Science.gov

Sample records for achievement trends include

  1. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maryland, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Maryland for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maryland had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. The percentage of students reaching the…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Tennessee for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Tennessee showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wisconsin, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wisconsin for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Wisconsin showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Washington, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Washington for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington showed across-the-board gains in math--improvements at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nebraska made gains across the board at the proficient-and-above level for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students in reading and math. Achievement gaps also narrowed across the board for all subgroups analyzed at grades 4, 8, and 11.…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Georgia has made some changes in its testing program in recent years. As a result, trend data were only available for reading in grades 4 and 8 from 2006 through 2009, and only at the proficient and advanced levels. In math, data were only available for the high school level from 2004 through 2009. Achievement data for low income students were…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Alaska showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the proficient level for almost all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls (subgroup trends were not available at the basic or advanced levels). Most student subgroups had upward trends in percentages proficient, with a few exceptions. Gains in math tended to be…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Dakota for 2010. In grade 8 reading and math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Dakota showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District's demographics are such that achievement trends could only be determined for African American, male and female, and low income subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington, DC students showed gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels…

  19. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  20. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Hampshire, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in New Hampshire for 2010. New Hampshire's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Latino students at the elementary level, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to…

  2. Expanded stream gauging includes groundwater data and trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2012-01-01

    Population growth has increased water scarcity to the point that documenting current amounts of worldwide water resources is now as critical as any data collection in the Earth sciences. As a key element of this data collection, stream gauges yield continuous hydrologic information and document long-term trends, recording high-frequency hydrologic information over decadal to centennial time frames.

  3. Recent achievements and trends in experimental plant biology.

    PubMed

    Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2010-04-01

    Between 21 and 25 September 2009, Krakow hosted the 4th Conference of the Polish Society of Experimental Plant Biology, co-organized with the Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and supported by the Biochemical Society. The aim of the conference was to present and discuss the most important topics in different disciplines of plant experimental science as well as to facilitate the interaction and co-operation between scientists. To achieve this goal, about 30 top specialists in various areas of plant biology were invited to give plenary lectures in the following sessions: Plant structure and development; Plant-microbial interactions; Mitochondria and chloroplasts in cell metabolism; Stress tolerance in plants; Structural and functional organization of plant genomes; Mutants in developmental and metabolic studies; Secondary metabolites as pharmaceutics and nutraceutics; Plant membranes; and Integrating plant functions via signalling molecules: molecular mechanisms. Some of the main problems highlighted in the plenary lectures are briefly summarized in the present paper. Two poster sessions enabled a discussion of over 200 posters presented. The conference had an international character, its official language was English, and among the more than 350 participants, about 60 were from abroad. Several plenary lectures were prepared as short review papers and they are published in this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions.

  4. Trends of Science Ability in the National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) of Korean Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Heon; Kim, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The results of the National Assessment of Educational Achievement from 2010 to 2013 have shown a downward trend in ninth graders' science average achievement scores from 2011 to 2013. The percentage of students in the Advanced level decreased dramatically from 19.95% in 2010 to 11.48% in 2013, while the percentage of students in the Basic level…

  5. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  6. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  7. Feasibility of including fugitive PM-10 emissions estimates in the EPA emissions trends report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.; Carlson, P.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the results of Part 2 of a two part study. Part 2 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing regional emission trends for PM-10. Part 1 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing VOC emission trends, on a regional and temporal basis. These studies are part of the effort underway to improve the national emission trends. Part 1 is presented in a separate report. The categories evaluated for the feasibility of developing regional emissions estimates were: unpaved roads, paved roads, wind erosion, agricultural tilling, construction activities, feedlots, burning, landfills, mining and quarrying unpaved parking lots, unpaved airstrips and storage piles.

  8. Effect of a Multiyear Intervention on Science Achievement of All Students Including English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Ahn, Soyeon; Lanier, Kimberly; Diaz, Jennifer; Lee, Okhee

    2016-01-01

    This study was part of the Promoting Science among English Language Learners (P-SELL) efficacy study, a research and development project that implemented a curricular and professional development intervention to improve science achievement of English Language Learners (ELLs) in urban elementary schools. The study used a cluster randomized control…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  10. Developmental Program for Training of the Preschool Child. (Includes Skills Achievement Profile.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Margaret G.

    Presented is a developmental curriculum for training potentially learning disabled preschool children. Part 1 includes introductory information such as a rationale for the program and suggestions for the parent-teacher. Provided are guidelines for eight curriculum areas: attention; sensory stimulation, reception, and response; adaptive behaviors…

  11. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2015-05-25

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula. PMID:26089557

  12. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations’ to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula. PMID:26089557

  13. Chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes: achievements and key trends of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, M. V.; Garabadzhiu, A. V.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The data on the chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes published in the past 15 years have been summarized and systematized. Achievements in the synthesis of these compounds, as well as their transformations into various acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogenous products, have been surveyed. Particular attention has focused on the addition reactions at the azomethine and/or carbon-carbon triple bonds. Practical applications of the products of these transformations, first of all, in synthesis of complex natural and biologically active compounds, are discussed. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  15. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  16. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  17. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  18. A trend study of self-concept and mathematics achievement in a cross-cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political transition. Along with a perceived `brain drain' from the population migration, there was a non-monotonic change in the reciprocal relationship between self-concept and mathematics achievement. In addition, indicators of mathematics achievement and self-concept have demonstrated different linkages to the permanent emigration of Hong Kong residents with valued or desirable skills and qualifications. Interpretation of these empirical findings entails a need of enhancing cross-cultural understanding in mathematics education.

  19. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  20. A Trend Study of Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement in a Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political…

  1. Alternative Methods for Estimating Achievement Trends and School Effects: When Is Simple Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentien, Siri; Silver, David

    2016-01-01

    Public schools with impressive records of serving lower-performing students are often overlooked because their average test scores, even when students are growing quickly, are lower than scores in schools that serve higher-performing students. Schools may appear to be doing poorly either because baseline achievement is not easily accounted for or…

  2. Trends...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, B. W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Includes 11 sub-articles dealing with innovative recreational programs in Alaska, Michigan, Tennessee, Illinois, and California. Activities and facilities described include bus rides, artificial ice skating and skiing, rooftop playgrounds, wood structures, dam sites, and enclosed buildings. (NQ)

  3. Striving to Connect: Extending an Achievement Goal Approach to Teacher Motivation to Include Relational Goals for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were designed to extend Butler's (2007) model and measure of achievement goals for teaching, to recognize that teaching is an interpersonal endeavor, not just personal endeavor. In Study 1, results from 530 teachers in Israel confirmed the predicted 5-factor model comprising relational goals, whereby teachers aspire to create close and…

  4. Advancing Minority High Achievement: National Trends and Promising Programs and Practices. A Report Prepared for the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, the College Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Stringfield, Sam; Rachuba, Laura

    This report documents recent national progress in advancing the achievements of elementary-aged minority children, the potential for replicable whole-school reform designs to contribute to this advancement, and the individual, classroom, and school characteristics that distinguish those minority students who attain high levels of achievement. The…

  5. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of the consistency of surface reflectance from Landsat 8 with past Landsat sensors indicates biases in the visible bands of Landsat 8, especially the blue band. Landsat 8 NDVI values were found to have a larger bias than the EVI values; therefore, EVI was used in the analysis of greenness trends for Guangzhou. In spite of massive amounts of development in Guangzhou from 2000 to 2014, greenness was found to increase, mostly as a result of gradual change. Comparison of the greening magnitudes estimated from the approach presented here and a Simple Linear Trend (SLT) method indicated large differences for certain time intervals as the SLT method does not include consideration for abrupt land cover changes. Overall, this analysis demonstrates the importance of considering land cover change when analyzing trends in greenness from satellite time series in areas where land cover change is common.

  6. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  7. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of a national sample of Native American students: results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States assessment.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  9. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  10. Evaluation of aerial photography for predicting trends in structural attributes of Australian woodland including comparison with ground-based monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Bray, Steven G; Fairfax, Russell J

    2007-06-01

    The accurate assessment of trends in the woody structure of savannas has important implications for greenhouse accounting and land-use industries such as pastoralism. Two recent assessments of live woody biomass change from north-east Australian eucalypt woodland between the 1980s and 1990s present divergent results. The first estimate is derived from a network of permanent monitoring plots and the second from woody cover assessments from aerial photography. The differences between the studies are reviewed and include sample density, spatial scale and design. Further analyses targeting potential biases in the indirect aerial photography technique are conducted including a comparison of basal area estimates derived from 28 permanent monitoring sites with basal area estimates derived by the aerial photography technique. It is concluded that the effect of photo-scale; or the failure to include appropriate back-transformation of biomass estimates in the aerial photography study are not likely to have contributed significantly to the discrepancy. However, temporal changes in the structure of woodlands, for example, woodlands maturing from many smaller trees to fewer larger trees or seasonal changes, which affect the relationship between cover and basal area could impact on the detection of trends using the aerial photography technique. It is also possible that issues concerning photo-quality may bias assessments through time, and that the limited sample of the permanent monitoring network may inadequately represent change at regional scales. PMID:16828220

  11. Variability of differences between two approaches for determining ground-water discharge and pumpage, including effects of time trends, Lower Arkansas River Basin, southeastern Colorado, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, Brent M.; Edelmann, Patrick; Dash, Russell G.

    2005-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, the Colorado Division of Water Resources (CDWR) adopted rules governing measurement of tributary ground-water pumpage for the Arkansas River Basin. The rules allowed ground-water pumpage to be determined using one of two approaches?power conversion coefficient (PCC) or totalizing flowmeters (TFM). In addition, the rules allowed a PCC to be applied to the electrical power usage up to 4 years in the future to estimate ground-water pumpage. As a result of concerns about potential errors in applying the PCC approach forward in time, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with CDWR and Colorado Water Conservation Board, to evaluate the variability in differences in pumpage between the two approaches, including the effects of time trends. This report compared measured ground-water pumpage using TFMs to computed ground-water pumpage using PCCs by developing statistical models of relations between explanatory variables, such as site, time, and pumping water level, and dependent variables, which are based on discharge, PCC, and pumpage. When differences in pumpage (diffP) were computed using PCC measurements and power consumption for the same year (1998-2002), the median diffP, depending on the year, ranged from +0.1 to -2.9 percent; the median diffP for the entire period was -1.5 percent. However, when diffP was computed using PCC measurements applied to the next year's power consumption, the median diffP was -0.3 percent; and when PCC measurements were applied 2, 3, or 4 years into the future, median diffPs were +1.8 percent for a 2-year forward lag and +5.3 percent for a 4-year forward lag, indicating that pumpage computed with the PCC approach, as generally applied under the ground-water pumpage measurement rules by CDWR, tended to overestimate pumpage as compared to pumpage using TFMs when PCC measurement was applied to future years of measured power consumption. Analyses were done to better understand the causes of the time

  12. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  13. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  14. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 4: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) holds schools, districts, and states accountable for improving the academic achievement of all students, including the nearly 14% of public school students who receive special education services because they have an identified disability. By 2014, 100% of students with disabilities are expected to…

  17. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  18. A Parent Involvement Program Including Communication to Parents Integrated with a Parent-Education Program and Its Effects on Academic Achievement, Classroom Conduct, Study Habits and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennies, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    To validate the Parent Communication Plus Program at Boca Raton (FL) Christian School, three groups of problem students were selected. Each group's parents received a different level of communication from the school. Results indicate that increased communication between school and parents results in higher student academic achievement. (CH)

  19. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2014-04-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed <10% relative contributions of branched isomers to total PFOS and total FOSA. Furthermore, the percentage branched isomers decreased over time for both compounds. These findings are contrary to patterns and temporal trends of PFOS isomers commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns

  20. Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major global eye health strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by the year 2020. Building on our previous analysis of current progress towards key HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSRs), we predicted future indicator achievement among 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Methods Surgical and HReH data were collected from national eye care programme coordinators on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined them with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner-to-population ratios and CSRs. Data on workforce entry and exit (2008 to 2010) was used to project practitioner population and CSR growth between 2011 and 2020 in relation to projected growth in the general population. Associations between indicator progress and the presence of a non-physician cataract surgeon cadre were also explored using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results In our 16-country sample, practitioner per million population ratios are predicted to increase slightly for surgeons (ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, from 3.1 in 2011 to 3.4 in 2020) and ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers (5.8 to 6.8) but remain low for refractionists (including optometrists, at 3.6 in 2011 and 2020). Among countries that have not already achieved target indicators, however, practitioner growth will be insufficient for any additional countries to reach the surgeon and refractionist targets by year 2020. Without further strategy change and investment, even after 2020, surgeon growth is only expected to sufficiently outpace general population growth to reach the target in one country. For nurses, two additional countries will achieve the target while one will fall below it. In 2011, high surgeon practitioner ratios were associated with

  1. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003-2012). Dietary tracers (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given.

