The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica
The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the…
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…
Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…
Hollinger, Jamie L.
The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…
Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)
Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Jewell, Jeremy
Despite widespread efforts to prevent reading problems and an abundance of research about best practices in remediating reading skills deficits, reading continues to be exceptionally difficult for many students. Researchers have become interested in investigating the degree to which affective factors such as reading attitude relates to reading…
Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.
Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135
Cuevas, Joshua A.; Irving, Miles A.; Russell, L. Roxanne
This study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program with 145 10th grade students. Students were measured on total reading ability, vocabulary, reading comprehension, a state-mandated high stakes end-of-course test (EOCT), and reading attribution. After controlling for initial skill and disposition levels, the results indicated that…
Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.
A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…
To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…
Churchwell, Dawn Earheart
This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…
Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony
The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy.
Gray, Holly Lynn
This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…
The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…
Swinton, Janet R.
Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…
O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.
The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861
Warnimont, Chad S.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…
Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.
The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004
Carter, John L.
Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…
Hamilton, Maureen Dugan
The demands and expectations placed on all schools in the United States to meet the needs of a growing and diverse population continue to raise the questions, what needs to be done in order for all students to achieve success, and how can this success be measured? This study, researched and reported in the form of a dissertation, was performed on…
Grimm, Kevin J
The association between early reading skills and changes in mathematics was examined in a large, low-income sample to determine whether students who have a greater level of reading skills in early elementary school exhibit more rapid gains in tests of mathematics. The longitudinal associations between third grade reading comprehension and changes in three components of mathematics achievement (Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, Mathematical Concepts and Estimation, Mathematical Computation) from third through eighth grade were examined. Latent growth models were fit to the repeated assessments of each mathematics component and the students' third grade reading and global mathematics scores were included as predictors of the intercept and slope. Gender, poverty status, and ethnicity were included in the models as control variables. The results showed males and African-American students tended to have shallower rates of change than females and non-African-American/non-Hispanic students. In terms of the effect of reading on changes in mathematics, third grade reading comprehension was found to be a positive significant predictor of change for each component of mathematics, suggesting students with a greater level of reading achievement in early elementary school change more rapidly in mathematics skills controlling for prior mathematics skills and student characteristics. The largest effects were shown for the Problem Solving and Data Interpretation test, a test focused on the applications of mathematics knowledge, and the Mathematical Concepts and Estimation test. Negligible effects were found for changes in Mathematical Computation. Thus, early reading comprehension was shown to be related to a conceptual understanding of mathematics and the application of mathematics knowledge. These findings lend support for the notion that early reading skills are important for success in mathematics.
Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh
The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…
Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle
This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of…
Underhill, Patricia Annette
The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.
Joiner, Sherrie Michelle
Reading is a skill, which is essential for a child's school success. The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to investigate the effects of the Reading Recovery (RR) Program. The data utilized were from two groups of students at-risk in the area of reading, first-grade students involved in at least 12 weeks of Reading…
Allington, Richard L.
Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…
Athanasou, James A.
Reading is theorised as a key aspect of one's educational and vocational adjustment. The reading scores on the "Wide-Range Achievement Test 3" of 465 adult vocational assessment clients were examined. Reading varied across a range of social factors and the overall results were consistent with earlier studies, especially the "Adult…
Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Klingbergs, Imants E.
This manual for the Marianas Test of English Achievement (MTEA) provides a description of the tests, directions for administration and scoring, a discussion of the interpretation of scores, and norms based on all 1,780 children in grades 6 through 9 in the Northern Marianas Islands in October 1977 and May 1978. There are two equivalent forms of…
Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús
The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.
Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús
The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833
The relationship between vision and reading achievement is complex. In this paper, a number of terms relating to vision are defined and some of the limitations of specific measures of vision are discussed. In order to relate vision to reading, it is necessary to segment arbitrarily the continuous process of vision into a series of subsystems, or…
Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.
Reading comprehension growth trajectories from 3rd to 7th grade were estimated for 99,919 students on a state reading comprehension assessment. We examined whether differences between students in general education (GE) and groups of students identified as exceptional learners were best characterized as stable, widening, or narrowing. The groups…
Bouchamma, Yamina; Poulin, Vincent; Ruel, Catherine
We examined the reading strategies of boys and girls and identified those determining academic achievement in 13-year-old Canadian students. Students from each province and one territory (N = 20,094) answered a questionnaire on, among others, reading strategies. T-test results showed that girls use these strategies more regularly compared to boys.…
Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah
This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students provided self-reports of reading habits. Deaf students recognized fewer magazine titles and fewer book titles appropriate for reading levels from kindergarten through Grade 12 while reporting more weekly hours of reading. As in previous studies with hearing college students, the title recognition test proved a better predictor of deaf and hearing students' English achievement than how many hours they reported reading. The finding that the recognition tests were relatively more potent predictors of achievement for deaf students than hearing students may reflect the fact that deaf students often obtain less information through incidental learning and classroom presentations.
Carlisle, Joanne F.; Cortina, Kai S.; Zeng, Ji
The purpose of this article is to examine whether there were improvements in the percentage of first-, second-, and third-grade students in Reading First (RF) schools in Michigan who performed at or above grade level on a standardized test of reading comprehension. The study reports results for 140 schools that participated in the RF initiative…
Meneghetti, Chiara; Carretti, Barbara; De Beni, Rossana
The aim of this study was to understand whether the reading comprehension process is better explained by a single or by multiple factors. 184 students (9 to 13 years old) were presented with a recently devised battery of tests, that measure ten aspects of reading comprehension. Structural equation modelling showed that a two factors model better…
Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie
Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…
Nielson, S; Sapp, G L
This study examined the relative importance of perceptual-motor processes and intelligence in predicting reading and mathematics achievement of children of low birthweight. Subjects were two groups of 153 children, ages 6 to 12 years, of either low (3 lb. or below, n = 72) or normal birthweight (n = 81) who participated in a comparative study on sequelae of children of low birthweight. To examine the utility of the Bender-Gestalt test in predicting academic achievement, Bender developmental scores, WRAT reading and mathematics scores, and WISC-R Full Scale IQs from both groups were compared and then intercorrelated separately. The mean comparisons indicated that children of low birthweight scored significantly lower on both Bender scores and reading achievement and had lower IQs than those of normal birthweight. Bender scores also appeared to have more utility for predicting reading and mathematics achievement for children of low birthweight than for those of normal birthweight.
Ruddell, Robert B.; Williams, Arthur
Reading achievement of elementary school children in California has been measured by several separate studies, not all of which appear to present compatible results. This study of three assessments contained in the Miller-Unruh Report analyzes their purposes, methods, results, and recommendations in an effort to produce some way to arrive at an…
Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes
The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…
Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M.; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah
This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students…
van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos
On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…
Bowden, Kendra Cornwell
Nationally, Hispanic achievement lags behind non-Hispanic peers in reading proficiency scores. The gap in achievement persists through subsequent grade levels for Black, Hispanic, and poor students of all races. Current school environments present evidence of dissimilar levels of minority and poverty in schools. Identifiable differences in…
Purves, Alan C.
This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…
The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…
Biersner, Robert J.; Larocco, James M.
Naval recruits attending a remedial reading program were compared to regular recruits on verbal, nonverbal, demographic, and eye-hand laterality measures. Verbal intelligence scores on the General Classification Test differentiated best between the two groups. Findings on race and laterality factors are also discussed. (Author/SJL)
Chiu, Ming Ming; Klassen, Robert M.
Self-concept is linked to student achievement in many domains. In this study, we examined reading self-concept's (RSC) and RSC calibration accuracy's links to reading achievement across different contexts via multi-level analyses of 34 countries' 158,848 fifteen-year-olds' reading tests and questionnaire responses. Students with higher RSC, higher…
Brookhart, Susan M.
Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…
Wood, Nancy V.
To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…
Rowe, Ellen W.; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A.; Thompson, Dawna F.
This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students…
BOOS, ROBERT W.; HILLERICH, ROBERT L.
TWO DISPARATE STUDIES WERE REPLICATED WITH A PUBLIC SCHOOL POPULATION USED BY HILLERICH IN A 4-YEAR STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HANDEDNESS AND EYEDNESS. SUBJECTS WERE 273 SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS WHO REMAINED FROM AN ORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400. TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO DETERMINE EYE DOMINANCE, HANDEDNESS, CONTROLLING EYE, READING ACHIEVEMENT,…
Rasinski, Timothy; Samuels, S. Jay; Hiebert, Elfrieda; Petscher, Yaacov; Feller, Karen
Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in effective literacy instruction (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instruction in reading fluency has been shown to lead to improvements in reading achievement. Reading fluency instruction is most commonly associated with guided repeated oral reading instruction. In the present retrospective study we examine the effects of a computer-based silent reading fluency instructional system called Reading Plus (Taylor Associates, Winooski, Vermont, USA) on the reading comprehension and overall reading achievement of a large corpus of students in an urban school setting. Findings indicate that the program resulted in positive, substantial, and significant improvements in reading comprehension and overall reading achievement on a criterion referenced reading test for Grades 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and on a norm-referenced test of reading achievement for Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10. Moreover, mean gains made by students in the Reading Plus intervention were greater than mean gains for all students at the state and district level. The findings were generally positive for all subpopulations studied, including special education and regular education students. Qualitative reports from teachers who participated in the study were also supportive of the program. Implications for the study are explored for particular subgroups of students and for the role of fluency instruction with struggling adolescent readers. PMID:26347186
Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro
Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.
Discusses the use of computerized placement testing at Santa Fe Community College to enable students needing only a short review of reading skills to exit early from a College Preparatory Reading Class (CPRC). Describes CPRC placement, structure, curriculum, and exit criteria; the Early Exit Reading Project; and project results. (DMM)
Green, Alisha K.
The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires all students, regardless of gender, race, or socioeconomic status, to be proficient in reading by the year 2014. Although progress has been made, discrepancies in reading achievement remain. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two instructional strategies…
Rowe, Ellen W; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A; Thompson, Dawna F
This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students who received an individual cognitive assessment with the WISC-IV in the previous year as part of the application process for gifted and talented programming through their schools. Although there were no significant differences among the mean WISC-IV index scores, 77% of the individual students evidenced statistically significant WISC-IV index score variability. Thus, intraindividual test score variability appears to be the norm among high-achieving students. In spite of this variability, regression analyses indicated that the FSIQ predicted reading comprehension and mathematics achievement better than, or as well as, the GAI or individual scores for verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning. None of the cognitive variables correlated significantly with achievement scores for Word Reading or Pseudoword Decoding scores, but the FSIQ, GAI, Verbal Comprehension, and Perceptual Reasoning scores predicted reading comprehension. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
West, Chandra Lorene
This study explored the reading attitudes and achievement, as well as genre knowledge, of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth-grade students who participated in Scaffolded Silent Reading, Sustained Silent Reading, or a control group. The Reading and You attitude survey, Degrees of Reading Power achievement measure, and Genre Assessment were administered…
Codding, Robin S; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea
A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM indices measures is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the relationship among a variety of reading, writing, and mathematics CBM indices administered to 249 seventh-grade students; (b) investigate amount and patterns of growth; and (c) examine predictive validity to a high-stakes state test using latent factor analysis and multiple indicator growth models. Results indicated strong correspondence among CBM types for fall static scores but weak relationships among slopes. Different patterns of growth were yielded for CBM writing than for CBM reading and mathematics. Findings from this study suggested that although reading, mathematics, and writing CBM were independently and moderately related to both English Language Arts and Math test scores, reading was the strongest predictor when all 3 CBM constructs were considered jointly.
Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov
Policy changes at the federal and state level are endeavoring to improve student achievement at schools serving children from lower-SES homes. One important strategy is the focus on using evidence-based core reading curricula to provide a consistent framework for instruction across schools. However, rarely have these curricula undergone rigorous comparative testing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six core reading curricula on oral reading fluency growth, while appraising whether these effects differ by grade level and for children living in lower socioeconomic (SES) households. Over 30,000 students in first through third grade Florida Reading First classrooms comprise this academically and economically diverse cross-sectional. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model latent growth curves for students' reading fluency scores over the school year. Growth curves revealed differences across curricula as well as between students of lower and higher SES, suggesting that reading fluency growth trajectories for curricula varied depending on student SES and grade level. Findings indicate that while there are similarities among curricula, they sometimes differ in their ability to promote reading skill growth. Differences by grade level and SES were also detected. However, many of these differences were small. Implications for the use of curriculum as a conduit for improving reading instruction are discussed.
Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh
The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…
de Milliano, Ilona; van Gelderen, Amos; Sleegers, Peter
This study examines the relationship between types and sequences of self-regulated reading activities in task-oriented reading with quality of task achievement of 51 low-achieving adolescents (Grade 8). The study used think aloud combined with video observations to analyse the students' approach of a content-area reading task in the stages of…
CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN
THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…
Charuk, John Michael
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intermodal training technique known as visual-haptic had any effect on the reading achievement of a group of disabled readers. The technique itself did not teach reading. Used in conjunction with a conventional remedial reading program, visual-haptic training was expected to serve as an…
Canto, Angela I.; Proctor, Briley E.
This study explored student-level predictors of reading achievement among third grade regular education students. Predictors included student demographics (sex and socioeconomic status (SES), using free and reduced lunch as proxy for SES), direct observations of reading skills (oral reading fluency (ORF) and word decoding skill (nonsense word…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…
Coats-Kitsopoulos, Gloria Jean
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), the Reading Recovery Observation Survey (RROS) early reading sub-tests, and the reading achievement of Native American first-graders as measured by the Stanford 10. A causal-comparative correlation research design…
Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro
Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…
Adelson, Jill L.; Dickinson, Emily R.; Cunningham, Brittany C.
This brief examined the patterns of reading achievement using statewide data from all students (Grades 3-10) in multiple years to examine gaps based on student, school, and district characteristics. Results indicate reading achievement varied most between students within schools and that students' prior achievement was the strongest predictor of…
Haladyna, Thomas M.
