Science.gov

Sample records for achievement trends profile

  1. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in South Carolina for 2010. South Carolina introduced new tests in grades 3-8, so trend data that include 2009 are not available. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grade 10 was mixed. Comparable data were available for 2004-2009 at grade 10. (Contains 9 tables.) [For the…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in South Dakota for 2010. South Dakota's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Native American students, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to count for this…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Hampshire, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in New Hampshire for 2010. New Hampshire's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Latino students at the elementary level, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arizona students showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were gains at all three achievement levels in grade 8 for these subgroups.…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Florida students showed gains almost across the board in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress has been made in narrowing achievement gaps in both…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New Mexico showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grades 4, 8,…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Pennsylvania showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps generally narrowed at grades 4 and 8 but…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Alabama students showed gains across the board in reading and math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress was made in narrowing achievement gaps between racial/ethnic…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Illinois students showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There was mixed progress made in narrowing achievement gaps in reading and math…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arkansas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. The gains were quite large in most instances, especially at the…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Georgia has made some changes in its testing program in recent years. As a result, trend data were only available for reading in grades 4 and 8 from 2006 through 2009, and only at the proficient and advanced levels. In math, data were only available for the high school level from 2004 through 2009. Achievement data for low income students were…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In New Jersey, achievement gaps narrowed in grade 11 reading and math for all major subgroups, with one exception. Comparable data for grade 11 by subgroup were available for 2002-2009, with a few exceptions. Because the state changed its tests at grades 4 and 8 in recent years, there were too few years of comparable data to determine trends at…

  11. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  12. Trends in ozone profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, H.; Aikin, A.; Barnes, R.; Chandra, S.; Cunnold, D.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L.

    1989-01-01

    From an examination of the agreements and differences between different satellite instruments, it is difficult to believe that existing satellite instruments determine upper stratospheric ozone much better than 4 pct.; by extension, it probably would require at least a 4 pct. change to be reliably detected as a change. The best estimates of the vertical profiles of ozone change in the upper stratosphere between 1979 and 1986 are judged to be those given by the two SAGE satellite instruments. SAGE-2 minus SAGE-1 gives a much lower ozone reduction than that given by the archived Solar Backscatter UV data. The average SAGE profiles of ozone changes between 20 and 50 degs north and between 20 and 50 degs south are given. The SAGE-1 and SAGE-2 comparison gives an ozone reduction of about 4 pct. at 25 km over temperate latitudes. Five ground based Umkehr stations between 36 and 52 degs north, corrected for the effects of volcanic aerosols, report an ozone reduction between 1979 and 1987 at Umkehr layer 8 of 9 + or - 5 pct. The central estimate of upper stratospheric ozone reduction given by SAGE at 40 km is less than the central value estimated by the Umkehr method at layer 8.

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District's demographics are such that achievement trends could only be determined for African American, male and female, and low income subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington, DC students showed gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels…

  18. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  19. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  20. Tennessee Higher Education Commission Profiles and Trends, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the trends in Tennessee higher education. Information on the following items are presented: (1) Educational Attainment and Economic Comparisons; (2) Student Preparation; (3) Student Participation; (4) Affordability; (5) Completion; and (6) Finance. [For "Tennessee Higher Education Commission Profiles and Trends, 2006", see…

  1. Higher Education Profiles and Trends, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Tennessee Code Annotated (T.C.A.) Section 49-7-2 (c) (7) requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to "submit a biennial report to the governor and the general assembly, commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and…

  2. Tennessee Higher Education Profiles and Trends, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Tennessee Code Annotated (T.C.A.) Section 49-7-202 (c) (7) requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to "submit a biennial report to the governor and the general assembly, commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor…

  3. Version 8 SBUV Ozone Profile Trends Compared with Trends from a Zonally Averaged Chemical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Linear regression trends for the years 1979-2003 were computed using the new Version 8 merged Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) data set of ozone profiles. These trends were compared to trends computed using ozone profiles from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) zonally averaged coupled model. Observed and modeled annual trends between 50 N and 50 S were a maximum in the higher latitudes of the upper stratosphere, with southern hemisphere (SH) trends greater than northern hemisphere (NH) trends. The observed upper stratospheric maximum annual trend is -5.5 +/- 0.9 % per decade (1 sigma) at 47.5 S and -3.8 +/- 0.5 % per decade at 47.5 N, to be compared with the modeled trends of -4.5 +/- 0.3 % per decade in the SH and -4.0 +/- 0.2% per decade in the NH. Both observed and modeled trends are most negative in winter and least negative in summer, although the modeled seasonal difference is less than observed. Model trends are shown to be greatest in winter due to a repartitioning of chlorine species and the increasing abundance of chlorine with time. The model results show that trend differences can occur depending on whether ozone profiles are in mixing ratio or number density coordinates, and on whether they are recorded on pressure or altitude levels.

  4. Forced degradation and impurity profiling: recent trends in analytical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepti; Basniwal, Pawan Kumar

    2013-12-01

    This review describes an epigrammatic impression of the recent trends in analytical perspectives of degradation and impurities profiling of pharmaceuticals including active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as well as drug products during 2008-2012. These recent trends in forced degradation and impurity profiling were discussed on the head of year of publication; columns, matrix (API and dosage forms) and type of elution in chromatography (isocratic and gradient); therapeutic categories of the drug which were used for analysis. It focuses distinctly on comprehensive update of various analytical methods including hyphenated techniques for the identification and quantification of thresholds of impurities and degradants in different pharmaceutical matrices. PMID:23969330

  5. Trends in stratospheric ozone profiles using functional mixed models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, A. Y.; Guillas, S.; Petropavlovskikh, I.

    2013-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the modeling of altitude-dependent patterns of ozone variations over time. Umkher ozone profiles (quarter of Umkehr layer) from 1978 to 2011 are investigated at two locations: Boulder (USA) and Arosa (Switzerland). The study consists of two statistical stages. First we approximate ozone profiles employing an appropriate basis. To capture primary modes of ozone variations without losing essential information, a functional principal component analysis is performed as it penalizes roughness of the function and smooths excessive variations in the shape of the ozone profiles. As a result, data driven basis functions are obtained. Secondly we estimate the effects of covariates - month, year (trend), quasi biennial oscillation, the Solar cycle, arctic oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycle - on the principal component scores of ozone profiles over time using generalized additive models. The effects are smooth functions of the covariates, and are represented by knot-based regression cubic splines. Finally we employ generalized additive mixed effects models incorporating a more complex error structure that reflects the observed seasonality in the data. The analysis provides more accurate estimates of influences and trends, together with enhanced uncertainty quantification. We are able to capture fine variations in the time evolution of the profiles such as the semi-annual oscillation. We conclude by showing the trends by altitude over Boulder. The strongly declining trends over 2003-2011 for altitudes of 32-64 hPa show that stratospheric ozone is not yet fully recovering.

  6. A Study of Identification and Achievement Profiles of Performance Task-Identified Gifted Students over 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie Xuemei; de Brux, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the trend of identification and achievement patterns of performance task-identified students over a span of 6 years (2000-2005), in comparison to profiles of students who were identified exclusively through traditional ability and achievement tests. The study findings suggested that the performance-based protocols were…

  7. Recent achievements and trends in experimental plant biology.

    PubMed

    Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2010-04-01

    Between 21 and 25 September 2009, Krakow hosted the 4th Conference of the Polish Society of Experimental Plant Biology, co-organized with the Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and supported by the Biochemical Society. The aim of the conference was to present and discuss the most important topics in different disciplines of plant experimental science as well as to facilitate the interaction and co-operation between scientists. To achieve this goal, about 30 top specialists in various areas of plant biology were invited to give plenary lectures in the following sessions: Plant structure and development; Plant-microbial interactions; Mitochondria and chloroplasts in cell metabolism; Stress tolerance in plants; Structural and functional organization of plant genomes; Mutants in developmental and metabolic studies; Secondary metabolites as pharmaceutics and nutraceutics; Plant membranes; and Integrating plant functions via signalling molecules: molecular mechanisms. Some of the main problems highlighted in the plenary lectures are briefly summarized in the present paper. Two poster sessions enabled a discussion of over 200 posters presented. The conference had an international character, its official language was English, and among the more than 350 participants, about 60 were from abroad. Several plenary lectures were prepared as short review papers and they are published in this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. PMID:20298236

  8. Teacher-Directed Student Use of Technology and Mathematics Achievement: Examining Trends in International Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yang; O'Dwyer, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and 2007 administrations, this study examines international trends in technology use and explores the international patterns in how teacher-directed, student-use of technology is related to eighth grade mathematics achievement. Descriptive patterns in…

  9. Heroin impurity profiling: trends throughout a decade of experimenting.

    PubMed

    Dams, R; Benijts, T; Lambert, W E; Massart, D L; De Leenheer, A P

    2001-12-01

    Heroin is still one of the most frequently abused drugs of today. All over the world, law enforcement agencies try to eradicate the illicit production and trafficking of this potent and highly addictive narcotic. To this aim, important information is provided by physical and chemical toxicological analysis of confiscated samples, with special attention for the identification and the quantification of minor components, such as the impurities related to the origin and manufacturing. By combining these data complex characterisations, i.e. impurity profiles, chemical signatures or fingerprints, can be obtained and used for comparative analysis. This review focuses on heroin impurity profiling during the 1990s, proclaimed by the United Nations as the 'Decade for Eradicating Drug Abuse'. Special attention will be given to the new trends in analytical techniques as well as in data handling strategies, so called chemometrics, to produce these profiles. The latter can be used in comparative analysis of seized heroin samples for tactical (batch-to-batch comparison) and strategic (origin determination) intelligence purposes. PMID:11728732

  10. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  11. Reading and Math Achievement Profiles and Longitudinal Growth Trajectories of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R. A.; Yu, Jennifer W.; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children…

  12. Aggregating Student Achievement Trends across States with Different Tests: Using Standardized Slopes as Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Schmidt, R. James; Besag, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The study of federal education initiatives that takes place over multiple years in multiple settings often calls for aggregating and comparing data-in particular, student achievement data-across a broad set of schools, districts, and states. The need to track the trends over time is complicated by the fact that the data from the different schools,…

  13. Trends in Academic Achievement Gaps in the Era of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Greenberg, Erica; Kalogrides, Demetra; Shores, Kenneth A.; Valentino, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors' goals in this study are to use both the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and state accountability test score data to (1) provide a detailed description of the magnitude and trends of state-level academic achievement gaps among cohorts of students entering school in the 1990s and 2000s; (2) investigate the extent to…

  14. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  15. Trends in the Black-White Achievement Gap: Clarifying the Meaning of Within- and Between-School Achievement Gaps. NBER Working Paper No. 14213

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lindsay C.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2008-01-01

    We decompose black-white achievement gap trends between 1971 and 2004 into trends in within- and between-school differences. We show that the previous finding that narrowing within-school inequality explains most of the decline in the black-white achievement gap between 1971 and 1988 is sensitive to methodology. Employing a more detailed partition…

  16. Statistical analysis of stratospheric temperature and ozone profile data for trends and model comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiao, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Work performed during the project period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1992 on the statistical analysis of stratospheric temperature data, rawinsonde temperature data, and ozone profile data for the detection of trends is described. Our principal topics of research are trend analysis of NOAA stratospheric temperature data over the period 1978-1989; trend analysis of rawinsonde temperature data for the period 1964-1988; trend analysis of Umkehr ozone profile data for the period 1977-1991; and comparison of observed ozone and temperature trends in the lower stratosphere. Analysis of NOAA stratospheric temperature data indicates the existence of large negative trends at 0.4 mb level, with magnitudes increasing with latitudes away from the equator. Trend analysis of rawinsonde temperature data over 184 stations shows significant positive trends about 0.2 C per decade at surface to 500 mb range, decreasing to negative trends about -0.3 C at 100 to 50 mb range, and increasing slightly at 30 mb level. There is little evidence of seasonal variation in trends. Analysis of Umkehr ozone data for 12 northern hemispheric stations shows significant negative trends about -.5 percent per year in Umkehr layers 7-9 and layer 3, but somewhat less negative trends in layers 4-6. There is no pronounced seasonal variation in trends, especially in layers 4-9. A comparison was made of empirical temperature trends from rawinsonde data in the lower stratosphere with temperature changes determined from a one-dimensional radiative transfer calculation that prescribed a given ozone change over the altitude region, surface to 50 km, obtained from trend analysis of ozonsonde and Umkehr profile data. The empirical and calculated temperature trends are found in substantive agreement in profile shape and magnitude.

  17. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies. II. Color Trends and Mass Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B ‑ V, U ‑ B, and FUV‑NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (‑9 > MB > ‑14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (‑14 > MB > ‑19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1‑2 M⊙ pc‑2 for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9 M⊙ pc‑2 or 27 M⊙ pc‑2 for Type III BCDs and dIms, respectively.

  18. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  19. Motivational Profiles and Their Associations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2009-01-01

    With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…

  20. The Prevalence, Development and Domain Specificity of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goal Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Hornstra, Lisette; Prins, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to examine the prevalence, development and domain specificity of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students' achievement goal profiles. Achievement goals were measured for language and mathematics among 722 pupils at three points in time. These data were analysed through latent profile analysis and latent transition…

  1. Prevalence, Stability, and Functionality of Achievement Goal Profiles in Mathematics from Third to Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal trajectories of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade in a sample of 302 German students. Latent profile analyses were conducted separately for each school year and revealed three subgroups of students with distinct goal profiles labeled high multiple goals, moderate multiple…

  2. Pocket Profile of Community Colleges: Trends & Statistics, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Community College Trustees, Washington, DC.

    Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Bureau of the Census, and other sources, this pamphlet presents current information on community college students; college outcomes and impact; community college staff, governance, and expenditures; and tuition and financial aid. In addition, trends in enrollments, numbers of…

  3. Administrative Information Systems: The 1985 Profile and Five-Year Trends. CAUSE Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.; van Hoesen, Dana S.

    Information is presented about the administrative computing activities of colleges and universities belonging to CAUSE (the professional association for computing and information technology in higher education). Profiles and trends are provided based on 1985 Member Institution Profile Surveys conducted in 1980, 1983, and 1985. A total of 350…

  4. Recent trends in the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Pilaniya, Kavita; Chandrawanshi, Harish K.; Pilaniya, Urmila; Manchandani, Pooja; Jain, Pratishtha; Singh, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA), and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA) are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are — reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during \\ after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas–liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid–liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. PMID:22247862

  5. Authoritarianism and Academic Achievement of Men and Women: A Canonical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, John L. And Others

    1984-01-01

    Determined which authoritarian profiles correlate with which specific types of patterns of academic achievement in female and male college freshmen (N=150). Results indicated no pattern between females' academic achievement and authoritarian dimensions although males showed positive scores on authoritarian dimensions of superstition and stereotypy…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  7. Cross-National Achievement Studies: Learning from South Africa's Participation in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the potential of cross-national achievement studies through a critical reflection upon the experience of South Africa's participation in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). There are a growing number of multi-country and international achievement studies. While recognizing the limitations of…

  8. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  9. A Latent Profile Analysis of Math Achievement, Numerosity, and Math Anxiety in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…

  10. Tracking Achievement Gaps and Assessing the Impact of NCLB on the Gaps: An In-Depth Look into National and State Reading and Math Outcome Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2006-01-01

    This study offers systematic trend analyses of NAEP national and state-level public school fourth and eighth graders' reading and math achievement results during pre-NCLB (1990-2001) and post-NCLB (2002-2005) periods. It compares post-NCLB trends in reading and math achievement with pre-NCLB trends among different racial and socioeconomic groups…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  12. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  13. Sensitivity of Long-term Photometric Trends to Center-to-Limb Profile Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark; Peck, Courtney

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported (Preminger et al. 2011) that the disk-integrated contrast of visible solar continuum images varies out of phase with the solar cycle, in contrast to faculae dominated models of total solar irradiance and SOHO/VIRGO measurements of the visible continuum but in qualitative agreement with SIM measurements in some spectral bands. Since only relative photometry is possible from the ground, contrast measurements are made with respect to a center-to-limb intensity profile. Using nine years of full-disk red and blue continuum images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), we examine the sensitivity of deduced cycle related irradiance trends to the center-to-limb profile definition employed. We find that the disk integrated continuum contrast, and the integrated contrasts of the internetwork, network, and active network separately, are very sensitive to the center-to-limb definition employed. The sensitivity of the center-to-limb profile itself to changes in the Sun's surface magnetism in turn depends on how the profile is constructed, and different center-to-limb algorithms yield contradictory cycle related contrast trends. Radiometric imaging is required to determine the true center-to-limb variation of magnetic structures and unambiguously measure their contributions to solar spectral irradiance variations.