  2. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003-2012). Dietary tracers (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. PMID:25241209

  3. Spatial trends in surface-based carbonaceous aerosol, including organic, water-soluble and elemental carbon, during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheesley, R. J.; Barrett, T. E.; Yoon, S.; Clark, A. E.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Griffin, R. J.; Karakurt Cevik, B.; Long, R.; Duvall, R.; Usenko, S.

    2014-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, TX in September 2013. NASA's P-3B and B200 were deployed to sample vertical profiles over specific focus areas using a spiraling vertical profile flight plan on select days during the 30 day sampling campaign. In this project, we measured organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic carbon and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from filter-based sampling efforts at four ground-based sites across the Houston metropolitan area. Ground-based sites were chosen to represent the downtown area, upwind and downwind as well as the Houston Ship Channel (industrial area). Ratios of EC:OC and WSOC:OC will be used to track contributions of primary and secondary organic carbon (POC and SOC), respectively. Spatial and temporal trends in POC and SOC for the Houston metropolitan area will be discussed.

  4. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... includes ecstasy and LSD) in the past month. Cocaine use has gone down in the last few ...

  5. Good and Bad News about Florida Student Achievement: Performance Trends on Multiple Indicators Since Passage of the A+ Legislation. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2004-01-01

    What is the news on Florida's student performance since the passage of the A+ legislation? This brief presents a review of long-term data on five state and national indicators. It verifies outcomes and trends and examines the main premise of the A+ mandate that, given appropriate schooling, students will have equitable outcomes and access to…

  6. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 6: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines progress in raising achievement for English language learners. It also describes the factors that make it difficult to accurately assess what ELLs know and can do. The data for this analysis were collected by CEP with technical support from the…

  7. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  8. The Importance of Segregation, Discrimination, Peer Dynamics, and Identity in Explaining Trends in the Racial Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 16257

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    After decades of narrowing, the achievement gap between black and white school children widened in the 1990s--a period when the labor market rewards for education were increasing. This presents an important puzzle for economists. In this chapter, I investigate the extent to which economic models of segregation, information-based discrimination,…

  9. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  10. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  11. Building Mathematics Achievement Models in Four Countries Using TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Osterlind, Steven J.; Bergin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 data, this study built mathematics achievement models of 8th graders in four countries: the USA, Russia, Singapore and South Africa. These 4 countries represent the full spectrum of mathematics achievement. In addition, they represent 4 continents, and they include 2 countries…

  12. Trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and impacts of infection control practices including universal MRSA admission screening in a hospital in Scotland, 2006–2010: retrospective cohort study and time-series intervention analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Becky; López-Lozano, José-Maria; Gould, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe secular trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and to assess the impacts of infection control practices, including universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening on associated clinical burdens. Design Retrospective cohort study and multivariate time-series analysis linking microbiology, patient management and health intelligence databases. Setting Teaching hospital in North East Scotland. Participants All patients admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010: n=420 452 admissions and 1 430 052 acute occupied bed days (AOBDs). Intervention Universal admission screening programme for MRSA (August 2008) incorporating isolation and decolonisation. Primary and secondary measures Hospital-wide prevalence density, hospital-associated incidence density and death within 30 days of MRSA or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. Results Between 2006 and 2010, prevalence density of all SAB declined by 41%, from 0.73 to 0.50 cases/1000 AOBDs (p=0.002 for trend), and 30-day mortality from 26% to 14% (p=0.013). Significant reductions were observed in MRSA bacteraemia only. Overnight admissions screened for MRSA rose from 43% during selective screening to >90% within 4 months of universal screening. In multivariate time-series analysis (R2 0.45 to 0.68), universal screening was associated with a 19% reduction in prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia (−0.035, 95% CI −0.049 to −0.021/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001), a 29% fall in hospital-associated incidence density (−0.029, 95% CI −0.035 to −0.023/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001) and a 46% reduction in 30-day mortality (−15.6, 95% CI −24.1% to −7.1%; p<0.001). Positive associations with fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin use suggested that antibiotic stewardship reduced prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia by 0.027 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.039)/1000 AOBDs. Rates of MSSA bacteraemia were not

  13. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  14. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  15. A multi-level differential item functioning analysis of trends in international mathematics and science study: Potential sources of gender and minority difference among U.S. eighth graders' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyu

    Science is an area where a large achievement gap has been observed between White and minority, and between male and female students. The science minority gap has continued as indicated by the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS). TIMSS also shows a gender gap favoring males emerging at the eighth grade. Both gaps continue to be wider in the number of doctoral degrees and full professorships awarded (NSF, 2008). The current study investigated both minority and gender achievement gaps in science utilizing a multi-level differential item functioning (DIF) methodology (Kamata, 2001) within fully Bayesian framework. All dichotomously coded items from TIMSS 2007 science assessment at eighth grade were analyzed. Both gender DIF and minority DIF were studied. Multi-level models were employed to identify DIF items and sources of DIF at both student and teacher levels. The study found that several student variables were potential sources of achievement gaps. It was also found that gender DIF favoring male students was more noticeable in the content areas of physics and earth science than biology and chemistry. In terms of item type, the majority of these gender DIF items were multiple choice than constructed response items. Female students also performed less well on items requiring visual-spatial ability. Minority students performed significantly worse on physics and earth science items as well. A higher percentage of minority DIF items in earth science and biology were constructed response than multiple choice items, indicating that literacy may be the cause of minority DIF. Three-level model results suggested that some teacher variables may be the cause of DIF variations from teacher to teacher. It is essential for both middle school science teachers and science educators to find instructional methods that work more effectively to improve science achievement of both female and minority students

  16. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  17. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  18. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  19. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  20. Trends in Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gary H.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews trends in copyright law, including changes resulting from technological advances that include audio and video tape recordings, motion pictures, photocopying equipment, CD-ROM, and multimedia; amendments to the law, including administrative issues; compensation to authors of computer software programs; court cases; and a movement toward…

  1. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  2. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  3. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  4. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  5. Developmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Frederick C.

    1993-01-01

    Explores developmental patterns in children from kindergarten through grade six. Highlights physical development, including height, activity level, motor skills, and health; mental development, including abstract thought, academic focus, learning difficulties, subject preferences, and creativity; psychosocial development, including interpersonal…

  6. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet; McKenney, Susan; Harada, Violet H.; Lee, Jung

    2003-01-01

    Contains five articles covering general trends and issues in instructional technology, including: developments in corporate training, higher education, and K-12 education; women's contributions to the leading instructional technology journals; developing science education materials via computer-based support; learning in the Information Age; and…

  7. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  8. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  9. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  10. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  11. Special Education--Non-Special Education Achievement Gap in Math: Effects of Reporting Methods, Analytical Techniques, and Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Wu, Yi-Chen; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulations indicate that the achievement gap must be closed between subgroups, including the gap between special education and non-special education students. We explored the ways in which achievement trends are influenced by three methods of reporting (cross-sectional, cohort-static, and cohort-dynamic). We also investigated (a) the ways…

  12. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  13. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  14. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  15. Stargazing: Future Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    Describes the trends in higher education predicted and discussed at a staff retreat of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). Trends include an evolving role for business officers, increasing enrollment, competition, and e-learning. (EV)

  16. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  17. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  18. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

    1991-01-01

    An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

  19. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  20. Using SPC and Trending to Reduce FOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs showing the trends and Statistical Process Control (SPC) used by ATK-Thiokol to reduce Foreign Object Debris (FOD). Some of the topics include: 1) Amazing Little Known and Less Used Facts; 2) Critical Nature of Rocket Manufacturing; 3) ATK-Thiokol Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Philosophy; 4) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Philosophy; 5) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC) Basic Philosophy; 6) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC); 7) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Trending; 8) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Specific Instances; 9) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Contamination in Air; and 10) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Nitrogen Dewpoint.

  1. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  4. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  5. Recent Trends and Advances in Sedimentology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttner, Lee J.

    1979-01-01

    Briefly surveys recent trends and developments in sedimentology. Includes Clastic sedimentary petrology, petrology of argillaceous rocks, terrigenous depositional environments, and chemical sedimentology. (MA)

  6. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom; Parkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This report contains two separate studies examining the status of high-achieving students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) era. Part I, An Analysis of NAEP Data, authored by Brookings Institution scholar Tom Loveless, examines achievement trends for high-achieving students (defined, like low-achieving students, by their performance on the…

  7. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  8. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  9. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  10. General presentation including new structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  11. Trends Affecting the Roles of Reference Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Alma; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    1996-01-01

    Reviews societal and general library trends and their effect on roles of library reference staff. Topics include demographic changes; economic trends; technological developments; shifting paradigms; contextual perceptions; technological competence; human dimensions, including the librarian's role as intermediary; and creativity and innovation.…

  12. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  13. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  14. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  15. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  16. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  17. Sustaining School Achievement in California's Elementary Schools after State Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Academic Performance Index (API) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) achievement trends between 2004 and 2006 of 58 California public elementary schools after exiting state monitoring and investigated practices for sustaining consistent achievement growth. Statistical methods were used to analyze statewide achievement trends…

  18. Academic Libraries: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leacy

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues and trends affecting Canadian academic libraries that were major themes at the 1996 Canadian Library Association annual conference in Halifax (Nova Scotia). Topics include government funding decreases; restructuring in education and library services; consortia; library cooperation and collaboration; computer networks; interlibrary…

  19. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  20. Information Technology: Perspectives and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Doug

    The full impact of the current information technology and networking revolution remains unknown, but the experiences of organizations and individuals who are using the tools and resources offered by information technology suggest that it may change our social fabric. Some of the current and emerging trends in information technology include: the…

  1. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  2. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Jonathan D.; Barnett, Lynn

    Trends and projections for higher education are identified. Increased public concern about the purposes and standards of higher education has followed the publication of four major publications about higher education in the United States. Changing demographics are projected for 1983-1993, including fewer 18- to 22-year-olds, decreased full-time…

  3. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  4. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  5. Pleural malignancies including mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1995-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is caused almost exclusively by occupational exposure to asbestos. During the past few years, however, increasing evidence has mounted that background exposure to asbestos could be sufficient to cause mesothelioma. Treatment of malignant mesothelioma remains a big problem. Some new approaches are on their way, and the most exciting ones are local immunotherapy in very early cases. Some success has been reported with local interferon treatment. As for treatment of metastatic pleural disease, the main purpose is symptomatic relief of dyspnea caused by fluid accumulation. The best way to achieve a lasting palliation is pleurodesis, and the most common way to do this, is by chemical means. The drug of choice in the United States has for many years been tetracycline, but since injectable tetracycline is no longer available, some substitute must be found. The substance that will "win" is not yet clear, but the two leading contestants are talc and doxycycline. Bleomycin also has its supporters, and a dark horse is quinacrine, which although not easily available in the United States, has been used in many European centers for decades. PMID:9363074

  6. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  7. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Trends in ophthalmology resident surgical experience from 2009 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Nisha; Liu, Ji; Maslin, Jessica S; Teng, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Background Resident procedure minimums have been established in surgical training programs to ensure adequate training experience. However, achievement of these minimums may fluctuate. Review of resident experience is essential for maintaining successful training curricula. Objective To evaluate trends in ophthalmology resident surgical experience from 2009 to 2015. Methods This was a database study reviewing Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ophthalmology resident surgical case logs. Case logs from 2,797 US ophthalmology residents were reviewed for trends in average surgical cases performed by residents as primary surgeon in the area of cataract, cornea, retina, glaucoma, pediatrics, plastics, and trauma from 2009 to 2015. Results Significant trends in resident surgical experience were demonstrated in the areas of cataract, retina, and glaucoma, while experience in cornea, pediatrics, plastics, and trauma remained stable. These trends included an increase in average cases of phacoemulsification cataract surgery from 143.8 to 173.6, vitreous tap/inject procedures from 31.3 to 93.1, and glaucoma shunt surgery from 4.5 to 6.7, with a decline in average cases of nonphacoemulsification cataract surgery from 3.8 to 2.2, retinal photocoagulation from 59.6 to 45.5, and filtering surgery from 6 to 4.5. Conclusion Trends in ophthalmology surgical experience in cataract, retina, and glaucoma paralleled new surgical or therapeutic developments as well as practice pattern shifts in these fields. Educators should be cognizant of the impact of such trends on resident experience and determine if curricular adjustments should be made to maintain comprehensive education of physicians-in-training. PMID:27418803

  10. Statistical power for detecting trends with applications to seabird monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.