This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…
Catts, Hugh W.; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Little, Todd D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce
Purpose: This study examined the reading achievement growth of children with language impairments (LI) across the school grades. The authors sought to determine whether children with LI demonstrate a delayed, deficit, or cumulative pattern of reading achievement growth when compared with children with typical language (TL). Method: A group of 225…
Johnson, Sheila Denise
While it is known that instructional technology improves academic achievement, there is little research about the integration of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) during Success For All (SFA) reading instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading achievement between third…
Rakow, Steven J.; Gee, Thomas C.
Reviews some of the ways researchers estimate readability with a focus on multiple choice test items in science. Presents criteria to consider for minimizing readability problems in test items. Examines samples from the National Assessment of Educational Progress test bank for readability. (ML)
Thompson, Eugene W.; Smidchens, Uldis
In a sample of more than 400 fifth grade students, the reading comprehension levels of children living with both parents and children living with only one parent were compared. Data were collected on the demographic variables of race, student sex, family organization (two parents/one parent), parent educational level, family occupational prestige,…
This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…
Harley, Anne J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact and sustainability of successfully discontinued first grade Reading Recovery students as compared to non-Reading Recovery students in reading achievement measures as third graders. Schools are facing the unprecedented challenge to ensure reading success for all students by the end of second…
Eamon, Mary Keegan
A mediation model was used to test effects of poverty on the mathematics and reading achievement of young adolescents. A revised model indicated that poverty was associated with mathematics and reading achievement indirectly. Associations depended upon level of cognitively stimulating home environments, emotionally supportive home environments,…
Thomas, P. Ann
The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the…
Reschly, Amy L; Busch, Todd W; Betts, Joseph; Deno, Stanley L; Long, Jeffrey D
This meta-analysis summarized the correlational evidence of the association between the CBM Oral Reading measure (R-CBM) and other standardized measures of reading achievement for students in grades 1-6. Potential moderating variables were also examined (source of criterion test, administration format, grade level, length of time, and type of reading subtest score). Results indicated a significant, strong overall correlation among R-CBM and other standardized tests of reading achievement and differences in correlations as a function of source of test, administration format, and reading subtest type. No differences in the magnitude of correlations were found across grade levels. In addition, there was minimal evidence of publication bias. Results are discussed in terms of existing literature and directions for future research.
Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Mcbride-Chang, Catherine
We examined whether strategies of memorization, transfer through elaboration, and metacognition accounted for reading, science, and mathematics achievement across 34 countries. 158,848 fifteen-year-olds completed a reading literacy test and a questionnaire. Of these students, 88,401 completed a science test, and 88,590 completed a mathematics…
Ruhe, Valerie; Paula, Moore
Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention for first-grade children with reading and writing difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the performance of a cohort of 1998 Reading Recovery students on later literacy achievement as measured by the 2001 Grade 4 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). The results showed that the average MEA…
Myers, Brenda Gail
Using a quantitative ex post facto causal comparative research design, this study analyzed the effects of the Academy of Reading software program on students' reading achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading scale scores of students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades from 2013-2014 were utilized in this study. The…
Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha
This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…
Madhumathi, P.; Ghosh, Arijit
This paper reports findings from the study that assessed the first year Indian ESL students' awareness of reading strategy use. It also investigated the relationship that exists between reading strategy use and the reading comprehension achievements of the Indian ESL students. The study utilized two instruments such as SORS and RCT which is the…
Kinney, Kristen J.
This study examined influencing factors on the reading achievement of three first grade students from the Colorado Virtual Academy who were taught to read in a homeschool setting. The overarching research question asked, "How well do students perform when taught to read by parents given the tools that nationally accepted research has deemed…
Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey
This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…
This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…
Plony, Doreen A.
The purpose of this ex post facto study was to analyze archive data to investigate the effects of Read 180, a computer-based supplemental reading intervention, on students' academic achievement for the academic school year 2011-2012. Further analyses examined if influences existed in variables such as grade level, gender, and ethnicity of the…
Reed, Tammy Dotson
Illiteracy rates are increasing. The negative social and economic effects caused by weak reading skills include political unrest, social and health service inequality, poverty, and employment challenges. This quantitative study explored the proposition that the use of computer software games would increase reading achievement in second grade…
Blair-Larsen, Susan M., Ed.; Williams, Kathryn A., Ed.
This book explains the methodologies, techniques, strategies, and knowledge base necessary to achieve a balanced reading program. The book's contributors define the key elements in a balanced reading program and provide guidelines for implementing a balanced instructional program in the classroom. Following an introduction which addresses…
Bean, Rita; Draper, Jason; Turner, Greg; Zigmond, Naomi
This article reports on the student achievement outcomes for third graders in Reading First (RF) schools in Pennsylvania over the five years of implementation for the group as a whole, for disaggregated groups of third graders, and for third graders who received reading instruction in RF schools for one, two, and three years. We also present a…
Olson, Arthur V.
Discusses two frequently recommended tests for the evaluation of visual perception in relation to reading ability: the Frostig Development Test of Visual Perception and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Questions the content validity of the former and suggests that the latter is a reasonable predictor of reading achievement. (FL)
Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E
The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed.
Caponera, Elisa; Sestito, Paolo; Russo, Paolo M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of students' reading literacy, measured by the PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) test, on their performance in the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) mathematics and science tests. The data on 4,125 Italian students from 199 schools were analyzed:…
Araújo, Luisa; Costa, Patricia
Home shared book reading during the preschool years is a strong predictor of students' reading achievement in primary school, and, according to Sénéchal (2012), it can benefit more children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This study examines the association between frequency of book reading before the start of compulsory education…
Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Swanson, D B; Holtzman, K Z; Butler, A
This collaborative project between the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine explored the design and use of cumulative achievement tests in basic science education. In cumulative achievement testing, integrative end-of-unit tests are deliberately constructed to systematically retest topics covered in previous units as well as material from the just-completed unit. CWRU faculty developed and administered a series of six web-based cumulative achievement tests using retired United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 test material and tools provided by NBME's Customized Assessment Services, and trends in student performance were examined as the new CWRU basic science curriculum unfolded. This article provides the background information about test design and administration, as well as samples of score reporting information for students and faculty. While firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cumulative achievement testing are not warranted after a pilot test at a single school, preliminary results suggest that cumulative achievement testing may be an effective complement to progress testing, with the former used to encourage retention of already-covered material and the latter used to assess growth toward the knowledge and skills expected of a graduating student.
Espin, Christine A.; Deno, Stanley L.
This study examined the validity of a measure of reading proficiency in content areas with 121 grade-10 students. Correlational analyses revealed low-moderate to moderate correlations between reading measures and scores on a classroom study task, grade point average, and achievement test performance. Recommendations are made for implementation…
Dearborn Public Schools, MI.
The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…
Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.
Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…
Jacobs, Rhonda Suzanne
Research concerning technology-based reading intervention is limited and additional studies are needed in this area of study. This study examined the individual intervention programs (Read 180 and Thinking Reader) for diverse 6th, 7th, and 8th graders in order to determine the gains per grade level on state standardized reading tests. This study…
Morrison, James B., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to devise a simple instrument that could be helpful in predicting reading success by classroom teachers and school administrators who are not experts in the field of reading. The subjects, 190 randomly selected first graders, were given "Alphabet" and "Numbers" of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and "Information" and…
Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should be associated with higher reading and academic achievement. This review, however, reveals that although there are clear benefits of cochlear implantation to achievement in young deaf children, empirical results have been somewhat variable. Examination of the literature with regard to reading achievement suggests that the lack of consistent findings might be the result of frequent failures to control potentially confounding variables such as age of implantation, language skills prior to implantation, reading ability prior to implantation, and consistency of implant use. Studies of academic achievement beyond reading are relatively rare, and the extent to which performance in such domains is mediated by reading abilities or directly influenced by hearing, language, and speech remains unclear. Considerations of methodological shortcomings in existing research as well as theoretical and practical questions yet to be addressed provide direction for future research.
Rasinski, Timothy; Samuels, S. Jay; Hiebert, Elfrieda; Petscher, Yaacov; Feller, Karen
Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in effective literacy instruction (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instruction in reading fluency has been shown to lead to improvements in reading achievement. Reading fluency instruction is most commonly associated with guided repeated oral reading instruction. In the present retrospective…
Adelson, Jill L.; Carpenter, Brittany D.
With ever-present budget cuts, teachers often use within-class achievement grouping to meet the needs of students of all ability levels but particularly high-ability students. Using a national database, this study examined the relationship between achievement grouping and the size of achievement groups on kindergarten reading growth. Additionally,…
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…
Forshey, Amy L.
No Child Left Behind (2001) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) has put pressure on all teachers to develop proficient readers. In order to do just this, develop proficient readers, teachers must understand the effects that reading attitude has on reading achievement for all students. Research states that individuals with a…
State and local assessment data from 117 students in one school in the California Central Valley were examined to determine how much participation in a kindergarten through second grade multitiered reading intervention model contributed to third grade reading achievement, over and above the demographic factors of ethnicity, socioeconomic status,…
ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.
BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…
Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A; Dethorne, Laura S; Petrill, Stephen A
This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children's reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read.
Curry, Robert L.; Geis, Lynna
A sample of 175 students, constituting grades 10, 11, and 12 of two high schools, was used in the validation of a new Syllabication Skills Test. On the first day, the students completed four forms of the syllabication test; on the second, they completed Survey F of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Means and standard deviations were similar for…
Lewin, Beverly A.
Schemata based notions need not replace, but should be reflected in, product-centered reading tests. The contributions of schema theory to the psycholinguistic model of reading has been thoroughly reviewed. Schemata-based reading tests provide several advantages: (1) they engage the appropriate conceptual processes for the student which frees the…
Reikeras, Elin K. L.
Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…
Jackson, Raleigh Napoleon
The purpose of this study was to determine how reading achievement is affected by six independent personality factors (PF) exhibited by second-grade pupils. Personality factors involved are: (A) reserved vs. outgoing, (B) less intelligent vs. more intelligent, (C) feelings vs. emotionally stable, (D) phlegmatic vs. excitable, (E) obedient vs.…
Perrin, Janis Ann
The relationship of socioeconomic status to the reading achievement of Anglo, Mexican-American, and black pupils was investigated in a sample of 144 third- and fifth-grade pupils. Pupils who participated in a free lunch program were classified as belonging to the poverty group; those who did not participate were classified as nonpoverty. At both…
A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…
Lewis, Ruth Watson
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the self-concept scores of first-grade children receiving self-concept training and those not receiving such training; whether there is a difference in the reading achievement scores of first-grade children receiving self-concept training and those not…
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica
The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Background information is provided about the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) reading test, a test developed to meet the objectives specified by the State Board of Education in 1986. The revised test measures reading in a more interactive manner than did previous tests. The rationale of the test is presented, the revised reading…
Ward, Susan Lynette
The importance of reading proficiency is unquestioned. Although the nation has set a goal for all students to be proficient in reading, many of the nation's students are not proficient readers. The vast majority of research examining reading proficiency and reading achievement has concentrated on the cognitive aspects of reading and the use…
Treiman, Joan Little
The purpose of this paper was to test the hypothesis set forth by Farnham-Diggory (1967) and Denner (1970) that problem readers lack representational and syntactic competence. A random sample of 72 first graders, stratified by sex and social class, was given the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test and the Farnham-Diggory tasks. An analysis of variance…
This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…
Guided reading, as developed by Fountas and Pinnell (2001), has been a staple of elementary reading programs for the past decade. Teachers in the elementary school setting utilize this small group, tailored instruction in order to differentiate and meet the instructional needs of the students. The literature shows academic benefit for students who have special needs, such as learning disabilities, autism, and hearing impairments but consideration of academic impact has not been investigated for regular education students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the academic impact of the use of content-related (Group C) and the traditional literature-based (Group L) reading materials. During the Living Systems and Life Processes unit in science, two teachers self-selected to utilized science-related materials for guided reading instruction while the other three teacher participants utilized their normal literature-based guided reading materials. The two groups were compared using an ANCOVA in this pre-test/post-test design. The dependent variables included the Reading for Application and Instruction assessment (RAI) and a Living Systems and Life Processes assessment (LSA). Further analysis compared students of different reading levels and gender. The data analyses revealed a practical but not statistical significance for students in science performance. It was discovered that below level male and female students performed better on the LSA when provided with content-related guided reading materials. As far as reading achievement is concerned, students in both groups had comparable results. The teachers provided guided reading instruction to their students with fidelity and made adjustments to their practices due to the needs of their students. The content-related teachers utilized a larger number of expository texts than the literature-based teachers. These teachers expressed the desire to continue the practice of providing the students with
Struggling readers in Grades 7-8 at a large, suburban middle school in Georgia have consistently failed to make adequate yearly progress in reading. In recent years, interest in improving the literacy of adolescents has increased due to the growing number of students experiencing reading difficulties on state and national standardized tests. The…
Miller, Tawana D.
Background: The No Child Left Behind Act legislation requires both higher standards and higher success rates at the same time. Failure of students to learn to read adequately as shown by national and state test results and the need for continued school success had prompted education officials to implement two reading programs--Voyager Universal…
Rosa, Carlos M.; And Others
A study was undertaken to examine psychometric properties of "La Prueba Riverside de Realizacion en Espanol" (PRRE) and the "Spanish Assessment of Basic Education" (SABE) when administered to a sample of limited-English-proficient students, grades 1 through 8. Spanish-language versions of both tests were used for the study.…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C
For many students at risk for reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a learning disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties actively engaged in reading print during Tier I reading instruction, and the extent to which time in reading print was related to end-of-year reading achievement. Findings revealed the amount of time students were engaged in reading print predicted end-of-year reading achievement, although time engaged in reading print during Tier I was limited overall. Student and teacher level factors and their relationship to the amount of time students engage in reading print is also examined.
Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina
The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…
Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George
Gendered schooling is growing in the United States, but little research exists on single-sex classes in public elementary schools. This study sought to find out if single-sex classes in two elementary schools made a difference in boys' reading gains in 2008-2009, as judged by scores on the state's annual literacy test. In one school, boys in the…
Mickelson, Norma Irene
After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…
Sideridis, Georgios D; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye
The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was assessed using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles. Achievement in reading was assessed using a normative reading assessment. Data were analyzed by means of catastrophe theory in which the behavior is predicted as a function of two control variables, the asymmetry factor and the bifurcation factor. Reading achievement (word identification) was predicted by students' ability to decode pseudowords (asymmetry variable) and by a mastery or performance motivational discourse (bifurcation factor). Results indicated that in classrooms with a performance goal structure, the cusp model fit the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in real word identification. In this condition, the association between pseudoword reading and real word reading was nonlinear. When a mastery climate was tested as a bifurcation variable, results indicated that its effect was nonsignificant and that instead the linear model fitted the data more adequately. Thus, increases in a classroom's performance motivational discourse are associated with sudden, unpredictable, and discontinued changes in students' reading performance.
The oral Red Cloud Reading Test provides a complete analysis of reading level and skills for American Indian students in grades 1-7 or for high school and adult students reading at or below high school levels. The test determines the basic and recreational reading levels, identifies reading problems, determines reading speeds, and analyzes the…
Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C
Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.
Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias
The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…
Wills, Aaron J.
Increased scrutiny of educational proficiency targets has intensified the urgency for educators to identify measurements that indicate students' likelihood of eventual achievement in reading. This regression analysis explored the relationship between nonverbal ability in kindergarten as measured by the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) and…
Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.
The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…
Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Murdoch, Amy
Cunningham and Stanovich reported a longitudinal investigation over 10 years that examined the unique influence of exposure to print in explaining individual differences on various measures of reading achievement and declarative (general) knowledge. The present study replicated their investigation with a larger number of participants and…
Morgan, Margaret Peggy S.
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a period of time given to students to read self-selected materials during their school day. This study examines the effect of participation in a SSR program on reading attitudes and reading achievement of students as measured by the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) and the Northwest Evaluation…
This research review identifies parental roles and practices that have been shown to promote reading readiness, receptivity to reading instruction, and increased achievement in reading. Reviews studies of intervention and involvement programs designed to expand or alter parental practices in improving children's reading attitudes and achievement.…
Short, N. J.
This rating form concerns the measurement of basic skills in connection with assessing reading readiness. Motor skills, ability to adjust to learning situations, familiarity with the alphabet, and general knowledge are assessed. See TM 001 111 for details of the Regional PIC program in which it is used. (DLG)
The testing and measurement movement has certainly become important in United States education. Test scores are looked upon as being quite valuable in ascertaining student achievement, especially in the reading curriculum. Percentiles, standard deviations, stanine scores, and other indicators are given to show objectively how well the reading…
Sadden, Leah Jane; Reid, Janet
Reports on a study of the use of cloze passages in a developmental reading assessment program. The cloze procedure provides students with opportunities to practice their improved reading skills, while affording complete student-as-reader profiles. Concedes the value of standardized tests in determining student readiness to exit developmental…
Watson, G. R.; And Others
Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)
Mayberry, Rachel I; del Giudice, Alex A; Lieberman, Amy M
The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found statistically significant evidence for PCA skills and half did not. A subset of 25 studies also tested reading proficiency and showed a wide range of effect sizes. Overall PCA skills predicted 11% of the variance in reading proficiency in the deaf participants. Other possible modulating factors, such as task type and reading grade level, did not explain the remaining variance. In 7 studies where it was measured, language ability predicted 35% of the variance in reading proficiency. These meta-analytic results indicate that PCA skills are a low to moderate predictor of reading achievement in deaf individuals and that other factors, most notably language ability, have a greater influence on reading development, as has been found to be the case in the hearing population.
The academic performance of over 38,000 Texas students who failed the state's 1994 reading test was examined through their sophomore year in high school. Propensity score matching resulted in strata with retained and promoted students of comparable observed characteristics. Reading scores were analyzed using a two-level hierarchical linear model. Same grade comparisons show that third graders failing the state-mandated reading test who repeated the grade consistently outperformed in later grades the socially promoted children who also failed the third grade test. Additional analyses indicate that alternative explanations for the findings such as omitted variables, regression to the mean, differential panel attrition and cohort effects are not supported. The results are consistent with findings from other recent studies which suggest that grade retention in third grade may help increase student achievement.
Policies increasing the amount of time allocated to reading instruction are popular initiatives to meet the demands of accountability testing. Research suggests that time on instruction and children's approaches to learning (ATL), which generally includes measures of attention, persistence, motivation, and flexibility, are positively associated…
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…
Falke, Tricia Rae
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a computer-based reading intervention on the reading achievement of sixth grade students in one elementary school in a suburban school district located in the Midwest region of the United States. Data were collected through two district mandated reading assessments and a computer-based…
Hickey, David W.
This ex post facto, participatory action research study investigated the relationship between a criterion-referenced, inventory-based reading assessment and the standardized Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The study, conducted in a suburban Ohio district where the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) has been used since…
Vollands, Stacy R.; And Others
A study evaluated the effect software for self-assessment and management of reading practice had on reading achievement and motivation in two primary schools in Aberdeen, Scotland. The program utilized was The Accelerated Reader (AR) which was designed to enable curriculum based assessment of reading comprehension within the classroom. Students…
Tirre, William C.; And Others
The reading achievement test performance of 180 sixth grade students in contrasting reading programs was examined. One program (Matteson) was an explicitly sequenced, behaviorally oriented skills program; the other (Scott Foresman) placed more emphasis on rich language experience and less emphasis on specific skill development. An…
Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan
Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading.
This study estimated reading achievement gaps in different ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic groups of 1st graders in the U.S. compared with specific reference groups and identified statistically significant correlates and moderators of early reading achievement. A subset of 2,296 students nested in 184 schools from the Early Childhood…
Stallworth-Clark, Rosemarie; Cochran, Jeff; Nolen, Martha T.; Tuggle, Durelle L.; Scott, Janice S.
Describes a 20 item self-report psychometric scale that was used to assess test anxiety levels in 67 students. Reports that the higher the anxiety level, as measured by the Revised Test Anxiety Scale (RTA), the lower the score on a reading and writing competency exam taken subsequently, and that students who received extra time on the reading test…
Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta
This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…
This National Reading Conference Policy Brief provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. High stakes reading tests are those with highly consequential outcomes for students, teachers, and schools. These outcomes may include student promotion or retention, student placement in reading groups, school funding…
Williams, Lunetta M.; Hedrick, Wanda B.; Tuschinski, Linda
Motivating children to read on their own has been less of a priority than improving reading achievement in recent years, but many teachers are still asking, "How do I get my students to want to read?" The omission of motivation as a major component of reading instruction by the National Reading Panel (2000) was interpreted by many schools as a…
Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.
This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…
Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.
To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…
Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David
Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…
Jones, Paul L.; Armitage, Bonnie J.
Having implemented a testing procedure using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests to identify recruits with reading deficiencies, the United States Navy conducted a study comparing the performance of recruits on three different reading tests. A total of 716 recruits completed the comprehension portion of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, the Tests…
A written examination may discriminate against candidates if the reading difficulty level of the test is higher than the minimum educational level required for entry into the position for which the examination is used as a screening device. Tests used for examining applicants for positions in a large heterogeneous merit jurisdiction and in a city…
Harber, Jean R.
Characteristics which should be considered in reviewing any standardized reading test include validity, reliability, standardization sample, areas assessed by the test, type of response required by the child, individual versus group administration, time needed for administration, availability of equivalent forms, scoring options available,…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.
For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…
Golden, Anthony J.
The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…
The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH; Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014a) is an individually administered measure containing tests of reading, mathematics, written language, and academic knowledge. Areas of reading, mathematics, and written language each include tests of basic skills, fluency, and application. Academic…
Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric
Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan
Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…
Avitia, Maria; DeBiase, Emily; Pagirsky, Matthew; Root, Melissa M.; Howell, Meiko; Pan, Xingyu; Knupp, Tawnya; Liu, Xiaochen
The purpose of this study was to understand and compare the types of errors students with a specific learning disability in reading and/or writing (SLD-R/W) and those with a specific learning disability in math (SLD-M) made in the areas of reading, writing, language, and mathematics. Clinical samples were selected from the norming population of…
In their requirements for Model and Master Classroom, Library, and School Certification, Renaissance Learning, the parent company of Accelerated Reader (AR), emphasizes the components for a successful reading program. Using Reading Renaissance requires emphasis on literacy throughout the entire school and makes the job of the school librarian a…
Durkin, Mary Louise
The role of the parent in a child's reading development requires consistent communication with educators about the child's individual needs and progress. National concern for declining reading scores throughout the country begins in the early childhood educational setting. This study, designed as an action research, explored one-way and two-way…
Gilbert, Darryl L.
Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Pupil Testing and Advisory Services.
This publication lists and describes diagnostic reading tests available from United States publishers. Critical reviews by outside experts are included and supplemented by the compiler's comments. The external reviews are abstracted from "The Mental Measurements Yearbooks," edited by O. K. Buros, and cited by Yearbook edition and entry number. The…
Strahler, Brianna R.
Throughout the United States, school districts are integrating programs into their reading curricula in response to an increased focus on reading achievement. While many school districts are implementing successful remedial and after-school programs, their approach does not include providing literacy instruction for students during summer…
Linn, Robert L.; Meyer, Linda A.
The relationship of the amount of classroom time devoted to reading instruction, the number of reading related activities, and teacher instruction feedback to reading achievement at the end of kindergarten was investigated for a sample of approximately 300 children in 14 kindergarten classrooms at three schools. Based on nine rounds of full-day…
Chen, Su-Yen; Chang, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Shih Ruey
The linkage between reading for pleasure and language ability has been well established, but the relationship between content-based recreational reading and academic achievement in various subject areas has rarely been explored. To investigate whether reading literature, social studies, and science trade books for pleasure is related to students'…
Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others
Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…
Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.
Berninger, V W; Chen, A C; Abbott, R D
Within the framework of Society of Mind Theory (Minsky, 1986), learning to read is conceptualized as a process of creating new communication links or neural connections between an existing visual society and an existing linguistic society. Four visual-linguistic connections may become functional: letter-phonemic code, whole word-semantic code, whole word-name code, letter sequence-aural syllabic code. The hypothesis was tested that more than one of these visual-linguistic connections must be taken into account in predicting reading achievement. Results showed that the combination of the composite letter-phoneme variable and the composite whole word-semantic code variable accounted for significantly more variance in oral reading than did either single variable at the end of the first grade. Groups with large absolute discrepancy (1 or more standard scores) or small absolute discrepancy (1/3 standard score or less) on corresponding visual and linguistic skills differed significantly in both oral (whole word-semantic code composite) and silent reading (whole word-semantic code and letter sequence-aural syllabic code composites). There was a relationship between the number of large discrepancies and reading achievement. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological models of connectionism (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986) and working brain systems (Luria, 1973).
Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.
This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…
The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…
Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando
The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…
Bergey, Bradley W; Deacon, S Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multiple metacognitive reading and study strategy scales, yet these scores were not associated with their academic performance. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of identifying students with a history of reading difficulties and that commonly used study strategy inventories have limited value in predicting their academic success.
Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial friends as an environmental moderator of reading comprehension was examined. Antisocial friends significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in reading comprehension, with increased variation at lower levels of association with antisocial friends, with niche-picking indicated. Second, the role of reading comprehension as an environmental moderator of antisocial friends was examined. Reading comprehension significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in associating with antisocial friends, with increased variance at lower levels of reading comprehension and indication that common genetic influences contributed to higher reading achievement and better-behaved friends. In total, these results suggested reciprocal influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends. The impact of antisocial friends appeared to be limited in the extent to which they can undermine reading achievement, and high reading achievement appeared to support less association with antisocial friends.
Hart, Sara A.; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial friends as an environmental moderator of reading comprehension was examined. Antisocial friends significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in reading comprehension, with increased variation at lower levels of association with antisocial friends, with niche-picking indicated. Second, the role of reading comprehension as an environmental moderator of antisocial friends was examined. Reading comprehension significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in associating with antisocial friends, with increased variance at lower levels of reading comprehension and indication that common genetic influences contributed to higher reading achievement and better-behaved friends. In total, these results suggested reciprocal influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends. The impact of antisocial friends appeared to be limited in the extent to which they can undermine reading achievement, and high reading achievement appeared to support less association with antisocial friends. PMID:25242836
Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Rhoads, Chris; Maykel, Cheryl; Kennedy, Clint; Timbrell, Nicole
Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on income inequality that is separate from the achievement gap in traditional, offline reading? This possibility was examined between students in two pseudonymous school districts: West Town (economically advantaged) and East Town (economically challenged; N = 256). Performance-based…
Unrau, Norman; Schlackman, Jonah
The authors investigated the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on reading achievement for urban middle school students. The authors initially developed a research-based theoretical model representing interrelationships among students' ethnicity, gender, grade level, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and reading achievement.…
Thomas, Erica M.
The impact that removal of students from the educational setting has on student reading achievement (and later life outcomes) was the impetus for this study which sought to identify whether a relationship existed between an increasingly greater frequency of out of school suspension (OSS days) and reading achievement for middle school students.…
López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.
