Science.gov

Sample records for achieving broader impacts

  1. A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K–12 STEM Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Komoroske, Lisa M.; Hameed, Sarah O.; Szoboszlai, Amber I.; Newsom, Amanda J.; Williams, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students’ capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. We provide a practical guide to help scientists overcome obstacles that inhibit their engagement in K–12 IBL outreach and to attain the accrued benefits. Strategies to overcome these challenges include scaling outreach projects to the time available, building collaborations in which scientists’ research overlaps with curriculum, employing backward planning to target specific learning objectives, encouraging scientists to share their passion, as well as their expertise with students, and transforming institutional incentives to support scientists engaging in educational outreach. PMID:26955078

  2. A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K-12 STEM Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Komoroske, Lisa M; Hameed, Sarah O; Szoboszlai, Amber I; Newsom, Amanda J; Williams, Susan L

    2015-03-01

    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students' capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. We provide a practical guide to help scientists overcome obstacles that inhibit their engagement in K-12 IBL outreach and to attain the accrued benefits. Strategies to overcome these challenges include scaling outreach projects to the time available, building collaborations in which scientists' research overlaps with curriculum, employing backward planning to target specific learning objectives, encouraging scientists to share their passion, as well as their expertise with students, and transforming institutional incentives to support scientists engaging in educational outreach.

  3. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  4. Broader Impacts of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, M.; Ruchti, R.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale scientific endeavors such as the International Linear Collider Project can have a lasting impact on education and outreach to our society. The ILC will provide a discovery platform for frontier physical science and it will also provide a discovery platform for broader impacts and social science. The importance of Broader Impacts of Science in general and the ILC in particular are described. Additionally, a synopsis of education and outreach activities carried out as an integral part of the Snowmass ILC Workshop is provided.

  5. The Broader Impacts Toolbox Workshop: Helping Researchers Effectively Meet the National Science Foundation Broader Impacts Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, D.; Hehn, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    Community attitudes and outcomes regarding NSF'{s} broader impacts criterion could be improved significantly by emphasizing the motivation for implementing this requirement and the potential benefits to the research community, and achieving more consistent application of the criterion by improving proposer, reviewer and program officer understanding of the criterion. An organized and easily accessible '{}Toolbox'{} for broader impacts activities would help researchers develop and evaluate effective activities by building on the existing knowledge base. Institution-centered (disciplinary societies, colleges and universities, research centers, etc.) infrastructure can be an outstanding resource for assisting researchers in fulfilling the broader impacts criterion. These organizations leverage existing programs and experience, and have an important role as bridges between researchers and the results of discipline-based education research. The professionals directing these organizations are valuable resources and should be encouraged to build networks to share information and ideas. These statements represent outcomes of a workshop held in May 2005 supported by the Office of Multidisciplinary Activities of NSF/MPS. Action items developed from this workshop will be presented to stimulate questions and discussion.

  6. Climate Science Broader Impacts Done Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. E.; Patino, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    At the National Science Foundation (NSF), broader impacts (BI) reflect the potential of research to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes, whereas intellectual merit (IM) refers to the potential to advance knowledge. While BI have always been important to NSF, the revised review criteria, effective 14 January 2013, put greater emphasis on BI by stating that the same principles used for evaluation of IM should be used to evaluate BI. The Earth Sciences Division (EAR) is actively engaged in the assessment and provision of resources related to BI. The expectation is that principal investigators (PIs) will contribute to the body of knowledge on this topic and that the actual activities that PIs complete should be impactful. We are using cutting-edge, text-mining tools with 100 strategically selected key words to analyze thousands of proposals and reports submitted to EAR programs from 2007-2012. This analysis provides insight into the range of BI that are being proposed, which BI are more successful than others, and whether PIs follow through with their proposed BI. We are discussing BI internally at EAR staff meetings and engaging in conversations about BI with individual program directors to get a clearer understanding of the diversity of cultures and values among programs. We are conducting panel surveys on BI to get feedback from the PI community. The intention behind this effort is to generate quality information on BI for the Earth Sciences community.