  14. Comparison of SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles: Implications for ozone trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Miles, T.; Flynn, L. E.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone profiles have been compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II profiles over the period October 1984 through June 1990, when data are available from both instruments. SBUV measurements were selected to closely match the SAGE II latitude/longitude measurement pattern. There are significant differences between the SAGE II sunrise and the sunset zonal mean ozone profiles in the equatorial zone, particularly in the upper stratosphere, that may be connected with extreme SAGE II solar azimuth angles for tropical sunrise measurements. Calculation of the average sunset bias between SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles shows that allowing for diurnal variation in Umkehr layer 10, SBUV and SAGE II agree to within +/- 5% for the entire stratosphere in the northern midlatitude zone. The worst agreement is seen at southern midlatitudes near the ozone peak (disagreements of +/- 10%), apparently the result of the SBUV ozone profile peaking at a lower altitude than SAGE. The integrated ozone columns (cumulative above 15 km) agree very well, to within +/- 2.3% in all zones for both sunset and sunrise measurements. A comparison of the time dependence of SBUV and SAGE II shows that there was less than +/- 5% relative drift over the 5.5 years for all altitudes except below 25 km, where the SBUV vertical resolution is poor. The best agreement with SAGE is seen in the integrated column ozone (cumulative above 15 km), where SAGE II has a 1% negative trend relative to SBUV over the comparison period. There is a persistent disagreement of the two instruments in Umkehr layers 9 and 10 of +/- 4% over the 5.5-year comparison period. In the equatorial zone this disagreement may be caused in part by a large positive trend (0.8 K per year) in the National Meteorologica Center temperatures used to convert the SAGE II measurement of ozone density versus altitude to a pressure scale for comparison with SBUV. In the middle stratosphere (30

  15. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  16. A trend study of self-concept and mathematics achievement in a cross-cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political transition. Along with a perceived `brain drain' from the population migration, there was a non-monotonic change in the reciprocal relationship between self-concept and mathematics achievement. In addition, indicators of mathematics achievement and self-concept have demonstrated different linkages to the permanent emigration of Hong Kong residents with valued or desirable skills and qualifications. Interpretation of these empirical findings entails a need of enhancing cross-cultural understanding in mathematics education.

  17. Education Reform, Equal Opportunity and Educational Achievement: Do Trend Data Adequately Report Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Kentucky as a case study, the research described in this paper examines efforts to provide equality of educational opportunity. Standards based educational reform has produced myriad data on student achievement that are used by educators, policy analysts, legislators, and researchers to discern progress. This research makes use of multiple…

  18. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  19. A Trend Study of Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement in a Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political…

  20. Northern middle-latitude ozone profile features and trends observed by SBUV and Umkehr, 1979-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluisi, J. J.; Mateer, C. L.; Theisen, D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Longenecker, D.; Chu, B.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of Umkehr ozone profile data with the reprocessed solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data in the northern middle-latitude region, 30 deg to 50 deg N, is reported. Although significant biases exist between the two types of observations, the long-term variations and least squares linear regression trends agree remarkably well over the comparison period of 1979 to 1990. The ozone trend in the upper stratosphere is of the order of -0.9%/yr. Near 25 km, little if any trend appears, but a larger negative trend is seen in the lower stratosphere near 15 km. Comparisons show that the average annual ozone cycles in the profiles also agree well. The upper stratospheric ozone results are consistent with photochemical model predictions of ozone depletion near 40 km that are due to the release of anthropogenically produced chlorofluorocarbons. The lower stratospheric ozone trend results are in reasonable agreement with published ozonesonde data trends. It is shown that the ozone trends in the lower stratospheric layers impact significantly on the total ozone trend of the order of -0.47%/yr. The good agreement now seen between the two types of observations suggest that the combined ground-based and satellite approach could provide a valuable database for long-term monitoring of stratospheric ozone for trends and extraordinary variations.

  1. Chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes: achievements and key trends of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, M. V.; Garabadzhiu, A. V.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The data on the chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes published in the past 15 years have been summarized and systematized. Achievements in the synthesis of these compounds, as well as their transformations into various acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogenous products, have been surveyed. Particular attention has focused on the addition reactions at the azomethine and/or carbon–carbon triple bonds. Practical applications of the products of these transformations, first of all, in synthesis of complex natural and biologically active compounds, are discussed. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  2. Profile of middle school students on scientific literacy achievements by using scientific literacy assessments (SLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmatullah, Arif; Diana, Sariwulan; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of science and technology, the basic ability to read, write and count is not enough just to be able to survive in the modern era that surrounded by the products of science and technology. Scientific literacy is an ability that might be added as basic ability for human in the modern era. Recently, Fives et al. developed a new scientific literacy assessment for students, named as SLA (Scientific Literacy Assessment). A pilot study on the achievements of scientific literacy of middle school students in Sumedang using SLA was conducted to investigate the profile scientific literacy achievement of 223 middle school students in Sumedang, and compare the outcomes between genders (159 girls and 64 boys) and school accreditation (A and B) using a quantitative method with descriptive research-school survey. Based on the results, the average achievement of scientific literacy Sumedang middle school students is 45.21 and classified as the low category. The five components of scientific literacy, which is only one component in the medium category, namely science motivation and beliefs, and the four other components are in the low and very low category. Boys have higher scientific literacy, but the differences not statistically significant. Student's scientific literacy in an accredited school is higher than B, and the differences are statistically significant. Recommendation for further are: involve more research subjects, add more number of questions for each indicator, and conduct an independent research for each component.

  3. Repository Profiles for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences: Capabilities and Trends in Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, C. Y.; Thompson, C. A.; Palmer, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    As digital research data proliferate and expectations for open access escalate, the landscape of data repositories is becoming more complex. For example, DataBib currently identifies 980 data repositories across the disciplines, with 117 categorized under Geosciences. In atmospheric and climate sciences, there are great expectations for the integration and reuse of data for advancing science. To realize this potential, resources are needed that explicate the range of repository options available for locating and depositing open data, their conditions of access and use, and the services and tools they provide. This study profiled 38 open digital repositories in the atmospheric and climate sciences, analyzing each on 55 criteria through content analysis of their websites. The results provide a systematic way to assess and compare capabilities, services, and institutional characteristics and identify trends across repositories. Selected results from the more detailed outcomes to be presented: Most repositories offer guidance on data format(s) for submission and dissemination. 42% offer authorization-free access. More than half use some type of data identification system such as DOIs. Nearly half offer some data processing, with a similar number providing software or tools. 78.9% request that users cite or acknowledge datasets used and the data center. Only 21.1% recommend specific metadata standards, such as ISO 19115 or Dublin Core, with more than half utilizing a customized metadata scheme. Information was rarely provided on repository certification and accreditation and uneven for transfer of rights and data security. Few provided policy information on preservation, migration, reappraisal, disposal, or long-term sustainability. As repository use increases, it will be important for institutions to make their procedures and policies explicit, to build trust with user communities and improve efficiencies in data sharing. Resources such as repository profiles will be

  4. Expected and unexpected achievements and trends in radiation processing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    2003-06-01

    The last four decades produced exponential development in the polymer processing. Radiation processing—initiated also about 40 years ago—yielded a similar pathway of development in the beginning, mostly in the radiation crosslinking of polymers and in the radiation sterilization of polymer products. There are some unexpected results in the developments of the radiation chemistry of polymers utilized well in the polymer processing today. The most dynamical developments of the microelectronics in our days are based on the efficient utilization of radiation-crosslinkable negative photoresist polymers and the radiation degradable positive photoresist polymers. Rapid prototyping and rapid tooling are indispensable methods in the continuously renewing manufacturing technologies of metal and plastic parts for almost all the industrial branches. Polymer composite manufacturing is also profited in many ways from the experiences of radiation technology. Compatibilization through radiation-reactive monomers and oligomers is attacking two great fields of the future polymer processing. Recycling of commingled polymer wastes, and manufacturing new type of alloys of different synthetic as well as natural polymers are requiring well-engineered interface, which can be achieved by radiation processing in a technically feasible and economically viable way.

  5. GADIS: Algorithm for designing sequences to achieve target secondary structure profiles of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Tyler S; Crabtree, Michael D; Shammas, Sarah L; Posey, Ammon E; Clarke, Jane; Pappu, Rohit V

    2016-09-01

    Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in coupled folding and binding reactions and form alpha helical structures in their bound complexes. Alanine, glycine, or proline scanning mutagenesis approaches are often used to dissect the contributions of intrinsic helicities to coupled folding and binding. These experiments can yield confounding results because the mutagenesis strategy changes the amino acid compositions of IDPs. Therefore, an important next step in mutagenesis-based approaches to mechanistic studies of coupled folding and binding is the design of sequences that satisfy three major constraints. These are (i) achieving a target intrinsic alpha helicity profile; (ii) fixing the positions of residues corresponding to the binding interface; and (iii) maintaining the native amino acid composition. Here, we report the development of a G: enetic A: lgorithm for D: esign of I: ntrinsic secondary S: tructure (GADIS) for designing sequences that satisfy the specified constraints. We describe the algorithm and present results to demonstrate the applicability of GADIS by designing sequence variants of the intrinsically disordered PUMA system that undergoes coupled folding and binding to Mcl-1. Our sequence designs span a range of intrinsic helicity profiles. The predicted variations in sequence-encoded mean helicities are tested against experimental measurements. PMID:27503953

  6. Instructional Strategies and Science Achievement of Form 2 Students in Malaysia: Findings from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saat, Rohaida Mohd.; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    The present study used data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 to look at the trend in instructional strategies in science teaching and its effect on the science achievement. Based on the analysis, the strategies used by most science teachers were demonstration, practical work and the lecture method. Among…

  7. Aroma ageing trends in GC/MS profiles of liqueur wines.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-01

    Madeira wine has been studied with the main goal of acquiring a better understanding about the evolution of its properties over time. For that purpose, flexible and reliable data analysis tools were employed to characterize wines at different ageing stages, using flavour chromatography measurements. In this paper we present the results from such a study, where the main differences in the aroma profiles and their development in different types of aged Madeira wines are analyzed and evaluated according to their discriminating power. An exploratory multivariate data analysis was conducted using two different tools, namely biplots and contributions plots obtained through principal component analysis (PCA). In order to take advantage of the maximum amount of information provided by the chromatography data sets, a new approach that incorporates samples variability in the analysis of the statistical significance of contributions estimates, was developed and tested. In this way, it was possible to analyze which volatile compounds have statistically significant and/or similar contributions regarding the observed separation of wine samples from different groups. Furthermore, since several chemical compounds are expected to change together as a result of the ageing-related chemical reactions, they were clustered according to a similarity criterion relative to their importance in the trends observed in the scores space. Results obtained provide a sound basis for the differentiation and characterization of the ageing process followed by Madeira wines. PMID:20103109

  8. Trend analysis of the 20-year time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-10-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has been performing continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E, 577 m). GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) was added as a back end to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over 2 years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis was performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa (37.76 km), covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa (59 km).

  9. Trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-06-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeterwave Ozone Spectrometer) performs continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland. GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (FFTS) has been added as backend to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over two years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from more than 20 years of stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis has been performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa, covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa.

  10. Patterns and trends New York State energy profiles: 1980-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority`s Energy Analysis Program provides public and private sector stakeholders with useful independent and objective energy information. This report provides an overview of one-year and 10-year, energy use trends in New York State. The information presented reflects energy consumption, supply, prices, and expenditures. Section 1 is a 1994 overview of the United States and New York State energy profiles. The national energy consumption data used for comparison are compatible with New York State`s data. Section 2 provides current and historic data for primary and net consumption of energy by fuel type and sector. {open_quotes}Primary{close_quotes} represents total consumption of fuels by the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors including fuels used for generating electricity. {open_quotes}Net{close_quotes} is the end-use consumption by the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors, including electricity sales to each of these sectors but excluding energy losses incurred during electricity generation and distribution. Section 3 presents energy price data at the retail level from 1980 to 1994. Retail energy prices are provided by fuel type for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors in nominal dollars cost per physical unit and per million Btu. Section 4 presents the estimated cost of net energy consumption by sector and fuel type in nominal dollars and in 1994 constant dollars. Estimated costs were derived by multiplying quantities of consumption by their respective prices. Section 5 details sources of New York State energy supplies.

  11. [Gender and health: profile and trends of the scientific production in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L

    2006-08-01

    The differences in health between men and women have been object of great interest, but interpretations tend to be naturalized and essentialists. Gender-oriented studies have criticized this literature and offered new analythical alternatives. The present study was intended to describe the profile and trends of scientific production on gender and health in Brazil. Data sources comprised the Research Groups Directory of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Research Council), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) Thesis Bank, and four journals available in SciELO--Scientific Eletronic Library Online. Fifty-one groups with at least one line of research in the subject were identified, with regional and institutional concentrations. The results confirmed the marked growth of scientific production in this field as 98 master and 42 doctoral dissertations and 665 articles on gender and health were retrieved. Women authored 86.0% and 89.0% of doctoral and master dissertations respectively, and 70.5% of the articles. Most were published in the 2000s when diversification of the studied topics was also seen. The studied subjects can be divided into five subgroups: reproduction and contraception; gender and violence; sexuality and health with emphasis on STD/AIDS; work and health, including domestic and night work; other emergent or less explored topics. There are major political, epistemological and methodological challenges for strengthening these advancements. The gender perspective offers possibilities for enlightment of theoretical dilemmas in public health. Furthermore, it can be added to other intellectual and political efforts towards understanding health and its determinants and fighting against inequalities and for social justice. PMID:16924312

  12. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  13. Using Early Literacy Profiles of Hispanic English Language Learners to Predict Later Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis; Ford, Karen; Invernizzi, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Following a cohort of students from fall of kindergarten to spring of first grade, the authors investigated whether the general cluster profiles identified in Burrow et al.'s (2010) study remained consistent over time. If cluster profiles in the fall of kindergarten held, their goal was to investigate the differences between clusters in terms of…

  14. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  14. Flat flow profiles achieved with microfluidics generated by redox-magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sahore, V; Fritsch, I

    2013-12-17

    Horizontal flow profiles having uniform velocities (3-13% RSD) at fixed heights across 0.5, 2.0, and 5.6 mm widths, with magnitudes of ≤124 μm/s, can be sustained along a ∼25.0 mm path using redox-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) microfluidic pumping in a small volume (14.3 mm wide × 27.0 mm long × 620 μm high) on a chip. Uniform velocity profiles are important in moving volume elements without shape distortion for assays and separations for lab-on-a-chip applications. Fluid movement resulting from the MHD force (FB = j × B) was monitored with video microscopy by tracking 10 μm, polystyrene latex beads mixed into the solution. The ionic current density, j, was generated in 0.095 M K3Fe(CN)6, 0.095 M K4Fe(CN)6, and 0.095 M KCl by applying a constant current across a 0.5, 2.0, or 5.6 mm gap between an anode-cathode pair of electrodes, consisting of one to four shorted parallel, coplanar gold microbands [each 25.0 mm × 98 μm × ∼100 nm (thickness), and separated by 102 μm] fabricated on an insulated silicon substrate. By shorting the increasing numbers of microbands together, increasing currents (118, 180, 246, and 307 μA) could be applied without electrode damage, and the impact of ionic current density gradients on velocity profiles over the anodes and cathodes could also be investigated. The magnetic field, B, was produced with a 0.36 T NdFeB permanent magnet beneath the chip. Data analysis was performed using particle image velocimetry software. A vertical flow profile was also obtained in the middle of the 5.6 mm gap. PMID:24274592

  15. Climatology and trends of mesospheric (58-90) temperatures based upon 1982-1986 SME limb scattering profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature profiles for the altitude range 58-90 km were calculated using data on global UV limb radiances from the SME satellite. The major elements of this climatology include a high vertical resolution (about 4 km) and the coverage of the 70-90 km altitude region. The analysis of this extensive data set provides a global definition of mesospheric-lower thermospheric temperature trends over the 1982-1986 period. The observations suggest a pattern of 1-2 K/year decreases in temperatures at 80-90-km altitudes accompanied by 0.5-1.5 K/year increases in temperatures at 65-80-km altitudes.

  16. National Profile of Community Colleges: Trends and Statistics, 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent A.; Sullivan, Leila Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a national view of trends and statistics related to today's community colleges. The new edition includes completely revised text as well as updates to charts and tables on topics such as enrollment, student outcomes, population, curriculum, faculty, workforce, and financial aid. Informative narrative introduces and provides…

  17. Lifelong Learning Trends: A Profile of Continuing Higher Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Univ. Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication provides national data on trends and participation in continuing higher education. The charts have been derived from data collected by the National University Continuing Education Association and governmental and private organizations. Narrative accompanies each chart. Section I highlights factors contributing to growth: part-time…

  18. Photometric Trends in the Visible Solar Continuum and Their Sensitivity to the Center-to-Limb Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, C. L.; Rast, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    Solar irradiance variations over solar rotational timescales are largely determined by the passage of magnetic structures across the visible solar disk. Variations on solar cycle timescales are thought to be similarly due to changes in surface magnetism with activity. Understanding the contribution of magnetic structures to total solar irradiance and solar spectral irradiance requires assessing their contributions as a function of disk position. Since only relative photometry is possible from the ground, the contrasts of image pixels are measured with respect to a center-to-limb intensity profile. Using nine years of full-disk red and blue continuum images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, we examine the sensitivity of continuum contrast measurements to the center-to-limb profile definition. Profiles which differ only by the amount of magnetic activity allowed in the pixels used to determine them yield oppositely signed solar cycle length continuum contrast trends, either agreeing with previous results and showing negative correlation with solar cycle or disagreeing and showing positive correlation with solar cycle. Changes in the center-to-limb profile shape over the solar cycle are responsible for the contradictory contrast results, and we demonstrate that the lowest contrast structures, internetwork and network, are most sensitive to these. Thus the strengths of the full-disk, internetwork, and network photometric trends depend critically on the magnetic flux density used in the quiet-Sun definition. We conclude that the contributions of low contrast magnetic structures to variations in the solar continuum output, particularly to long-term variations, are difficult, if not impossible, to determine without the use of radiometric imaging.