    2003-01-01

    Power analysis is helpful in defining goals for ecological monitoring and evaluating the performance of ongoing efforts. I examined detection standards proposed for population monitoring of seabirds using two programs (MONITOR and TRENDS) specially designed for power analysis of trend data. Neither program models within- and among-years components of variance explicitly and independently, thus an error term that incorporates both components is an essential input. Residual variation in seabird counts consisted of day-to-day variation within years and unexplained variation among years in approximately equal parts. The appropriate measure of error for power analysis is the standard error of estimation (S.E.est) from a regression of annual means against year. Replicate counts within years are helpful in minimizing S.E.est but should not be treated as independent samples for estimating power to detect trends. Other issues include a choice of assumptions about variance structure and selection of an exponential or linear model of population change. Seabird count data are characterized by strong correlations between S.D. and mean, thus a constant CV model is appropriate for power calculations. Time series were fit about equally well with exponential or linear models, but log transformation ensures equal variances over time, a basic assumption of regression analysis. Using sample data from seabird monitoring in Alaska, I computed the number of years required (with annual censusing) to detect trends of -1.4% per year (50% decline in 50 years) and -2.7% per year (50% decline in 25 years). At ??=0.05 and a desired power of 0.9, estimated study intervals ranged from 11 to 69 years depending on species, trend, software, and study design. Power to detect a negative trend of 6.7% per year (50% decline in 10 years) is suggested as an alternative standard for seabird monitoring that achieves a reasonable match between statistical and biological significance.

  11. Trends in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    The future of reservoir simulation is driven by two different and, on the surface, paradoxical trends. On the one hand, the user base is on average becoming less experienced, and on the other, increasingly complex models are being built to honor the advances in reservoir-description technology. The job of the software development community is to create software that satisfies both the ease-of-use needs of the novice and the accuracy needs of the integrated geoscience team. One of the near-term effects of these demands will be to improve the capabilities and quality of the fully integrated geoscience work-station. This will include the need for implementation of industry-wide data standards. Reservoir simulators will need to incorporate increasing amounts of interactivity and built-in expertise. Accuracy of results will be improved by increased use of unstructured grids, including automatic gridding software with dynamic capabilities. Additional research will focus on complex wells, including both in-flow performance and wellbore hydraulics. Finally, grid size will continue to escalate in step with advances in hardware and software. The growth of grid size will be mitigated by substantial efforts in upscaling, but ultimately parallel computing must provide the mechanism for continued growth.

  12. Long-term trends and a sustainability transition.

    PubMed

    Kates, Robert W; Parris, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    How do long-term global trends affect a transition to sustainability? We emphasize the "multitrend" nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability transition more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of global trends that impact place-based sustainability studies. PMID:12829798

  13. Long-term trends and a sustainability transition

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Parris, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    How do long-term global trends affect a transition to sustainability? We emphasize the “multitrend” nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability transition more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of global trends that impact place-based sustainability studies. PMID:12829798

  14. Trends in the Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey shows consistent and substantial improvements in the relative health of the aged from 1961-81. Explanations for this trend include cohort effects, Medicare and Medicaid, and other programs for the aged. Increasing health service needs should be partially offset by this trend.…

  15. Cultural Trends and the American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Research Council of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Summaries of the keynote speech by Os Guiness and discussions on U.S. cultural trends in education, in child development, and among youth are included in this document. Guiness believes there has been a shift from an economic focus to one centered on cultural activities. He states that four current cultural trends are: (1) a sense of hollowness;…

  16. Public Residential Services, 1981: Status and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Updated information of the current status and trends of public residential facilities for mentally retarded persons in the United States is reported for basic demographic data, population movement, resident programs, and administration (including budgeting and staffing). Trends are noted toward admission and readmission to public residential…

  17. Temperature trends in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Berger, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    We have performed trend studies in the mesosphere in the period 1961-2009 with LIMA (Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model) which is based on ECMWF below approximately 40 km and adapts temporal variations of CO2 and O3 according to observations. There is general agreement between LIMA and observations. Temperatures in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere vary non-uniformly with time, mainly due to the influence of ozone. We have therefore separated the influence of CO2(t) and O3(t) when determining trends. It is important to distinguish between trends on pressure altitudes, zp, and geometric altitudes, zgeo, where the latter includes the effect of shrinking due to cooling at lower heights. Maximum total temperature trends reach approximately -1,3 K/dec at zp ~60 km and -1.8 K/dec at zgeo ~70 km, respectively. Carbon dioxide is the main driver of these trends in the mesosphere, whereas ozone contributes approximately one third, both on geometric and pressure heights. Depending on the time period chosen, the ozone effect on trends can be significantly smaller or larger. Temperature trends on geometric and pressure altitudes can differ by as much as -0.9 K/dec in the mesosphere. The altitudes of pressure levels in the mesosphere decrease up to several hundred meters. The shift maximizes at mesopause levels where it accumulates to more than 1 km. Most of the shrinking occurs in the mesosphere and a smaller fraction (~20%) in the stratosphere. For the first time, we have performed long term runs with LIMA applying the 20th Century Reanalysis from NCEP/NCAR dating back to 1871. Again, trends are non-uniform with time. Since the late 19th century temperatures in the mesosphere have dropped by approximately 5-7 K on pressure altitudes, and up to 10-12 K on geometric altitudes. This is much more then typical trends in the troposphere and stratosphere. It is therefore justified to summarize that the mesosphere (at least in summer and at middle latitudes) reacts

  18. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  19. Regional Kendall test for trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Frans, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred. Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables.

  20. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  1. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  2. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  3. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  4. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  5. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  6. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  7. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  8. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  9. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  10. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  11. Trend Book, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents an assortment of statistical data about Maryland postsecondary education. The information is presented for a period of years, so that trends can be highlighted. The Trend Book is organized into nine sections: (1) Factors Affecting Enrollments; (2) Enrollment; (3) Retention, Transfer and Graduation; (4) Degrees; (5) Graduate…

  12. New Trends in Educational Lighting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Explores technological trends for improving campus lighting, including the use of direct-indirect suspended fluorescent lighting, suspended linear lighting, high-efficiency optical systems, and occupancy and daylight sensors. (GR)

  13. Trends in Nonprofit Corporation Law in 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleck, Howard L.

    1976-01-01

    About half of the formal organizations and enterprises in the United States are nonprofit in nature. Trends in laws affecting them are reviewed, including tax exemption, officer status, civil rights, management practices, and federal court interposition. (LBH)

  14. Theme: The Latest Trends in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Theme issue includes 10 articles on the following topics: innovation, trends in agricultural curriculum, working with special populations, the role of history, standards, curriculum integration, distance learning, integrating math and science, and developing leaders. (JOW)

  15. Analysis of Engineering Discipline Grade Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Charles D.; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun

    2008-01-01

    Among the academic community, there is a perception that there is an upward shift in grade point average over an extended period of time without a corresponding increase in achievement. This trend has become an alarming topic among educators, industry and the general public. Some attribute increases in GPA to improvements in student quality while…

  16. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  17. Multilevel Modeling of Science Achievement in the Timss Participating Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza; Kalantarrashidi, Shojae Aldin

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the variability in science achievement as a function of student-, school- and country-level factors. Achievement scores of 134,123 eighth-grade students from 4,511 schools of 29 countries who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were analyzed. Multilevel modeling results…

  18. Systems Vaccinology: Applications, Trends, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sollner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The strategies employed in vaccinology have improved since the seminal work of Edward Jenner in the eighteenth century. Stimulated by failure to develop vaccines for cancers and chronic infectious diseases as well as an emergence of a multitude of new technologies not available earlier, vaccinology has moved from a largely experimental art to a new phase of innovation. Currently, immune reactions can be predicted and modeled before they occur and formulations can be optimized in advance for genetic background, age, sex, lifestyle, environmental factors, and microbiome. A multitude of scientific insights and technological advancements have led us to this current status, yet possibly none of the recent developments is individually more promising to achieve these goals than the interdisciplinary science of systems vaccinology. This review summarizes current trends and applications of systems vaccinology, including technically tangible areas of vaccine and immunology research which allow the transformative process into a truly broad understanding of vaccines, thereby effectively modeling interaction of vaccines with health and disease. It is becoming clear that a multitude of factors have to be considered to understand inter-patient variability of vaccine responses including those characterized from the interfaces between the immune system, microbiome, metabolome, and the nervous system. PMID:27076127

  19. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  20. Skin Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian/Alaska Native men. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Increased significantly by 1.4% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  1. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.1% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ... significantly by 1.4% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Data source: Ryerson AB, Eheman CR, ...

  2. Lung Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.8% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Decreased significantly by 0.9% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  3. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  4. Minority Students of Color and the Psychology Graduate Pipeline: Disquieting and Encouraging Trends, 1989-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Kohout, Jessica L.; Wicherski, Marlene; Leary, George E.; Vinokurov, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1989 in the minority graduate pipeline in psychology are examined, with special focus on trends in recent years. Encouraging trends generally outweigh troubling ones at lower levels of the pipeline. However, in recent years disquieting trends dominate at the higher pipeline levels. Promising trends include a rise in the percentage (to…

  5. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  6. Educational Trends of the Rural and Urban Population of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, James D.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    Major trends in the educational status of Georgia's population were studied. These included recent changes in school enrollment of farm and nonfarm youths, and in adult educational attainment. Trends in school enrollment were studied for statewide, county, and regional differentials; and high school dropouts. Trends in educational attainment were…

  7. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  8. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  9. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  10. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  11. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  12. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  13. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  14. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  15. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  16. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  17. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Rainfall Trends through Time: A Running Trend Analysis of Hawaiian Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Significant declines in rainfall have been observed in Hawai'i since 1920. However, these trends have not been uniform in space or time. It is important to understand past rainfall variations to provide the context for future changes. This is especially important for isolated oceanic islands where resources are limited, and understanding the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater supplies is crucial. Maps of seasonal and annual rainfall trends have been produced for the State of Hawai'i for the period 1920-2012. However, since rainfall time series can be highly variable and these trend values may be sensitive to the time period chosen, a running trend analysis was performed to assess the stability of these trends through time. Running trend plots were generated for selected stations chosen to represent unique climate regions based on exposure (windward or leeward) and elevation (low, mid or high). The running trend analysis indicates that in many areas, these drying trends are only significant when the last few years of the record are included in the trend period. The only region with persistent trends through time is the Kona region of the Island of Hawai'i, with significant long-term drying trends, particularly in the dry season. This analysis also highlights the influence of natural variability in short-term trends. These results support previous studies that indicate drying across the state, and reveal the timing of upward and downward trends as well as important spatial details for water resource managers in Hawai'i.

  2. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  4. Supporting data for Environmental Trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunstall, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Information has been compiled as a companion document to ' Environmental Trends ' to provide analysts and researchers with statistical data to understand better how natural and man-made environments were changing. Subjects include land and climate; wetlands; wild areas; historic places; risk zones; settlement patterns; housing units; housing conditions; neighborhood conditions; transportation systems, including use and impacts on the environment such as noise, energy consumption; material use and solid waste; toxic substances, including radiation; cropland , forests and rangeland; wildlife, including extinct, threatened and endangered species; energy; water resources, water quality and air quality; and the biosphere. Statistics in the tables were taken from various published and unpublished sources. Therefore, the number of significant figures for the same information may differ. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  6. Decadal Trends in Ensemble Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liess, S.; Snyder, P. K.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, V.

    2012-12-01

    A simple method to rank multi-model ensemble members of CMIP3 simulations by their representation of phases of decadal oscillations is introduced. A period of 22 years (1979-2000) from the 20th century simulations is used to generate ensemble projections of trends for an 11-year (2001-2011) lead time for the SRES A1B scenario. Although greenhouse-gas forcing is identical for all 20th century simulations, the phases of decadal oscillations are quite different. Thus, the suggested minimum requirements for a simple selection criterion for adequate ensemble members are that (a) trends in high-, mid-, and low-latitude zones need to be treated separately and (b) information about the state of teleconnections between the zones needs to be included, when projecting decadal variability and trends in climate. The new method indicates that half (19 out of 38) ensemble members retain their rank when each GCM is treated separately without any assumptions of which model might be superior. Thus, the overall ensemble size can be reduced without a large loss of information but with a greatly reduced range of uncertainty, when only the least well performing ensemble members of each GCM are omitted for an 11-year projection.