  7. Effective Broader Impacts - Lessons Learned by the Ocean Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    Effective broader impact activities have the potential for scientists to engage with educators, students, and the public in meaningful ways that lead to increased scientific literacy. These interactions provide opportunities for the results and discoveries of federally funded research projects, along with their implications for society, to reach non-scientist audiences. This is especially important for climate, ocean, and environmental science research that will aid citizens in better understanding how they affect Earth's systems and how these systems affect their daily lives. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Excellence (COSEE) Network has over 12 years of experience in conducting successful broader impact activities and has provided thousands of ocean scientists the opportunity to share the fruits of their research well beyond the scientific enterprise. COSEE evaluators and principal investigators collaborated over several years to determine the impacts of COSEE broader impact activities and to identify best practices. The lessons learned by the ocean science community can help to inform other disciplines. Fruitful broader impact activities require key elements, no matter the composition of the audience. For example, a high degree of success can be achieved when a "bridge builder" facilitates the interactions between scientists and non-science audiences. This presentation will offer other examples of best practices and successful strategies for engaging scientists in broader impact activities, increasing societal impacts of scientific research, and providing opportunities for collaboration on a national scale. http://www.cosee.net

  8. Responsive, Flexible and Scalable Broader Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharon, A.; Companion, C.; Steinman, M.

    2010-12-01

    In many educator professional development workshops, scientists present content in a slideshow-type format and field questions afterwards. Drawbacks of this approach include: inability to begin the lecture with content that is responsive to audience needs; lack of flexible access to specific material within the linear presentation; and “Q&A” sessions are not easily scalable to broader audiences. Often this type of traditional interaction provides little direct benefit to the scientists. The Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence - Ocean Systems (COSEE-OS) applies the technique of concept mapping with demonstrated effectiveness in helping scientists and educators “get on the same page” (deCharon et al., 2009). A key aspect is scientist professional development geared towards improving face-to-face and online communication with non-scientists. COSEE-OS promotes scientist-educator collaboration, tests the application of scientist-educator maps in new contexts through webinars, and is piloting the expansion of maps as long-lived resources for the broader community. Collaboration - COSEE-OS has developed and tested a workshop model bringing scientists and educators together in a peer-oriented process, often clarifying common misconceptions. Scientist-educator teams develop online concept maps that are hyperlinked to “assets” (i.e., images, videos, news) and are responsive to the needs of non-scientist audiences. In workshop evaluations, 91% of educators said that the process of concept mapping helped them think through science topics and 89% said that concept mapping helped build a bridge of communication with scientists (n=53). Application - After developing a concept map, with COSEE-OS staff assistance, scientists are invited to give webinar presentations that include live “Q&A” sessions. The webinars extend the reach of scientist-created concept maps to new contexts, both geographically and topically (e.g., oil spill), with a relatively small

  9. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (<10%) designated for these efforts, and evaluation efforts are rare. On the other hand, large projects such as research centers and major facilities typically have dedicated BI/education specialists and formal evaluation expertise. An additional complication is that many BI activities are unique or have novel aspects that reflect the local circumstances and opportunities, but make it difficult to develop broadly-applicable evaluation instruments;[2] There is not consensus on the perspective from which the evaluation should be conducted. Scientists, participants (teachers, students, museum/aquarium personnel), and the funding agencies typically have differing objectives and metrics for BI projects. [3] The timeframe for conducting any evaluation is frequently limited to a few years, placing limitations on the scope of the evaluation effort. Long-term learning, career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this

  10. Presenting Bionic: Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, K.

    2014-12-01

    Broader Impact plans are required of all NSF proposals. In 2011 the National Science Board, which oversees NSF, reconfirmed NSF's commitment to Broader Impacts in its task force report on the merit review system. At many institutions there are professionals that focus their work on supporting the Broader Impact work of researchers. This session will share the Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration (BIONIC) plan to create a professional network of individuals and offices committed to planning and carrying out effective Broader Impact programming. BIONIC is an NSF Research Coordination Network that is recommended for funding through the Biology Directorate. In this session we will share the goals of BIONIC, and the progress to date in reaching those goals (of which one aspect is the curating of effective Broader Impact initiatives).

  11. Teaching broader impacts of science with undergraduate research

    PubMed Central

    Keiler, Kenneth C.; Jackson, Kathy L.; Jaworski, Leslie; Lopatto, David

    2017-01-01

    Science plays an important role in most aspects of society, and scientists face ethical decisions as a routine part of their work, but science education frequently omits or segregates content related to ethics and broader impacts of science. Undergraduate research experiences have the potential to bridge traditional divides in education and provide a holistic view of science. In practice, these experiences can be inconsistent and may not provide the optimal learning environment. We developed a course that combines seminar and independent research elements to support student learning during undergraduate research, makes ethical and societal impacts of science clear by relating them to the students’ own research projects, and develops students’ ethical decision-making skills. Here, we describe the course and provide resources for developing a similar course. PMID:28323818