  19. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills, Test Results, and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1983-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report presents the 1983-84 summary achievement profiles of the 82 Portland, Oregon, elementary schools for use by school staffs, administrators, and the community for planning, goal setting, and evaluation. The profiles contain Portland Achievement Level Tests results plus data on the physical facility, school personnel, student enrollment,…

  20. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  1. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  3. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  4. Groundwater Surface Trends at Van Norden Meadow, California, from Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadrick, N. I.; Blacic, T. M.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Van Norden meadow in the Donner Summit area west of Lake Tahoe is one of the largest sub-alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada mountain range. As natural water retention basins, meadows attenuate floods, improve water quality and support vegetation that stabilizes stream banks and promotes high biodiversity. Like most meadows in the Sierras however, over-grazing, road-building, and development has resulted in localized stream incision, degradation, and partial conversion from wet to dry conditions in Van Norden. Additionally, a small dam at the base of the meadow has partially flooded the lower meadow creating reservoir conditions. Privately owned since the late 1800s, Van Norden was recently purchased by a local land trust to prevent further development and return the area to public ownership. Restoration of the natural meadow conditions will involve notching the dam in 2016 to reduce currently impounded water volumes from 250 to less than 50 acre-feet. To monitor the effects of notching the dam on the upstream meadow conditions, better understanding of the surface and groundwater hydrology both pre- and post-restoration is required. We surveyed the meadow in summer 2014 with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map the groundwater surface prior to restoration activities using a 270MHz antenna to obtain a suite of longitudinal and transverse transects. Groundwater level within the meadow was assessed using both piezometer readings and sweeps of the GPR antenna. Seventeen piezometers were added this year to the 13 already in place to monitor temporal changes in the groundwater surface, while the GPR profiles provided information about lateral variations. Our results provide an estimate of the groundwater depth variations across the upper portion of the meadow before notching. We plan to return in 2015 to collect GPR profiles during wetter conditions, which will provide a more complete assessment of the pre-notching groundwater hydrology.

  5. A trend in women's health in India--what has been achieved and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Saha, Uma C; Saha, Kalyan B

    2010-01-01

    The health of Indian women is intrinsically linked to their status in society. Research into Indian women's status has found that their family contributions are often overlooked and they are likely to be regarded as an economic burden, especially in rural areas. This attitude has a negative impact on their health status. Poor health has repercussions not only for women, but also for their children and other family members. This commentary focuses on the trend in five key women's issues in India: maternal and child health; violence against women; nutritional status; unequal treatment of girls and boys; and care quality. The discussion is based on data extracted from Indian National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-1, NFHS-2 NFHS-3) spanning the period 1993-2006, and data from the Indian Sample Registration System and National Crime Research Bureau. PMID:20626212

  6. Breastfeeding in England: time trends 2005-2006 to 2012-2013 and inequalities by area profile.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Laura L; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Renfrew, Mary J; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-07-01

    Breastfeeding rates in England have risen steadily since the 1970s, but rates remain low and little is known about area-based trends. We report an ecological analysis of time trends in area breastfeeding rates in England using annual data on breastfeeding initiation (2005-2006 to 2012-2013) and any breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (2008-2009 to 2012-2013) for 151 primary care trusts (PCTs). Overall, breastfeeding initiation rose from 65.5% in 2005-2006 to 72.4% in 2012-2013 (average annual absolute increase 0.9%). There was a statistically significantly higher (interaction P < 0.001) annual increase in initiation in PCTs in the most deprived (1.2%) compared with the least deprived tertile (0.7%), and in PCTs with low baseline breastfeeding initiation (2005-2006; 1.4%) compared with high baseline initiation (0.6%). Similar trends were observed when PCTs were stratified by the proportion of teenage mothers and maternal smoking, but not when stratified by ethnicity. Although breastfeeding prevalence at 6-8 weeks also increased significantly over the observed time period (41.2% in 2008-2009, 43.7% in 2012-2013; annual increase 0.7%), there was no difference in the average increase by deprivation profile, ethnicity, teenage mothers and maternal smoking. However, PCTs with low baseline prevalence in 2008-2009 saw a significantly larger annual increase (0.8%) compared with PCTs with high baseline prevalence (0.07%). In conclusion, breastfeeding initiation and prevalence have seen higher increases in areas with low initial breastfeeding, and for initiation, more disadvantaged areas. Although these results suggest that inequalities in breastfeeding have narrowed, rates have plateaued since 2010-2011. Sustained efforts are needed to address breastfeeding inequalities. PMID:25422164

  7. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  8. Sulfur speciation and stable isotope trends of water-soluble sulfates in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2005-08-01

    Sulfur speciation and the sources of water-soluble sulfate in three oxidizing sulfidic mine tailings impoundments were investigated by selective dissolution and stable isotopes. The studied tailings impoundments--Piuquenes, Cauquenes, and Salvador No. 1--formed from the exploitation of the Rio Blanco/La Andina, El Teniente, and El Salvador Chilean porphyry copper deposits, which are located in Alpine, Mediterranean, and hyperarid climates, respectively. The water-soluble sulfate may originate from dissolution of primary ore sulfates (e.g., gypsum, anhydrite, jarosite) or from oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to aerobic conditions during mining activity. With increasing aridity and decreasing pyrite content of the tailings, the sulfur speciation in the unsaturated oxidation zones showed a trend from dominantly Fe(III) oxyhydroxide fixed sulfate (e.g., jarosite and schwertmannite) in Piuquenes toward increasing presence of water-soluble sulfate at Cauquenes and Salvador No. 1. In the saturated primary zones, sulfate is predominantly present in water-soluble form (mainly as anhydrite and/or gypsum). In the unsaturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the delta34S(SO4)values ranged from +0.5 per thousand to +2.0 per thousand and from -0.4 per thousand to +1.4 per thousand Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT), respectively, indicating a major sulfate source from pyrite oxidation (delta34S(pyrite) = -1.1 per thousand and -0.9 per thousand). In the saturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the values ranged from -0.8 per thousand to +0.3 per thousand and from +2.2 per thousand to +3.9 per thousand, respectively. At Cauquenes the 34S enrichment in the saturated zone toward depth indicates the increasing contribution of isotopically heavy dissolved sulfate from primary anhydrite (approximately +10.9 per thousand). At El Salvador No. 1, the delta34S(SO4) average value is -0.9 per thousand, suggesting dissolution of supergene sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite, gypsum

  9. Trend of the water content profile in a homogeneous soil layer from analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugnaghi, Sergio; Menziani, Marilena; Vincenzi, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    The linearized one-dimensional Richards equation is solved analytically in a horizontal, homogeneous soil layer of finite thickness. The obtained solution is the soil water content at any required time and depth in the layer. Any discrete soil water content profile (e.g. experimentally measured) can be assumed as initial condition; the boundary conditions are two arbitrary functions representing the time evolution of the soil volumetric water content. Both initial and boundary conditions are approximated by means of a suitable number of step functions; therefore the solution presented will be hereafter called Step Function Solution (SFS). Making use of the variables separation method and of the superposition principle, the general solution is obtained by the sum of two solutions: one is derived for null boundary conditions and an arbitrary initial condition; the other is derived for a null initial condition and two arbitrary boundary conditions. The instantaneous fluxes at the top and at the bottom of the layer are calculated. From the time integration of these instantaneous fluxes the cumulative ones and the water gained by the soil layer in a specified time interval are obtained. These hydrological fields are relevant parameters for many studies. The stationary solution and the value of the corresponding flux are also calculated. Finally, the SFS is compared with two analytical solutions and two experimental sets of soil volumetric water content data. The finite thickness domain has been studied to represent a more realistic scheme of the surface soil with respect to the half space domain (Menziani et al., 2007). The comparison of the two sets of solutions (finite-thickness layer and half space schemes) with experimental data can help to decide when the depth of a layer can be assumed as infinite.

  10. Learning Profiles & Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2009-01-01

    The premise behind intelligence preferences and learning styles is that students learn in different ways and that teaching and learning would be more effective if students could explore content in ways that work best for them. In this article, the author talks about the place of learning preferences in supporting student success. The author also…

  11. Cognitive Processing Profiles of School-Age Children Who Meet Low-Achievement, IQ-Discrepancy, or Dual Criteria for Underachievement in Oral Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Santen, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive processing profiles of school-age children (ages 7 to 17) who met criteria for underachievement in oral reading accuracy based on three different methods: 1) use of a regression-based IQ-achievement discrepancy only (REGonly), 2) use of a low-achievement cutoff only (LAonly), and 3) use of a…

  12. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  13. NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress. Achievement of U.S. Students in Science, 1969 to 1996; Mathematics, 1973 to 1996; Reading, 1971 to 1996; Writing, 1984 to 1996. Report in Brief (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jay R.; Voelkl, Kristin E.; Donahue, Patricia L.

    An important feature of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is its ability to document trends in academic achievement on core curriculum areas over an extended period of time. This report presents the major results of the NAEP 1996 science, mathematics, reading, and writing long-term assessments. These results chart trends going…

  14. NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress. Achievement of U.S. Students in Science, 1969 to 1996; Mathematics, 1973 to 1996; Reading, 1971 to 1996; Writing, 1984 to 1996. Report in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jay R.; Voelkl, Kristin E.; Donahue, Patricia L.

    An important feature of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is its ability to document trends in academic achievement on core curriculum areas over an extended period of time. This report presents the major results of the NAEP 1996 science, mathematics, reading, and writing long-term assessments. These results chart trends going…

  15. Profiling First-Year Students in STEM Programs Based on Autonomous Motivation and Academic Self-Concept and Relationship with Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942

  16. Profiling first-year students in STEM programs based on autonomous motivation and academic self-concept and relationship with academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942

  17. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  18. Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hye; Song, Young-Hwan; Park, Sangshin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children. Methods We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010. Results During 1998–2010, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in boys, but no changes were observed in girls. Over this period, there was a small but significant decrease in the mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level in boys (1998, 87.5 mg/dL; 2010, 83.6 mg/dL; P=0.019) and mean triglyceride levels in girls (1998, 90.8 mg/dL; 2010, 85.8 mg/dL; P=0.020). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia in boys, but a modest decrease was noted in girls (1998, 25.1%; 2010, 18.3%; P=0.052). During the study period, the prevalence of breakfast skipping decreased, whereas that of regular exercise increased in both groups. Daily total energy intake did not change between these years. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, breakfast skipping was associated with increased risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in boys (odds ratio [OR], 5.77) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 2.27) in girls. Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (OR, 0.40) in boys. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity in boys increased, favorable or constant trends in lipid profiles were observed among Korean adolescents during 1998–2010. Decrease in breakfast skipping and increase in regular exercise may have contributed to these trends. PMID:26958065

  19. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  20. How Certain are We of the Uncertainties in Recent Ozone Profile Trend Assessments of Merged Limbo Ccultation Records? Challenges and Possible Ways Forward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Daan; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Verhoelst, Tijl; Granville, Jose; Keppens, Arno; Baray, Jean-Luc; Cortesi, Ugo; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hoppel, Karl; Kyrola, Erkki T.; Leblanc, Thierry; Lichtenberg, Gunter; McElroy, Charles T.; Murtagh, Donal P.; Russell, James M., III; Salvador, Jacobo; Smit, Herman G. J.; Stebel, Kerstin; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Strawbridge, K. B.; Stubi, Rene; Swart, Daan P. J.; Taha, Ghassan; Thompson, Anne M.; Urban, Joachim; Van Gijsel, Anne; Von Der Gathen, Peter; Walker, Kaley Ann; Wolfram, Elian; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Nakane, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Most recent assessments of long-term changes in the vertical distribution of ozone (by e.g. WMO and SI2N) rely on data sets that integrate observations by multiple instruments. Several merged satellite ozone profile records have been developed over the past few years; each considers a particular set of instruments and adopts a particular merging strategy. Their intercomparison by Tummon et al. revealed that the current merging schemes are not sufficiently refined to correct for all major differences between the limb/occultation records. This shortcoming introduces uncertainties that need to be known to obtain a sound interpretation of the different satellite-based trend studies. In practice however, producing realistic uncertainty estimates is an intricate task which depends on a sufficiently detailed understanding of the characteristics of each contributing data record and on the subsequent interplay and propagation of these through the merging scheme. Our presentation discusses these challenges in the context of limb/occultation ozone profile records, but they are equally relevant for other instruments and atmospheric measurements. We start by showing how the NDACC and GAW-affiliated ground-based networks of ozonesonde and lidar instruments allowed us to characterize fourteen limb/occultation ozone profile records, together providing a global view over the last three decades. Our prime focus will be on techniques to estimate long-term drift since our results suggest this is the main driver of the major trend differences between the merged data sets. The single-instrument drift estimates are then used for a tentative estimate of the systematic uncertainty in the profile trends from merged data records. We conclude by reflecting on possible further steps needed to improve the merging algorithms and to obtain a better characterization of the uncertainties involved.

  1. Timeline trend profile and seasonal variations in nicotine present in ambient PM10 samples: A four year investigation from Delhi region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shweta; Tandon, Ankit; Attri, Arun K.

    2014-12-01

    The detection of nicotine, an organic tracer for Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), in the collected PM10 samples from Delhi region's ambient environment, in a appropriately designed investigation was initiated over four years (2006-2009) to: (1) Comprehend seasonal and inter-annual variations in the nicotine present in PM10; (2) Extract regression based linear trend profile manifested by nicotine in PM10; (3) Determine the non-linear trend timeline from the nicotine data, and compare it with the obtained linear trend; (4) Suggest the possible use of the designed experiment and analysis to have a qualitative appraisal of Tobacco Smoking activity in the sampling region. The PM10 samples were collected in a monthly time-series sequence at a known receptor site. Quantitative estimates of nicotine (ng m-3) were made by using a Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The annual average concentrations of nicotine (ng m-3) were 516 ± 302 (2008) > 494 ± 301 (2009) > 438 ± 250 (2007) > 325 ± 149 (2006). The estimated linear trend of 5.4 ng m-3 month-1 corresponded to 16.3% per annum increase in the PM10 associated nicotine. The industrial production of India's tobacco index normalized to Delhi region's consumption, pegged an increase at 10.5% per annum over this period.

  2. Trends in Network Television Drama and Viewer Conceptions of Social Reality, 1967-1973. Violence Profile Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbner, George; Gross, Larry

    Trends in violence in television drama were measured over a seven-year period climaxing with 1973-1974. About 70 percent of programing in 1973 contained violent episodes, as opposed to 80 percent in 1967. However the proportion of domestic crime programs increased, while programs of historic or exotic episodes declined, so that violence was…

  3. Dropout Reduction through Employment Achievement and Motivation (Project DREAM). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Dropout Reduction through Employment, Achievement, and Motivation Program (Project DREAM), which served poor Spanish-speaking immigrant high school students. The program operated at South Bronx High School serving 444 mostly immigrant students of limited English proficiency. The program…

  4. No More Profiling in the Classroom: A Midsize Urban School District's Efforts to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Evans, Leticia Victoria

    2010-01-01

    For approximately a third of this decade, a mid-size urban school district took a bold step in its continuing efforts to battle what has been a persistent problem plaguing this Nation's education system for decades or possibly for as long as it has existed--the achievement gap between students of color and their White peers. The district has…

  5. Profile of Administrators of Schools of Nursing, Part I: Resources for Goal Achievement. Part II: Mentoring Relationships and Influence Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Judy D.