  7. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  8. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  9. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  10. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Zekai

    2015-11-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  11. International programs - A growing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has collaborated successfully in space science missions with a multiplicity of partners, including the European Space Agency, Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Japan, and the Soviet Union, among others. These collaborations generally arise out of common scientific goals and in the interest of economizing to take advantage of skills and capabilities among the partners. A trend towards increased cooperation in space is expected to continue as the global scientific community works together to plan future space science missions and the missions become more sophisticated.

  12. Scheduling for Parallel Supercomputing: A Historical Perspective of Achievable Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, James Patton; Nitzberg, Bill

    1999-01-01

    The NAS facility has operated parallel supercomputers for the past 11 years, including the Intel iPSC/860, Intel Paragon, Thinking Machines CM-5, IBM SP-2, and Cray Origin 2000. Across this wide variety of machine architectures, across a span of 10 years, across a large number of different users, and through thousands of minor configuration and policy changes, the utilization of these machines shows three general trends: (1) scheduling using a naive FIFO first-fit policy results in 40-60% utilization, (2) switching to the more sophisticated dynamic backfilling scheduling algorithm improves utilization by about 15 percentage points (yielding about 70% utilization), and (3) reducing the maximum allowable job size further increases utilization. Most surprising is the consistency of these trends. Over the lifetime of the NAS parallel systems, we made hundreds, perhaps thousands, of small changes to hardware, software, and policy, yet, utilization was affected little. In particular these results show that the goal of achieving near 100% utilization while supporting a real parallel supercomputing workload is unrealistic.

  13. Colloquium: 100 years of mass spectrometry: Perspectives and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has passed for MS since the ground-breaking work of Nobel laureate Sir Joseph John Thomson in 1913. This Colloquium aims to (1) give an historical overview of the major instrumentation achievements that have driven mass spectrometry forward in the past century, including those leading up to the initial work of Thomson, (2) provide the nonspecialist with an introduction to MS, and (3) highlight some key applications of MS and explore the current and future trends. Because of the vastness of the subject area and quality of the manifold research efforts that have been undertaken over the last 100 years, which have contributed to the foundations and subsequent advances in mass spectrometry, it should be understood that not all of the key contributions may have been included in this Colloquium. Mass spectrometry has embraced a multitude of scientific disciplines and to recognize all of the achievements is an impossible task, such has been the diverse impact of this invaluable technique. Scientific progress is usually made via the cumulative effort of a large number of researchers; the achievements reported herein are only a representation of that effort.

  14. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  15. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  16. Trends in Schoolhouse Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reida, George W.

    Much material has been written, printed, and published on trends in schoolhouse construction but many of the experts have not bothered to concern themselves in carefully analyzing and understanding the program which is to be housed or the specific needs of the children in the community. In discussing this subject, two distinct realities must be…

  17. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  18. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  19. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  20. Trends in Educational Expenditure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    This study provides an overview of expenditures for education and training by educational institutions in Australia, 1991-2001. The study used newly available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and administrative data from the main sectors' reports on the size and trends in public and private education expenditures. It analyzed…

  1. Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This issue contains data on trends and indicators of New England higher education, including demography, admissions, enrollment, degrees, educational attainment and income, student migration, retention and graduation, financing higher education, and university research and development. It also includes articles related to the data and on New…

  2. Trends & Issues in Library & Information Science 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael B.; And Others

    This synthesis paper provides a state-of-the-art analysis of the field of library and information science based on the results of a content analysis of its literature, including selected journals, conference proceedings, dissertations, and ERIC input. The 14 trends and issues identified by the analysis include developments in technology,…

  3. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development.

  4. Professional Development & Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Marianne, Ed.; Blaser, Stephanie, Ed.; Raack, Lenaya, Ed.; Cooper, Cinder, Ed.; Kinder, Ann, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Professional development is viewed from several perspectives--time, funding, planning, and student outcomes--and includes both an urban and a rural story. This issue provides a special pullout section designed as a checklist to help guide professional development planning activities. The following articles are included: "Perspectives on Managing…

  5. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  6. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  7. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  8. Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.

  9. Trends in space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.

    Near-future goals of international launch systems are aimed at placing payloads of at least 5000 kg into geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). In the United States, this will be accomplished by the Shuttle with a new upper stage and complementary expendable launch vehicle (CELV) such as the Titan 34D7/Centaur. The Soviet Union's efforts will also achieve this goal and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane 5 will approach it. It appears clear that the U.S. will revert to a mixed fleet policy, utilizing the Shuttle only for those missions where its capacity is needed or where manned presence is a necessity. The ESA Hermes and the Soviet shuttle will also be chiefly used in the latter capacity. In the United States and the Soviet Union, much thought and some funds are being devoted to the study of third-generation space transportation systems. The objectives are to achieve either/or ready access to space, low cost per pound to orbit, and very heavy weights (at low cost/pound) to orbit. Concepts such as the AerospacePlane and HOTOL (horizontal take-off and landing); the Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), and mammoth heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs) are being studied. The third generation of launch vehicles will serve both civilian and military needs. Civilian applications represent a myriad of advanced needs. They range from the normal extension of present communications, earth observations, in-space manufacturing, and space station and other manned operations to the more exotic missions of Mars expeditions (both manned and unmanned), lunar bases, and large space-based power systems. Military applications are likely to include advanced intelligence and reconnaissance systems, spacecraft servicing and maintenance tasks, support of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) systems, and possibly a permanent manned presence in space. Both civil and military aims may lead to the development of the AerospacePlane. This vehicle could evolve into forms designed for high speed air

  10. Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung won; Hill, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on parental involvement in education has been conducted largely without respect to which parent is involved. The implicit assumption is that family-school relationship frameworks function similarly for fathers and mothers. Although there is a growing body of research examining fathers' involvement in education, this assumption has…

  11. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  12. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  13. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  14. Global warming: trends and effects.

    PubMed

    Tickell, C

    1993-01-01

    As animals we have been a remarkably successful species; but also as animals we are vulnerable to environmental, in particular climate change. Such change is accelerating as a result of human activity, and global warming may already be taking place. Although we can foresee the trends, we cannot yet be specific about the results. Change usually proceeds by steps rather than gradients. But warming would probably include new risks to human health and contribute to an increase in human displacement. Of course climate change is only one among other complex problems facing human society, but it is closely related to them all, including population increase, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. We cannot prevent global warming but we can anticipate and mitigate some of its worst effects. Peoples and governments still need persuading of the need for action and of the magnitude of the issue at stake.

  15. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  16. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  17. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  18. Advances and trends in ionophore-based chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelson, K. N.; Peshkova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The recent advances in the theory and practice of potentiometric, conductometric and optical sensors based on ionophores are critically reviewed. The role of the heterogeneity of the sensor/sample systems is emphasized, and it is shown that due to this heterogeneity such sensors respond to the analyte activities rather than to concentrations. The basics of the origin of the response of all three kinds of ionophore-based sensors are briefly described. The use of novel sensor materials, new preparation and application techniques of the sensors as well as advances in theoretical treatment of the sensor response are analyzed using literature sources published mainly from 2012 to 2014. The basic achievements made in the past are also addressed when necessary for better understanding of the trends in the field of ionophore-based sensors. The bibliography includes 295 references.

  19. Temperature trends in the midlatitude summer mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.; Baumgarten, G.

    2013-12-01

    We have performed trend studies in the mesosphere in the period 1961-2009 with Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere (LIMA) model driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis below approximately 40 km and adapts temporal variations of CO2 and O3 according to observations. Temperatures in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere vary nonuniformly with time, mainly due to the influence of O3. Here we analyze the contribution of varying concentrations of CO2 and O3 to the temperature trend in the mesosphere. It is important to distinguish between trends on pressure altitudes, zp, and geometrical altitudes, zgeo, where the latter includes the effect of shrinking due to cooling at lower heights. For the period 1961-2009, temperature trends on geometrical and pressure altitudes can differ by as much as -0.9 K/dec in the mesosphere. Temperature trends reach approximately -1.3±0.11 K/dec at zp˜60 km and -1.8±0.18 K/dec at zgeo˜70 km, respectively. CO2 is the main driver of these trends in the mesosphere, whereas O3 contributes approximately one third, both on geometrical and pressure heights. Depending on the time period chosen, linear temperature trends can vary substantially. Altitudes of pressure levels in the mesosphere decrease by up to several hundred meters. We have performed long-term runs with LIMA applying twentieth century reanalysis dating back to 1871. Again, trends are nonuniform with time. Since the late nineteenth century, temperatures in the mesosphere have dropped by approximately 5-7 K on pressure altitudes and up to 10-12 K on geometrical altitudes.

  20. Lighting energy consumption trends and R&D opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, James R.; Petrow, Edward D.; Scholand, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    Electric lighting of buildings in the United States consumes over 20% of the nation's primary electricity and is second only in magnitude to heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. This installed lighting base is generally inefficient and is characterized by relatively low performance especially when compared to other building systems. While substantial opportunities for improving overall lighting system efficiency exist, the pathway to achievement of this goal is less clear. Lighting research and development conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE), Building Technologies Program (BT) addresses this national issue and aggressively pursues a number of broad research areas that promise to yield significant increases in overall lighting system efficiency. Implementation of a successful program in lighting energy conservation depends upon a detailed assessment of energy consumption trends by lighting technology. The results of several years of research are presented that describe electricity consumption by market sector, application and lamp type. Following this lighting market assessment, an overview of the DOE's ongoing lighting research and development (LR&D) program portfolio linked to the market assessments is provided. Individual program contributions toward achieving ambitious lighting energy conservation goals are described. The BTS portfolio includes research in three broad areas: (1) light source and electronics, (2) fixtures, controls and distribution systems, and (3) human factors. An overview of each technical objective is provided, as well as a timeline for achieving specific energy conservation goals.

  1. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  2. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  3. Construction Trends Dictate Vital Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivchak, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Vocational education can provide opportunities for students by anticipating trends. Four trends in the construction industry are (1) remodeling, (2) building and apartment maintenance, (3) quality, and (4) smart houses. (JOW)

  4. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  5. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Zari

    This literature survey examines trends in higher education requiring a broad base of support from the changing institutions and the people who have to respond to, plan for, and manage the changes. Trends are identified in the areas of enrollment, financial aid, curricula, faculty, financial status, and assessment. Trends affecting enrollment…

  6. Managing international migration: past, present, and future trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Hammar, T

    1991-01-01

    The author provides a brief overview of current international migration trends. Aspects considered include economic motives for migration, refugee migration, migration policies and human rights, and political factors. Comments by Jean-Yves Carlier are included (pp. 192-3).

  7. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  8. Application trends for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    This paper presents the results of studies by MONEGON to develop forecasts of PV system application markets. These forecasts consider economic factors such as conventional energy costs now and in the future, the relationship between world economic conditions, as represented by each country's Gross National Product, and energy demand; the cost potential for PV systems technologies; and the application trends in the past and future. The application sectors analyzed are: remote, stand-alone systems; residential systems; service/commercial/industrial/institutional; and central utility systems. An overall market forecast is developed and this forecast is segmented into the four market sectors.

  9. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  10. EDITORIAL: Trends in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2004-04-01

    With effect from August 2004 the journal Nanotechnology will discontinue the `Letters to the Editor' section. The increase in publication speed achieved for all articles now means that letters have no advantage. Fully electronic publication processes including electronic submission, refereeing and proofing, ensure that all papers are processed with minimum delay and are published as soon as they are ready. The journal will continue to publish high-quality original research papers, reviews and tutorials, as well as papers on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology at the discretion of the Editorial Board. All submitted papers will undergo a pre-selection procedure for suitability by the Editors of the journal. If a paper is accepted for consideration by the journal it will be sent to independent experts in the field for peer review. To speed up the publication process, we encourage authors to suggest five independent experts in their field as potential referees and supply their title, name, affiliation and e-mail address. The Editors of the journal may use these names at their discretion. Authors may also request that certain people are not to be used as referees. Papers of special interest will be given the utmost priority and on acceptance will be publicized further through worldwide press releases and reviews on the Institute of Physics website and on nanotechweb.org. As a service to authors and to the international physics community, and as part of our commitment to give authors' work as much visibility as possible, all papers are freely available online for 30 days from their electronic publication date. This means open access for citations to everyone in the world. We will also send an electronic offprint of your published paper to ten colleagues of your choice, giving your article an increased chance of being cited quickly. In the meantime, we are pleased to announce an increase in the Impact Factor of the journal in 2003 to 2.304, which means

  11. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  12. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  13. Understanding the Gap in Mathematics Achievement of Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azina

    2009-01-01

    Of 46 countries that participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study in 2003 (I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. J. Chrostowski, 2004), Malaysia was ranked 10th in international scores of mathematics achievement for 8th-grade students. The present author aimed to examine the importance of students' home…

  14. The Harsher Side of Globalisation: Violent Conflict and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The paper draws on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data for nearly 60 educational systems to explore the characteristics and patterns of school violence across a number of countries and the extent to which measures of violence are associated with achievement in mathematics and science. Using a multi-level…

  15. Ahead in College: A Developmental Program for Low Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Passalacqua, Juan M.