  12. Teaching broader impacts of science with undergraduate research.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Kenneth C; Jackson, Kathy L; Jaworski, Leslie; Lopatto, David; Ades, Sarah E

    2017-03-01

    Science plays an important role in most aspects of society, and scientists face ethical decisions as a routine part of their work, but science education frequently omits or segregates content related to ethics and broader impacts of science. Undergraduate research experiences have the potential to bridge traditional divides in education and provide a holistic view of science. In practice, these experiences can be inconsistent and may not provide the optimal learning environment. We developed a course that combines seminar and independent research elements to support student learning during undergraduate research, makes ethical and societal impacts of science clear by relating them to the students' own research projects, and develops students' ethical decision-making skills. Here, we describe the course and provide resources for developing a similar course.

  13. Improving Broader Impacts through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has designed and implemented successful Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs enabling teachers to work directly with polar scientists in the field and bring their experience back to their classrooms and communities. The PolarTREC TRE model, administered during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), is most effective, exhibiting far-reaching broader impacts when ideas are shared, each partners’ expertise is respected, and both work toward the common goal of delivering high-quality information. Between 2004 and 2009, ARCUS has selected, trained, and supported 77 teachers on polar teacher research experiences. Although a limited number of teachers are able to participate in a field experience, selected teachers have expertise in translating research approaches and results into widely shared learning tools and programs. Between 2007-2009, PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as a result of their experience. Selected teachers are usually well connected within their schools, communities, and professions, bringing the science to numerous followers during their expedition. Live events with teachers and researchers in the field have attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. The PolarTREC TRE Model includes numerous methods to support outreach activities while teachers and researchers are in the field. These include web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events—all easily replicable activities with the potential to affect large numbers of people. In addition, the TRE experience continues to produce broader impacts far into the future of the teacher and researcher’s careers through ongoing communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through activities including classroom visits, joint proposal development, and much more

  14. Developing Broader Impacts Activities through Informal STEM Education Collaborations and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James

    2015-03-01

    With the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies' renewed emphasis on broader impacts merit criterion in proposals, investigators and directors of education, outreach and engagement are challenged to identify, plan and implement innovative and transformative activities that engage a variety of audiences in the broader impacts of scientific research. These activities are also often required to have an evaluation plan for assessing the effectiveness of the strategies employed to achieve learning goals or other intended impacts. One approach to developing such plans is to partner with an informal science education institution, program, project or individual to create exhibits, media or programming that will convey the scientific concepts and processes involved in research and engage students and public audiences in appreciation for, and understanding of same. A growing body of evidence -based knowledge about what works for whom and under what conditions in fostering science learning and literacy in informal settings, as well as an expanding network of informal science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education professionals provide researchers, graduate students and staff resources to tap into as they consider their broader impacts directions. Web infrastructure like the informalscience.org website and others offer aggregated, vetted, and searchable examples of successful partnerships and strategies, as well as access to a community of colleagues working at the nexus of scientific research and informal education for further exploration. Through heightened awareness, stronger connectivity and a growing repository of knowledge, projects like the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE) hope to support and disseminate the results of efforts that are enhancing the quality and visibility of broader impacts activities in whatever form they take.

  15. Evaluating the Broader Impacts of Sponsored Research through the Lens of Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) broader impacts merit review criterion for research grant proposals has encountered persistent resistance from the scientific community. This study examined the factors that shape response to the broader impacts merit review criterion by investigating the effect of characteristics of NSF-funded researchers…

  16. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control.

  17. High Return on Investments in Scientist-Educator Partnerships: Broader Impact Strategies That Endure and Propagate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, C. L.; Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Tackling the broader impact section of a research proposal need not be a dilemma that "rears its ugly head" with each proposal deadline. By investing in partnerships with informal science education (ISE) organizations, researchers can establish a foundation for efficient, high quality, research-based educational outreach (EO) that can help them fulfill their broader impact obligations for years to come. Just as an interdisciplinary research project requires collaboration among scientists from a variety of disciplines, a research project with exemplary EO requires partnerships with those who specialize in science education. By engaging in such partnerships scientists gain access to professionals who have expertise in translating research topics into concept-centered programs, exhibits and online resources, and to the diverse student, teacher and public audience reached through ISE. By leveraging the intellectual and material resources of researchers and educators, these potentially long-lived relationships provide an efficient and effective means for achieving broader impact. Ultimately, the efficacy of this investment strategy depends on relieving the researcher of the time consuming burden of seeking out appropriate partners, initiating partnerships and conferring with science educators on potential projects. Recognizing this barrier to scientists' participation, the California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (CACOSEE) has adopted a unique approach - one in which CACOSEE serves primarily as a catalyst and facilitator of researchers EO activities rather than as an EO provider. We have apprised ourselves of the programs, interests and needs of a carefully selected group of ISE organizations and used this information as the basis for creating a spectrum of EO opportunities for researchers. These options are flexible, scalable and easily customized to fit the research interests, time constraints and budgetary limitations of any researcher. Through e