    1997-01-01

    The first part of a survey of 441 nursing school deans/directors (324 responses) identified important sources affecting goal achievement: communication skills, interpersonal skills, and creative thinking. The second part revealed that 70% had had a mentor but only 27% did while serving as dean/director. Psychosocial functions of mentoring were…

  6. Combined SAGE II-GOMOS ozone profile data set for 1984-2011 and trend analysis of the vertical distribution of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Tukiainen, S.; Zawodny, J.; Thomason, L.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied data from two satellite occultation instruments in order to generate a high vertical resolution homogeneous ozone time series of 26 yr. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument and the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument measured ozone profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere from 1984-2005 and 2002-2012, respectively. Global coverage, good vertical resolution, and the self-calibrating measurement method make data from these instruments valuable for the detection of changes in vertical distribution of ozone over time. As both instruments share a common measurement period from 2002-2005, it is possible to inter-calibrate the data sets. We investigate how well these measurements agree with each other and combine all the data to produce a new stratospheric ozone profile data set. Above 55 km, SAGE II measurements show much less ozone than the GOMOS nighttime measurements as a consequence of the well-known diurnal variation of ozone in the mesosphere. Between 35-55 km, SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements differ from GOMOS' measurements to different extents. Sunrise measurements show 2% less ozone than GOMOS, whereas sunset measurements show 4% more ozone than GOMOS. Differences can be explained qualitatively by the diurnal variation of ozone in the stratosphere recently observed by SMILES and modeled by chemical transport models. Between 25-35 km, SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements and GOMOS measurements agree within 1%. The observed ozone bias between collocated measurements of SAGE II sunrise/sunset and GOMOS night measurements is used to align the two data sets. The combined data set covers the time period 1984-2011, latitudes 60° S-60° N, and the altitude range of 20-60 km. Profile data are given on a 1 km vertical grid, and with a resolution of 1 month in time and 10° in latitude. The combined ozone data set is analyzed by fitting a time series model to the

  7. Combined SAGE II-GOMOS ozone profile data set 1984-2011 and trend analysis of the vertical distribution of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Tukiainen, S.; Zawodny, J.; Thomason, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied data from two satellite occultation instruments in order to generate a high vertical resolution homogeneous ozone time series of 26 yr. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experimen (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument from 1984-2005 and the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument (GOMOS) from 2002-2012 measured ozone profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Global coverage, good vertical resolution and the self calibrating measurement method make data from these instruments valuable for the detection of changes in vertical distribution of ozone over time. As both instruments share a common measurement period from 2002-2005, it is possible to intercalibrate the data sets. We investigate how well these measurements agree with each other and combine all the data to produce a new stratospheric ozone profile data set. Above 55 km SAGE II measurements show much less ozone than the GOMOS nighttime measurements as a consequence of the well-known diurnal variation of ozone in the mesosphere. Between 35-55 km SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements differ from each other. Sunrise measurements show 2% less ozone than GOMOS whereas sunset measurements show 4% more ozone than GOMOS. Differences can be explained qualitatively by the diurnal variation of ozone in the stratosphere recently observed by SMILES and modelled by chemical transport models. For 25-35 km SAGE II sunrise and sunset and GOMOS agree within 1%. The observed ozone bias between collocated measurements of SAGE II sunrise/sunset and GOMOS night measurements is used to align the two data sets. The combined data set covers the time period 1984-2011, latitudes 60° S-60° N and the altitude range of 20-60 km. Profile data are given on a 1 km vertical grid, and with a resolution of one month in time and ten degrees in latitude. The combined ozone data set is analyzed by fitting a time series model to the data. We assume a linear trend with an inflexion point (so-called "hockey

  8. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  9. Scalable and Cost-Effective Assignment of Mobile Crowdsensing Tasks Based on Profiling Trends and Prediction: The ParticipAct Living Lab Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca; Ianniello, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, sensor-rich smartphones potentially enable the harvesting of huge amounts of valuable sensing data in urban environments, by opportunistically involving citizens to play the role of mobile virtual sensors to cover Smart City areas of interest. This paper proposes an in-depth study of the challenging technical issues related to the efficient assignment of Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) data collection tasks to volunteers in a crowdsensing campaign. In particular, the paper originally describes how to increase the effectiveness of the proposed sensing campaigns through the inclusion of several new facilities, including accurate participant selection algorithms able to profile and predict user mobility patterns, gaming techniques, and timely geo-notification. The reported results show the feasibility of exploiting profiling trends/prediction techniques from volunteers’ behavior; moreover, they quantitatively compare different MCS task assignment strategies based on large-scale and real MCS data campaigns run in the ParticipAct living lab, an ongoing MCS real-world experiment that involved more than 170 students of the University of Bologna for more than one year. PMID:26263985

  10. Scalable and Cost-Effective Assignment of Mobile Crowdsensing Tasks Based on Profiling Trends and Prediction: The ParticipAct Living Lab Experience.

    PubMed

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca; Ianniello, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, sensor-rich smartphones potentially enable the harvesting of huge amounts of valuable sensing data in urban environments, by opportunistically involving citizens to play the role of mobile virtual sensors to cover Smart City areas of interest. This paper proposes an in-depth study of the challenging technical issues related to the efficient assignment of Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) data collection tasks to volunteers in a crowdsensing campaign. In particular, the paper originally describes how to increase the effectiveness of the proposed sensing campaigns through the inclusion of several new facilities, including accurate participant selection algorithms able to profile and predict user mobility patterns, gaming techniques, and timely geo-notification. The reported results show the feasibility of exploiting profiling trends/prediction techniques from volunteers' behavior; moreover, they quantitatively compare different MCS task assignment strategies based on large-scale and real MCS data campaigns run in the ParticipAct living lab, an ongoing MCS real-world experiment that involved more than 170 students of the University of Bologna for more than one year. PMID:26263985

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 6: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines progress in raising achievement for English language learners. It also describes the factors that make it difficult to accurately assess what ELLs know and can do. The data for this analysis were collected by CEP with technical support from the…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 4: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) holds schools, districts, and states accountable for improving the academic achievement of all students, including the nearly 14% of public school students who receive special education services because they have an identified disability. By 2014, 100% of students with disabilities are expected to…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  15. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  16. The Importance of Segregation, Discrimination, Peer Dynamics, and Identity in Explaining Trends in the Racial Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 16257

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    After decades of narrowing, the achievement gap between black and white school children widened in the 1990s--a period when the labor market rewards for education were increasing. This presents an important puzzle for economists. In this chapter, I investigate the extent to which economic models of segregation, information-based discrimination,…

  17. The Mean Is Not Enough: Using Quantile Regression to Examine Trends in Asian-White Differences across the Entire Achievement Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent years, Asian Americans have been consistently described as a model minority. The high levels of educational achievement and educational attainment are the main determinants for identifying Asian Americans as a model minority. Nonetheless, only a few studies have examined empirically the accomplishments of Asian Americans, and…

  18. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi.

    PubMed

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  19. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M.T.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  20. Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major global eye health strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by the year 2020. Building on our previous analysis of current progress towards key HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSRs), we predicted future indicator achievement among 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Methods Surgical and HReH data were collected from national eye care programme coordinators on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined them with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner-to-population ratios and CSRs. Data on workforce entry and exit (2008 to 2010) was used to project practitioner population and CSR growth between 2011 and 2020 in relation to projected growth in the general population. Associations between indicator progress and the presence of a non-physician cataract surgeon cadre were also explored using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results In our 16-country sample, practitioner per million population ratios are predicted to increase slightly for surgeons (ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, from 3.1 in 2011 to 3.4 in 2020) and ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers (5.8 to 6.8) but remain low for refractionists (including optometrists, at 3.6 in 2011 and 2020). Among countries that have not already achieved target indicators, however, practitioner growth will be insufficient for any additional countries to reach the surgeon and refractionist targets by year 2020. Without further strategy change and investment, even after 2020, surgeon growth is only expected to sufficiently outpace general population growth to reach the target in one country. For nurses, two additional countries will achieve the target while one will fall below it. In 2011, high surgeon practitioner ratios were associated with

  1. A multi-level differential item functioning analysis of trends in international mathematics and science study: Potential sources of gender and minority difference among U.S. eighth graders' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyu

    Science is an area where a large achievement gap has been observed between White and minority, and between male and female students. The science minority gap has continued as indicated by the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS). TIMSS also shows a gender gap favoring males emerging at the eighth grade. Both gaps continue to be wider in the number of doctoral degrees and full professorships awarded (NSF, 2008). The current study investigated both minority and gender achievement gaps in science utilizing a multi-level differential item functioning (DIF) methodology (Kamata, 2001) within fully Bayesian framework. All dichotomously coded items from TIMSS 2007 science assessment at eighth grade were analyzed. Both gender DIF and minority DIF were studied. Multi-level models were employed to identify DIF items and sources of DIF at both student and teacher levels. The study found that several student variables were potential sources of achievement gaps. It was also found that gender DIF favoring male students was more noticeable in the content areas of physics and earth science than biology and chemistry. In terms of item type, the majority of these gender DIF items were multiple choice than constructed response items. Female students also performed less well on items requiring visual-spatial ability. Minority students performed significantly worse on physics and earth science items as well. A higher percentage of minority DIF items in earth science and biology were constructed response than multiple choice items, indicating that literacy may be the cause of minority DIF. Three-level model results suggested that some teacher variables may be the cause of DIF variations from teacher to teacher. It is essential for both middle school science teachers and science educators to find instructional methods that work more effectively to improve science achievement of both female and minority students

  2. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23171231

  3. West Virginia Kids Count Data Book: 2001 County Profiles of Child Well-Being. Trends in Child Well-Being, 1990 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folden, Pam, Ed.

    This tenth annual KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of West Virginia's children; this year's report looks at a decade of data based on indicators in four areas: child health, education, safety and security, and economic conditions. Following a summary that describes overall findings, the bulk of the report…

  4. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  5. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  6. NAEP Trends in Academic Progress. Achievement of U.S. Students in Science, 1969 to 1992--Mathematics, 1973 to 1992--Reading, 1971 to 1992--Writing, 1984 to 1992. Report in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; And Others

    Since its inception in 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been regularly assessing the nation's students in public and private schools, serving as a barometer of educational attainment. This report in brief is excerpted from "NAEP 1992 Trends in Academic Progress," which presents trend data in science, mathematics,…

  7. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X2trend, p<0.001). Primary STR resistance was higher among M. bovis compared with M. tuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, p<0.001). Secondary multidrug resistance (MDR) rates were 38.5% and 34.4% for M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  8. Uncertainties in Recent Satellite Ozone Profile Trend Assessments (SI2N, WMO 2014): A Network-Based Assessment of Fourteen Contributing Limb and Occultation Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Keppens, A.; Cortesi, U.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hoppel, K. W.; Kyrola, E.; Leblanc, T.; Lichtenberg, G.; McDermid, I. S.; McElroy, C. T.; Murtagh, D.; Nakane, H.; Russell, J. M., III; Smit, H. G. J.; Stebel, K.; Steinbrecht, W.; Stubi, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Taha, G.; Thompson, A. M.; Urban, J.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; von der Gathen, P.; Walker, K. A.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous vertical ozone profile data records collected over the past decades from space-based platforms have the potential to allow the ozone and climate communities to tackle a variety of research questions. A prime topic is the study and documentation of long-term changes in the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone, as targeted by the recent SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC Initiative (SI2N) and WMO’s ozone assessment. Such studies typically require data records with documented mutual consistency in terms of bias and long-term stability. We performed a comprehensive assessment of fourteen limb/occultation ozone profile data records, using NDACC/GAW/SHADOZ ozonesonde and NDACC lidar network data as reference standards.

  9. Evaluating lake stratification and temporal trends by using near-continuous water-quality data from automated profiling systems for water years 2005-09, Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Southern Nevada Water Authority, collected near-continuous depth-dependent water-quality data at Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, as part of a multi-agency monitoring network maintained to provide resource managers with basic data and to gain a better understanding of the hydrodynamics of the lake. Water-quality data-collection stations on Lake Mead were located in shallow water (less than 20 meters) at Las Vegas Bay (Site 3) and Overton Arm, and in deep water (greater than 20 meters) near Sentinel Island and at Virgin and Temple Basins. At each station, near-continual depth-dependent water-quality data were collected from October 2004 through September 2009. The data were collected by using automatic profiling systems equipped with multiparameter water-quality sondes. The sondes had sensors for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and depth. Data were collected every 6 hours at 2-meter depth intervals (for shallow-water stations) or 5-meter depth intervals (for deep-water stations) beginning at 1 meter below water surface. Data were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions related to stratification of the lake and temporal trends in water-quality parameters. Three water-quality parameters were the main focus of these analyses: temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Statistical temporal-trend analyses were performed for a single depth at shallow-water stations [Las Vegas Bay (Site 3) and Overton Arm] and for thermally-stratified lake layers at deep-water stations (Sentinel Island and Virgin Basin). The limited period of data collection at the Temple Basin station prevented the application of statistical trend analysis. During the summer months, thermal stratification was not observed at shallow-water stations, nor were major maxima or minima observed for specific-conductance or dissolved-oxygen profiles. A clearly-defined thermocline

  10. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Buscail, Camille; Alles, Benjamin; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label–the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL)–is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods. Methods and Findings Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: ‘Healthy’ (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample), with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; ‘Western’ (N = 33 386, 34.8%); with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; ‘Traditional’ (N = 34 461, 35.1%), with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the ‘Western’ pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates) to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively. Conclusion The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the

  11. Enterprise Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education research experts Eduventures released a report in February 2007 on where U.S. districts are headed with large system management. "Trends in K-12 Enterprise Management: Are Districts Ready to Cross the Chasm?" provides a detailed assessment of the themes and the trends that are driving the market for K-12 enterprise management systems.…

  12. Achieving an Accurate Surface Profile of a Photonic Crystal for Near-Unity Solar Absorption in a Super Thin-Film Architecture.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ping; Eyderman, Sergey; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Post, Anthony; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-06-28

    In this work, a teepee-like photonic crystal (PC) structure on crystalline silicon (c-Si) is experimentally demonstrated, which fulfills two critical criteria in solar energy harvesting by (i) its Gaussian-type gradient-index profile for excellent antireflection and (ii) near-orthogonal energy flow and vortex-like field concentration via the parallel-to-interface refraction effect inside the structure for enhanced light trapping. For the PC structure on 500-μm-thick c-Si, the average reflection is only ∼0.7% for λ = 400-1000 nm. For the same structure on a much thinner c-Si ( t = 10 μm), the absorption is near unity (A ∼ 99%) for visible wavelengths, while the absorption in the weakly absorbing range (λ ∼ 1000 nm) is significantly increased to 79%, comparing to only 6% absorption for a 10-μm-thick planar c-Si. In addition, the average absorption (∼94.7%) of the PC structure on 10 μm c-Si for λ = 400-1000 nm is only ∼3.8% less than the average absorption (∼98.5%) of the PC structure on 500 μm c-Si, while the equivalent silicon solid content is reduced by 50 times. Furthermore, the angular dependence measurements show that the high absorption is sustained over a wide angle range (θinc = 0-60°) for teepee-like PC structure on both 500 and 10-μm-thick c-Si. PMID:27258082

  13. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  14. Program Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Articles by Moss, Van Huss, Raynor, Lynch, and Sullivan discuss the trends in all areas of vocational education. Includes information on how new technologies, life-styles, and job demands have changed or should change vocational education. (JOW)

  15. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... includes ecstasy and LSD) in the past month. Cocaine use has gone down in the last few ...

  16. Re/constructing Gendered Achievement Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell

    This paper shows how gender, science, and assessment are all built on a fundamental set of dualistic concepts associated with masculine power and privilege. It also shows that a manageable change to curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices, moving from the conventional masculine paradigm of "quality" practice to a reconstructed…

  17. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  18. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  19. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial. PMID:27005459

  20. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  1. Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel 1988, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Chapters on the following topics are presented: spacecraft instrument calibration and stability; information content of ozone retrieval algorithms; trends in total column ozone measurements; and trends in ozone profile measurement.

  2. Profiles in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimore, Jo, Ed.

    This publication traces developments in the use of profiles produced over the last two years and attempts to face some difficult and controversial issues raised repeatedly in any consideration of profiling. The introduction addresses assessment issues. Section 2 discusses the technical issues surrounding profiles, or records of achievement, and…

  3. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  4. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  5. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  6. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  7. Statistical Trends in Broadcasting. Ninth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair (John) and Co., New York, NY.

    A review of trends in broadcasting and an overall economic profile of the broadcasting industry for 1972, with projections for 1973, are given by a collection of tables and graphs. The first portion presents data on total advertising expenditures and trends, along with information on the gross national product and personal consumption spending.…

  8. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  9. The Language Proficiency Profile-2: Assessment of the Global Communication Skills of Deaf Children across Languages and Modalities of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebko, James M.; Calderon, Rosemary; Treder, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigated the developmental trends and concurrent validity of the Language Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children. Results indicate that the LPP-2 has good utility not only as a measure of overall language development but also as a predictor of achievement for English language…

  10. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  11. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  12. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  13. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  14. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  15. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data: School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for 61 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, and one special program school in the Portland School District for the 1986-87 school year. Twelve different grade-level configurations are represented, from pre-kindergarten to grade 12. Tests are designed to be administered in accordance…

  16. Effects of Flow Profile on Educed Acoustic Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie r.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of the effects of shear flow profile on impedance eduction processes employed at NASA Langley. Uniform and 1-D shear-flow propagation models are used to educe the acoustic impedance of three test liners based on aeroacoustic data acquired in the Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, at source levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB, and at centerline Mach numbers of 0.0, 0.3 and 0.5. A ceramic tubular, calibration liner is used to evaluate the propagation models, as this liner is expected to be insensitive to SPL, grazing flow Mach number, and flow profile effects. The propagation models are then used to investigate the effects of shear flow profile on acoustic impedances educed for two conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liners. Results achieved with the uniform-flow models follow expected trends, but those educed with the 1-D shear-flow model do not, even for the calibration liner. However, when the flow profile used with the shear-flow model is varied to increase the Mach number gradient near the wall, results computed with the shear-flow model are well matched to those achieved with the uniform-flow model. This indicates the effects of flow profile on educed acoustic liner impedance are small, but more detailed investigations of the flow field throughout the duct are needed to better understand these effects.

  17. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  18. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  19. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  20. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  1. Laser-induced retinal damage thresholds for annular retinal beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Paul K.; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.; Till, Stephen; Stuck, Bruce E.; Hollins, Richard C.