    Because of the current trend toward further education for all high school graduates, there is need to prepare low-achieving students for college-level work. A developmental program was designed for Puerto Rico Junior College to improve the performance of high school graduates with low academic averages and entrance examination scores. After a year…

  16. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  17. The Effect of Primary School Size on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth; Langbein, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on optimal school size is mixed. We estimate the effect of transitory changes in school size on the academic achievement of fourth-and fifth-grade students in North Carolina using student-level longitudinal administrative data. Estimates of value-added models that condition on school-specific linear time trends and a variety of…

  18. A Closer Look at School Cutoff Dates and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalk, John Michael; And Others

    National Assessment of Educational Progress data in reading, mathematics, and science for Caucasian children were analyzed. Using regression analysis for three age groups, nine, thirteen, and seventeen year olds, a trend analysis was plotted. The changing achievement relationships between these students relative to their classmates and their age…

  19. The Sandia Report and U.S. Achievement: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Lawrence C.

    1994-01-01

    The article assesses the report of the Sandia National Laboratory's contentions about decline in Scholactic Aptitude Test Scores, National Assessment of Educational Progress achievement, and international assessments. The article suggests the report is generally right about steady trends but seriously flawed by several errors. (SM)

  20. Recent Trends in Information Literacy and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arp, Lori, Ed.; Woodard, Beth S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses recent trends in information literacy and instruction. Topics include the emergence of standards and guidelines; standards in elementary and secondary schools; accreditation standards, certification, and mandates; defining what librarians do, particularly as teachers; plagiarism, copyright, and ethical behavior; and the impact of…

  1. The Trend towards Self-Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pat

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the self-publishing trend in Canada. Topics addressed include changes in the publishing industry, desktop publishing, quality control, printing, publicity, reviews, marketing, and the future of self-publishing. Two sidebars discuss vanity presses and self-publishing and libraries. (32 references) (LRW)

  2. Virtual Universities: Current Models and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Describes current models of distance education (single-mode distance teaching universities, dual- and mixed-mode universities, extension services, consortia-type ventures, and new technology-based universities), including their merits and problems. Discusses future trends in potential student constituencies, faculty roles, forms of knowledge…

  3. America's Soil and Water: Condition and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1981

    A review of conditions and trends regarding soil and water resources of rural nonfederal lands of the United States is presented in this publication. Maps, charts, and graphs illustrate the data collected on various aspects of soil and water use and practice. Topic areas considered include: (1) land use patterns; (2) classes of land; (3)…

  4. Trend Shifts Evident on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Campus issues and trends identified by college union and student activities administrators are considered. The major college issue is alcohol and its impact on the campus. Since all but eight states have adopted the 21 drinking age, there are many administrative concerns, including monitoring campus alcohol service and finding alternatives for pub…

  5. Maryland Higher Education Commission Trend Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Higher Education Commission, Annapolis.

    This document presents an assortment of statistical data about higher education in Maryland. The information is presented for a period of years, so that trends can be highlighted. The book is organized by topic into these sections: (1) factors affecting enrollment, including college-going rate of Maryland high school seniors, their intended major,…

  6. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  7. Recent trends in particle size analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances and developments in the particle-sizing technologies are briefly reviewed in accordance with three operating principles including particle size and shape descriptions. Significant trends of the particle size analysing equipment recently developed show that compact electronic circuitry and rapid data processing systems were mainly adopted in the instrument design. Some newly developed techniques characterizing the particulate system were also introduced.

  8. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  9. Libraries, the MAP, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cherri; Singer, Marietta; Miller, David W.; Makemson, Carroll; Elliott, Kara; Litsch, Diana; Irwin, Barbara; Hoemann, Cheryl; Elmore, Jennifer; Roe, Patty; Gregg, Diane; Needham, Joyce; Stanley, Jerri; Reinert, John; Holtz, Judy; Jenkins, Sandra; Giles, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Includes 17 articles that discuss the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) and the role of school library media centers. Highlights include improving student achievement; improving student scores on the MAP; graphic organizers; programs for volunteer student library workers; research process; research skills; reading initiatives; collaborative…

  10. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  11. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  12. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  13. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  14. Interior Secretary Highlights Key Trends, Including Climate Change and Fiscal Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is "the defining issue of our time," Department of the Interior (DOI) Secretary Sally Jewell said during her 18 June keynote addess at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. The United States has to "lead by example. We can't be the largest economy in the world and the second largest producer of carbon in the world"—after China—"and not take care of our own problems first to demonstrate to the world what needs to be done," she said.

  15. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a

  16. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  17. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  18. Socioeconomic trends in radiology.

    PubMed

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. PMID:9477292

  19. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  20. California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard - Compliance Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.

    2013-12-01

    Policies to incentivize lower carbon transport fuels have become more prevalent even as they spark heated debate over their cost and feasibility. California's approach - performance-based regulation called the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - has proved no exception. The LCFS aims to achieve 10% reductions in state transport fuel carbon intensity (CI) by 2020, by setting declining annual CI targets, and rewarding fuels for incremental improvements in CI beyond the targets while penalizing those that fail to meet requirements. Even as debate continues over when new, lower carbon fuels will become widely available at commercial scale, California's transport energy mix is shifting in gradual but noticeable ways under the LCFS. We analyze the changes using available data on LCFS fuels from the California Air Resources Board and other secondary sources, beginning in 2011 (the first compliance year). We examine trends in program compliance (evaluated through carbon credits and deficits generated), and relative importance of various transport energy pathways (fuel types and feedstocks, and their CI ratings, including new pathways added since the program's start). We document a roughly 2% decline in CI for gasoline and diesel substitutes under the program, with compliance achieved through small shifts toward greater reliance on fuels with lower CI ratings within a relatively stable amount of transport energy derived from alternatives to fossil fuel gasoline and diesel. We also discuss price trends in the nascent LCFS credit market. The results are important to the broader policy debate about transportation sector response to market-based policies aimed at reducing the sector's greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly; Sims, Michelle; Meylan, Anne; Witherington, Blair; Brost, Beth; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population status for endangered species is critical to developing and evaluating recovery plans mandated by the Endangered Species Act. For sea turtles, changes in abundance are difficult to detect because most life stages occur in the water. Currently, nest counts are the most reliable way of assessing trends. We determined the rate of growth for leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nest numbers in Florida (USA) using a multilevel Poisson regression. We modeled nest counts from 68 beaches over 30 years and, using beach-level covariates (including latitude), we allowed for partial pooling of information between neighboring beaches. This modeling approach is ideal for nest count data because it recognizes the hierarchical structure of the data while incorporating variables related to survey effort. Nesting has increased at all 68 beaches in Florida, with trends ranging from 3.1% to 16.3% per year. Overall, across the state, the number of nests has been increasing by 10.2% per year since 1979. Despite being a small population (probably < 1000 individuals), this nesting population may help achieve objectives in the federal recovery plan. This exponential growth rate mirrors trends observed for other Atlantic populations and may be driven partially by improved protection of nesting beaches. However, nesting is increasing even where beach protection has not been enhanced. Climate variability and associated marine food web dynamics, which could enhance productivity and reduce predators, may be driving this trend. PMID:21516903

  2. Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the direction of future missions and it's significance to the Deep Space Network. The topics include: 1) The Deep Space Network (DSN); 2) Past Missions Driving DSN Evolution; 3) The Changing Mission Paradigm; 4) Assessing Future Mission Needs; 5) Link Support Trends; 6) Downlink Rate Trends; 7) Uplink Rate Trends; 8) End-to-End Link Difficulty Trends; 9) Summary: Future Mission Trend Drivers; and 10) Conclusion: Implications for the DSN.

  3. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  4. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  5. Trends in Dental Specialty Education and Practice, 1990-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura M.; Nix, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes findings from a comprehensive study of American Dental Association-recognized dental specialties, including specialty practice and the practice environment, membership in specialty organizations, requirements and trends in board certification, advances in research and technology, and trends in advanced specialty education. (EV)

  6. Do Fathers Benefit from Parent Training Programs? Data Trends #155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" sought to investigate the effects of parent training programs on fathers. More specifically, it sought to examine previous studies to determine: (1) whether including fathers in…

  7. Language Trends 2010 Secondary (CILT, ALL, ISMLA) Data Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This survey has been carried out annually since 2002 to track developments in language provision and take up in secondary schools. The following sections are included in this analysis of key results from the Secondary Language Trends survey: (1) Survey background, methodology and sample design; (2) DfE (Department for Education) data trends of…

  8. Demographic Trends that will Shape Future Housing Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.

    1977-01-01

    Important demographic trends in the United States include 1) the population's changing age profile, 2) the tendency for young people to remain single longer, 3) the widening mortality differential between the sexes, and 4) reversal of migration trends. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands,…

  9. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.

  10. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  11. International trends in pedestrian injury mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I G

    1993-01-01

    Trends in pedestrian injury mortality for children aged 0-4 and 5-14 for England and Wales, Denmark, Sweden, the USA, and New Zealand were examined from 1968 onwards. While there has been a reduction in the pedestrian mortality in all these countries, there are striking international differences in the extent of these reductions. Denmark has achieved the greatest fall in mortality with the smallest decrease seen in New Zealand. Countries which have experienced major decreases in pedestrian mortality are distinguished by having placed greater emphasis on environmentally based prevention strategies rather than pedestrian skills education. PMID:8481041

  12. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  13. Including Conflict in Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvin, Martin

    Conflict is the basis of all stories and thus should appear in some form in the first sentence. There are three kinds of conflict: people vs. people; people vs. nature; and people vs. themselves. Conflict must be repeated in all the various elements of the story's structure, including the plot, which is the plan of action telling what happens to…

  14. Family Living, Including Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlano, George

    This volume describes and evaluates 21 selected New York City Board of Education Umbrella Programs for the 1974-1975 school year. The programs include: (1) the parent resource center, (2) the teacher self-help program, (3) the East Harlem pre-kindergarten center, (4) the Brooklyn College volunteer tutoring program, (5) the parent education for…

  15. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  16. Are there trends towards drier hydrological conditions in Central America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    A summary of hydrological projections at the end of the century from 30 General Circulation Models (GCMs) is presented; and several hydrometeorological parameters are analyzed to validate if there are hydroclimatological trends during the observational period (1982-2005) consistent with the GCMs results. At the end of the century the median of 30 GCM simulations projects a drier future for Tegucigalpa and San Jose, with a marked increment in evapotranspiration in the first half of the rainy season along with reductions of soil moisture. With respect to the observations (1982-2005): 1) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index showed negative trends in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the border of Honduras and Nicaragua, and especially in southern Mexico (except the Yucatan Peninsula). Positive trends were found in the several parts of Central America, 2) the Palmer Drought Severity Index showed strong and consistent trends from Nicaragua to the North of Central America and southern Mexico (not including Yucatan), consistent with the direction of GCM projections; 3) negative precipitation trends in satellite data were found in Nicaragua, with strong trends in its Caribbean coast; 4) NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation showed strong negative trends in northern Central America, the Central Valley, the Dry Pacific of Costa Rica and the South-Pacific coast of Nicaragua, all consistent with the direction of GCM projections; and 5) station data showed no significant trends however, and 6) Reanalysis' temperature showed positive trends in southern Mexico (not including Yucatan) and negative trends in El Salvador. It can be concluded that several trends in drought indexes and precipitation are consistent with the future projected by the GCMs; that is, with some exceptions some of the trends were validated towards a drier future for the region, especially in the northern part.