This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…
Guthrie, John T.; And Others
A study examined the relationships of reading achievement and constructs about student literacy activities for four ethnic-gender groups. A secondary analysis of nearly 3,000 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds' reading achievement and student questionnaire data from the 1986 National Assessment of Educational Progress was undertaken. The constructs varied…
Springer, Judith Ann
The focus of this study is on the possible effects of phonological interference on the reading achievement of Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican first graders. Specifically, the study explored the relationship between standard English auditory discrimination and first-grade reading achievement. Subjects for the study were 32 female and 20 male students…
Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole
This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…
Becker, Derek R.; Carrere, Sybil; Siler, Chelsea; Jones, Stephanie; Bowie, Bonnie; Cooke, Cheryl
In this study we examined high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, a parasympathetic index) both at rest and during challenge, to assess if variations in cardiovascular activity measured during a Stroop task could be used to predict reading achievement in typically developing children. Reading achievement was examined using the Peabody…
Drawing on the programme for international student assessment 2009 US data-set, this study examines the relationship between formative assessment and students' reading achievement using a structural equation modelling approach. We find that formative assessment is positively related to students' reading achievement directly and indirectly (through…
Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.; Cheng, Liying; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Qiang, Haiyan
This study investigated the effects of English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed (NS) on English reading achievement and the evidence for cross-linguistic transfer in Chinese English-immersion students. English PA was a significant predictor of English reading achievement for immersion students in Grades 2 and 4. There was…
National testing standards have increased pressure on school personnel to identify and implement instructional practices that facilitate the academic achievement of at-risk students. No Child Left Behind legislation currently mandates that reading programs at the middle school level receiving federal funding must use scientifically validated…
Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat
The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…
In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…
Gleason, Tara Lynn
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether elementary schools that endorse implementing core components of Response to Intervention (RTI) differ in student outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Reading Assessment when compared to schools that do not endorse implementing RTI practices. This study also explored…
Caplinger, Robert T.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of a middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule would increase eighth-grade students' reading scores, as measured by the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS). A 90-minute middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule served as the independent variable and…
For the past 10 years, government reports have documented an increase in college developmental reading courses. However, a community college in the southeastern United States has experienced a decline in enrollment and attendance in these courses since they began in 1999. The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the impact of taking a…
This report examines traditional calendar school Read to Achieve reading camps implemented in the summer of 2014. Teacher and student survey respondents reported positive reading camp experiences and reading camp was well attended. Based on data for 502 students, a small percentage (16.1%) reached reading proficiency by the end of camp. Gains in…
Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.
There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…
Otter, Martha E.; And Others
A longitudinal study investigated the effects of leisure time reading (reading at home for pleasure or fun) on pupils' reading achievement in school. Subjects, 736 students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 in 30 schools located throughout the Netherlands, had their reading achievement determined five times: at the beginning and end of grade 3 and at the…
Hume, Julie M.
Many of today's students are reading below grade level and schools are investigating methods for increasing student achievement in the area of reading. This mixed method research study investigated the achievement of students who were reading below grade level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reading response…
Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern
A comparison of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) indicates that the two should be used interchangeably only with caution and understanding of the differences. While there is a moderate to high correlation between the test scores, nevertheless, the two have distinctly different strengths and…
Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R. A.; Yu, Jennifer W.; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna
This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children…
Ashmore, Robert J.; Snyder, Robert T.
This paper presents evidence that the Snyder/Pope Visual Memory Technique using the Bender-Gestalt Test is a useful predictor of reading ability for first-grade children. Short-term visual recall appears highly related to the Grade 1 reading task and should be assessed when children begin learning to read. (Author/SJL)
Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, TN.
The history of the Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT), a university based national curriculum assessment project, is described in this report. The project performs surveys of academic curricula by content area, collects examination items from the faculty of participating departments, and constructs, distributes, and scores…
Miller, Steven C.
The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…
Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah
Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…
Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.
This yearbook contains papers which relate to issues in administering, supervising, researching, teaching, implementing, assessing, and strengthening programs and approaches in reading. The 22 papers and their authors are as follows: "Reading in Early America" (Ruskin Teeter); "Looking Back for the Future: Amish Literacy and Its…
Rashid, Fontina L.; Morris, Robin D.; Sevcik, Rose A.
Past research has indicated that a significant relationship exists between young children's early home literacy environment and their reading-related skills. However, this relationship has rarely been investigated among older children with reading disabilities (RD). In the present study, the relationship between parent and child home literacy…
Rider, Lynne Marie
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, about 60% of students cannot read proficiently at their current grade level. Findings from the National Reading Panel (NRP) indicate that there is not sufficient research on the topic of struggling middle school readers. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact…
This study examined the effects of an intensive remedial program, Wilson Reading System (WRS), on 43 struggling readers from second to twelfth grade. The students, who attended a large southwestern urban school district, were all at least two grade levels below their peers in reading. Participants received 20 hours of WRS instruction over the…
Reglin, Gary L.; McAllister, Denise H.
The purpose of this study was to determine if the academic achievement of first grade students was affected by the family employment status in the two-parent family where the mother works, the two parent family where the mother stays home, and the single-parent family where the mother works. Academic achievement was measured using the…
Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando
The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).
Saigh, Philip A.; Khairallah, Shereen
The concurrent validity of the Diagnostic Analysis of Reading Errors (DARE) subtests was studied, based on the responses of Lebanese secondary and postsecondary students relative to their achievement in an English course or on a standardized test of English proficiency. The results indicate that the DARE is not a viable predictor of English…
Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena
This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…
Edwards, Karethy; Edwards, Boyze; Jones, Gail; Ham, Sharon
Excellence in reading and math enable children entry to all of the professions. This is especially true for the nursing profession. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the national crisis in reading and math achievement among school children, present the methodology of the Saturday School church-based approach to enhance reading and math skills, and the seven year outcomes.
Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern
The article presents a statistical and descriptive comparison, with emphasis on math subtests, of the Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, based on scores obtained from clients (in grades 1-12) at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. (SBH)
Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle
This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity “to see images” of a written story in the mind’s eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154
Rabiner, David L; Malone, Patrick S
This study examined whether the benefits of reading tutoring in first grade were moderated by children's level of attention problems. Participants were 581 children from the intervention and control samples of Fast Track, a longitudinal multisite investigation of the development and prevention of conduct problems. Standardized reading achievement measures were administered after kindergarten and 1st grade, and teacher ratings of attention problems were obtained during 1st grade. During 1st grade, intervention participants received three 30-min tutoring sessions per week to promote the development of initial reading skills. Results replicated prior findings that attention problems predict reduced 1st grade reading achievement, even after controlling for IQ and earlier reading ability. Intervention was associated with modest reading achievement benefits for inattentive children without early reading difficulties, and substantial benefits for children with early reading difficulties who were not inattentive. It had no discernible impact, however, for children who were both inattentive and poor early readers. Results underscore the need to develop effective academic interventions for inattentive children, particularly for those with co-occurring reading difficulties.
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…
Huelsman, Charles B., Jr.
An attempt to evaluate the effects of individualized vision training in a group of grade-4 children who were both disabled in reading and diagnosed as having inadequate vision skills is reported. The effects evaluated include both changes in vision and the relationship of vision training to change in reading achievement. Experimental cases…
Sherrill, Carol A.
The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the knowledge of literacy development and reading instruction practices an elementary school principal possesses impacts the level of reading achievement of his/her students. Principals' scores on an assessment of knowledge of literacy development and instruction were compared to students'…
Fawson, Parker C.; Reutzel, D. Ray; Read, Sylvia; Smith, John A.; Moore, Sharon A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of four incentive paths on third graders' reading vocabulary and comprehension achievement and recreational and academic reading attitude. One hundred and twenty third-grade students were assigned to one of four incentive path treatment conditions. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance…
Scott, Louise Shewfelt
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated whether the Accelerated Reader program meets its claim to motivate and improve reading achievement for all students, including those with special needs. The Accelerated Reader program is a computer-based reading management system that includes a database of thousands of books ranging…
Wei, Xin; Blackorby, Jose; Schiller, Ellen
Using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SRI International, 2002), this study estimated reading growth trajectories in a nationally representative sample of 3,421 students with disabilities ages 7 to 17 representing 11 federal disability categories. Reading achievement in all disability categories increased with age,…
Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa
As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…
Describes a study that examined the classroom behavior and reading achievement of elementary school children placed on the Feingold food additive elimination diet. Concludes that children who remained on the diet for six months became less impulsive but did not raise their reading scores significantly. (FL)
Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli
A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…
Reardon, Sean F.; Galindo, Claudia
This article describes the developmental patterns of Hispanic-White math and reading achievement gaps in elementary school, paying attention to variation in these patterns among Hispanic subgroups. Compared to non-Hispanic White students, Hispanic students enter kindergarten with much lower average math and reading skills. The gaps narrow by…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.
This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample…
Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily
This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…
The purpose of this study was to examine teacher qualification factors believed to affect reading achievement of students with disabilities in intensive reading classes after controlling for certain student and teacher demographics using ANCOVA. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the reading…
Accelerated Reader is a computer program designed by Advantage Learning Systems to assess students' reading comprehension levels and keep detailed and accurate reports of such findings. This research studied the Accelerated Reader program with a second grade class over a 6-week time frame. One class of 20 students read books picked from the…
Mason, Jana; And Others
Two contrasting kindergarten reading programs (book-focused and letter-focused) were chosen for a study that evaluated the ability of the Early Reading Test to probe children's knowledge of stories as well as letters, sounds, and words. The test also evaluated the kinds of strategies children use to attempt reading tasks and, through interview…
Anderson, Kenneth A.; Sadler, Camelia I.
Longitudinal research on reading curricula and skills that predict future reading achievement for African American males in special education is quite limited. Using a national sample over a five-year period, this study highlights reading skills most associated with later reading achievement for African American males in special education. For…
Badgett, Kevin; Decman, John; Carman, Carol
In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…
McKinney, Reisha Monique
As early childhood education continues to move to the forefront of public policy debate, more attention is being paid to early literacy. Strickland and Riley-Ayers (2006) indicated that early literacy and early learning opportunities play a vital role in academic achievement. This study invested whether there were statistically significant…
Lim, Hyo Jin
The present study investigated longitudinal changes of the reading achievement among schools populated with English learners. It also examined the heterogeneity in the English learners group in terms of students' performance in high stakes reading tests. Historically, English learners have often been considered the students who are in the process…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; Stryker, Deborah S
The ability to access and understand the meaning of multi-morphemic words is essential for age-appropriate literacy growth as well as for achievement in other participants, such as science and social studies, which are so print-dependent. This paper provides a theoretical basis for focusing on the morphology of English when teaching students who are deaf or hard of hearing to read through a review of the literature on the role of morphology in reading for both hearing students and those with a hearing loss. In addition, the authors review the empirical literature on Signing Exact English (SEE), a system of signing English constructed in which the morphology of words is made visible to children who might not be able to hear them. The authors propose that students' use of SEE can provide a bridge to developing the morphemic awareness so necessary for age-appropriate reading development and achievement.
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah
Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.
Miller, Kelli Caldwell; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve
Because of the increased emphasis on standardized testing results, scores from a high-stakes, end-of-year test (Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program [TCAP] Reading Composite) were used as the standard against which scores from a group-administered, curriculum-based measure (CBM), Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading (MIR:R), were…
Swanson, H. Lee
This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…
Mucherah, Winnie; Yoder, Alyssa
This study examined middle school students' reading motivation and its relations to their performance on a standardized test (ISTEP+) in reading. Participants included 388 sixth- and eighth-grade students from two public middle schools. There were 229 females and 159 males. Participants responded to the Reading Motivation Questionnaire after they…
representing the four types of Army job reading tasks identified in prior research (Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs,DD re I= 3 E...categories of Army job reading tasks established in prior research: Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs, and in Narrative Descriptions...as the index of general reading ability. This decision was based on a known correlation of approximately 0.80 between FA and the Metropolitan Reading
Bruce, S.; Strouse, G. F.
The establishment of traceability is an essential component of laboratory accreditation for calibration laboratories accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). Traceability requires that an unbroken chain of comparisons to national standards with stated and documented uncertainties be established. The use of proficiency testing is an important tool for validating uncertainty claims contained within a Scope of Accreditation. As such, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Thermometry Group conducts proficiency testing for NVLAP-accredited contact thermometry laboratories. These proficiency tests include thermometric fixed points, standard platinum resistance thermometers, industrial platinum resistance thermometers, thermistors, thermocouples, and liquid-in- glass thermometers. The NIST Thermometry Group proficiency tests scale inversely in difficulty as a function of the uncertainties contained within a facility’s Scope of Accreditation. The offered proficiency tests are designed to establish confidence in the participant’s calibration capabilities and uncertainty claims without being an undue burden to the calibration facility. The NIST Thermometry Group proficiency tests involve measurements of NIST-owned artifact(s) at NIST, measurements of the artifact(s) at the participant’s calibration facility, and then a second set of measurements at NIST. On completion of the measurement phase of a proficiency test, a detailed report is generated to give the difference in temperature realization between that of the participant and NIST and the degree of equivalence. As part of the goal to improve the participant’s measurement capabilities, the report also gives suggested solutions to any identified measurement issues that need attention. The role of proficiency testing as part of the process in achieving NVLAP accreditation in thermometry is discussed in the article. Additionally, the descriptions of the NIST
Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole
Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…
Olson, Arthur V.; Rosen Carl L.
A variety of factor analysis techniques were employed to explore the structure of five reading readiness instruments (Gates Reading Readiness Test, Developmental Tests of Visual Perception, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, Specially Constructed Readiness Test by Olson, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) as predictor variables of performance on…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Spichtig, Alexandra N.; Petscher, Yaacov
The authors’ purpose was to explore the effects of a supplementary, guided, silent reading intervention with 80 struggling third-grade readers who were retained at grade level as a result of poor performance on the reading portion of a criterion referenced state assessment. The students were distributed in 11 elementary schools in a large, urban school district in the state of Florida. A matched, quasi-experimental design was constructed using propensity scores for this study. Students in the guided, silent reading intervention, Reading Plus, evidenced higher, statistically significant mean scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test criterion assessment measure of reading at posttest. The effect size, favoring the guided, silent reading intervention group was large, 1 full standard deviation, when comparing the 2 comparison groups’ mean posttest scores. As such, the results indicate a large advantage for providing struggling third-grade readers guided silent reading fluency practice in a computer-based practice environment. No significant difference was found between the treatment and control group on the Stanford Achievement Test–10 (SAT-10) posttest scores, although posttest scores for the treatment group trended higher than the control. After conducting a power analysis, it was determined that the sample size (n = 80) was too small to provide sufficient statistical power to detect a difference in third-grade students’ SAT-10 scores. PMID:26346539
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.