    2004-07-01

    The dependence of retinal damage thresholds on laser spot size, for annular retinal beam profiles, was measured in vivo for 3 μs, 590 nm pulses from a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. Minimum Visible Lesion (MVL)ED50 thresholds in rhesus were measured for annular retinal beam profiles covering 5, 10, and 20 mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 μm, respectively, on the primate retina. Annular beam profiles at the retinal plane were achieved using a telescopic imaging system, with the focal properties of the eye represented as an equivalent thin lens, and all annular beam profiles had a 37% central obscuration. As a check on experimental data, theoretical MVL-ED50 thresholds for annular beam exposures were calculated using the Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. Threshold calculations were performed for the three experimental beam diameters and for an intermediate case with an outer beam diameter of 230 μm. Results indicate that the threshold vs. spot size trends, for annular beams, are similar to the trends for top hat beams determined in a previous study; i.e., the threshold dose varies with the retinal image area for larger image sizes. The model correctly predicts the threshold vs. spot size trends seen in the biological data, for both annular and top hat retinal beam profiles.

  2. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2008-04-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into eight categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were added to the survey only in 2005; therefore, meaningful trend analysis is not available.

  3. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This Achiever contains a brief summary on the results of two major international studies: (1) 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS); and (2) 2003 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the 2003 TIMSS, American fourth- and eighth-graders significantly outperformed many of their international peers. In…

  4. Demographic Trends that will Shape Future Housing Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.

    1977-01-01

    Important demographic trends in the United States include 1) the population's changing age profile, 2) the tendency for young people to remain single longer, 3) the widening mortality differential between the sexes, and 4) reversal of migration trends. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands,…

  5. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  6. Sustaining School Achievement in California's Elementary Schools after State Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Academic Performance Index (API) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) achievement trends between 2004 and 2006 of 58 California public elementary schools after exiting state monitoring and investigated practices for sustaining consistent achievement growth. Statistical methods were used to analyze statewide achievement trends…

  7. Hot air vulcanization of rubber profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, J.

    1995-07-01

    Elastomer profiles are deployed in quantity by the automobile industry as seals and wateproofing in coachwork. The high standards demanded by the industry; improvement in weather prediction, noise reduction, restriction of tolerances, together with powerful demand for EPDM force the rubber processing industry into development, particularly of elastomers. Complex proofing systems must also be achieved with extremely complicated profile forms. All too often such profiles have an extremely large surface together with a low cross-section density. They frequently consist of two or three rubber compounds and are steel reinforced. Sometimes they are flocked and coated with a low friction finish. Such high-tech seals require an adjustment of the vulcanization method. The consistent trend in the nineties towards lower quantities of elastomer per sealing unit and the dielectric factor, especially with EPDM, has brought an old fashioned vulcanization method once more to the fore, a method developed over the past years to an extremely high standard, namely the hot-air method. This paper describes various vulcanization and curing methods and their relative merits and disadvantages, the Gerlach hot-air concept, the hot air installation concept, and energy saving and efficiency afforded by this technique. 4 figs.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  10. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  11. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  12. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  13. Culinary Arts Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…

  14. Trends in Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Based on the findings of a content analysis of representative literature on educational technology, this report examines the trends in educational technology from October 1, 1990 through September 30, 1991. Ten trends for 1991 are identified and discussed: (1) the creation of technology-based teaching/learning products is based largely on…

  15. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  16. Ohio Special Education Profile, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a brief, but substantive, profile of the special needs student population in Ohio, including academic performance and graduation trends and an overview of special education funding and related policy issues. The report's central message is that investments in students with special educational needs produce substantial results…

  17. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G. E-mail: dah@lowell.edu

    2013-11-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M{sub B} extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M{sub B} , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms.

  18. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  19. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  20. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  1. Skin Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian/Alaska Native men. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Increased significantly by 1.4% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  2. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.1% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ... significantly by 1.4% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Data source: Ryerson AB, Eheman CR, ...

  3. Lung Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.8% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Decreased significantly by 0.9% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  4. TREND DATA 1971 - 1995

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trend Data provides information up to 25 years of Veteran Data. Included are social and economic information about veterans, demographical and geographical veteran information, statistical information by veteran program areas and veteran survey information as well as references t...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... year among Hispanic women. Remained level among American Indian/Alaska Native women. Decreased significantly by 0.9% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 in the United ...

  6. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  7. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  8. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  9. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  10. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  11. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  12. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  13. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  14. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  15. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  16. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  17. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  18. Trends in groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.

    1996-02-01

    The term trend takes on a variety of meanings for groundwater quality in both a temporal and spatial context. Most commonly, trends are thought of as changes over time at either a regional or localized spatial scale. Generally water quality managers are most interested in changes associated with some form of human activity. Carefully defining what is meant by trend is a critical step in trend analysis and may be accomplished by formulating a statistical model which includes a trend component. Although there are a great many regional groundwater studies which provide a snapshot description of water quality conditions over an area at one point in time, there are relatively few which consider changes over time and fewer still which include a statistical analysis of long-term trend. This review covers both regional and localized studies of groundwater quality around the world, including a few snapshots, but focusing primarily on those studies which include an evaluation of temporal changes in groundwater quality. The studies include national assessments, agricultural case studies (the largest group, mostly regional in scope), urban case studies, and point source and hazardous waste case studies.

  19. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  20. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2007. Questions are grouped into seven categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. (Examples are given below). Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  1. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  2. Multilevel Modeling of Science Achievement in the Timss Participating Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza; Kalantarrashidi, Shojae Aldin

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the variability in science achievement as a function of student-, school- and country-level factors. Achievement scores of 134,123 eighth-grade students from 4,511 schools of 29 countries who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were analyzed. Multilevel modeling results…

  3. Building Mathematics Achievement Models in Four Countries Using TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Osterlind, Steven J.; Bergin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 data, this study built mathematics achievement models of 8th graders in four countries: the USA, Russia, Singapore and South Africa. These 4 countries represent the full spectrum of mathematics achievement. In addition, they represent 4 continents, and they include 2 countries…

  4. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  5. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  6. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  7. Concept, strategy and realization of lectin-based glycan profiling.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Lectins are a diverse group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Each lectin has its own specificity profile. It is believed that lectins exist in all living organisms that produce glycans. From a practical viewpoint, lectins have been used extensively in biochemical fields including proteomics due to their usefulness as detection and enrichment tools for specific glycans. Nevertheless, they have often been underestimated as probes, especially compared with antibodies, because of their low affinity and broad specificity. However, together with the concept of glycomics, such properties of lectins are now considered to be suitable for the task of 'profiling' in order to cover a wider range of ligands. Recently there has been rapid movement in the field of proteomics aimed at the investigation of glycan-related biomarkers. This is partly because of limitations of the present approach of simply following changes in protein-level expression, without paying sufficient attention to the fact and effects of glycosylation. The trend is reflected in the frequent use of lectins in the contexts of glycoprotein enrichment and glycan profiling. However, there are many aspects to be considered in using lectins, which differ considerably from antibodies. In this article, the author, as a developer of two unique methodologies, frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) and the lectin microarray, describes critical points concerning the use of lectins, together with the concept, strategy and means to achieve advances in these emerging glycan profiling technologies. PMID:18390573

  8. Imprecision profiling.

    PubMed

    Sadler, William A

    2008-08-01

    * Imprecision profiles express precision characteristics of an assay over a range of concentration values. They can convert large quantities of potentially complex data into an easily interpreted graphical summary. * Imprecision profile estimation does not require precisely structured data. This implies that structured method evaluation data can be easily compared with, or merged with, less structured internal quality control (QC) data (or with data from any other source). * Although originally conceived for immunoassays, imprecision profiles could, in principle, be used as a summary method with any measurement system where precision varies with level of measurand. PMID:18852854

  9. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  10. Ozone trends: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehelin, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Appenzeller, C.; Eberhard, J.

    2001-05-01

    Ozone plays a very important role in our atmosphere because it protects any living organisms at the Earth's surface against the harmful solar UVB and UVC radiation. In the stratosphere, ozone plays a critical role in the energy budget because it absorbs both solar UV and terrestrial IR radiation. Further, ozone in the tropopause acts as a strong greenhouse gas, and increasing ozone trends at these altitudes contribute to climate change. This review contains a short description of the various techniques that provided atmospheric ozone measurements valuable for long-term trend analysis. The anthropogenic emissions of substances that deplete ozone (chlorine- and bromine-containing volatile gases) have increased from the 1950s until the second half of the 1980s. The most severe consequence of the anthropogenic release of ozone-depleting substances is the "Antarctic ozone hole." Long-term observations indicate that stratospheric ozone depletion in the southern winter-spring season over Antarctica started in the late 1970s, leading to a strong decrease in October total ozone means. Present values are only approximately half of those observed prior to 1970. In the Arctic, large ozone depletion was observed in winter and spring in some recent years. Satellite and ground-based measurements show no significant trends in the tropics but significant long-term decreasing trends in the northern and southern midlatitudes (of the order of 2-4% per decade in the period from 1970 to 1996 and an acceleration in trends in the 1980s). Ozone at northern midlatitudes decreased by -7.4±2% per decade at 40 km above mean sea level, while ozone loss was small at 30 km. Large trends were found in the lower stratosphere, -5.1±1.8% at 20 km and -7.3±4.6% at 15 km, where the bulk of the ozone resides. The possibility of a reduction in the observed trends has been discussed recently, but it is very hard to distinguish this from the natural variability. As a consequence of the Montreal Protocol

  11. Leadership Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Beverly; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents profiles of two leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Carolyn Guss and Mendel Sherman, both retired professors from Indiana University's program in Information Systems Technology. (KRN)

  12. Pioneer Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Channa Beth

    1987-01-01

    Profiles Herbert A. Sweet, founder and director of Acorn Farms Day Camp (Indiana) for 44 years. Includes reminiscences about the camp's program, staffing, food, World War II, affiliation with the American Camping Association, and camps/directors of today. (NEC)

  13. Enrollment and Budget Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community Coll. System, Hartford.

    This document discusses Fall 2001 enrollment and budget trends for Connecticut Community Colleges. It provides a map of the geographic planning regions as well as the geographic distribution of credit enrollments for the regions. The document shows the total credit enrollment for Fall 2001 was 42,642 students, which consisted of 28% full time and…

  14. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  15. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  16. The Top Ten Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Trends shaping the workplace are increased skill requirements; more educated, diverse work force; continued corporate restructuring; change in size and composition of training departments; instructional technology advances; new training delivery methods; focus on performance improvement; integrated high-performance work systems; companies becoming…

  17. Trends in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  18. Trends in Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gary H.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews trends in copyright law, including changes resulting from technological advances that include audio and video tape recordings, motion pictures, photocopying equipment, CD-ROM, and multimedia; amendments to the law, including administrative issues; compensation to authors of computer software programs; court cases; and a movement toward…

  19. Population Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, W. Parker

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations. It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. (Author/SA)

  20. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  1. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.

    This paper describes trends in public elementary and secondary education in the United States. The data were obtained from the "Condition of Education" and the "Digest of Education Statistics," which are prepared annually by the National Center for Education Statistics. Information is presented on the following areas: enrollment, minority…

  2. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  3. INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will attempt to provide a pollution prevention legislative overview of where we have been, where we are, and some thoughts on pollution prevention legislative trends for the future. overnments have an important role to play by setting the regulatory framework, but clea...

  4. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  5. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  6. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  7. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  8. Trends: The Canadian University in Profile. 1991 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report offers an overview of Canadian universities primarily by means of statistical data on enrollment, degrees, faculty, finance, and research. The report uses data from Statistics Canada and from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. An introduction provides an analysis of the financial status of Canadian universities…

  9. Mask industry assessment trend analysis 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data was presented at BACUS and a detailed trend analysis is presented here. The annual survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify trends in the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were only added to the survey in 2005; therefore meaningful trend analysis is not yet available.

  10. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  11. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  12. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  13. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  14. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  15. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  16. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  17. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  18. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  19. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  20. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  1. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  4. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  5. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  8. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  9. Microporous polyethylene separators — today and tomorrow. Separator development trends for modern automotive batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    During the past decade, the design of modern automotive batteries has undergone a fundamental change. The introduction of microporous polyethylene pocket separators has resulted in an approximately 8% better volume utilization. Besides increasing the energy density, the polyethylene envelope has enalbed an improvement in cold-cranking performance and has raised the production efficiency. A first failure-mode analysis of pocket-separated automotive batteries in Europe with respect to leaf separation is presented. For comparable service life, a shift in failure mode has been found. Although corrosion of the positive electrode still dominates, a significant increase in positive active-material shedding is noted. This is certainly a consequence of the general trend towards lower antimony contents. Shorting through the separator is only found in cases of severe battery mistreatment. This positive, intermediary result is supplemented by an outlook on emerging development trends. Future automotive batteries will experience elevated operating temperatures, higher cycling loads, and maintenance freedom. Battery tests at temperatures up to 75 °C with various alloy combinations show that the hybrid design is best suited to meet the expected requirements. Microporous polyethylene pocket separation is not expected to be a limiting factor; the trend to lower antimony alloy content and increased cycling load will demonstrate the advantage of this separation even more clearly than in the past. Optimization of the already achieved, balanced separator characteristics profile with the reference parameters of electrical performance, water loss, durability and machinability will stimulate further development work.

  10. The Contribution of Dynamic Interannual Variability to Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne; Stolarski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    At middle latitudes the total column ozone and the lower stratospheric ozone mixing ratio exhibit natural variability. Models and statistical analyses of observations such as SAGE ozone profiles and TOMS column measurements show that seasonal cycle, solar cycle, and interannual dynamical variability and dynamical phenomena such as the quasi- biennial oscillation all contribute to ozone variability. These must be accounted for when deriving ozone trends. Systematic or random changes in the atmospheric circulation may also contribute to ozone trends. It is presently unclear how much of the ozone trend derived from observations is due to changes in the chemical composition of the stratosphere and how much is due to changes in the atmospheric circulation. We are attempting to resolve this issue by comparing a twenty-five year simulation of ozone with fixed source gas boundary conditions with an identical simulation with time dependent source gas boundary conditions. Both simulations are driven with output from a general circulation model that produces realistic interannual variability in dynamical forcing. The model trend in ozone due to changes in composition is determined from the difference in these simulations. We compare these trends with trends determined from observations and model output using the same analysis techniques. Initial results emphasize the complications to attribution of observed ozone trends to dynamical and photochemical effects that are due to interrelationships between trends in transport, temperature, and photochemical effects. It may not be possible to describe the ozone trend as a superposition of dynamical and photochemical contributions.

  11. Profile video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglewede, Paul E.; Zampieron, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    For unattended persistent surveillance there is a need for a system which provides the following information: target classification, target quantity estimate, cargo presence and characterization, direction of travel, and action. Over highly bandwidth restricted links, such as Iridium, SATCOM or HF, the data rates of common techniques are too high, even after aggressive compression, to deliver the required intelligence in a timely, low power manner. We propose the following solution to this data rate problem: Profile Video. Profile video is a new technique which provides all of the required information in a very low data-rate package.

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  14. Breastfeeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Counsilman, J J; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiate breastfeeding. This value compares favourably with the 36% recently recorded for poor mothers, but is still unacceptably low compared to the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who breastfed in the 1950s and 1960s. There has been a general decline in the incidence of breastfeeding over the last 35 years. Differences between the well-to-do and poor groups were initially small. A pronounced decline in the incidence of breastfeeding among the well-to-do mothers followed; a reversal in this downward trend in well-to-do mothers over the past 10 years has narrowed, and indeed reversed, the difference between the two groups. Similar trends can be found for the duration of breastfeeding. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and 'Westernization' of the population the variation between these two economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the three major ethnic communities, Chinese favoured breastfeeding least and Malays favoured it most. The differences are believed to be related to cultural differences and the ability of traditional practices and beliefs among the ethnic groups to resist the modern trend towards bottlefeeding. PMID:2919314

  15. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

    1991-01-01

    An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

  16. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Ability Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Alfonso, Vincent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cognitive ability profiles of children with specific age-based normative weaknesses in reading comprehension and compares those profiles to the profiles of (a) children with at least average achievement in reading comprehension, reading decoding skills, and mathematics and (b) children with low achievement across the 3…

  17. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  18. Construction Trends Dictate Vital Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivchak, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Vocational education can provide opportunities for students by anticipating trends. Four trends in the construction industry are (1) remodeling, (2) building and apartment maintenance, (3) quality, and (4) smart houses. (JOW)

  19. The NASA trend analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, J. Larry; Weinstock, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The four main areas of the NASA trend analysis program (problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending) are defined and illustrated with examples from Space Shuttle applications. Emphasis is on the programmatic-trending component of the program and several of the statistical techniques used. Also described is the NASA safety, reliability, maintainability, and quality assurance management information center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues.

  20. PROFILE user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L.; Saunders, D.

    1986-01-01

    User information for program PROFILE, an aerodynamics design utility for refining, plotting, and tabulating airfoil profiles is provided. The theory and implementation details for two of the more complex options are also presented. These are the REFINE option, for smoothing curvature in selected regions while retaining or seeking some specified thickness ratio, and the OPTIMIZE option, which seeks a specified curvature distribution. REFINE uses linear techniques to manipulate ordinates via the central difference approximation to second derivatives, while OPTIMIZE works directly with curvature using nonlinear least squares techniques. Use of programs QPLOT and BPLOT is also described, since all of the plots provided by PROFILE (airfoil coordinates, curvature distributions) are achieved via the general purpose QPLOT utility. BPLOT illustrates (again, via QPLOT) the shape functions used by two of PROFILE's options. The programs were designed and implemented for the Applied Aerodynamics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, and written in FORTRAN and run on a VAX-11/780 under VMS.