  17. Trends in cardiac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karwinski, B; Svendsen, E

    1989-11-01

    A review of 8571 autopsies disclosed 2833 patients with malignant tumours from 1975 to 1984 at the Department of Pathology, The Gade Institute. Cardiac metastases were found in 130 cases. An increase of cardiac involvement was shown in the autopsy material from 1.2% in 1975-1979 to 1.8% in 1980-1984. The same trend was seen if cardiac metastases were related to malignant tumours. Numerically, lung cancer accounted for most of the metastases seen, but the increase was made up by other tumours than lung cancer. especially malignant melanoma, mesothelioma, breast cancer and sarcomas. These tumours have a high frequency of heart metastases and the increased incidence of these cancers in the material explains the rise of cardiac metastases. Cardiac metastases increased with rising number of distant metastases. This study shows that mesotheliomas have the highest percentage of cardiac spread. The importance of autopsy for detecting metastatic spread in sites that are difficult to detect clinically is emphasized.

  18. Trends in nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  19. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  20. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  1. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  2. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  3. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  4. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  5. Trends in Technology and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrath, Nancy L.

    Drawing from literature on technological advances, economic trends, and employment and labor market projections, this paper provides an overview of trends and their implications for California. After briefly analyzing the characteristics and effects of the information age, the paper examines the growth and development of high technology…

  6. HRD Future and Trends. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on the future of human resource development (HRD) and trends in HRD. "Searching for the Future of Human Resource Development" (Wendy E.A. Ruona, Susan A. Lynham, Tom Chermack) reports on a survey of 55 HRD and HRD-related practitioners and academics that examined trends in the HRD profession,…

  7. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  8. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  9. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  10. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  11. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Proposed Budget Invests More Into NCLB, Neediest Students; (2) Making History: L.A. County School With Disadvantaged Ethnic…

  12. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about and from public and private organizations about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) New Online Tool Simplifies Financial Aid Process; (2) Rigor in K-6:…

  13. The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    ""The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) $17 Million Awarded in Advanced Placement Grants; (2) After the Storm: New Orleans School Maintains High Standard in the…

  14. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  15. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  16. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  17. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  18. Student Academic Achievement: Report to the Provost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leas, David E.

    In fall 1991, the faculty and staff of New Mexico State University-Alamogordo (NMSU-A) designed and implemented a strategic planning process which incorporates a comprehensive annual review of various aspects of student academic achievement (SAA). The faculty-based SAA assessment process includes activities focused on classroom instruction,…

  19. The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education (ED). Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Budget Proposal Advances NCLB, Introduces Competitiveness…

  20. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  1. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  2. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  3. Biofuels Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report presents data on biofuels consumption, production, imports and exports, including data collected by others than the U.S. Energy Information Administration. It also discusses important developments in biofuels markets.

  4. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  5. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H.; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-01-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting non-linguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or “formal” math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional MRI study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6–12 years-old), 14 adolescents (13–17 years-old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  6. Public Library Trends Analysis: Fiscal Years 1992-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and describes trends in public libraries for 24 selected variables, including library collections, services, operating income and expenditures, and staffing. Data are from the National Center for Education Statistics Public Libraries Survey. (Author/SLD)

  7. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  8. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  9. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  10. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  11. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  12. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  13. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  14. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  15. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  16. What Trends Do Turkish Biology Education Studies Indicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu; Calik, Muammer; Cavus, Ragip

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what trends Turkish biology education studies indicate. To achieve this aim, the researchers examined online databases of the Higher Education Council and open access archives of graduate theses in web sites of Turkish universities. Finally, totally 138 graduate theses were elicited to analyze in regard to…

  17. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  18. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  19. Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

  20. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. PMID:24075704

  1. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context.

  2. Trend Monitoring System (TMS) graphics software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications systems, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to evaluate the bus concept is considered. A set of FORTRAN-callable graphics subroutines for the host MODCOMP comuter, and an approach to splitting graphics work between the host and the system's intelligent graphics terminals are described. The graphics software in the MODCOMP and the operating software package written for the graphics terminals are included.

  3. Parts Engineering Experiences, Philosophies and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is the presentation viewgraphs of the NASA presentations to NASDA, outlining the philosophy and trends of the experiences with engineering parts. Included in the presentations: are (1) the assurance of COTS boards for Space flight, and (2) Peer Review for Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) GPS flight receivers EEE parts. The emphasis is on the methods for qualification of available parts for space flight.

  4. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  5. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members. PMID:12292274

  6. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  7. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  8. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  9. Water quality in Indiana: trends in concentrations of selected nutrients, metals, and ions in streams, 2000-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Vecchia, Skip V.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2014-01-01

    Statistically significant trends were identified that included 167 downward trends and 83 upward trends. The Kankakee River Basin had the most significant upward trends while the most significant downward trends were in the Whitewater River Basin, the Lake Michigan Basin, and the Patoka River Basin. For most constituents, a majority of sites had significant downward trends. Two streams in the Lake Michigan Basin have shown substantial decreases in most constituents. The West Fork White River near Indianapolis, Indiana, showed increases in nitrate and phosphorus and the Kankakee River Basin showed increases in copper, zinc, chloride, sulfate, and hardness. Upward trends in nutrients were identified at a few sites, but most nutrient trends were downward. Upward trends in metals corresponded with relatively small concentration increases while downward trends involved considerably larger concentration changes. Downward trends in chloride, sulfate, and suspended solids were observed statewide, but upward trends in hardness were observed in the northern half of Indiana.

  10. The computer program estimate trend (ESTREND), a system for the detection of trends in water-quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Alexander, Richard B.; Ohe, Dane J.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized statistical and graphical procedures were developed for use in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigations of trend in stream water-quality data. These procedures, identified as EStimate TREND (ESTREND), are described in this paper to assist USGS investigators involved in multiple-station studies of water-quality trends. Additional discussion focuses on certain statistical and operational decisions required in multiple-station analysis of trends. The statistical methods used in ESTREND overcome common statistical problems encountered by conventional statistical trend techniques in the analysis of water-quality data. The problems include data that are non-normal and seasonally varying and water-quality records with missing values, 'less-than' (censored) values, and outliers, all of which adversely affect the performance of conventional statistical techniques. Parametric and nonparametric statistical trend tests are used in ESTREND. A nonparametric method, the Seasonal Kendall test, is used for data that have few less-than values or data that have been censored at only one reporting limit. A parametric test for trend involving a maximum likelihood estimation method is used for data that have been censored at multiple reporting limits. The Seasonal Kendall test for uncensored data allows for the removal of flow variability in water-quality data which improves the performance of the statistical trend tests. Menu-driven procedures in ESTREND allow the user to easily retrieve water-quality data, analyze data for trend, and view tabular and graphical results of analyses.

  11. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  12. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    PubMed

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  13. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  14. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  15. American families: trends and correlates.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  16. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for. PMID:17518021

  17. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  18. Trends in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnick, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    Various forms of technology transfer in Europe and North America are discussed including research contracts, cooperative research centers, and personnel transfer. Examples of approaches to technology transfer are given and the establishment of personnel transfer is discussed. Preconditions for successful technology transfer in the future are…

  19. Multimedia Web Searching Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares multimedia Web searching by Excite and FAST search engine users in 2001. Highlights include audio and video queries; time spent on searches; terms per query; ranking of the most frequently used terms; and differences in Web search behaviors of U.S. and European Web users. (Author/LRW)

  20. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  1. Theme: Educational Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Agricultural Education & School-to-Work" (Larson, Cox); Agricultural Opportunities with Home Schoolers" (Frick, Brennan); "Private Schools and Agricultural Education in North Carolina" (Forrest); "Career Pathways" (Sigar, Thompson); "Perkins and Plows" (Lovejoy); "Charter Schools" (Knight, Armstrong); "Telling the College Tech. Prep.…

  2. Trends in Humanities Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard, Ed.; Whitney, Loralyn, Ed.

    Proceedings from this workshop sponsored by the Center for the Study of Rural Librarianship are intended to disseminate information to assist rural librarians engaged in planning and conducting public programs that explore issues related to the humanities. This report of the proceedings includes the texts of three presented papers, reactions from…

  3. Trends Shaping Housing Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Proposes 10 strategies that colleges and universities can use to keep students living on their campuses. Strategies include providing more amenities to living areas, having greater electrical capacity in each room, providing computer connectivity, assuring greater fire safety and personal security, offering more dining options, and allowing…

  4. High School & Youth Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Since 1975, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey has annually studied the extent of drug use among high school 12th-graders. The survey was expanded in 1991 to include 8th- and 10th graders. It is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and is conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. The goal of…

  5. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  6. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  7. Monitoring grizzly bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

  8. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  9. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    PubMed

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  10. Trends and concepts in fern classification

    PubMed Central

    Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Chase, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Throughout the history of fern classification, familial and generic concepts have been highly labile. Many classifications and evolutionary schemes have been proposed during the last two centuries, reflecting different interpretations of the available evidence. Knowledge of fern structure and life histories has increased through time, providing more evidence on which to base ideas of possible relationships, and classification has changed accordingly. This paper reviews previous classifications of ferns and presents ideas on how to achieve a more stable consensus. Scope An historical overview is provided from the first to the most recent fern classifications, from which conclusions are drawn on past changes and future trends. The problematic concept of family in ferns is discussed, with a particular focus on how this has changed over time. The history of molecular studies and the most recent findings are also presented. Key Results Fern classification generally shows a trend from highly artificial, based on an interpretation of a few extrinsic characters, via natural classifications derived from a multitude of intrinsic characters, towards more evolutionary circumscriptions of groups that do not in general align well with the distribution of these previously used characters. It also shows a progression from a few broad family concepts to systems that recognized many more narrowly and highly controversially circumscribed families; currently, the number of families recognized is stabilizing somewhere between these extremes. Placement of many genera was uncertain until the arrival of molecular phylogenetics, which has rapidly been improving our understanding of fern relationships. As a collective category, the so-called ‘fern allies’ (e.g. Lycopodiales, Psilotaceae, Equisetaceae) were unsurprisingly found to be polyphyletic, and the term should be abandoned. Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae and Isoëtaceae form a clade (the lycopods) that is

  11. Synchronized trend shift of Sahel rainfall with global oceanic evaporation occurred in the mid-1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diawara, Alima; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hatsumi; Ando, Yuta

    2015-04-01

    Trend shift of Sahel rainfall from decrease to increase occurred in the mid-1980s. This trend shift and its relation to global oceans were investigated by data analyses. We discovered that the Sahel trend shift was synchronized with the trend shift of global oceanic evaporation, with time series like a '' shape, i.e., from decrease to increase. Land precipitation also tended to have the '' shaped trend shift except America continents. The trend shift of the oceanic evaporation was mainly in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), extending to the subtropical Northern Hemisphere (NH) including the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. Because the increase of oceanic evaporation strengthens atmospheric moisture transport toward the land, the synchronized trend shifts of the oceanic evaporation with the land precipitation is reasonable. Surface scalar winds over the oceans in the SH had the '' shaped trend shift. Sea surface temperature (SST) also had the trend shifts in the mid-1980s: a '/\\' shaped in SH, while '' shaped in the NH. In spite of the opposite SST trend shift of the NH to the SH, the evaporation trend shift was in the '' shape in the both hemispheres. Since strong wind promotes evaporation cooling of the SST, the SH wind trend shift strengthened the trend shifts of both SSTs and the evaporation. Because high SST anomalies promote the evaporation, the NH SST trend shift strengthened the evaporation trend shift.

  12. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  13. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  15. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  16. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  17. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  18. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  19. Legal trends in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Onel, S; Fry-Revere, S

    1992-01-01

    Directives given in advance of need and substituted consent cases include: the New York trial court that denied the request of a patient's son for an order revoking the health care proxy his mother had given to his sister, the tape-recorded telephone conversation between the son and his mother was ruled to be insufficient evidence of the mother's desire to revoke the proxy, the mother was not fully responsive or articulate enough to convey her thoughts concerning the proxy. By the end of 1991, all states except Pennsylvania and Nebraska had enacted some form of advance directive legislation. The article highlights legislation from Arizona, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Hawaii, Louisiana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, and Virginia. A study from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York comparing the views of surrogate decision makers with the decisions of currently competent, chronically ill, elderly patients found that surrogates were unable to predict the patients' wishes about resuscitation. AIDS developments include: The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) abandoning its plan to publish a list of categories of exposure-prone invasive procedures. The appropriation bill for the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government requires that states adopt CDC's guidelines or their equivalent within one year, or risk losing all Public Health Service funding. The article highlights 2 court cases relating to AIDS questions. The section on assisted suicide discusses the medical license suspension of Jack Kevorkian and his "suicide" machine. On the discontinuation of treatment, the authors discuss several court cases. patients' rights examples include the Washington State decision imposing a duty on the examining doctor to disclose abnormal test results to the person being examined, regardless of whether a doctor-patient relationship exists. Other topics include reproductive issues, the right to treatment, and treatment refusals. PMID:1301833

  20. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  1. Investigation of DMSD Trend in the ISS Water Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gentry, Greg; Rector, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) is responsible for providing potable water to the crew, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. The WRS includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WPA processes condensate from the cabin air and distillate produced by the UPA. In 2010, an increasing trend in the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the potable water was ultimately identified as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). The increasing trend was ultimately reversed after replacing the WPA's two multifiltration beds. However, the reason for the TOC trend and the subsequent recovery was not understood. A subsequent trend occurred in 2012. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the fate of DMSD in the WPA, how the increasing TOC trend occurred, and the plan for modifying the WPA to prevent recurrence.