This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample received Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) while the remainder continued to receive traditional R/LA. CORI emphasizes support for reading motivation, reading engagement, and cognitive strategies for reading informational text. Seven motivation constructs were included: four motivations that are usually positively associated with achievement (intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, valuing, and prosocial goals) and three motivations that are usually negatively associated with achievement (perceived difficulty, devaluing, and antisocial goals). Reading engagement was also represented by positive and negative constructs, namely dedication to and avoidance of reading. Gender, ethnicity, and income were statistically controlled in all analyses. In the traditional R/LA context, a total network model prevailed, in which motivation was associated with achievement both directly and indirectly through engagement. In contrast, in the intervention R/LA context, a dual-effects model prevailed, in which engagement and achievement were separate outcomes of instruction and motivation. The intervention R/LA context analyses revealed that CORI was associated with positive changes in motivation, engagement, and achievement relative to traditional R/LA instruction. The discussion explains why there were different relations in the two instructional contexts and demonstrates the importance of simultaneously examining both positive (affirming) and negative (undermining) forms of motivation and engagement. PMID:26412903
With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, educators and policy makers have been seeking effective strategies to improve students' science, mathematics and reading achievement. One of the primary teaching strategies recommended by reform-oriented organizations, such as the National Research Council (1996), is to utilize inquiry-based science instruction. In this study, I examined the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement across science, mathematics and reading. I also compared the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999---a large, national data sample---a series of structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicated that inquiry-based science instruction was associated with significant, positive gains not only in science achievement, but also in mathematics and reading achievement. The positive relationship between inquiry instruction and student achievement was found above and beyond the contributions of traditional science instruction, which generally showed no significant relationship to student achievement. Findings support the theoretical position that inquiry-based science instruction can have robust benefits across the curriculum. This study contributes to the dialogue on effective instructional methods to achieve science, mathematics and reading literacy for all. Overall, this study provides cautious support for the idea that student achievement can be promoted by supporting and encouraging teachers to implement inquiry-based science instruction.
Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia
The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…
Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek
For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…
Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…
Poggio, Jennifer M.
This study investigated the effects of teacher sense of efficacy for literacy instruction on reading achievement in grades three through eight. In previous studies, a teacher's sense of efficacy was shown to be correlated to student achievement (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Moore & Esselman, 1992). However, research attempting to uncover the…
Collins, Mary L.
Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…
Using data from a household-based, stratified random sample of youth and their caregivers from low-income inner-city neighborhoods, this study examined the variability in the academic achievement of Latino youth. The results indicate a significant advantage in reading achievement for first- and second-generation immigrant youth, as compared to the…
Lucas, Marilyn S.; Singer, Harry
Dialect has been a prominent suspect in recent years as a causal factor in the disparity between achievement of the majority group and of certain minority groups, including Mexican-Americans. The purpose of this study was to discover whether there is a significant relationship between dialect and oral reading achievement in grades 1-3 for…
Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan
Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…
Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy
Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…
Gamble, Eddie L.
Forty five percent of the students' receiving Title I funds in urban lower class inner city schools and 20% of the students not receiving Title I funds in American public schools are reading below proficient on standardized tests. The goal of No Child Left Behind Legislation was to make sure that 95% of all students are reading at a proficient…
Martin, M. O.
Approximately 4,000 children took part in a study of the reading attainments of children from different social-class backgrounds in Irish primary schools to find out if the progessive reading gap between children from different home backgrounds that has been observed in other countries could also be found in Irish school children. Tests were…
Hirsch, E. D., Jr.; Pondiscio, Robert
For millions of American schoolchildren, taking a test for which they are completely unprepared is like a nightmare from which they cannot wake. It is a trial visited upon them each year when the law requires them to take reading tests with little preparation. Formally preparing for reading tests has become more than just a ritual for schools. It…
Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
State Report Appendix: Arizona Student Achievement Program, Spring 1997. Individual Percentile Rank Scores by School, District, County, and State, Grades 3 through 12. Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition.
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
This is the 17th year of statewide student testing under the Arizona Student Achievement Program. To fulfill the requirements of Arizona law, a nationally standardized, norm-referenced achievement test in the subjects of reading, language, and mathematics must be adopted and implemented for Arizona schools. For the 1996-97 school year, the State…
Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar
The study scrutinized the probable interaction between using cognitive test-taking strategies, reading proficiency, and reading comprehension test performance of Iranian postgraduate students, who studied English as a foreign language. The study also probed the extent to which the participants' test performance was related to the use of certain…
Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda
This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special…
Collingwood, Madeline Duckworth
This study was a follow-up of a three year longitudinal study of factors affecting learning to read. It examined the efficacy of four different approaches to beginning reading instruction on subsequent reading achievement in grade four. Major purposes were to determine what effect maturation and exposure to a non-experimental typical grade four…
Forty-four 7-11 year-old subjects with normal to high IQ's but who fell in the lower half of their respective age groups in reading were studied to determine the relative effectiveness of perceptual motor training (PMT) and individualized remedial reading instruction (IRRI) upon the reading achievement, perceptual motor development, and behavior…
Pressures to help students pass high-stakes tests affect teachers' reading instruction, their responsiveness to students' learning needs, and their professional effectiveness. This article reports on how one reading specialist responded to testing pressures in her urban elementary school. She believed that what was "right" for her…
Hopkins, Kenneth D.; And Others
Forty-two fourth- and fifth-grade teachers rated their 1,032 students in the five curricular subjects: reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social science. The teachers' ratings substantially agreed with students' scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, indicating the concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests.…
COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2 . GOVTAC NO Y3C NT. CATALOG NUMBER AFHRL-SR-83-23 Ik6. 4. TITLE (awd Su,$9k) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AIR FORCE...the R&DI AFHRL. TR-78.82, Predichon of Reading Grade Li.s of Seim. AApdwo from Armed Serice. Vocaionaj Ap ude Batery (ASVAB); AFHRL.TR-80-11, Reading
Wark, David M.
Shows that the Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) is a reliable and valid instrument for separating test anxious readers in a population of students. Offers suggestions for reducing reading anxiety. Includes the 16-item TAS measure. (FL)
Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna
This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.
LEIBERT, ROBERT E.
A STUDY DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE RESPONSES ON THE GATES ADVANCED PRIMARY READING TEST AND THE KINDS OF RESPONSES OBTAINED FROM AN INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (IRI) IS REPORTED. SUBJECTS WERE 65 THIRD-GRADE PUPILS IN WEST BABYLON, NEW YORK. PUPILS AT THE SAME INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL SCORED HIGHER IN THE RECOGNITION TEST…
Fletcher, Jo; Grimley, Michael; Greenwood, Janinka; Parkhill, Faye
This article focuses on a multicultural, low socioeconomic, intermediate school that over the 4 years of this longitudinal, qualitative, case study made substantial positive shifts in developing a more effective learning environment and improving students' reading achievement. The study found that the factors appearing to have the most influence…
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.
The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…
McMahon,Susan D.; Rose, Dale S.; Parks, Michaela
With increased interest in the theory of multiple intelligences (MI), there is a need to identify and evaluate instruments designed to assess them. This study was designed to evaluate the reliability of the Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences (TIMI) and the relationship between intellectual preferences and reading achievement. The TIMI was…
Hicks, Concetta G.
An eight-week program designed to stimulate fluency, flexibility, and originality proved effective in enhancing the creative thinking skills of 23 fourth grade students. Significant correlations were found to exist between IQ and creativity and between reading achievement and creativity. (GT)
Cameron, Claire E.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Steele, Joel S.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Grissmer, David W.
This study examined achievement trajectories in mathematics and reading from school entry through the end of middle school with linear and nonlinear growth curves in 2 large longitudinal data sets (National Longitudinal Study of Youth--Children and Young Adults and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort [ECLS-K]). The S-shaped…
Clark, Melissa H.
This study examines the impact of various types of preschool care and education on the reading achievement of children, kindergarten through fifth grade, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). The participants in this study are located throughout the United States of America. These…
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…
Mobley, Joy L.
Public schools struggle with ways to encourage parental involvement in the classroom. Home and school collaboration is needed if students are to succeed academically. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a significant difference in the reading achievement of students by the number of workshop sessions attended by parents…
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…
This study of adolescent boys' literacy builds on motivation theory and uses the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield, Guthrie, & McGough, 1996) as a foundation. Survey and achievement data were collected from 330 students and eight teachers at a Catholic, all-boys high-school. Results suggest that the motivational constructs…
Jordan, Valerie Barnes; Brownlee, Linda
The relationship between performance on various Piagetian and reading achievement tasks as examined through 26 correlational studies is reviewed. The following areas of concern are addressed: (1) sample characteristics of the subjects; (2) classification of the Piagetian tasks into five categories of logical operations, spatial concepts, general…
Canter, Andrea Sherril
This study investigated the developmental relationships between a battery of cognitive tasks--including Piagetian operations of conservation, classification, and seriation--and early reading achievement. Subjects were 128 kindergarten through third-grade students at a suburban elementary school. They were administered a battery of cognitive tests…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie
Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…
Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean
The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…
Cox, Robin W.
I conducted case study research on five third-grade teachers to go "beneath" the appearance of best practices and understand what helps students make the greatest literacy achievement. I asked principals and reading experts to complete a best practices rubric and then selected the two highest scoring teachers from three schools. I…
Lynch, Roberta A.
A study examined what effect, if any, vision training exercises had on reading achievement. It was hypothesized that training students to control more accurately the speed and direction of their eye movements would improve their visual skills. However, it was also hypothesized that a more efficient visual system would have no effect on reading…
Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Garnier, Helen E.; Spybrook, Jessaca
In a longitudinal group-randomized trial, we explore the key role of the quality of classroom text discussions in mediating the effects of Content-Focused Coaching (CFC) on student reading achievement (2983 students, 167 teachers). Schools in the United States serving large numbers of minority and English language learning (ELL) students from…
Cramer, Todd M.
Since the passage of the first Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965, increasing reading achievement for all students has been a focus for our nation. Unfortunately, our country still has over 30 million citizens who are illiterate (Mukherjee, 2007). One of the challenges for schools is to accurately identify students in need of early…
Padgett, Carrie B.
The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…
Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica
The study investigates the mean difference in reading achievement between third-graders in public and independent schools in Sweden. The data come from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 conducted by IEA. Variables from the home questionnaire mainly indicating possession of cultural capital are used as independent variables. A total IRT score…
Today's educators must use research-based teaching strategies that increase achievement levels of students. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences is scientifically-based. The current model suggests eight different areas in which a person can demonstrate intelligence. This study compared reading and math assessments score of elementary…
Fransen, Shelly Lynette
High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…
Gajar, Anna H.; And Others
The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…
Jarrett, Christy; Evans, Cay; Dai, Yong; Williams, Debbie; Rogers, Keitha
The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a significant increase in the reading achievement during second- and third-grade of the 12 students who attended Midway Elementary Professional Development School (PDS) from kindergarten through fifth grade. Additionally, the study was seeking a possible relationship between the in-service…
Schools in California's Early Childhood Education Program (ECE) have lower reading achievement than non-ECE schools; furthermore, schools which are both ECE and Title I score below all others. Three alternative policies are discussed: (1) continued expansion; (2) gradual termination; and (3) stable funding, explaining score discrepancies, and…
Cuttitta, Frederick F.
This study examines the possible relationship between principals' administrative behaviors and pupil reading achievement. Administrative interns assigned to 40 New York City schools during the 1973-74 school year observed principals' decision-making behaviors over a continuous period of 40 school days. Principals' behaviors were described in terms…
Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Barofsky, Meryl Y.; List, Alexandra
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (ECLS-K, 98), a nationally representative sample of kindergarteners in the United States, we investigated the relationship between approaches to learning and spring reading achievement with particular emphasis on classroom and school-level differences. We employed…
DOLAN, SISTER MARY EDWARD
THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS WHO WERE TAUGHT WORD RECOGNITION BY EITHER A BASAL APPROACH OR A BASAL APPROACH WITH LINGUISTIC EMPHASIS WAS INVESTIGATED. A SAMPLE OF 10 CLASSROOMS MATCHED ON INTELLIGENCE, CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WAS SELECTED FROM SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN IOWA AND MICHIGAN. THE LORGE-THORNDIKE…
TO UNCOVER BASIC PERCEPTUAL AND PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES POSSIBLY RESPONSIBLE FOR DIFFERENCES IN READING ACHIEVEMENT, TWO STRATIFIED SAMPLES OF 60 ABOVE- AND BELOW-AVERAGE READERS WERE SELECTED FROM THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF 5,612 CHILDREN COMPLETING FIRST GRADE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA. THE GROUPS WERE MATCHED ACCORDING TO SEX, SCHOOL, GROUP…
Sideridis, Georgios D.; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye
The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was…
King, Marlon Demetrius
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…
This report describes an action research project improving student academic reading achievement. The targeted population consisted of fifth grade students in a growing suburb of a major midwestern metropolitan area. The evidence for existence of the problem included student surveys, assessments, teacher observations and checklists. Analysis of…
van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.
In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…
Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.
This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Kemper, Elizabeth
Examined preliminary achievement outcomes of the first years of direct instruction reading within six Baltimore elementary schools. Overall, members of the original second grade cohort were nearing grade level by the end of fifth grade in both intervention and control schools. Future research based on well-established program implementation might…
Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Farnia, Fataneh; Ungerleider, Charles
Research Findings: This article addresses the mediating role of early childhood home enrichment in the association between maternal education and academic achievement in the reading and math of 1,093 children aged 7 (Grade 1). Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development database. We used the bootstrapping…
Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Guerrero, Cindy; Huerta, Maggie; Fan, Yinan
This study examined the effect of a quasi-experimental project on fifth grade English learners' achievement in state-mandated standards-based science and English reading assessment. A total of 166 treatment students and 80 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted…
This study employed a multilevel technique to examine pupil-, school- and province-level factors that influence achievement in mathematics and reading of Grade 5 primary school pupils in Vietnam. The data for this study were collected as part of a major survey that sought to examine the quality of education offered in Vietnam primary schools.…
Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention program for first-graders who are at risk of failure in reading and writing. More than 1.5 million children have been served in the United States since 1984, and pre- and post-test Observation Survey scores have been collected across the nation for the past 20 years. Yet there is a need to determine…
Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…
Johnson, Mark E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Rhodes, Fen; Booth, Robert
The Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised were administered twice to 269 current drug abusers over an average time interval of 204.2 days. Overall, the study demonstrates that the two instruments have strong psychometric properties and that results from current drug abusers are reliable. (SLD)
Glutting, Joseph J.; Watkins, Marley W.; Konold, Timothy R.; McDermott, Paul A.