  1. Meteorological and pollutant profiles under very stable conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Coulter, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) can become very stable, with wind and temperature increasing rapidly with height and a local wind maximum often occurring near the top of the boundary layer. The wind speed, potential temperature, moisture, and ozone profiles in the NBL above flat terrain were studied by Argonne National Laboratory in the early morning and late evening during the Central Illinois Rainfall Convection Experiment (CIRCE) in July, 1979, with sensors carried aloft by a tethered kytoon. One aim was to examine closely the shape of profiles at heights of about 20 to 200 m by taking measurements at closely spaced height intervals. The tethered balloon was held at each level for a time sufficient for all sensors to come to equilibrium with the local atmosphere; this typically required 2 to 5 min at each level. It was possible to detect changes in spatial trends in profiles in real time, so that smaller height intervals could be used if the changes seemed important. As a result, greater resolution was achieved than is normally obtained with instruments attached to towers or to free balloons.

  2. Unsupervised Discovery of Subspace Trends.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Qiu, Peng; Roysam, Badrinath

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents unsupervised algorithms for discovering previously unknown subspace trends in high-dimensional data sets without the benefit of prior information. A subspace trend is a sustained pattern of gradual/progressive changes within an unknown subset of feature dimensions. A fundamental challenge to subspace trend discovery is the presence of irrelevant data dimensions, noise, outliers, and confusion from multiple subspace trends driven by independent factors that are mixed in with each other. These factors can obscure the trends in conventional dimension reduction & projection based data visualizations. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel graph-theoretic neighborhood similarity measure for detecting concordant progressive changes across data dimensions. Using this measure, we present an unsupervised algorithm for trend-relevant feature selection, subspace trend discovery, quantification of trend strength, and validation. Our method successfully identified verifiable subspace trends in diverse synthetic and real-world biomedical datasets. Visualizations derived from the selected trend-relevant features revealed biologically meaningful hidden subspace trend(s) that were obscured by irrelevant features and noise. Although our examples are drawn from the biological domain, the proposed algorithm is broadly applicable to exploratory analysis of high-dimensional data including visualization, hypothesis generation, knowledge discovery, and prediction in diverse other applications. PMID:26353189

  3. NATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1984, the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program has monitored, on a national scale, spatial and temporal trends of chemical contamination and biological responses to that contamination. Temporal trends are being monitored through the Mussel Watch project that analyzes m...

  4. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  5. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  6. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  7. Nuclear power attitude trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nealey, S.M.

    1981-11-01

    The increasing vulnerability of nuclear power to political pressures fueled by public concerns, particularly about nuclear plant safety and radioactive waste disposal, has become obvious. Since Eisenhower's Atoms-for-Peace program, utility and government plans have centered on expansion of nuclear power generating capability. While supporters have outnumbered opponents of nuclear power expansion for many years, in the wake of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident the margin of support has narrowed. The purpose of this paper is to report and put in perspective these long-term attitude trends.

  8. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  9. Patent profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents profiles of US patents in the area of solar energy technology, and in the related areas of wind, geothermal and tide and wave energy. Each profile is divided into three parts. The first part identifies the area which is examined, lists the pertinent US Patent Classification(s), and graphically illustrates patent activity across a designated 10-year span. The second part tabulates the data upon which the graphs of the first part were based, provides a list of assignees for the period 1969 to 1978 both by the number of patents and alphabetically, and presents on alphabetical listing of inventors of unassigned patents. The third part updates the preceding material for the period January-October 1979. (SPH)

  10. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  11. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  12. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be. PMID:9752708

  13. Global Survey on Future Trends in Human Spaceflight: the Implications for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtuna, O.; Garneau, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the much-publicized first ever space tourist flight, of Dennis Tito, and the announcement of the second space tourist flight to take place in April 2002, it is clear that an alternative motivation for human spaceflight has emerged. Human spaceflight is no longer only about meeting the priorities of national governments and space agencies, but is also about the tangible possibility of ordinary people seeing the Earth from a previously exclusive vantage point. It is imperative that major space players look beyond the existing human spaceflight rationale to identify some of the major driving forces behind space tourism, including the evolving market potential and developments in enabling technologies. In order to determine the influence of these forces on the future of commercial human spaceflight, the responses of a Futuraspace survey on future trends in human spaceflight are analyzed and presented. The motivation of this study is to identify sought-after space destinations, explore the expected trends in enabling technologies, and understand the future role of emerging space players. The survey will reflect the opinions of respondents from around the world including North America, Europe (including Russia) and Asia. The profiles of targeted respondents from space industry, government and academia are high-level executives/managers, senior researchers, as well as former and current astronauts. The survey instrument is a questionnaire which is validated by a pilot study. The sampling method is non-probabilistic, targeting as many space experts as possible who fit our intended respondent profile. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis methods are implemented to investigate both global and regional perceptions of future commercial trends in human spaceflight. This study is not intended to be a formal market study of the potential viability of the space tourism market. Instead, the focus is on the future trends of human spaceflight, by drawing on the

  14. Vertical Seismoelectric Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araji, A.

    2011-12-01

    The seismoelectric method corresponds to the measurement of electromagnetic disturbances associated with the passage of seismic waves in a porous medium. The coupling is due to the existence of the electric double layer at the solid/water interfaces. We consider the case of vertical seismoelectric profiling in which we trigger a seismic source in a vertical borehole and measure the seismoelectric response on the surface. We aim to image hetrogeneities in that section of the subsurface by utilizing the seismoelectric sources created at interfaces. An iterative source localization inversion algorithm is used to achieve the imaging of interfaces.

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. The supercritical profile of the supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, O.

    1981-01-01

    The profile wing design for supercritical structures is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the flow of air surrounding the wing and variations in flow fields are examined. Modifications to the profile for flight below transonic level are presented that increase the uplift pressure and permit the achievement of critical Mach numbers on the order of 0.85. The uplift pressure along the upper side of the profile is compared for a classical and a Peaky profile. A comparison of classical and supercritical wing cross sections indicates a flatter upper side, a large nose radius, and a thicker profile to the supercritical wing.

  17. PNP: mining of profile navigational patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Fu; Shan, Man-Kwan

    2002-03-01

    Web usage mining is a key knowledge discovery research and as such has been well researched. So far, this research has focused mainly on databases containing access log data only. However, many real-world databases contain users profile data and current solutions for this situation are still insufficient. In this paper we have a large database containing of user profile information together with user web-pages navigation patterns. The user profile data includes quantitative attributes, such as salary or age, and categorical attributes, such as sex or marital status. We introduce the concept of profile navigation patterns, which discusses the problem of relating user profile information to navigational behavior. An example of such profile navigation pattern might be 20% of married people between age 25 and 30 have the similar navigational behavior <(a,c)(c,h)(h,i)(i,h)(h,l)>, where a, c, h, i, l are web pages in a web site. The navigation patterns may contain the generic traversal behavior, e.g. trend to backward moves, cycles etc. The objective of mining profile navigation patterns is to identify browser profile for web personalization. We give an algorithm for mining such profile navigation patterns. Our method (algorithm PNP) can discover profile navigation patterns efficiently. We also present new inclination measurements to identify the interesting profile navigational patterns. Experimental results show the efficiency and scalability of PNP.

  18. Rapid profiling and identification of anthocyanins in fruits with Hadamard transform ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H; Yin, Dulin

    2015-06-15

    The use of Hadamard transform ion mobility mass spectrometry (HT-IMMS) in the profiling of anthocyanins from different fruits is presented. Samples extracted with acidic methanol and purified with solid phase extraction were analyzed with direct IMMS infusion. The separation of various anthocyanins was achieved within 30s with resolving powers up to 110. The ion mobility drift times correlated with their mass-to-charge ratios with a correlation coefficient of 0.979 to produce a trend line that was characteristic for anthocyanins. Isomers with the same anthocyanidin but different hexoses were differentiated by ion mobility spectrometry. Furthermore, mobility separated ions underwent collision induced dissociation at the IMMS interface to provide MS/MS spectra. These fragmentation spectra aided in the identification of anthocyanidins via the loss of the saccharide groups. IMMS appears to be a rapid and efficient approach for profiling and identifying anthocyanins. PMID:25660880

  19. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labitzke, K.; Miller, A. J.; Angell, J.; Deluisi, J.; Frederick, J.; Logan, J.; Mateer, C.; Naujokat, B.; Reinsel, G.; Tiao, G.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of temporal changes in ozone and temperature are discussed. The data are examined within the context of natural atmospheric variability and data problems. The results are compared to numerical model calculations. The major issues are defined in terms of goal achievement. Each parameter is considered in terms of instrument type, long term effects, and altitude.

  20. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  1. MPI Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  2. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  3. Reckoning wheat yield trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Huybers, P.

    2012-06-01

    Wheat yields have increased approximately linearly since the mid-twentieth century across the globe, but stagnation of these trends has now been suggested for several nations. We present a new statistical test for whether a yield time series has leveled off and apply it to wheat yield data from 47 different regions to show that nearly half of the production within our sample has transitioned to level trajectories. With the major exception of India, the majority of leveling in wheat yields occurs within developed nations—including the United Kingdom, France and Germany—whose policies appear to have disincentivized yield increases relative to other objectives. The effects of climate change and of yields nearing their maximum potential may also be important.

  4. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  5. Population Profile of the United States 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This population profile summarizes the wide range of demographic and socio-economic data collected from the Current Population Survey during 1984 and 1985. The report contains information on the following areas: National Population Trends; National Population Projections; Fertility; State Population Trends; The Metropolitan/Nonmetropolitan…

  6. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  7. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  8. Understanding the Gap in Mathematics Achievement of Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azina

    2009-01-01

    Of 46 countries that participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study in 2003 (I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. J. Chrostowski, 2004), Malaysia was ranked 10th in international scores of mathematics achievement for 8th-grade students. The present author aimed to examine the importance of students' home…

  9. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  10. A Closer Look at School Cutoff Dates and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalk, John Michael; And Others

    National Assessment of Educational Progress data in reading, mathematics, and science for Caucasian children were analyzed. Using regression analysis for three age groups, nine, thirteen, and seventeen year olds, a trend analysis was plotted. The changing achievement relationships between these students relative to their classmates and their age…

  11. The Harsher Side of Globalisation: Violent Conflict and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The paper draws on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data for nearly 60 educational systems to explore the characteristics and patterns of school violence across a number of countries and the extent to which measures of violence are associated with achievement in mathematics and science. Using a multi-level…

  12. The Sandia Report and U.S. Achievement: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Lawrence C.

    1994-01-01

    The article assesses the report of the Sandia National Laboratory's contentions about decline in Scholactic Aptitude Test Scores, National Assessment of Educational Progress achievement, and international assessments. The article suggests the report is generally right about steady trends but seriously flawed by several errors. (SM)

  13. Ahead in College: A Developmental Program for Low Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Passalacqua, Juan M.

    Because of the current trend toward further education for all high school graduates, there is need to prepare low-achieving students for college-level work. A developmental program was designed for Puerto Rico Junior College to improve the performance of high school graduates with low academic averages and entrance examination scores. After a year…

  14. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  15. A Profile of Private Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Bruce M.

    A profile of private liberal arts colleges as a group was constructed from a study of approximately 690 such colleges in the U.S. This study has six chapters, including an introduction that presents a cursory view of some major aspects of the condition of higher education in general. The next four chapters examine trends in institutional and…

  16. PROFILES OF TWENTY MAJOR AMERICAN CITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOURIA, MARGOT; STOKES, MARGURITE C.

    THESE PROFILES PROVIDE EXTENSIVE DATA ON POVERTY, POPULATION TRENDS, EDUCATION, WELFARE, CRIME, AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN 20 MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS. FISCAL YEAR 1967 APPROPRIATIONS FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR BASIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING, AND FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ARE ALSO LISTED. THE POPULATION, POVERTY, AND EDUCATION…

  17. Searching for Tomorrow's Innovators: Profiling Creative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara; McKay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Profiling may be a viable means of identifying those creative adolescents who can benefit from specialized guidance and exploration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, arts, and human services. The experimenters developed 1 general and 5 specific profiles including interest, personality, and achievement variables…

  18. Experimental validation of 2D profile photoresist shrinkage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Cordes, Aaron; Self, Andy; Ferry, Lorena; Danilevsky, Alex

    2011-03-01

    For many years, lithographic resolution has been the main obstacle in allowing the pace of transistor densification to meet Moore's Law. For the 32 nm node and beyond, new lithography techniques will be used, including immersion ArF (iArF) lithography and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). As in the past, these techniques will use new types of photoresists with the capability to print smaller feature widths and pitches. These smaller feature sizes will also require the use of thinner layers of photoresists, such as under 100 nm. In previous papers, we focused on ArF and iArF photoresist shrinkage. We evaluated the magnitude of shrinkage for both R&D and mature resists as a function of chemical formulation, lithographic sensitivity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) beam condition, and feature size. Shrinkage results were determined by the well accepted methodology described in SEMATECH's CD-SEM Unified Specification. In other associated works, we first developed a 1-D model for resist shrinkage for the bottom linewidth and then a 2-D profile model that accounted for shrinkage of all aspects of a trapezoidal profile along a given linescan. A fundamental understanding of the phenomenology of the shrinkage trends was achieved, including how the shrinkage behaves differently for different sized and shaped features. In the 1-D case, calibration of the parameters to describe the photoresist material and the electron beam was all that was required to fit the models to real shrinkage data, as long as the photoresist was thick enough that the beam could not penetrate the entire layer of resist. The later 2-D model included improvements for solving the CD shrinkage in thin photoresists, which is now of great interest for upcoming realistic lithographic processing to explore the change in resist profile with electron dose and to predict the influence of initial resist profile on shrinkage characteristics. The 2-D model also included shrinkage due to both the primary

  19. International trends in pedestrian injury mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I G

    1993-01-01

    Trends in pedestrian injury mortality for children aged 0-4 and 5-14 for England and Wales, Denmark, Sweden, the USA, and New Zealand were examined from 1968 onwards. While there has been a reduction in the pedestrian mortality in all these countries, there are striking international differences in the extent of these reductions. Denmark has achieved the greatest fall in mortality with the smallest decrease seen in New Zealand. Countries which have experienced major decreases in pedestrian mortality are distinguished by having placed greater emphasis on environmentally based prevention strategies rather than pedestrian skills education. PMID:8481041

  20. Changing trends in thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, O; Dias, A; Timon, C

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the indications, referral trends and demographics for thyroidectomies performed in our institutions over a 13-year period by a single surgeon. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 1003 consecutive thyroidectomies at our institutions during the period 1998 until 2010. The parameters incorporated to this study were age, sex, county, referral source, symptoms, thyroid status, procedure performed, histopathology and post-operative complications. The age range of patients was 4-87 years. There were 777 females and 226 males, with a sex ratio of 3.4:1. The mean age was 51 years. The commonest indications for surgery were a potential or definite neoplastic thyroid mass (781 cases--78%), compressive symptoms (119 cases-- 12%), thyrotoxicosis and endocrine related causes (103 cases--10%). 896 (89.3%) patients were euthyroid, 4 (0.4%) hypothyroid and 103 (10.3%) hyperthyroid. There were 739 partial thyroidectomies and 264 total thyroidectomies. Histopathology results showed that 742 were benign and 261 malignant, of which papillary carcinomas accounted for 75.1%, follicular carcinomas 13.4%, Hurthle cell carcinoma 1.5%, medullary thyroid carcinomas 3 %/, undifferentiated carcinomas 3%, others (lymphoma and squamous cell carcinomas) 4%. Post-operative complications were: Temporary hypocalcaemia--6.4%, Permanent hypocalcemia in--0.8%. Haemorrhage and seroma in 1.5%, unilateral vocal cord paralysis in 1.2%/, post-operative wound infection in 0.3% and pulmonary embolism in 0.01%. There was no mortality. Dublin accounted for 519 (51.7%/) of referrals, 484 (48.3%) was from the rest of the country. General practitioners accounted for 84.8%/ of referrals. Endocrine referrals comprised 9.8%. Other specialities constituted 5.4%. Two significant findings from this study were; firstly, a trend depicting increasing referral rates from the general practitioner and endocrine services. Secondly, low post-operative complication rates that

  1. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  2. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  3. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  4. Temperature Trends in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    TOVS (Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder) is the suite of infra-red and microwave sounding instruments, including HIRS-2 and MSU, that have flown on the NOAA Polar orbiting operational satellites TIROS-N, NOAA 6-14 from November 1978 to the present day. Data has been analyzed for the entire time period using a consistent methodology to produce twice daily per satellite global fields of surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature-moisture profile, cloud top pressure, and fractional cloud cover, OLR and clear sky OLR, and precipitation. All parameters were found to depend on the orbit time of observation which differed as a function of time both because of differing initial satellite orbits and orbit drift. This must be accounted for before one can attempt to find trends in the data. Methodology to account for orbit drift will be shown. Trends will then be shown, over the 21 year period 1979-1999, for surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profile. There has been global warming near the surface which falls off rapidly with height. Trends will also be shown for values of MSU2R and MSU4 which are computed from the soundings. These will be compared to trends of MSU2R and MSU4 observed by Spencer and Christy. There is generally good agreement between Spencer and Christy MSU2R trends and those computed from the TOVS Pathfinder data set, with the largest differences over the tropics.