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns and trends of Indian monsoonal rainfall extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Nishant; Bookhagen, Bodo; Mucha, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of trends in the extremes during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) months (June to September) at different temporal and spatial scales. Our goal is to identify and quantify spatiotemporal patterns and trends that have emerged during the recent decades and may be associated with changing climatic conditions. Our analysis primarily relies on quantile regression that avoids making any subjective choices on spatial, temporal, or intensity pattern of extreme rainfall events. Our analysis divides the Indian monsoon region into climatic compartments that show different and partly opposing trends. These include strong trends toward intensified droughts in Northwest India, parts of Peninsular India, and Myanmar; in contrast, parts of Pakistan, Northwest Himalaya, and Central India show increased extreme daily rain intensity leading to higher flood vulnerability. Our analysis helps explain previously contradicting results of trends in average ISM rainfall.

  3. Deep-Space Optical Communications: Visions, Trends, and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Abraham, D. S.; Shambayati, S.; Rush, J.

    2011-01-01

    Current key initiatives in deep-space optical communications are treated in terms of historical context, contemporary trends, and prospects for the future. An architectural perspective focusing on high-level drivers, systems, and related operations concepts is provided. Detailed subsystem and component topics are not addressed. A brief overview of past ideas and architectural concepts sets the stage for current developments. Current requirements that might drive a transition from radio frequencies to optical communications are examined. These drivers include mission demand for data rates and/or data volumes; spectrum to accommodate such data rates; and desired power, mass, and cost benefits. As is typical, benefits come with associated challenges. For optical communications, these include atmospheric effects, link availability, pointing, and background light. The paper describes how NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Office will respond to the drivers, achieve the benefits, and mitigate the challenges, as documented in its Optical Communications Roadmap. Some nontraditional architectures and operations concepts are advanced in an effort to realize benefits and mitigate challenges as quickly as possible. Radio frequency communications is considered as both a competitor to and a partner with optical communications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for two affordable first steps that can yet evolve into capable architectures that will fulfill the vision inherent in optical communications.

  4. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  5. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  6. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  7. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  8. Terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Costogue, E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the path of space PV collector development in its early stages, terrestrial PV technologies based upon single-crystal silicon have matured rapidly. Currently, terrestrial PV cells with efficiencies approaching space cell efficiencies are being fabricated into modules at a fraction of the space PV module cost. New materials, including CuInSe2 and amorphous silicon, are being developed for lowering the cost, and multijunction materials for achieving higher efficiency. Large grid-interactive, tracking flat-plate power systems and concentrator PV systems totaling about 10 MW, are already in operation. Collector technology development both flat-plate and concentrator, will continue under an extensive government and private industry partnership.

  9. Decadal trends of global precipitation in the recent 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Zhai, Guoqing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the decadal trends of global precipitation are calculated and compared using the CMAP, GPCP and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly precipitation data over the past 30 years from 1979 to 2008. The major results include the followings: (1) The decadal trend of annually and globally averaged precipitation depends on a decreasing trend for the CMAP data, a flat trend for GPCP data, and an increasing trend for the reanalysis data. (2) The analysis of horizontal distributions of differences in temporally averaged precipitation between the second (1993-2008) and the first (1979-1993) 15 years shows that the decreasing trend in the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in precipitation over the oceans. The further analysis of difference in zonally averaged precipitation rate reveals the increased precipitation rate in both the Tropics and mid-latitudes. The reduction in precipitation over the oceans is significantly weaker in the GPCP data than in the CMAP data, which shows the flat trend in the global GPCP data. The increasing trend of global precipitation average for the reanalysis data is associated with the increase in precipitation off the equator as well as in the mid-latitudes. (3) The further analysis of precipitation statistics reveals that the decreasing trend for the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in high precipitation. The flat trend for the global GPCP data corresponds to the offset between the decrease in low precipitation and the increase in high precipitation. The increasing trend for the reanalysis data is related to the increase in high precipitation.

  10. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  11. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding.

  12. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  13. Deriving spatial trends of air pollution at a neighborhood-scale through mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Measuring air pollution in real-time using an instrumented vehicle platform has been an emerging strategy to resolve air pollution trends at a very fine spatial scale (10s of meters). Achieving second-by-second data representative of urban air quality trends requires a...

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 3: Student Achievement at 8th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades, concerns have escalated about the quality of education in the U.S. for students in the middle grades. Children entering adolescence have unique educational, social, and emotional needs. How effectively the nation is educating these students has long been a topic of research and debate. This study by the Center on…

  15. Trends in Achieving Teaching-Research Connections--From Global Perspectives to an Institutional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhanam, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Research into, and discussions on, the relationships between teaching and research activities in universities and other tertiary education institutions have been gathering momentum for a number of decades in many parts of the world. The foci of these researches and discussions have varied greatly. At one end of the spectrum are the publications…

  16. Trends in Hispanic Academic Achievement: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Carlos J.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Lopez, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article sought to identify factors related to high school completion rates and college enrollment among Hispanic students. Hispanic students were found to have high attrition rates in institutions of higher education. Implications for the development and implementation of retention programs for Hispanic high school students, such as…

  17. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  18. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  19. Trends in preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Graf, R A; Perez-Woods, R

    1992-03-01

    Preterm birth has been identified by the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality (1988) as the primary cause of the increased infant mortality rate in the United States. An analysis of what is currently known about four areas of preterm labor including (1) definition and causes, (2) identification of patients at risk, (3) management techniques, and (4) use of patient education in labor is presented in this paper. Preterm labor is defined as uterine contractions that occur between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation with progressive cervical dilatation or effacement or both. Directions for future research are discussed.

  20. International trends and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.

    1997-03-01

    The nineteen (19) position statements in this paper represent Mr. Curtis` best efforts to capture Greenpeace`s views on ocean disposal or dumping of wastes and other harmful substances, including offshore oil and gas platforms. These statements, though, have not been formally approved as Greenpeace policies, although a number of them have appeared in Greenpeace documents or public statements. For this document, {open_quotes}dumping{close_quotes} refers to any deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter, consistent with the London Convention.

  1. Trend analysis of the long-term Swiss ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehelin, Johannes; Bader, Juerg; Gelpke, Verena

    1994-01-01

    Trend analyses, assuming a linear trend which started at 1970, were performed from total ozone measurements from Arosa (Switzerland, 1926-1991). Decreases in monthly mean values were statistically significant for October through April showing decreases of about 2.0-4 percent per decade. For the period 1947-91, total ozone trends were further investigated using a multiple regression model. Temperature of a mountain peak in Switzerland (Mt. Santis), the F10.7 solar flux series, the QBO series (quasi biennial oscillation), and the southern oscillation index (SOI) were included as explanatory variables. Trends in the monthly mean values were statistically significant for December through April. The same multiple regression model was applied to investigate the ozone trends at various altitudes using the ozone balloon soundings from Payerne (1967-1989) and the Umkehr measurements from Arosa (1947-1989). The results show four different vertical trend regimes: On a relative scale changes were largest in the troposphere (increase of about 10 percent per decade). On an absolute scale the largest trends were obtained in the lower stratosphere (decrease of approximately 6 per decade at an altitude of about 18 to 22 km). No significant trends were observed at approximately 30 km, whereas stratospheric ozone decreased in the upper stratosphere.

  2. Research trends in biostratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Upshaw, C.F.

    1983-03-01

    Paleontology, as applied in biostratigraphy, has long been an indispensable part of petroleum exploration. However, rapidly improving technology in many disciplines and the limitations of traditional biostratigraphy based on tops and zones dictate the need for an improved technology. In response to this need new approaches have been suggested, including probabilistic stratigraphy, geohistory diagrams, no-space graphs, isotopic and fission track dating, radiometric geochronology, tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy, paleo-oceanographic geochemistry, and graphic correlation utilizing composite standards. One example of a research program for the 1990s and beyond includes the development of a paleontologic composite standards and the interactive capability for their use by graphic correlation; the development of computer data bases for morphologic, taxonomic, paleoecologic and paleogeographic research and the interactive capability for synthesis, analysis and display; and, the development of time-based primary sedimentary models for prediction of geologic conditions ahead of the drill. Refined and stable taxonomic data supplied by highly capable paleontologists are a prerequisite for success. Such a program clearly requires management commitment of manpower and resources necessary to develop the technology, and it requires the development of effective technology transfer mechanisms to implement the results in exploration programs. The reward for success will be multifold improvement in our understanding of geologic conditions and history.

  3. Conservation trend indicators. Interim and final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.

    1980-08-21

    This report outlines major conservation trends for the four US energy consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Tables on residential use include data on gas, electricity, and fuel oil. Data is not available for renewable sources or for bottled gas, kerosene, or propane. Commercial data is also reported for gas, electricity, and fuel oil, and total consumption is examined on a square foot basis. Industrial trends are shown for the ten most energy intensive industries. In addition, industrial efficiencies by fuel are analyzed. For the transportation sector, petroleum products (particularly gasoline) are the major fuels considered, and selected energy intensities are examined. The discussion on each sector will cover findings, data sources, and data interpretation. Recommendations on reporting are part of the residential section of this report.

  4. Publication trends in model organism research.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael R; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chen, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication.

  5. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  6. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  7. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  8. Social Justice Alert: Future Innovators and Leaders Fall Behind in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun; Watkins, Sandra; Yoon, Seung Won

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the achievement trends of advanced learners and the relationship between Illinois' school district characteristics and student performance using Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores. The 3rd grade students scoring in the Exceeds category in ISAT reading and math within 707 Illinois school districts during the…

  9. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  10. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in Improving Achievement of Urban School Districts. Education Outlook. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In one of the first large-scale analyses of urban trends on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research identified urban school systems that demonstrated high achievement or significant achievement gains on the NAEP, and examined possible factors behind…

  11. The Ohio Achievement Assessment and Deaf/Hearing Impaired Students: Have They Been Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tanya S. Williams

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to examine Ohio Achievement Assessment data in the content areas of Reading, Science and Social Studies between the years of 2004-2010) to determine whether an achievement gap exists within the disability category of Deaf/Hearing Impaired; 2) to determine whether the trends present in the data of normal hearing…

  12. Inclusivity in the Classroom and International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Wei, Tianlan; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have examined the role of inclusivity in international assessments of student achievement, such as the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). The current study examined how the inclusivity of students with disabilities at the classroom level across countries may be associated with achievement scores,…

  13. Opportunity to Learn and Student Engagement: A HLM Study on Eighth Grade Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Yun; Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the individual, class, and school level variability of the students' science achievement. It was hypothesized that there are school or teacher effects which contribute toward explaining achievement differences, besides the student level differences. Owing to the nested structure of the data in Trends in International…

  14. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  15. Trends in the Development of Secondary Education. Bulletin, 1927, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windes, Eustace E.

    1927-01-01

    This bulletin includes: (1) a general statement of present thoughts and trends, covering the accepted philosophy of purpose, influence of modern educational psychology, trends in enrollment, and the nature and trends of the present social order; (2) secondary pupil population, addressing enrollment, chronological age representation in secondary…

  16. Survey of 2000 State School Finance Legislation: Overview, Abstracts, and Trend Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph presents the results of the seventh annual survey of state school finance legislation with an overview of legislation passed in 2000, abstracts of all bills passed, and a trend analysis dating back to 1994, including both established and emergent trends. Established trends in the funding areas of educational technology, school…

  17. Trends in College Spending: 2001-2011. A Delta Data Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Donna M.; Hurlburt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This "Trends in College Spending" update presents national-level estimates for the "Delta Cost Project" data metrics during the period 2001-11. To accelerate the release of more current trend data, however, this update includes only a brief summary of the financial patterns and trends observed during the decade 2001-11, with…

  18. Trends in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of the immune system for therapeutic ends has a long history, stretching back to Edward Jenner’s use of cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox in 1796. Since then, immunotherapy, in the form of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, has enabled doctors to treat and prevent a variety of infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and mumps. Immunotherapy is now increasingly being applied to oncology. Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is capable of recognizing and eliminating tumor cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune responses. Thus, the challenge for cancer immunotherapy is to apply advances in cellular and molecular immunology and develop strategies that effectively and safely augment antitumor responses. PMID:20703326

  19. Trends in photobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helene, C.; Charlier, M.; Montenay-Garestier, Th.