This study employed observed factor index scores as well as latent ability constructs from the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003) in estimating reading and mathematics achievement on the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition" (WIAT-II; Wechsler, 2002). Participants…
Short, N. J.
This diagnostic skills checklist enables the methods and materials specialists to note the reading and spelling skills the child has mastered, those skills which are weak or not developed, and those skills which are clearly beyond the child's capability of mastering because of insufficiently developed abilities at lower, prerequisite levels. Also…
Llorens Tatay, Ana Cristina; Gil Pelluch, Laura; Vidal-Abarca Gámez, Eduardo; Martínez Giménez, Tomás; Mañá Lloriá, Amelia; Gilabert Pérez, Ramiro
A new test to evaluate reading literacy, the Test of Reading Literacy for Secondary Education (CompLEC) is presented. CompLEC is based on the PISA assessment framework and new definitions of reading literacy. The test, easy to apply and score, assesses the level of reading literacy of children between 11 and 14 years of age in several reading situations (i.e., public, educational, personal and occupational) and with different types of texts (i.e., continuous and non-continuous). The scale has been standardized with a sample of 1,854 students from five different Spanish regions. Empirical results show that CompLEC is a homogeneous, reliable and valid instrument.
A study was conducted to determine if a teacher-constructed cloze procedure correlated significantly with two standardized tests of reading achievement, thereby testing G.D. Spache's claim that most teachers are unable to design valid and reliable assessment materials. Subjects were 60 fourth and sixth grade students who were administered the…
Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E
The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.
Blanchard, Jay S.
Evaluates the Computer-Based Assessment Instrument (CRAI) as a test for reading proficiency. Notes strengths of CRAI, including its use as a quick assessment of silent reading comprehension level, and the problems with readability and content specific words lists and the lack of scoring features. (JC)
If the purpose of language learning is communication, then improving students' reading comprehension competence becomes an overall goal in language teaching. This paper examines the online resources of reading comprehension tests with non-English major college students, and tackles the problem with the teaching method of integrating web-based…
These instructional materials provide reading materials, recipes, and exercises to help students prepare for the practical reading section of the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. The passages can also help students learn and practice some important life skills in the areas of nutrition and food safety. Basic skill improvement is in…
Otto, Wayne; Harper, Betty
As part of a larger project on teaching reading, this paper describes the work involved in constructing an effective instrument to evaluate teachers' knowledge of reading pedagogy. Existing tests were reviewed and rejected because of their focus on specific knowledge and diagnostic concepts rather than on measuring the knowledge implicitly tied to…
Tirre, William C.; Pena, Carmen M.
Two experiments with approximately 377 newly enlisted Air Force personnel and 182 college students investigated the validity of a reading span test combining a knowledge verification task with a word memorization task. Results support the hypothesis that word recall reflects the amount of working memory functional in reading. (SLD)
Using data from a household-based, stratified random sample of youth and their caregivers from low-income inner-city neighborhoods, this study examined the variability in the academic achievement of Latino youth. The results indicate a significant advantage in reading achievement for first- and second-generation immigrant youth, as compared to the third generation, which persisted even after controlling for important child, parenting, human capital, neighborhood, and demographic covariates. Follow-up analyses within the subsample of the first- and second-generation youth indicate that more recent arrival to the U.S. predicted higher reading achievement. Yet, there was no evidence of a similar immigrant advantage in math. The implications of these findings, limitations of the present study, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27594723
Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…
Boyd, Joseph L., Jr.; Shimberg, Benjamin
This directory was compiled to assist vocational teachers and researchers in locating tests in various occupational fields. Test data was gathered from publishers, directors of vocational programs, union officials, and members of the American Vocational Association. Selection of the instruments depended on their availability and standardization,…
Malanchini, Margherita; Wang, Zhe; Voronin, Ivan; Schenker, Victoria J; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia
Extant literature has established a consistent association between aspects of reading motivation, such as enjoyment and self-perceived ability, and reading achievement, in that more motivated readers are generally more skilled readers. However, the developmental etiology of this relation is yet to be investigated. The present study explores the development of the motivation-achievement association and its genetic and environmental underpinnings. Applying cross-lagged design in a sample of 13,825 twins, we examined the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between reading enjoyment and self-perceived ability and reading achievement. Children completed a reading comprehension task and self-reported their reading enjoyment and perceived ability twice in middle childhood: when they were 9-10 and 12 years old. Results showed a modest reciprocal association over time between reading motivation (enjoyment and perceived ability) and reading achievement. Reading motivation at age 9-10 statistically predicted the development of later achievement, and similarly, reading achievement at age 9-10 predicted the development of later motivation. This reciprocal association was observed beyond the stability of the variables and their contemporaneous correlation and was largely explained by genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record
Extant literature has established a consistent association between aspects of reading motivation, such as enjoyment and self-perceived ability, and reading achievement, in that more motivated readers are generally more skilled readers. However, the developmental etiology of this relation is yet to be investigated. The present study explores the development of the motivation–achievement association and its genetic and environmental underpinnings. Applying cross-lagged design in a sample of 13,825 twins, we examined the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between reading enjoyment and self-perceived ability and reading achievement. Children completed a reading comprehension task and self-reported their reading enjoyment and perceived ability twice in middle childhood: when they were 9–10 and 12 years old. Results showed a modest reciprocal association over time between reading motivation (enjoyment and perceived ability) and reading achievement. Reading motivation at age 9–10 statistically predicted the development of later achievement, and similarly, reading achievement at age 9–10 predicted the development of later motivation. This reciprocal association was observed beyond the stability of the variables and their contemporaneous correlation and was largely explained by genetic factors. PMID:28333527
Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Jaciw, Andrew P.
This report, which has been prepared by Abt Associates for the Institute of Education Sciences' National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, takes an important first step in sorting out the implications of relying on state tests for general, student-level measures of reading and math achievement in evaluations of educational…
Kingma, J.; Koops, W.
A study conducted with kindergarten and elementary school children showed that Piagetian tasks which measured seriation, conservation, and multiple classification were equal or superior to traditional intelligence tests in predicting number language, number line comprehension, and verbal arithmetic. (GC)
Acheson, Daniel J.; Wells, Justine B.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants’ scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed. PMID:18411551
Kling, Martin, Ed.
This conference report contains the following papers: "Ability versus Knowledge in Testing Educational Achievement" and "Knowledge vs. Ability in Achievement Testing," by Robert L. Ebel; "A Four-Domain Taxonomy for Classifying Educational Tasks and Objectives," by Bruce W. Tuckman; "On the Social Psychology of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Further…
This study examined changes in the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on reading achievement at individual and school levels between 1991 and 2001. Data from 9 countries that participated in both the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the Trend Study in the Progress in…
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Markoff, Annabelle Most
Two objectives of this book are to provide a rationale for using basic language forms (sounds, letters, and words) in the perceptual-skill training of low-achieving children and to present techniques for teaching reading, spelling, and handwriting to low-achieving children. The first chapter, on the reading/spelling inversion, explains the…
Walton, James P.
The American public school curriculum has narrowed as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Music is being eliminated in public schools so more time and resources can be spent on "tested" subjects like reading and math. However, research has shown that both the intrinsic and extrinsic values of music may improve reading…
Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.
The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…
Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph
This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…
Costa, Hugo Câmara; Perdry, Hervé; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salomé; Cusin, Françoise; Dellatolas, Georges
This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of concurrent relations between behavioral, familial and emergent literacy measures in a sample of 812 preschoolers, and their predictive power in explaining word reading achievement in a sub-sample of 150 children followed from kindergarten to fifth grade. Word reading at fifth grade was predicted by kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter knowledge. Teachers' reports of inattention symptoms at each grade level were associated with early reading skills and with subsequent word reading. Fa/Rd were concurrently and longitudinally associated with emergent literacy skills, teachers' reported inattention and word reading. These results indicate that children with a family history of reading difficulties are at increased risk for the co-occurrence of reading difficulties and attention problems from kindergarten onward. These findings confirm the shared influence of Fa/Rd on the comorbidity between inattention symptoms and reading difficulties in a non-diagnosed community sample of preschool children followed through late elementary school.
Canale, Michael; And Others
Outlines the main testing needs, problems, and recommendations formulated by Michael Canale and by the four authors who reacted to his paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency." Discusses three major and interrelated needs and two key problems found in receptive skills testing and makes recommendations.…
Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George
In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…
Warren, Christie Lynette
This doctoral study examined the relationship between middle school students' reading experiences and behaviors, reader self-perceptions, and reading achievement. This study also explored whether or not the characteristics of middle school readers differ because of gender or ethnicity. Participants attended a rural middle school, grades six…
Acquavita, Teri L.
Exploring the relationship between early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young learners from low-income families, attending elementary school within a large public school district in southeast Florida is the purpose of this longitudinal study. Although many…
Costa, Hugo Camara; Perdry, Herve; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salome; Cusin, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges
This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of…
Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others
The potential of item response theory (IRT) for solving a number of testing problems in the Maryland Functional Reading Program would appear to be substantial in view of the many other promising applications of the theory. But, it is well-known that the advantages derived from an IRT model cannot be achieved when the fit between an item response…
The National Assessment of Title I, Final Report reported discrepancies in sustaining gains in the reading achievement of 4th grade students who have received Title I intervention services and sustaining those gains when students return to general education classroom. This study was based on a differentiated theory that includes instructional…
Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.
This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…
Palacios, Natalia; Guttmannova, Katarina; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay
This article examines whether longitudinal reading trajectories vary by the generational status of immigrant children as they begin formal schooling through the 3rd grade. The results of the hierarchical linear model indicated that 1st and 2nd generation children (i.e., those born in a foreign country and those born in the United States to foreign-born parents, respectively) had higher achievement scores at the spring of kindergarten than did 3rd generation children. Yet, controlling for race/ethnicity and maternal education fully reduced the 1st generation advantage. In addition, 1st generation children grew in reading achievement at a faster rate than did 3rd generation children. Controlling for a host of proximal and distal factors that included demographic, race/ethnic, family, and school characteristics somewhat reduced the association between generational status and rate of growth. First and 2nd generation children continued to increase their reading scores at a faster rate than did 3rd generation children. It is likely that additional factors not measured in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten cohort, such as selection, cultural, or motivational factors, would be useful in further explaining the immigrant advantage.
Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Mirocha, Jim
The concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests (the Stanford 9 and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills) was examined using data from different school districts nationwide and a latent variable modeling approach. Items in the standardized achievement tests in several content areas were divided into parcels. Parcel scores were used to create…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.
This document reports the provincial results of the June 1986 student achievement tests in Alberta in grade 3 mathematics, grade 6 science, and grade 9 English language arts. The achievement tests are specific to the program of studies prescribed by the Minister of Education. The document starts with general information about the testing program…
This article reports on Ontario's way of school improvement which focuses less on test-score results and more on engaging teachers and principals. Like the United States, the Canadian province of Ontario has committed itself to reaching key numeric targets: at least 75 percent of 6th graders able to read, write, and do mathematics at the…
Study conducted to determine whether Black English speakers are likely to encounter problems in reading standard English. Results indicate no relationship between the use of Black English and subjects' grade level or reading performance. (Author/JLF)
In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…
Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon
The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.
Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail
The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…
Bergey, Bradley W.; Deacon, S. Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K.
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a…
Hines, Constance V.; And Others
A study examined the construct validity of six vocational achievement tests used in the Ohio Vocational Achievement Testing Program. (Subject areas covered in the tests were agricultural mechanics, carpentry, diesel mechanics, distributive education for food services personnel, fabric services, and home economics/food service.) In order to…
Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zanzibar). The data for this study were collected in 2002 as part of a major project known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) that sought to examine the quality of education offered in primary schools in these countries. The most important factors affecting variation in pupil achievement across most of these school systems were grade repetition, pupil socioeconomic background, speaking the language of instruction at home, and Pupil age. South Africa, Uganda and Namibia were among the school systems with the largest between-school variation while Seychelles and Mauritius had the largest within-school variation. Low social equity in reading achievement was evident in Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Tokar, Edward; Ford, Valeria
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Multi-Ethnic Information Feedback System (MIFS) on the reading and arithmetic achievement of fifth grade pupils. Consisting of an objective referenced test-item and a computer feedback system MIFS enabled teachers to continually measure student performance and evaluate the…
Research shows that boys have a tougher time that girls learning to read, and they score lower in reading achievement tests. The school literacy initiative was to help reduce the gender gap in reading and get boys in grades 4-6 excited about reading. To achieve this goal, the Cool Guys Reading Club, promoting reading as a cool activity, was born.…
Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.
Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…
Johnson, Virginia Abbott; Lockard, J. David
Determined which form of kinetic structure (high or low) and/or micrograph content (unified or varied) was most effective on introductory college biology students' (N=100) achievement of reading micrograph skills. Findings, among others, suggest that high kinetic structure instruction does not affect actual reading micrograph skills, but…
Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy
The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…
Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna
We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…
Al-Hajaya, Nail; Al-Khresheh, Taisir
The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive learning style-based reading program on the achievement of Jordanian freshmen English majors. The subjects of the study consisted of 104 freshmen English majors enrolled for Reading Skills 1 in Tafila Technical University in Jordan in the fall semester 2007/2008. Students' learning styles,…
Valenti, Joy E.; Tracey, Diane H.
This study examined the relationships between students' attendance at full-day, half-day, or no preschool and first grade reading achievement. 214 urban, low SES public first grade students of mixed ethnicities were studied. Using the students' Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) scores (Beaver, 2006), results indicated that by the middle of…
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
Following a previous study's finding that demographic and psychosocial factors mediated the effect of ethnicity in predicting standardized reading performance, this study examined the effects of these predictors on immigrant adolescents' reading achievement. It investigated the extent to which Asian-origin and Spanish-speaking groups differed in…
Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.