  5. Trends in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    The future of reservoir simulation is driven by two different and, on the surface, paradoxical trends. On the one hand, the user base is on average becoming less experienced, and on the other, increasingly complex models are being built to honor the advances in reservoir-description technology. The job of the software development community is to create software that satisfies both the ease-of-use needs of the novice and the accuracy needs of the integrated geoscience team. One of the near-term effects of these demands will be to improve the capabilities and quality of the fully integrated geoscience work-station. This will include the need for implementation of industry-wide data standards. Reservoir simulators will need to incorporate increasing amounts of interactivity and built-in expertise. Accuracy of results will be improved by increased use of unstructured grids, including automatic gridding software with dynamic capabilities. Additional research will focus on complex wells, including both in-flow performance and wellbore hydraulics. Finally, grid size will continue to escalate in step with advances in hardware and software. The growth of grid size will be mitigated by substantial efforts in upscaling, but ultimately parallel computing must provide the mechanism for continued growth.

  6. Suicide: current trends.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates. PMID:21999037

  7. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Well-Being across the Transition to Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine students' (N = 579) achievement goal orientation profiles, the temporal stability of these profiles across the transition to upper secondary education, and profile differences in academic well-being (i.e., school value, school burnout, schoolwork engagement, satisfaction with educational choice). By means of…

  9. Shotgun weddings: trends in the sociopathology of marriage.

    PubMed

    Kraus, J

    1977-12-01

    The study was concerned with secular trends in forced marriages in N.S.W. The definition of forced marriage was first nuptial birth occurring within six months of the wedding. The typical demographic profile of such marriages portends a "risk" of marital breakdown and child abuse. Formal analysis of the time series showed upward trends in the proportions of brides "at risk" in the 16-17 age groups, and in the proportions of children "at risk" born to brides in the 16 to 22 age range. The findings were discussed critically, and some prophylactic and remedial social measures suggested. PMID:272885

  10. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  11. Trends in Digital Media 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The world of CALL is changing rapidly, but there are three major trends that can be perceived as significant to language teaching and learning and likely to remain so over the next several years. This paper will discuss these trends--convergence, searchability, and collaboration--and offer examples of interesting websites that illustrate them.…

  12. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  13. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  14. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  15. TRENDS IN HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WINICK, CHARLES

    A REVIEW OF MAIN TRENDS IN RECENT HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES, PARTICULARLY AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE WORK OF SIGMUND LIVINGSTON FELLOWS, IS PRESENTED. THE FOCUS IS ON STUDIES DEALING WITH ETHNIC, RACIAL, OR RELIGIOUS CATEGORIES, AND ON RESEARCH DEALING WITH INTERGROUP PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION. THE THREE MAJOR TRENDS IN RESEARCH…

  16. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  17. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  18. 10 Core External Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is an institutional report summarizing 10 core external environmental trends and their implications for El Camino College and the surrounding community. The report offers a brief description for the following trends: (1) there is more emphasis on colleges becoming learning institutions rather than teaching institutions; (2) the current and…

  19. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  20. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  1. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  2. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  3. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  4. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  5. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  6. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  7. A Trend of Systems Development Technologies toward Smart Public Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hirasawa, Shigeki

    Driven by increasing urbanization and serious economic and environmental challenges, what is called smart grid and smart cities, the transformation to smart public infrastructure system will require technological progress. This paper presents an emerging trend of the systems development and a framework of systems technologies to achieve the smart public infrastructure of the future.

  8. What Trends Do Turkish Biology Education Studies Indicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu; Calik, Muammer; Cavus, Ragip

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what trends Turkish biology education studies indicate. To achieve this aim, the researchers examined online databases of the Higher Education Council and open access archives of graduate theses in web sites of Turkish universities. Finally, totally 138 graduate theses were elicited to analyze in regard to…

  9. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  10. On the principles of the U-trend method for dating quaternary sediments, II: Alternative U-trend type models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, A. G.

    If, as assumed in the U-trend method, the fluxing of U down through a sedimentary unit leaves behind a time-dependent trail of daughter products, what isotopic variations might one expect to observe? Are the isotopic variations of loosely bound U-series isotopes, as they establish reequilibrition by radioactive growth and decay, correlated with depth? In the original U-trend method, the answers to these questions are not entirely clear for two main reasons. First, it is stated that α-recoil effects are included in the empirical equations, but it is not clear how this was achieved or what effect they may have on depth-related variation of activity ratios. Second, many of the data sets (paper 1) do not show strong correlations of activity ratios with depth. In effect, 'U-trend' does not appear to include 'activity-ratio trend', as might be expected if chronological information is contained within loosely bound U-fluxed isotopes. In this paper, three alternative models, based upon assumptions close to original U-trend assumptions, predict that (1) U content should change systematically with depth and (2) {234U }/{238U }and{sol 230Th }/{234U } variations should also show systematic trends with depth. The caveat is that, unlike U-trend, α-recoil effects were not taken into account because of the difficulty of assessing the magnitude of the (variable) source term. Two of the models give identical U-trend and isotope ratio trends, which suggests that age estimation might be independent of some types of fluviation processes. It is the view of this and the preceding paper that the first requirement for the viability of any U-trend type method is to establish leaching techniques that can reliably and selectively extract the U-flux isotopes.

  11. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members. PMID:12292274

  12. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  13. Quantifying stratospheric ozone trends: Complications due to stratospheric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that ozone turnaround (the second stage of ozone recovery) is near. Determining precisely when this occurs, however, will be complicated by greenhouse gas-induced stratospheric cooling as ozone trends derived from profile data in different units and/or vertical co-ordinates will not agree. Stratospheric cooling leads to simultaneous trends in air density and layer thicknesses, confounding the interpretation of ozone trends. A simple model suggests that instruments measuring ozone in different units may differ as to the onset of turnaround by a decade, with some indicting a continued decline while others an increase. This concept was illustrated by examining the long-term (1979-2005) ozone trends in the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) time series. Trends from SAGE, which measures number density as a function of altitude, and SBUV, which measures partial column as a function of pressure, are known to differ by 4-6%/decade in the upper stratosphere. It is shown that this long-standing difference can be reconciled to within 2%/decade when the trend in temperature is properly accounted for.

  14. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  15. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  16. Trends in space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.

    Near-future goals of international launch systems are aimed at placing payloads of at least 5000 kg into geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). In the United States, this will be accomplished by the Shuttle with a new upper stage and complementary expendable launch vehicle (CELV) such as the Titan 34D7/Centaur. The Soviet Union's efforts will also achieve this goal and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane 5 will approach it. It appears clear that the U.S. will revert to a mixed fleet policy, utilizing the Shuttle only for those missions where its capacity is needed or where manned presence is a necessity. The ESA Hermes and the Soviet shuttle will also be chiefly used in the latter capacity. In the United States and the Soviet Union, much thought and some funds are being devoted to the study of third-generation space transportation systems. The objectives are to achieve either/or ready access to space, low cost per pound to orbit, and very heavy weights (at low cost/pound) to orbit. Concepts such as the AerospacePlane and HOTOL (horizontal take-off and landing); the Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), and mammoth heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs) are being studied. The third generation of launch vehicles will serve both civilian and military needs. Civilian applications represent a myriad of advanced needs. They range from the normal extension of present communications, earth observations, in-space manufacturing, and space station and other manned operations to the more exotic missions of Mars expeditions (both manned and unmanned), lunar bases, and large space-based power systems. Military applications are likely to include advanced intelligence and reconnaissance systems, spacecraft servicing and maintenance tasks, support of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) systems, and possibly a permanent manned presence in space. Both civil and military aims may lead to the development of the AerospacePlane. This vehicle could evolve into forms designed for high speed air

  17. Monitoring grizzly bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

  18. Epistemic Profiles and Metacognition: Support for the Consistency Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Franco, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Relations were examined between epistemic profiles, metacognition, problem solving, and achievement in the context of learning in an educational psychology course. Two hundred thirty-one university students completed self-report inventories reflecting their epistemic profiles and use of metacognitive strategies, and were epistemically profiled as…

  19. Profile Coatings and their Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.; Ice, Gene E; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Zhang, K.

    2003-01-01

    We report a method of profile coating to achieve a certain selected thickness profile of a thin film coating using dc magnetron sputtering. In profile coatings, the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour depends on the desired profile and the thickness distribution directly above the gun at the substrate level. Si wafers of 4 in. diameter were coated through a 100 x 152 mm{sup 2} aperture on the top of the shield can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution. The relative thickness weightings are then obtained at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield can during depositions, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed very close (-1 mm) to the substrate level on the shield-can opening. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth rate calibration. This method of profile coating has been applied to coat laterally graded W/C multilayers. It has also been applied to coat Au on a cylindrical mirror to obtain an elliptical mirror for x-ray focusing applications. Test results for these applications will be presented.

  20. Profile coatings and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A. T.; Ice, G. E.; Tischler, J. Z.; Zhang, K.

    2003-07-01

    We report a method of profile coating to achieve a certain selected thickness profile of a thin film coating using dc magnetron sputtering. In profile coatings, the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour depends on the desired profile and the thickness distribution directly above the gun at the substrate level. Si wafers of 4 in. diameter were coated through a 100×152 mm2 aperture on the top of the shield can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution. The relative thickness weightings are then obtained at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield can during depositions, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed very close (~1 mm) to the substrate level on the shield-can opening. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth rate calibration. This method of profile coating has been applied to coat laterally graded W/C multilayers. It has also been applied to coat Au on a cylindrical mirror to obtain an elliptical mirror for x-ray focusing applications. Test results for these applications will be presented.

  1. Reassessment of MIPAS age of air trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haenel, F. J.; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Funke, B.; Eckert, E.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Reddmann, T.

    2015-11-01

    A new and improved setup of the SF6 retrieval together with a newly calibrated version of MIPAS-ENVISAT level 1b spectra (version 5, ESA data version 5.02/5.06) was used to obtain a new global SF6 data set, covering the total observational period of MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2012 for the first time. Monthly and zonally averaged SF6 profiles were converted into mean age of air using a tropospheric SF6-reference curve. The obtained data set of age of air was compared to airborne age of air measurements. The temporal evolution of the mean age of air was then investigated in 10° latitude and 1-2 km altitude bins. A regression model consisting of a constant and a linear trend term, two proxies for the quasi-biennial oscillation variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semiannual variation and overtones was fitted to the age of air time series. The annual cycle for particular regions in the stratosphere was investigated and compared to other studies. The age of air trend over the total MIPAS period consisting of the linear term was assessed and compared to previous findings of Stiller et al. (2012). While the linear increase of mean age is confirmed to be positive for the northern midlatitudes and southern polar middle stratosphere, differences are found in the northern polar upper stratosphere, where the mean age is now found to increase as well. The magnitude of trends in the northern midlatitude middle stratosphere is slightly lower compared to the previous version and the trends fit remarkably well to the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009). Negative age of air trends found by Stiller et al. (2012) are confirmed for the lowermost tropical stratosphere and lowermost southern midlatitudinal stratosphere. Differences to the previous data versions occur in the middle tropical stratosphere around 25 km, where the trends are now negative. Overall, the new latitude-altitude distribution of trends appears to be less patchy and more coherent than the previous

  2. Advancements in one-dimensional profiling with a long trace profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, S.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    1992-06-01

    Over the last several years the long trace profiler (LTP) has been evolving into a sophisticated machine capable of measuring surface profiles of very long dimensions. This report explains improvements, both hardware and software, that have helped to achieve accuracies and ranges in surface profiling that have been unobtainable until now. A comparison made by measuring standard optical surfaces on other instruments corroborates these accuracies.

  3. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  4. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  5. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  6. Hypocentral trend surface analysis: Probing the geometry of Benioff Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, Michael; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1984-07-01

    A hypocentral trend surface is a continuous function of latitude and longtitude fitted by least squares to a set of hypocenters so that it predicts depth to the "middle" of a Benioff Zone. In this paper we take a relatively simple approach to hypocentral trend surface analysis. The hypocentral trend surface is constructed from a spherical surface harmonic expansion whose coefficients are selected so as to minimize the standard vertical deviation between hypocenters and trend surface. The vertical deviation of a hypocenter from the hypocentral trend surface is called its residual. Consideration of a hypocentral trend surface cannot be divorced from consideration of the associated residuals and their spatial distribution. Any analysis of Benioff Zone geometry trades-off presumed thickness of the zone with its presumed shape. This trade-off can be investigated by examining suites of candidate hypocentral trend surfaces (together with their associated residual distributions) generated by varying the number of degrees of freedom available to the trend surface. Hypocentral trend surfaces are generated for three high quality sets of hypocenters obtained by local seismic networks in Honshu (Japan), Cook Inlet (Alaska) and South Peru. Hypocenters beneath Honshu generate a bimodal distribution of residuals about their trend surface. The vertical separation of the upper and lower sheets of this Double Benioff Zone averages about 33 km. No Double Benioff Zone configuration is discovered below Cook Inlet or South Peru. Regional trend surfaces are established for intermediate-depth teleseismic data from South and Middle America. In South America (0°-40°S) teleseismic data suggest that along-strike transitions between "flat" and moderately steeply dipping sections of the Benioff Zone are achieved by flexure of a coherent slab rather than by fragmentation of the slab into tear-bound flaps or separate tongues of lithosphere. Hypocentral trend surface analysis of teleseismic data

  7. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  8. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  9. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  10. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  11. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  12. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  13. Is the Long-Term Trend in the Total Electron Content (TEC) Positive or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lean et al. (2011) analyzed global TEC maps over 1995-2010 and found a positive long-term trend in global TEC. For realistic values of solar EUV flux this trend was positive and large, which is not physically plausible; both foF2 and model-derived profiles of electron density support rather negative trend of TEC (e.g., Qian et al., 2011). The regional TEC trends of Lean et al. (2011) for Europe were even substantially more positive than the global trend. Therefore here we use some historical TEC data from Faraday rotation experiments (Italy) and foF2 data of three high-quality data European ionosondes over 1995-2010 in trial to resolve this puzzle. These data indicate rather no or very weak negative trend of TEC in this region in the past in maxima of cycles 21 and 22, but also no trend of foF2 over 1995-2010 compared with negative trend in solar cycles 21 and 22. This means that the more positive trend in the ionosphere over 1995-2010 might be reality and particular feature of this period, i.e. the positive trends found by Lean et al. (2011) can be attributed just to the period 1995-2010 but they need not represent general trends. The situation is complicated by the fact that we are not sure what was real level of solar EUV/UV in the last deep and long solar minimum.

  14. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  15. Student Achievement in New Literacies for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2003-01-01

    Describes some alternative conceptions of middle-level student achievement based on case studies profiling new literacies in U.S. and Canadian classrooms. Identifies characteristics of fluency in multiple forms of representation, critical thinking and talking about student work, adaptability of individual and collaborative activities, and high…

  16. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  17. Work Placements and Academic Achievement: Undergraduate Computing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nayna; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Coughlan, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and understand whether students who complete a work placement as part of their degree course achieve a better classification of degree than those students who do not include a placement. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted by extracting the profiles of computing students from…

  18. Syphilis Profiles, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD on Facebook Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Profiles, 2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Profiles The following profiles provide an overview of syphilis morbidity in each of the 50 states, the ...

  19. COMPENDEX Profiling Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standera, Oldrich

    This manual provides instructions for completing the COMPENDEX (Computerized Engineering Index) Profile Submission Form used to prepare Current Information Selection (CIS) profiles. An annotated bibliography lists nine items useful in searching for proper profile words. (AB)

  20. Deriving spatial trends of air pollution at a neighborhood-scale through mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Measuring air pollution in real-time using an instrumented vehicle platform has been an emerging strategy to resolve air pollution trends at a very fine spatial scale (10s of meters). Achieving second-by-second data representative of urban air quality trends requires a...

  1. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  2. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the eighth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Its results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2009. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  3. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  4. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  5. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  6. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  7. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  8. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  9. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  10. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  11. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  12. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  13. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  14. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  15. Future Trends for ``i-Learning'' Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Gianluca; Poce, Antonella

    This chapter aims at shaping possible directions along with imagining the development and the evolution of the “i-Learning” paradigm. Specifically, three interdependent classes of future trends are depicted: technology-related trends and organization-related trends.

