiency and reduced background noise compared to previously published methods. Using this method, it was found that in general, intertidal photosynthetic microbial mats harbor very high viral abundances (2.8 × 1010 ± 0.3 × 1010 g−1) compared with benthic habitats (107 to 109 g−1). This procedure also showed 4.5- and 4-fold-increased efficacies of extraction of viruses and bacteria, respectively, from intertidal sediments, allowing a single method to be used for the microbial mat and underlying sediment. PMID:25595761

  13. Documentation generator application for MatLab source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting MatLab source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary MatLab codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part two which describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena.

  14. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  15. Microcosm experiments of oil degradation by microbial mats.

    PubMed

    de Oteyza, Tirso García; Grimalt, Joan O; Llirós, Marc; Esteve, Isabel

    2006-03-15

    Several microcosm experiments were run in parallel to evaluate the efficiency of microbial mats for crude oil degradation as compared with physico-chemical weathering. The oils used in the experiments constituted representative examples of those currently used for commercial purposes. One was aliphatic and of low viscosity (33.4 American Petroleum Institute degrees, degrees API) and the other was predominantly aromatic, with high sulphur content (ca. 2.7%) and viscosity (16.6 degrees API). After crude oil introduction, the microcosms were kept under cyclic changes in water level to mimic coastal tidal movements. The transformations observed showed that water weathering leads to more effective and rapid elimination of low molecular weight hydrocarbons than microbial mat metabolism, e.g. n-alkanes with chain length shorter than n-pentadecane or n-heptadecane, regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons with chain length lower than C16 or C18 or lower molecular weight naphthalenes. Microbial mats preserved these hydrocarbons from volatilization and water washing. However, hydrocarbons of lower volatility such as the C24-C30 n-alkanes or containing nitrogen atoms, e.g. carbazoles, were eliminated in higher proportion by microbial mats than by water weathering. The strong differences in composition between the two oils used for the experiments were also reflected in significant differences between water weathering and microbial mat biodegradation. Higher oil viscosity seemed to hinder the former but not the later. PMID:15935450

  16. Mating-type genes and MAT switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2012-05-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break.

  17. The effects of departmentalized and self-contained classrooms on fifth-grade students' achievement in science on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Lisa S.

    Elementary instruction of fifth grade classrooms was found to be primarily in two organizational models in a school district northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. The self-contained classroom provided a generalist teacher responsible for the instruction of all academic subjects to one group of students throughout the day, while departmentalized classrooms were structured utilizing one teacher for the instruction of one or two content areas, and students rotated throughout the day for each of the academic subjects. The majority of studies looking at the effect of instructional organization were concentrated in the content areas of mathematics and reading. This quantitative study, utilized an ex post facto methodology to determine whether fifth grade students attending departmentalized schools or self-contained classrooms had higher student achievement in science as measured by the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The statistical data was collected through the Georgia Department of Education and included raw mean scores of over 500 students attending departmentalized schools and 500 students attending self-contained classrooms, along with the various subgroups such as gender, ethnicity status, English language learners (ELL), and students with disability (SWD) placement. This data was analyzed to show if a significant statistical difference emerged from either instructional organization. The overall results that emerged from the archival data suggested no significant difference in student achievement existed for almost all subgroups tested of the total 1000+ participant scores used in the study. The results also did however, showed the departmentalization model of instruction had a slight advantage over self-contained classrooms for male students with disabilities.

  18. Tough Stretchable Physically-Cross-linked Electrospun Hydrogel Fiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Wang, Chao; Wiener, Clinton G; Hao, Jinkun; Shatas, Sophia; Weiss, R A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2016-09-01

    Nature uses supramolecular interactions and hierarchical structures to produce water-rich materials with combinations of properties that are challenging to obtain in synthetic systems. Here, we demonstrate hierarchical supramolecular hydrogels from electrospun, self-associated copolymers with unprecedented elongation and toughness for high porosity hydrogels. Hydrophobic association of perfluoronated comonomers provides the physical cross-links for these hydrogels based on copolymers of dimethyl acrylamide and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethyl methacrylate (FOSM). Intriguingly, the hydrogel fiber mats show an enhancement in toughness in comparison to compression molded bulk hydrogels. This difference is attributed to the size distribution of the hydrophobic aggregates where narrowing the distribution in the electrospun material enhances the toughness of the hydrogel. These hydrogel fiber mats exhibit extensibility more than double that of the bulk hydrogel and a comparable modulus despite the porosity of the fiber mat leading to >25 wt % increase in water content. PMID:27548013

  19. Pressure Mapping Mat for Tele-Home Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Cogollo, Jose Francisco; Pau, Massimiliano; Fraboni, Beatrice; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a mat-like pressure mapping system based on a single layer textile sensor and intended to be used in home environments for monitoring the physical condition of persons with limited mobility. The sensor is fabricated by embroidering silver-coated yarns on a light cotton fabric and creating pressure-sensitive resistive elements by stamping the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) at the crossing points of conductive stitches. A battery-operated mat prototype was developed and includes the scanning circuitry and a wireless communication module. A functional description of the system is presented together with a preliminary experimental evaluation of the mat prototype in the extraction of plantar pressure parameters. PMID:26978369

  20. Community structure of a microbial mat: The phylogenetic dimension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risatti, J.B.; Capman, W.C.; Stahl, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional studies of microbial communities are incomplete because of the inability to identify and quantify all contributing populations. In the present study, we directly determine the abundance and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in a microbial mat community by using hybridization probes complementary to the 16S-like rRNAs of major phylogenetic groups. Most of the major groups were found in this single community, distributed for the most part in nonoverlapping depth intervals of the mat. The reflection of the phylogenetic structure in the community structure suggests that those species making up the major phylogenetic groups perform specific interrelated metabolic functions in the community. Comparison of population profiles to previously observed rates of sulfate reduction suggests there are additional populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria both within the photooxic zone and deeper in the mat.