While it is important to improve the outcomes of bilingual and English-only reading instruction for English language learners at all grade levels, there is a particular need to see that students are successful in beginning to read in the early elementary grades. One program that has achieved a great deal of success in meeting this goal is called…
Lisman, Linda C.
Fifty-seven seventh and 60 eighth graders were divided into three reading ability groups. All were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) prior to the study and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test Survey E for grades 7 to 9 immediately after the study. A practice sample was given before the tests on prepared vowel deletion and…
Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.
NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.
Couch, James V.; And Others
An investigation of self-statements, test anxiety and academic achievement studied 426 college students. Research methodology is defined, demographics and student profiles for both facilitative and debilitative test anxiety are presented, with the resulting findings for each testing component. The student profile for high facilitative test anxiety…
Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria
This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…
Butler, Linda Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement as a function of principal personality and assistant principal personality in an elementary school setting. Student achievement, the dependent variable, was fifth grade campus mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test for reading, math, and science. Holland's…
Dockery, Lori Lee
How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to completely…
Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.
The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…
To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…
Guo, Qian; Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Yang, Li; Liu, Lihui
Previewing answer-choice options before finishing reading the text is a widely employed test-taking behavior. In the present study we examined whether previewing is related to item response accuracy and response time, using data from Chinese learners of varying English proficiency levels and English native speakers. We examined eye movement…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…
Gardner, Crystal Dannette
Over the past two decades numerous studies have been done on the reading behavior of students from a content perspective as well as a program perspective (Deshler, 2001). However, very little research has been done on the retention of knowledge gained during reading interventions put in place to rectify situations in which students have not met…
Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn; Nopoulos, Peggy
Reading achievement and neural activation during a reading task were evaluated among boys with isolated cleft palate only (iCP) in comparison to unaffected controls. Ten boys with iCP and 10 unaffected boys between the ages of 8 and 16 years old were assessed. Standardized assessments of intelligence and reading achievement were administered and participants underwent a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol using non-word rhyming and judgment of line tasks. Among the 10 boys with iCP, reading fluency correlated with phonological awareness and visual memory. Neural activation was increased in regions of the brain associated with a non-fluent/dyslexic reading pattern.
Previous research has indicated that there is no relationship between traditional homework completion and academic achievement among elementary grade students. Yet, elementary school teachers continue to utilize this practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between nontraditional, differentiated reading…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Hier, Bridget O.; Fremont, Wanda; Faraone, Stephen V.; Kates, Wendy R.
Background The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods 69 late adolescents with VCFS , 23 siblings of youth with VCFS and 30 community controls participated in a longitudinal research project and had repeat neuropsychological test batteries and psychiatric evaluations every 3 years. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – 2nd edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension subtest served as our primary outcome variable. Results Consistent with previous research, children and adolescents with VCFS had mean reading comprehension scores on the WIAT-II which were approximately two standard deviations below the mean and word reading scores approximately one standard deviation below the mean. A more novel finding is that relative to both control groups, individuals with VCFS demonstrated a longitudinal decline in reading comprehension abilities yet a slight increase in word reading abilities. In the combined control sample, WISC-III FSIQ, WIAT-II Word Reading, WISC-III Vocabulary and CVLT-C List A Trial 1 accounted for 75% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. In the VCFS sample, WISC-III FSIQ, BASC-Teacher Aggression, CVLT-C Intrusions, Tower of London, Visual Span Backwards, WCST non-perseverative errors, WIAT-II Word Reading and WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility index accounted for 85% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. A principal component analysis with promax rotation computed on the statistically significant Time 1 predictor variables in the VCFS sample resulted in three factors: Word reading decoding / Interference control, Self-Control / Self-Monitoring and Working Memory. Conclusions Childhood predictors of late adolescent reading
consistency reliability ( Kuder - Richardson Formula 20), test meai . ,andard deviation. Means for Army samples were adjusted in order to control for test...92 AFRAT B N 540 540 736 736 Rel .92 .90 .87 .94 Note. Internal consistency reliabililies (Ret) based on formula KR-20. Reliabilities were not as high...administrative and psychometric specifications. AFRAT appears to be a highly reliable instrument and is recommended as a replacement for commercial reading
Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.
The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…
Henderson, Robert G.
This article describes the organization, functions, and components of the Defense Language Institute. The test division is responsible for aptitude, achievement, and proficiency tests and for test development in a variety of resident and non-resident programs. The progress that has been made over a 10-year period is also described and special…
Aryadoust, Vahid; Zhang, Limei
The present study used the mixed Rasch model (MRM) to identify subgroups of readers within a sample of students taking an EFL reading comprehension test. Six hundred and two (602) Chinese college students took a reading test and a lexico-grammatical knowledge test and completed a Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use Questionnaire (MCSUQ)…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes.
Jolly, S. Jean; Gramenz, Gary W.
A norm-referenced achievement test, in combination with supplementary items, can be used to produce norm-referenced data as well as objective-referenced data. The experiences of the Palm Beach County (Florida) school district in developing and using such a test are described. (EGS)
Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M
In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.
Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy
This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…
Shorr, David N.; And Others
The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)
Zhang, Limei; Zhang, Lawrence Jun
This article investigates the relationships between test takers' strategy use and test performance on an EFL reading test. For this study 209 Chinese college students were invited to participate in a reading comprehension test and answer a 30-item strategy use questionnaire. Results showed that two factors underlay test takers' reading test…
Calvo, M G; Carreiras, M
The aim of this research is to explore whether comprehension is impaired by test anxiety, whether the anxious person spends compensatory reading time, and which cognitive processes are affected. High- and low-anxiety students read texts word by word with the moving-window technique under test conditions. Multiple regression analyses on word-reading times were computed with a number of psycholinguistic variables--assumed to map onto specific processes--serving as predictors. Results indicated that anxiety did not impair comprehension, but increased word-reading times, which were affected interactively by anxiety and specific psycholinguistic variables (end of clause, serial position within the text, narrativity, and summary). These data reveal that anxious readers need to employ a greater amount of processing resources than their non-anxious counterparts to obtain a similar comprehension level. Furthermore, the interactive effects suggest that anxiety is selectively detrimental to the efficiency of text-level processes, such as those involved in integrating information across sentences. In contrast, anxiety does not impair low-level processes, such as encoding and lexical access.
Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university students with RD who were currently completing or had recently completed a university degree. Results showed that university students with RD named friends, parents, and significant others (e.g., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as social ties most often. Personal social ties were developed through social media networking sites and within close relationships, and institutional social ties through academic centers and university general services, among others. Resources mobilized among personal and institutional social ties included emotional and social support, advice and planning, writing and studying help, and goal setting. Institutional social ties also afforded job search assistance, accommodations, skill development, financial support, and mental health services. Finally, the status of employed, but not student, social ties explained academic achievement.
Huddleston, Andrew P.; Rockwell, Elizabeth C.
This historical critique of high-stakes testing in reading focuses on selected events from three historical movements: 1) the history of standardized testing, 2) the history of standardized reading tests, and 3) the history of high-stakes testing. These three interrelated histories have produced the high-stakes, standardized reading tests used in…
Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.
Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…
Pellegrine, R. J.
The Diagnostic Reading Tests were designed to assess the reading skills of college students enrolled in reading centers. To assess the reliability of the Diagnostic Reading Tests, Survey Section, Form E (DRTE), a study was conducted with university freshmen as subjects. The DRTE was administered to 31 students in an Educational Opportunity Program…
Garcia, Debra Ann N.
The general purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of the Brazosport Model improves student reading achievement as determined by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). In particular, this study examined the implementation of the Brazosport Model and its effect on the achievement of English Language Learners (ELLs)…
Li, Guofang; Yang, Lihong
This study investigates 1.5 generation Asian immigrant children's (n = 264) early literacy achievement patterns, treating them as a heterogeneous group. Specifically, the within-group variances in reading achievement from kindergarten to third grade are examined, drawing on four waves of data from the ECLS-K class of 1998-1999. Our analysis shows…
Wages, Michele M.
This study compares the academic achievement of 288 Hispanic students enrolled in the content-based English as a second language program and the late exit transitional bilingual program in an urban elementary school in Texas. The goal was to determine if the two programs had differing effects on Hispanic student achievement in reading. The sample…
Hillerich, Robert L.
After a review was made of the literature related to early identification of reading problems, a battery of diagnostic tests was constructed of receptive and expressive language elements assumed necessary for success in reading. After pilot work and revisions, the battery (PDQ) was administered to 916 entering kindergarten pupils by their…
Rogers, Sue Frances
All of the students, both black and white, in three ninth-grade English classes in rural southwest Virginia were taped reading a specified passage. They then wrote at least one page in response to questions and completed the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. The tapes and writing samples were analyzed for the presence of specified phonological and…
Nichols, Sharon L.
I review the literature on the impact on student achievement of high-stakes testing. Its popularity as a mechanism for holding educators accountable has triggered studies to examine whether its promise to increase student learning has been fulfilled. The review concludes there is no consistent evidence to suggest high-stakes testing leads to…
Wise, Steven L.
Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…
The article reviews research and findings on problems and issues faced when translating international academic achievement tests. The purpose is to draw attention to the problems, to help to develop the procedures followed when translating the tests, and to provide suggestions for further research. The problems concentrate on the following: the…
Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar
The study scrutinized the interaction between reading proficiency and strategic competence via reading comprehension test performance of Iranian EFL learners. The further concern was to scrutinize the extent to which strategic competence affected the participants' test performance. The participants were 506 postgraduate students who took a reading…
Morrison, Faith Andrea
The purpose of this study was to explore whether William Deming's 8 Step Model would increase reading achievement in 3rd grade students. The study investigated how well the process based plan-do-check-act model when used as a treatment with fidelity, coupled with the principal as instructional leader would result in success in the age of federal…
Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah
In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…
Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan
The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.
Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides
One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…
Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil
The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…
Reed, Marissa S.
Over thirty years of extant literature exists regarding reading instruction, yet consensus in the field continues to diverge in the area of reading intervention. Despite the establishment of research-based programs in all five areas of reading (phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension), educators continue to…
Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Muller, Lisa M.; Kaniskan, R. Burcu
This experimental study examined the effect of a differentiated, enriched reading program on students' oral reading fluency and comprehension using the schoolwide enrichment model-reading (SEM-R). Treatment and control conditions were randomly assigned to 63 teachers and 1,192 second through fifth grade students across five elementary schools.…
Hong-Nam, Kay; Leavell, Alexandra G.; Maher, Sheila
The metacognitive awareness and reading strategy use of high school students enrolled in two high schools were investigated. The correlations between reading scores and strategy use were examined as well as the variation in strategy use by self-rated reading proficiency and academic grades. The factor analysis revealed four factors on the…
Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Garnier, Helen; Junker, Brian; Resnick, Lauren; Bickel, Donna DiPrima
Reading is critical to children's academic and future economic success. Yet reading skills continue to lag in the upper elementary grades. One way that school districts across the country have responded to the challenge of improving students' reading skills has been to hire additional, presumably more skilled, teachers as "instructional…
Collins, Joyce C.
National attention has been focused on improving students' ability to read since the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The California Reading First Program was implemented throughout the state with the goal of improving reading skills for students from kindergarten through third grade. This research study was designed…
Canadian Council on Learning, 2009
The latest reading assessment results of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP-13) reveal that the majority (88%) of Canadian 13-year-olds perform at or above the expected level of proficiency. These results also reveal a persistent literacy gap between boys and girls: with the Canadian average set at 500, girls outscore boys by 23 points (see…
Oslund, Eric L.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Kwok, Oi-Man; Simmons, Leslie E.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Coyne, Michael D.
This study examined the changing role and longitudinal predictive validity of curriculum-embedded progress-monitoring measures (CEMs ) for kindergarten students receiving Tier 2 intervention and identified as at risk of developing reading difficulties. Multiple measures were examined to determine whether they could predict comprehensive latent…
Gaustad, Martha Gonter; Kelly, Ronald R.
This study extends the findings of Gaustad, Kelly, Payne, and Lylak (2002), which showed that deaf college students and hearing middle school students appeared to have approximately the same morphological knowledge and word segmentation skills. Because the average grade level reading abilities for the two groups of students were also similar,…
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus
Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
Jackson, Sheila M.
This study examined the revised Goodman taxonomy, the Oral Reading Miscues Inventory, as a means of evaluating reading achievement. A sample of 128 second-grade students was tested with a standardized reading test, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, to determine their current reading achievement levels. Causal conversation was recorded on tape for…
Phillips, Linda M.
The design and development of a test of inference ability in reading comprehension for grades 6, 7, and 8 (the Phillips-Patterson Test of Inference Ability in Reading Comprehension) are described. After development of a contemporary theoretical framework for the test of inference ability in reading comprehension, the design, item development, and…
Watson, G.; And Others
The Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test was assessed as a measure of reading ability with meaningful text in 38 adults with macular degeneration; scores were compared with assessment made using the Gray Oral Reading Test, a previously standardized assessment. The test's validity was confirmed. (Author/JDD)
Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Rubin, Gary S.
Purpose. To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Methods. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test–retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Results. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Conclusions. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading. PMID:23258146
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
Polikoff, Morgan S.
As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…
Plake, Barbara S.; And Others
The concurrent validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) and its factor structure are investigated to provide empirical evidence about the quality of AAT. State and trait anxiety were measured by State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mathematics anxiety was assessed by a 24-item revised version of the 98-item Mathematics Anxiety Rating…
Plake, Barbara S.; And Others
The concurrent and predictive validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) were investigated. The evidence gives cause to be concerned about the quality of a difference score because of the nonindependence of the two scores. Further, the underlying structure of the instrument appears to be more complex than originally hypothesized. (Author/GK)
Mojica, Tammy C.