  16. Transformational trends confounding the South Asian health systems.

    PubMed

    Bonu, Sekhar; Gutierrez, Leah C; Borghis, Alain; Roche, Frederick C

    2009-05-01

    Already overwhelmed by the burden of communicable diseases, the health systems in South Asia face six global and regional transformational trends, which pose opportunities, challenges and threats. These six trends discussed in the paper are: (i) economic growth and globalization; (ii) technological changes; (iii) labor market changes; (iv) private sector growth; (v) demographic changes; and (vi) epidemiological changes. These trends have created dual challenges for the health systems in South Asia: (i) to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) relating to child and maternal health, and communicable diseases and (ii) to deal with the emerging challenges posed by the six transformational trends. The paper suggests and proposes the use of the transformational trends framework to investigate the various opportunities and challenges, and to design effective policy responses. The capacities and resources of the governments in the region are already stretched by legacy challenges posed by communicable diseases. Hence, effective responses to new challenges will need flexible and innovative approaches including partnership with private sector, civil society, and regional cooperation. The opportunities from the trends are more likely to benefit the richer sections of the society. Therefore, pro-poor measures are necessary to ensure inclusive development. PMID:19038473

  17. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. PMID:24033767

  18. Trends in Hispanic Academic Achievement: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Carlos J.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Lopez, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article sought to identify factors related to high school completion rates and college enrollment among Hispanic students. Hispanic students were found to have high attrition rates in institutions of higher education. Implications for the development and implementation of retention programs for Hispanic high school students, such as…

  19. Uncooled amorphous-silicon technology: high-performance achievement and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottin, Eric; Bain, Astrid; Martin, Jean-Luc; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Chatard, Jean-Pierre; Tissot, Jean-Luc

    2002-08-01

    The emergence of uncooled infrared detectors has opened new opportunities for IR imaging both for military and civil applications. Infrared imaging sensors that operate without cryogenic cooling have the potential to provide the military or civilian users with infrared vision capabilities packaged in a camera of extremely small size, weight and power. Uncooled infrared sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past few years. Higher performance sensors, electronics integration at the sensor, and new concepts for signal processing are generating advanced infrared focal plane arrays. This would significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the implementation of sensors for applications such as surveillance or predictive maintenance. We present the uncooled infrared detector operation principle and the development at CEA/LETI from the 256 x 64 with a pitch of 50 micrometers to the 320 x 240 with a pitch of 35 micrometers . LETI has been involved in Amorphous Silicon uncooled microbolometer development since 1992. This silicon IR detection is now well mastered and matured so that industrial transfer of LETI technology was performed in 2000 towards Sofradir. Industrial production of 320 x 240 microbolometer array with 45micrometers pitch is then started., we present the readout circuit architectures designs and its evolution from the 256 x 64 array to the different version of 320 x 240 arrays. Electro-optical results obtained from these IRCMOS are presented. NEDT close to 30 mK is now obtained with our standard microbolometer amorphous silicon technology.

  20. Trends in Achieving Teaching-Research Connections--From Global Perspectives to an Institutional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhanam, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Research into, and discussions on, the relationships between teaching and research activities in universities and other tertiary education institutions have been gathering momentum for a number of decades in many parts of the world. The foci of these researches and discussions have varied greatly. At one end of the spectrum are the publications…

  1. Temperature trends in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Berger, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    We have performed trend studies in the mesosphere in the period 1961-2009 with LIMA (Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model) which is based on ECMWF below approximately 40 km and adapts temporal variations of CO2 and O3 according to observations. There is general agreement between LIMA and observations. Temperatures in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere vary non-uniformly with time, mainly due to the influence of ozone. We have therefore separated the influence of CO2(t) and O3(t) when determining trends. It is important to distinguish between trends on pressure altitudes, zp, and geometric altitudes, zgeo, where the latter includes the effect of shrinking due to cooling at lower heights. Maximum total temperature trends reach approximately -1,3 K/dec at zp ~60 km and -1.8 K/dec at zgeo ~70 km, respectively. Carbon dioxide is the main driver of these trends in the mesosphere, whereas ozone contributes approximately one third, both on geometric and pressure heights. Depending on the time period chosen, the ozone effect on trends can be significantly smaller or larger. Temperature trends on geometric and pressure altitudes can differ by as much as -0.9 K/dec in the mesosphere. The altitudes of pressure levels in the mesosphere decrease up to several hundred meters. The shift maximizes at mesopause levels where it accumulates to more than 1 km. Most of the shrinking occurs in the mesosphere and a smaller fraction (~20%) in the stratosphere. For the first time, we have performed long term runs with LIMA applying the 20th Century Reanalysis from NCEP/NCAR dating back to 1871. Again, trends are non-uniform with time. Since the late 19th century temperatures in the mesosphere have dropped by approximately 5-7 K on pressure altitudes, and up to 10-12 K on geometric altitudes. This is much more then typical trends in the troposphere and stratosphere. It is therefore justified to summarize that the mesosphere (at least in summer and at middle latitudes) reacts

  2. Contrails, Cirrus Trends, and Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Phan, Dung

    2004-04-01

    Rising global air traffic and its associated contrails have the potential for affecting climate via radiative forcing. Current estimates of contrail climate effects are based on coverage by linear contrails that do not account for spreading and, therefore, represent the minimum impact. The maximum radiative impact is estimated by assuming that long-term trends in cirrus coverage are due entirely to air traffic in areas where humidity is relatively constant. Surface observations from 1971 to 1995 show that cirrus increased significantly over the northern oceans and the United States while decreasing over other land areas except over western Europe where cirrus coverage was relatively constant. The surface observations are consistent with satellite-derived trends over most areas. Land cirrus trends are positively correlated with upper-tropospheric (300 hPa) humidity (UTH), derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses, except over the United States and western Europe where air traffic is heaviest. Over oceans, the cirrus trends are negatively correlated with the NCEP relative humidity suggesting some large uncertainties in the maritime UTH. The NCEP UTH decreased dramatically over Europe while remaining relatively steady over the United States, thereby permitting an assessment of the cirrus contrail relationship over the United States. Seasonal cirrus changes over the United States are generally consistent with the annual cycle of contrail coverage and frequency lending additional evidence to the role of contrails in the observed trend. It is concluded that the U.S. cirrus trends are most likely due to air traffic. The cirrus increase is a factor of 1.8 greater than that expected from current estimates of linear contrail coverage suggesting that a spreading factor of the same magnitude can be used to estimate the maximum effect of the contrails. From the U.S. results and using mean contrail optical depths of 0.15 and 0.25, the maximum

  3. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  4. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  5. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  6. New trends in species distribution modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C., Jr.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.

  7. Some trends in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, M R

    1975-05-01

    Some of the recent changes in the schools of public health include: an increasing number of schools and of graduates; a decrease in both the awarding of the MPH degree as compared with other masters degrees, and the DrPH degree as compared with the PhD; a trend toward lengthening the time for achieving the MPH degree; an increase in part-time study for graduate degrees; institution of undergraduate programs and external masters degree programs; a thrust toward greater continuing education activities; and a broadened base for the student population in terms of the heterogeneity of professional backgrounds and prior experience, a wider age range with more younger students, more women students, fewer foreign students, and an increase in minority representation. PMID:1115295

  8. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in Improving Achievement of Urban School Districts. Education Outlook. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In one of the first large-scale analyses of urban trends on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research identified urban school systems that demonstrated high achievement or significant achievement gains on the NAEP, and examined possible factors behind…

  9. Inclusivity in the Classroom and International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Wei, Tianlan; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have examined the role of inclusivity in international assessments of student achievement, such as the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). The current study examined how the inclusivity of students with disabilities at the classroom level across countries may be associated with achievement scores,…

  10. Social Justice Alert: Future Innovators and Leaders Fall Behind in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun; Watkins, Sandra; Yoon, Seung Won

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the achievement trends of advanced learners and the relationship between Illinois' school district characteristics and student performance using Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores. The 3rd grade students scoring in the Exceeds category in ISAT reading and math within 707 Illinois school districts during the…

  11. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  12. The Ohio Achievement Assessment and Deaf/Hearing Impaired Students: Have They Been Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tanya S. Williams

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to examine Ohio Achievement Assessment data in the content areas of Reading, Science and Social Studies between the years of 2004-2010) to determine whether an achievement gap exists within the disability category of Deaf/Hearing Impaired; 2) to determine whether the trends present in the data of normal hearing…

  13. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  15. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  16. [Do nursing students have entrepreneur profile?].

    PubMed

    Roncon, Paulo Fernando; Munhoz, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Descriptive-exploratory study that aimed at knowing the profile of nursing students regarding entrepreneurship. The General Entrepreneurship Trend Test with 54 questions was applied to 41 students. Results demonstrated that 14% present five entrepreneur tendencies, 12% present four entrepreneur tendencies, and 80% do not present entrepreneur tendencies. The majority of student intent to work as clinical nurses, while none of them intent to work in management activities. It was concluded that students have low grade of the entrepreneurship characteristics. PMID:20552826

  17. Trends in Student Aid, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Trends in Student Aid, an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report documents grant aid from federal and state governments, colleges and universities, employers, and other private sources, as well as loans, tax…

  18. NAEP Trends: Main NAEP vs. Long-Term Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Chromy, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to (a) compare the trend lines after some adjustments for level and scale only and determine if and how they differ; (b) describe the methodology of each assessment and identify similarities and differences; and (c) attempt to explain any observed differences based on comparable subsets or on special analysis.…

  19. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  20. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  1. Global trends in hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig; Choi, Byung Ihn; Scott, Andrew M; Sugimura, Kazuro; Muellner, Ada; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Reiser, Maximilian F; Graham, Michael M; Dunnick, N Reed; Larson, Steven M

    2010-11-01

    At the 2009 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, a special session was devoted to global trends in hybrid imaging. This article expands on the key points of the session, focusing primarily on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Global trends in hybrid imaging equipment acquisition, usage, and image interpretation practices are reviewed, and emerging requirements for training and clinical privileging are discussed. Also considered are the current benefits of hybrid imaging for patient care and workflow and the potential of hybrid imaging for advancing drug development and personalized medicine. PMID:20829539

  2. Special Education Issues, Trends, and Future Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Janna

    This paper identifies and discusses major issues and trends in special education in the United States, including implications of these trends for future developments. Trends are discussed for the following areas: (1) philosophy and law (a communitarian philosophy is emerging); (2) labels and terminology (a trend toward declassification); (3)…

  3. Lightning Nitrogen Oxides (LNOx) Vertical Profile Quantification and 10 Year Trend Analysis using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Measurements, Air Quality Station (AQS) Surface Measurements, The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and Simulated by Cloud Resolving Chemical Transport Model (REAM Cloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeltzer, C. D.; Wang, Y.; Koshak, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical profiles and emission lifetimes of lightning nitrogen oxides (LNOx) are derived using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Approximately 200 million flashes, over a 10 year climate period, from the United States National Lighting Detection Network (NLDN), are aggregated with OMI cloud top height to determine the vertical LNOx structure. LNOx lifetime is determined as function of LNOx signal in a 36 kilometer vertical column from the time of the last known flash to depletion of the LNOx signal. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality Station (AQS) surface data further support these results by demonstrating as much as a 200% increase in surface level NO2 during strong thunderstorm events and a lag as long as 5 to 8 hours from the lightning event to the peak surface event, indicating a evolutional process. Analysis of cloud resolving chemical transport model (REAM Cloud) demonstrates that C-shaped LNOx profiles, which agree with OMI vertical profile observations, evolve due to micro-scale convective meteorology given inverted C-shaped LNOx emission profiles as determined from lightning radio telemetry. It is shown, both in simulations and in observations, that the extent to which the LNOx vertical distribution is C-shaped and the lifetime of LNOx is proportional to the shear-strength of the thunderstorm. Micro-scale convective meteorology is not adequately parameterized in global scale and regional scale chemical transport models (CTM). Therefore, these larger scale CTMs ought to use a C-shape emissions profile to best reproduce observations until convective parameterizations are updated. These findings are used to simulate decadal LNOx and lightning ozone climatology over the Continental United States (CONUS) from 2004-2014.

  4. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the focus of environmental management has shifted toward regional- scale strategies, there is a growing need to develop statistical methodology for the estimation of regional trends in air pollution. This information is critical to assessing the effects of legislated emission ...

  5. International Trends in Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Metais, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    The International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks in 18 countries identified trends related to participation and engagement: responsiveness, inclusion, and curricular differentiation; key skills; and creativity development and citizenship education. Common economic and social pressures are leading to some convergence among nations.…

  6. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  7. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  8. Overview of Selected Drug Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Edgar H.; And Others

    This document begins with a brief overview of findings from national surveys conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse which show increasing drug use throughout the 1970s and a decreasing trend in drug use during the 1980s. In spite of this decline, drug use in the U.S. is described as still constituting a major public health problem that…

  9. New Trends in Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David; Wesse, David; Stickney, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the influence of residence halls in supporting a college's admissions and recruiting process for attracting highly qualified students. It explores the trends in student housing needs and how a school can meet those needs, and examines possible funding solutions for dormitory renovations. Recommendations for developing housing strategies…

  10. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  11. Bucking Trends: Expanding the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kathi R.

    2008-01-01

    The arts and music have been unintended victims of the No Child Left Behind Act. Several reports point to sharp reductions in student access to K-12 arts education, yet some school districts nationwide have managed to buck the trend. These districts, in communities rural through urban, are systemically embedding the arts at the core of teaching…

  12. SETDA's National Trends Report 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) is pleased to release its fifth annual National Trends Report on the use of federal funds to support educational technology. This report documents findings from Round 5 (FY 06) of the No Child Left Behind, Title II, Part D, Enhancing Education Through Technology (NCLB IID) program. The…

  13. Manpower Trends in Canada: Chartbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labour, Ottawa (Ontario). Economics and Research Branch.

    The major changes taking place in the occupational and industrial structure of the labor force are highlighted by graphic illustrations of changing manpower needs. Some apparent trends are: (1) the very rapid rate of growth of the total labor force, (2) the relatively slow growth rate of the manufacturing labor force, (3) the rapid growth of the…

  14. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  15. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  16. Trends in Turkish Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varisoglu, Behice; Sahin, Abdullah; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends in the subject areas, methods, data collection tools, data analysis methods, and sample types used in recent studies on Turkish education, published in journals from 2000-2011. A total of 558 articles from 44 journals were selected from databases by the purposive sampling method and examined using…

  17. Information Technology: Perspectives and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Doug

    The full impact of the current information technology and networking revolution remains unknown, but the experiences of organizations and individuals who are using the tools and resources offered by information technology suggest that it may change our social fabric. Some of the current and emerging trends in information technology include: the…

  18. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in hiring reported…

  19. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  20. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  1. The Trend toward Retirement Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2008-01-01

    Many library media specialists are deciding to return to the workplace after retiring from full-time employment. This article focuses on general information about the trend of retirees acquiring retirement jobs, how and why retired library media specialists return to work, their perceptions of challenges facing library media programs, and advice…

  2. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  3. Productivity Trends in Intercity Trucking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    Productivity trends indicate intercity trucking productivity increased an average 2.7 percent a year, a fairly uniform increased productivity rate but substantially lower as compared to air carrier, railroad, and pipeline transportation. Factors affecting productivity are gradual introduction of technological innovation, larger capacity trucks,…

  4. Trends in Personal Injury Suits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Smissen, Betty

    1985-01-01

    Professional competence becomes more important as personal injury suits against recreation enterprises and parks focus increasingly on the professional responsible for facility safety. All professionals should be aware of and educated in risk management. Trends in liability awards and providers' legal responsibilities in various situations are…

  5. Six Trends in Library Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Drew

    2001-01-01

    Describes six trends in current library facilities design, whether for new buildings or renovations: self-service and operational efficiency; flexibility and technology integration; green/sustainable buildings that use the natural environment; collaboration between public and school/college libraries; aesthetics; and customizing to the local…

  6. Economic Trends and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1992-01-01

    This research brief highlights current and projected economic trends that affect higher education and discusses some of their implications. The brief is organized into three sections: (1) national economic conditions affecting higher education, which presents data on gross national product, inflation, the Higher Education Price Index, the federal…

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE TRENDS IN SALMONELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  8. Emerging Trends in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry; Cohen, Carolyn

    In 4 stages, this paper, prepared by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL), examines trends in secondary education: a review of 11 major studies from the 1970's; responses from 320 Northwest high school principals to survey questionnaires; a telephone survey of 21 local, state, regional, and national observers of youth employment…

  9. The Internet: Trends and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    1996-01-01

    Examines current trends and directions in information technology and telecommunications. Discusses legislation; mergers and acquisitions; Internet service providers; fiscal control in libraries and the pooling of electronic information access through consortiums; demand for more bandwidth; technology selection; Internet usage patterns; the…

  10. Current Trends in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revue des Langues Vivantes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Examines the effects of Chomsky's theories of linguistics and language acquisition on language teaching methodology, specifically on the use of the audio-lingual method. Current trends in methodology move in two basic directions: 1) towards relaxation of the tighter restrictions of the audio-lingual method, and 2) towards development of techniques…

  11. Main Trends in Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Jose-Marie

    1982-01-01

    Describes applications of new technology to information handling on the basis of two trends--the miniaturization of electronic circuits and the shift from analog to digital modes of communication. Information technologies discussed are microcomputers, word processors, telecommunications, storage technologies, databases, videotex, and teletext.…

  12. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  13. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  14. America's Changing Population: Demographic Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the importance of migration trends in the United States away from the Northeastern urban areas into the sunbelt states of the West and Southwest. Emphasis is placed on ways in which this demographic transformation disturbs social, economic, and political arrangements. (DB)

  15. Recent Trends in Karst Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends related to the karst processes and the evolution of karst landscapes are discussed. The hydrochemical processes responsible for the origin of karst are expanded on to illustrate the present scope of karst studies. These geomorphological studies are combined with concepts and techniques from hydraulics, chemistry, and mathematics. (JN)

  16. Utah: Going against the Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvik, Elaine

    1982-01-01

    While enrollment and demographic trends worry the higher education community in other states, Utah's higher education future is bright. Financial support from the Mormon Church, high birth rate, strong institutions (both public and private), a cohesive, conservative community, and large potential natural resources give optimism to the state. (MSE)

  17. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  18. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  19. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  20. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    PubMed

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed. PMID:26526244