    1982-01-01

    This book examines light's essential role as a cofactor in numerous biological processes and the increased use of light as a biological probe. Discusses the photophysics and photochemistry of biological molecules; the dynamics of heme proteins; applications of bioluminescence; mutagenesis; carcinogenesis; DNA repair; recent advances in photomedicine and photophysiology (e.g. the phototherapy of skin diseases and photomovements of microorganisms); photosynthesis and bioconversion of solar energy; and laser studies of primary processes in photosynthesis and bioconversion at the ecosystem level. Constitutes the proceedings of the International Congress on Photobiology held in France in 1980. Includes a summary of several round table discussions, together with ''summing-up'' reports by experts in the field.

  20. Trends in Nanopharmaceutical Patents

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Adelaide; Fierro, Iolanda; Guerrante, Rafaela; Mendes, Flavia; Alencar, Maria Simone de M.

    2013-01-01

    Investment in nanotechnology is now a given constant by governments, research centers and companies in both more developed countries and emerging markets. Due to their characteristics, such as high stability, ability to enable antigen identification on specific cells in the human body and controlling the release of drugs and, therefore, improving therapies, nanoparticles have been the subject of research and patent applications in the pharmaceutical field. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), patent data can be used as a source of information in order to measure science and technology activities. Thereby, this paper presents an analysis based on patent documents related to nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, the analysis of patents demonstrate primarily that nanobiotechnology attracts high levels of R&D investments, including nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents/drugs, monoclonal antibody nanoparticle complexes and their role in drug delivery or contrast agents with non-toxic effects. PMID:23535336

  1. Statistical modelling and power analysis for detecting trends in total suspended sediment loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You-Gan; Wang, Shen S. J.; Dunlop, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The export of sediments from coastal catchments can have detrimental impacts on estuaries and near shore reef ecosystems such as the Great Barrier Reef. Catchment management approaches aimed at reducing sediment loads require monitoring to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing loads over time. However, load estimation is not a trivial task due to the complex behaviour of constituents in natural streams, the variability of water flows and often a limited amount of data. Regression is commonly used for load estimation and provides a fundamental tool for trend estimation by standardising the other time specific covariates such as flow. This study investigates whether load estimates and resultant power to detect trends can be enhanced by (i) modelling the error structure so that temporal correlation can be better quantified, (ii) making use of predictive variables, and (iii) by identifying an efficient and feasible sampling strategy that may be used to reduce sampling error. To achieve this, we propose a new regression model that includes an innovative compounding errors model structure and uses two additional predictive variables (average discounted flow and turbidity). By combining this modelling approach with a new, regularly optimised, sampling strategy, which adds uniformity to the event sampling strategy, the predictive power was increased to 90%. Using the enhanced regression model proposed here, it was possible to detect a trend of 20% over 20 years. This result is in stark contrast to previous conclusions presented in the literature.

  2. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving. PMID:21851656

  3. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. PMID:24033767

  4. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data.

  5. Space Power Management and Distribution Status and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reppucci, G. M.; Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space power management and distribution (PMAD) is provided which encompasses historical and current technology trends. The PMAD components discussed include power source control, energy storage control, and load power processing electronic equipment. The status of distribution equipment comprised of rotary joints and power switchgear is evaluated based on power level trends in the public, military, and commercial sectors. Component level technology thrusts, as driven by perceived system level trends, are compared to technology status of piece-parts such as power semiconductors, capacitors, and magnetics to determine critical barriers.

  6. Lithography trends based on projections of the ITRS (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The microelectronic industry has gone through an enormous technical evolution in the last four decades. Both the tech-nological and economic challenges of microelectronics were increasing consistently in the past few years. This paper discusses the future trends in micro- and nano-technologies with special emphasis on lithography. The trends of minia-turization will be sketched with reference to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). After a description of general trends in technology node timing, an overview will be given on the future lithography require-ments and the technical solutions including options for post-optical lithography as, for example, Extreme UV.

  7. Current trends in geomathematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Geoscience has extended its role and improved its applications by the development of geophysics since the nineteen-thirties, geochemistry since the nineteen-fifties and now, in the late nineteen-sixties, a new synergism leads to geomathematics; again the greatest pressure for change arises from areas of application of geoscience and, as the problems to which geoscience is applied increase in complexity, the analytical tools become more sophisticated, a development which is accelerated by growth in the use of computers in geological problem-solving. In the next decade the problems with greatest public impact appear to be the ones which will receive greatest emphasis and support. This will require that the geosciences comprehend exceedingly complex probabilistic systems and these, in turn, demand the use of operations research, cybernetics and systems analysis. Such a development may well lead to a change in the paradigms underlying geoscience; they will certainly include more realistic models of "real-world" systems and the tool of simulation with cybernetic models may well become the basis for rejuvenation of experimentation in the geosciences. ?? 1970.

  8. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  9. New trend in electron holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Harada, Ken; Murakami, Yasukazu; Niitsu, Kodai; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sugawara, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Electron holography using a coherent electron wave is a promising technique for high-resolution visualization of electromagnetic fields in and around objects. The capability of electron holography has been enhanced by the development of new technologies and has thus become an even more powerful tool for exploring scientific frontiers. This review introduces these technologies including split-illumination electron holography and vector-field electron tomography. Split-illumination electron holography, which uses separated coherent waves, overcomes the limits imposed by the lateral coherence requirement for electron waves in electron holography. Areas that are difficult to observe using conventional electron holography are now observable. Exemplified applications include observing a singular magnetic domain wall in electrical steel sheets, local magnetizations at anti-phase boundaries, and electrostatic potentials in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Vector-field electron tomography can be used to visualize magnetic vectors in three dimensions. Two components of the vectors are reconstructed using dual-axis tomography, and the remaining one is calculated using div B   =  0. A high-voltage electron microscope can be used to achieve precise magnetic reconstruction. For example, magnetic vortices have been visualized using a 1 MV holography electron microscope.

  10. Trends `93: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Kaiser, D.P.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document provides synopses of frequently used global-change data. This third issue of the Trends series presents historical and modern records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), two chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12), a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22), and two halons (H-1301 and H-1211) from an expanded number of globally distributed data sets. Virtually all of the modern records extend into the 1990s, some into 1994. Additional trace gas data presented in Trends `93 include historical atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O records derived from ice cores. Trends `93 also includes revised and updated estimates through 1991 for global, regional, and national CO{sub 2} emissions produced from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring, and the production of cement. Updated global emissions estimates through 1992 are also presented for CFC-11 and CFC-12. In addition, Trends `93 updates and expands the presentation of long-term temperature records, whose spatial coverage ranges from an individual Antarctic (ice core) site to the entire globe and from the Earth`s surface to the lower stratosphere. New subject matter appearing in Trends `93 includes a chapter for long-term regional precipitation records, several time-series records for atmospheric - {sup 14}C aerosols, and isotopic measurements for atmospheric CO{sub 2} from several sites. Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends `93 are provided for each compiled data set. All data appearing in Trends `93 are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  11. Filtering ionosphere parameters to detect trends linked to anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Ana G.

    2014-12-01

    The great concern about the global warming observed in the troposphere has generated a large interest in the study of long-term trends in the ionosphere since the early 1990s, which has now become a significant topic in global change investigations. Some research works link ionosphere trends to anthropogenic sources such as the increase in greenhouse gas concentration, and others to natural causes such as solar and geomagnetic activity long-term changes, and secular variations in the Earth's main magnetic field. In all the cases, in order to analyze ionospheric trends, solar activity effect must be filtered out first since around 90% of ionosphere parameter variance is due to solar variations. The filtering process can generate `spurious' trends in the filtered data series which may lead to erroneous conclusions. foF2 data series which include solar cycle 23 are analyzed in the present work in order to detect the effect of different filtering procedures on the determination of long-term trends. In particular, solar cycle 23 seems to have had an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission greater than that deduced from traditional solar EUV proxies during the maximum epoch and lower during the minimum epoch. When solar activity is filtered assessing the residuals of a linear regression between foF2 and Rz, or between foF2 and F10.7, this fact may bias trend values especially because it is at the end of the time series. The length of the period considered for trend assessment, the saturation and hysteresis effect of some ionosphere parameters, and the solar EUV proxy used are also considered in this study in order to quantify a possible spurious trend that may result as a by-product of a filtering process. Since trends expected as a consequence of anthropogenic effects are relatively small, these spurious effects may surely mask, or enhance, trends expected from anthropogenic origins.

  12. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  13. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  14. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  15. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  16. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  17. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  18. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  19. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  20. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  1. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  2. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  3. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  4. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  5. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  6. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  7. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  8. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  9. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  10. Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

  11. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  12. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  13. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  14. Global Trends of Tropospheric NO2 Observed From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; van der A, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is one of the major atmospheric pollutants and is primarily emitted by industrial activity and transport. While observations of NO2 are frequently being carried out at air quality stations, such measurements are not able to provide a global perspective of spatial patterns in NO2 concentrations and their associated trends due to the stations' limited spatial representativity and an extremely sparse and often completely non-existent station coverage in developing countries. Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 are able to overcome this issue and provide an unprecedented global view of spatial patterns in NO2 levels and due to their homogeneity are well suited for studying trends. Here we present results of a global trend analysis from nearly a decade of NO2 observations made by the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) instrument onboard the Envisat satellite platform. Using only SCIAMACHY data allows for mapping global and regional trends at an unprecedented spatial resolution since no aggregation to the coarser resolution of other sensors is necessary. Monthly average tropospheric NO2 column data was acquired for the period between August 2002 and August 2011. A trend analysis was subsequently performed by fitting a statistical model including a seasonal cycle and linear trend to the time series extracted at each grid cell. The linear trend component and the trend uncertainty were then mapped spatially at both regional and global scales. The results show that spatially contiguous areas of significantly increasing NO2 levels are found primarily in Eastern China, with absolute trends of up to 4.05 (± 0.41) - 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1 at the gridcell level and large areas showing rapid relative increases of 10-20 percent per year. In addition, many urban agglomerations in Asia and the Middle East similarly exhibit significantly increasing trends, with Dhaka in Bangladesh being the megacity with

  15. New trends in species distribution modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.

  16. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  17. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  18. World food trends and prospects to 2025

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Tim

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews food (especially cereal) production trends and prospects for the world and its main regions. Despite fears to the contrary, in recent years we have seen continued progress toward better methods of feeding humanity. Sub-Saharan Africa is the sole major exception. Looking to the future, this paper argues that the continuation of recent cereal yield trends should be sufficient to cope with most of the demographically driven expansion of cereal demand that will occur until the year 2025. However, because of an increasing degree of mismatch between the expansion of regional demand and the potential for supply, there will be a major expansion of world cereal (and noncereal food) trade. Other consequences for global agriculture arising from demographic growth include the need to use water much more efficiently and an even greater dependence on nitrogen fertilizers (e.g., South Asia). Farming everywhere will depend more on information-intensive agricultural management procedures. Moreover, despite continued general progress, there still will be a significant number of undernourished people in 2025. Signs of heightened harvest variability, especially in North America, are of serious concern. Thus, although future general food trends are likely to be positive, in some respects we also could be entering a more volatile world. PMID:10339520

  19. Projection display technology and product trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    1999-05-01

    Major technology and market trends that could generate a 20 billion dollar electronic projector market by 2010 are reviewed in the perspective of recent product introductions. A log linear analysis shows that the light outputs of benchmark transportable data video projectors have increased at a rate of almost 90 percent per year since 1993. The list prices of these same projectors have decreased at a rate of over 40 percent per year. The tradeoffs of light output vs. resolution and weight are illustrated. Recent trends in projector efficacy vs. year are discussed. Lumen output per dollar of list price is shown to be a useful market metric. Continued technical advances and innovations including higher throughput light valve technologies with integrated drivers, brighter light source, field sequential color, integrated- and micro-optical components, and aerospace materials are likely to sustain these trends. The new technologies will enable projection displays for entertainment and computer applications with unprecedented levels of performance, compactness, and cost-effectiveness.

  20. Speed Trends in Male Distance Running

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Timothy N.; Carter, Rickey E.; Rosedahl, Jordan K.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The major cycling “Grand Tours” have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings. PMID:25409192