The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…
Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor
This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…
Ercikan, Kadriye; Gierl, Mark J.; McCreith, Tanya; Puhan, Gautam; Koh, Kim
This research examined the degree of comparability and sources of incomparability of English and French versions of reading, mathematics, and science tests that were administered as part of a survey of achievement in Canada. The results point to substantial psychometric differences between the 2 language versions. Approximately 18% to 36% of the…
Piasta, Shayne B; Justice, Laura M; McGinty, Anita S; Kaderavek, Joan N
Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book readings 2 or 4 times per week during which their teachers verbally and nonverbally referenced print. Children in comparison classrooms experienced their teachers' typical book reading style. Longitudinal results (n = 356, 366) showed that use of print references had significant impacts on children's early literacy skills (reading, spelling, comprehension) for 2 years following the RCT's conclusion. Results indicate a causal relation between early print knowledge and later literacy skills and have important implications concerning the primary prevention of reading difficulties.
Ajideh, Parviz; Mozaffarzadeh, Sorayya
Cloze tests have been widely used for measuring reading comprehension since their introducing to the testing world by Taylor in 1953. But in 1982, Klein-Braley criticized cloze procedure mostly for their deletion and scoring problems. They introduced their newly developed testing procedure, C-test, which was an evolved form of cloze tests without…
Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret
The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.
Stephens, Kathy E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing an integrated instructional protocol of science-based informational texts as teacher read alouds, student independent reading, and written journal responses on motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth- and fifth-grade students with attention to specific student groups, including gender and ethnicities. A mixed methods research design included a 12-week intervention conducted with 68 fourth and fifth graders and 30 nonintervention fourth and fifth graders. Participating fourth and fifth graders completed the comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ([GMRT] MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000) and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills ([TAKS] Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2005a). The Reading Survey of the Motivation to Read Profile ([MRP], Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) served as another quantitative data source. Qualitative data sources included classroom observations, key informant interviews, and student journal entries. The GMRT results indicated that the intervention fourth graders demonstrated the largest growth in reading comprehension achievement. Significant differences were noted by GMRT results between the intervention and nonintervention fourth graders. A significant difference was found between fourth-grade males and females on the GMRT, with a larger gain posted by the females. No significant differences were found on the GMRT in fifth grade Reading TAKS results indicated a significant difference between intervention fourth-grade Hispanic and African American students, while fifth-grade Science TAKS results indicated no significant differences. The MRP Reading Survey results indicated no significant differences; however, fourth-grade Hispanic and fifth-grade male students demonstrated significant growth. Classroom observations documented the progress of the 12-week intervention; 9 primary instructional and
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803
Smith, M. Cecil
A study examined the extent to which adults engage in reading tasks to meet a variety of personal purposes and needs, asking when engaged reading is most likely to occur for types of text sources, reading purposes, reading settings, educational attainment groups, and occupational groups. Subjects included 159 adults who represented a wide range of…
Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.
A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…
Berkant, Hasan Guner
The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether students' meaningful causal thinking abilities vary with their academic achievement levels, reading comprehension abilities, and gender. The sample of the study consisted of 124 ninth grade students attending a secondary school in Adana City Seyhan District during 2008-2009 academic year.…
Mickelson, Norma I.
This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…
Garry, Vanessa B.
Using data collected from surveys completed by grandparents for their grandchildren (N = 72), this quantitative study examines the effects grandparent primary caregivers have on the reading achievement of their African American grandchildren. The study sought to answer the following question: How do the six types of parental involvement (Epstein,…
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara
Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5 and 7 year-olds. Results showed that the association…
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
This study focused on potential overall differences in predicting mathematics and reading achievement among various immigrant groups. The dataset for the study, the sample from the Second Generation Project in Miami, Florida, and San Diego, California, was composed of 5,267 second-generation immigrants in grades 8 and 9. The results from two…
The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…
A non-experimental research study was performed in which the researcher investigated the relationship between principals' use of transformational leadership practices and students' reading and mathematics achievement. A sample of principals from 2,500 randomly selected elementary, middle, and high schools in New York State were recruited by…
Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Certo, Janine; Launcelot, Brown I.
In this study, we report results of a study examining the relationship between home environment factors and reading achievement in Zimbabwe. The study utilised data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). The data were submitted to linear regression analysis through structural equation…
Guo, Ying; Sun, Shuyan; Breit-Smith, Allison; Morrison, Frederick J.; Connor, Carol McDonald
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined the cross-lagged relations between behavioral engagement and reading achievement in elementary school and whether these cross-lagged relations differed between low-socioeconomic status (SES) and mid-…
Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis
This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…
Knape, Erin Oakley
National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…
Stevenson, Claire E.; Bergwerff, Catharina E.; Heiser, Willem J.; Resing, Wilma C. M.
Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working memory and dynamic measures of analogical…
Brantley, Verna Lee
Relationships among teacher and pupil self-concepts and pupil reading achievement were investigated in a sample of 239 first-grade pupils and the 17 teachers assigned to them. Results from pretesting and posttesting indicated that a positive relationship existed among changes in certain elements of pupil self-concept (self-acceptance, social…
Berrong, Darren Andrew
This study examined the relationship between principal turnover rate, percentage of minority students, percentage of students with disabilities, and percentage of students who are economically disadvantaged and student achievement in reading/English language arts and math measured by Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) on the Georgia Criterion…
Tella, Adenyinka; Akande, Samson
"In an age when browsing the net, playing with funky handsets and passing non-stop SMSs seem to be the order of the day, reading a book in a peaceful corner of a library has become an archaic idea for most people. While technology is slowly taking a steady control over individual lives, the reading habit is fast vanishing into thin…
Irmawati, Noer Doddy
Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…
Sharp, Kristin; Sanders, Kari; Noltemeyer, Amity; Hoffman, Jessica L.; Boone, William J.
This study examined the relationship between response to intervention (RTI) implementation integrity in reading and student reading outcomes. Data were collected from 64 principals and school psychologists at 43 elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the degree to which implementation of RTI tiers and key components…
The reading response journal has been valued as an effective tool for involving students in authentic reading and writing activities. As the internet has become an essential medium in today's English classroom, it is advisable to integrate both the web and the journal when approaching our EFL students. In order to motivate and engage my…
Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.; Pennington, Jessica; Buckman, D. Matt
The authors examined the impact of a supplemental reading course on 462 sixth-grade students' reading engagement and performance as compared with 389 students in a control group. They further explored students' cognitive strategy use through think aloud processes with a subset of students who participated in the intervention.…
Turner, Trevor A.; Williams, Claudette H.
Ongoing professional development is at the core of Project Reading Excellence at "Boggsville" Elementary School (a pseudonym) and is intricately woven throughout all related activities. This professional development program is built on the pillars of sound scientific-based reading research, best teaching practices, and appropriate…
Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh
This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…
Collum, Sharon P.
According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2004), 37% of America's fourth graders are not reading at grade level. This statistic has remained unchanged for over a decade (NCES, 2004). Findings from multiple studies indicate more research on successfully implementing reading interventions is needed (Begeny & Silber, 2006;…
Fello, Susan E.
The International Reading Association (2003) has recently established new guidelines for graduate students enrolled in reading and literacy programs. These guidelines require graduate students to maintain direct contact with students during their coursework for advanced degrees. Field experiences support best practices in bridging the gap between…
Washington, Novella M.
This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…
Sabbah, Sabah Salman
This study explored the potential effect of college students' self-generated computerized mind maps on their reading comprehension. It also investigated the subjects' attitudes toward generating computerized mind maps for reading comprehension. The study was conducted in response to the inability of the foundation-level students, who were learning…
The effectiveness of Oralographic reading instruction was investigated with a sample of 89 disabled readers in second to fifth grade from five cities; children in each city were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. All children in the experimental group received reading instruction using the materials and procedures of the…
Netten, Andrea; Luyten, Hans; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study examined how linguistic and sociocultural diversity have an impact on the reading literacy outcomes of a representative sample of 3,549 first-language (L1) and 208 second-language (L2) fourth-grade students in the Netherlands. A multilevel modelling analysis was conducted using Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006 data…
Holopainen, Leena; Taipale, Airi; Savolainen, Hannu
In this study, the relationship between adolescents' difficulty in mathematics and reading and the influence on academic self-concept and school grades was examined. The participants (N = 585; 299 girls, 286 boys) were one age group of ninth-graders whose mathematics and reading skills were assessed at the end of comprehensive school at age…
Kamil, Michael L.
In recent years there have been several attempts at integrating the research on reading. Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998) delineated three areas of knowledge that, if appropriately dealt with, will prevent reading difficulties: knowledge of the alphabetic principle, fluency, and comprehension. Snow, Burns, and Griffin suggest that these areas…
Anderson, Clarence A.; And Others
This study reports the impact of the Flint Community Junior College (Michigan) reading improvement program on 150 participating students in terms of general group and racial sub-group (black and white) performance. After the groups were compared according to race and ability for data-collecting purposes, pre- and post-test measurements were taken…
Ricketts, Jean Napier
The effects of a prescribed, sequential program of reading and mathematics readiness activities were investigated in an experimental study of 229 middle-class kindergarten children. Eight of 16 kindergarten classes received the experimental treatment for six months; the other eight served as a control group. Readiness tests were given before and…
Discusses research on the National Curriculum Key Stage Two reading tests for years 1998, 1999 and 2000. Shows that in 1999 and 2000 the reading tests were progressively easier: the number of questions requiring higher-order reading skills, particularly those of inference and deduction, decreased each year, while the number of questions requiring…
Marinus, Eva; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve
This paper reports provisional Australian comparison data and scoring instructions for the "Test of Word Reading Efficiency" (TOWRE). The TOWRE is a popular reading fluency test used in reading research, classroom assessment and clinical practice. Approximate "norms" were obtained from children attending four primary schools in…
Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John
This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading test.…
Johnson, Kary A.; Wilson, Celia M.; Williams-Rossi, Dara
This exploratory study investigated how reading comprehension was conceptualized on the new high-stakes test, the 2011-2012 State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR). Specifically, comprehension, rate, and accuracy scores on the Gray Oral Reading Test 4 (GORT-4) from a group of struggling, low-SES, Hispanic middle school students (n…
Grasby, Katrina L; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K
Each year, all Australian students in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 sit nationwide large-scale tests in literacy and numeracy, which have their validity frequently questioned. We compared the performance of Grade 3 twins on these large-scale reading tests with their performance on three individually administered literacy tests in comprehension, word reading and vocabulary within a genetically sensitive design. Comprehension, word reading, and vocabulary accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in school reading tests. Performance on large-scale reading tests and individually administered tests was moderately to substantially heritable and the same genes contributed to performance in both types of test. These results confirm that large-scale school reading tests measure, at least in part, the literacy skills tapped by individual tests that are frequently considered to be the “gold-standard” in testing. PMID:27721516
Moser, Stephanie E.; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.
This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1–5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or retained (n = 112) in first grade could be successfully matched on 72 background variables. Achievement was measured annually using Woodcock-Johnson W scores; scores of retained children were shifted back one year to permit same-grade comparisons. Using longitudinal growth curve analysis, trajectories of math and reading scores for promoted and retained children were compared. Retained children received a one year boost in achievement; this boost fully dissipated by the end of elementary school. The pattern of subsequent retention in grades 2, 3 and 4 and placement in special education of the sample during the elementary school years is also described and their effects are explored. Policy implications for interventions for low achieving children are considered. PMID:23335818
The current article examines what factors explained the success of a reading program delivered by older adult volunteers to at-risk early readers. The article also examines the direction of the relationship over time (both direct and mediated) between reading achievement, frequency of reading at home, and academic self-beliefs. Two hundred and…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; Stryker, Deborah S.
The ability to access and understand the meaning of multi-morphemic words is essential for age-appropriate literacy growth as well as for achievement in other participants, such as science and social studies, which are so print-dependent. This paper provides a theoretical basis for focusing on the morphology of English when teaching students who…
Calvo, M G; Eysenck, M W
Texts were presented sentence by sentence (Experiment 1) or word by word (Experiment 2) at a fixed rate to subjects high or low in test anxiety, under various conditions: no interference, concurrent articulatory suppression, and concurrent irrelevant speech (presented auditorily). High-anxiety subjects produced overt articulation more frequently than low-anxiety subjects, especially in the irrelevant speech condition. The most salient finding was an interaction between anxiety and interference on comprehension performance: under word-by-word-but not under sentence-by-sentence-presentation, anxious subjects showed poorer comprehension than non-anxious subjects in both conditions known to interfere with the articulatory loop (i.e. articulatory suppression, and irrelevant speech), but equivalent comprehension in the no interference condition. These findings suggest (a) that the articulatory loop has a special compensatory role for anxious individuals in reading comprehension, and (b) that the importance of this auxiliary mechanism is enhanced when other strategies, such as regressive fixations and control of reading speed, cannot be used.
An investigation was conducted to determine the best criterion for advancement to a new reading passage during the commonly used classroom strategy of repeated reading. Knowing when to move students to a new passage during the repeated reading process was considered of value to teachers in efficiently using student learning time. The study also…
Natale, Katja; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lyytinen, Paula; Lyytinen, Heikki
The present study analyzed data from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia to investigate the factors to which mothers of children with and without familial risk for dyslexia attribute the causes of their first-grade children's reading achievement. Mothers' causal attributions were assessed three times during their children's first school year. Children's verbal intelligence was assessed at 5 years and their word and nonword reading skills at 6.5 years. The results showed that the higher the word reading skills the children had, the more their mothers attributed their success to ability than to effort. However, if children had familial risk for dyslexia, their mothers' attribution of success to ability decreased during the first grade as compared with the ability attributions of mothers whose children were in the control group.
Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W
Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed.
The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…
Gafoor, K. Abdul
Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…
Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel
Multiple regression analysis indicates that the Reading-Level Indicator, a paper-and-pencil test, is a moderately strong predictor for the high-stakes standardized test, the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test in Reading. Classroom teachers can administer the inexpensive Reading-Level Indicator in a short period of time and use the results as a…
With 73 students at an Iranian university, the present study investigated teacher's effect in topic familiarization in L2 reading context. The participants--Group B with and Group A without the presence of a teacher--experienced four pre-reading treatments and read four passages of unfamiliar topics, after which they were tested on comprehension…