  18. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  19. Applying Input-Output Model to Estimate Broader Economic Impact of Transportation Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Ridwan; Tamin, Ofyar; Wibowo, Sony S.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships between infrastructure improvement and economic growth in the surrounding region. Traditionally, microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses are the mostly used tools for analyzing the linkage between transportation sectors and economic growth but offer little clues to the mechanisms linking transport improvements and the broader economy impacts. This study will estimate the broader economic benefits of the new transportation infrastructure investment, Cipularangtollway in West Java province, Indonesia, to the region connected (Bandung district) using Input-Output model. The result show the decrease of freight transportation costs by at 17 % and the increase of 1.2 % of Bandung District's GDP after the operation of Cipularangtollway.

  20. Impact of broader sharing on the transport time for deceased donor livers.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Wickliffe, Corey E; Massie, Allan B; Leighton, Tabitha; Segev, Dorry L

    2014-10-01

    Recent allocation policy changes have increased the sharing of deceased donor livers across local boundaries, and sharing even broader than this has been proposed as a remedy for persistent geographic disparities in liver transplantation. It is possible that broader sharing may increase cold ischemia times (CITs) and thus harm recipients. We constructed a detailed model of transport modes (car, helicopter, and fixed-wing aircraft) and transport times between all hospitals, and we investigated the relationship between the transport time and the CIT for deceased donor liver transplants. The median estimated transport time was 2.0 hours for regionally shared livers and 1.0 hour for locally allocated livers. The model-predicted transport mode was flying for 90% of regionally shared livers but for only 22% of locally allocated livers. The median CIT was 7.0 hours for regionally shared livers and 6.0 hours for locally allocated livers. Variation in the transport time accounted for only 14.7% of the variation in the CIT, and the transport time on average composed only 21% of the CIT. In conclusion, nontransport factors play a substantially larger role in the CIT than the transport time. Broader sharing will have only a marginal impact on the CIT but will significantly increase the fraction of transplants that are transported by flying rather than driving.

  1. Creating a Community to Strengthen the Broader Impacts of Condensed Matter Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenwalla, Shireen; Bosley, Jocelyn; Voth, Gregory; Smith, Leigh

    The Broader Impacts (BI) merit criteria set out by the National Science Foundation are essential for building the public support necessary for science to flourish. Condensed matter physicists (CMP) have made transformative impacts on our society, but these are often invisible to the public. Communicating the societal benefits of our research can be challenging, because CMP consists of many independent research groups for whom effective engagement in the public arena is not necessarily a forte. Other BI activities, such as engaging K-12 students and teachers to increase scientific literacy and strengthen the STEM workforce, may be very effective, but these are often isolated and short in duration. To increase the visibility of CMP and to make the implementation of BI activities more efficient, we have created a website with two sides: a public side to communicate to a broad audience exciting scientific discoveries in CMP and the technologies they enable, and a private side for condensed matter researchers to communicate with one another about effective broader impact activities. Here we discuss the content of the new website, and the best practices we have identified for communicating the excitement of CMP research to the broadest possible audience. Nsf-DMR 1550737, 1550724 and 1550681.

  2. Extending monetary values to broader performance and impact measures: Transportation applications and lessons for other fields.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Glen; Lynch, Teresa; Meyer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This article examines recent progress at assigning monetary values to what are normally considered "hard to quantify" benefits of transportation projects. It focuses on three types of impacts - environmental quality, health and wider economic impacts - to examine how transportation project evaluation methods have evolved in recent years and how they compare to methods used for evaluation of non-transportation programs. Examples of recent practice are provided to show how transport agencies are continuing to refine performance measures to include broader impacts in project evaluation. A classification is provided to distinguish direct traveler effects from indirect effects on non-travelers, a step important to maximize coverage and minimize double-counting of impacts. For each type of impact, the paper discusses the range of variation in monetized values and shows that the variation is due less to imprecision in measurement than to fundamental issues about whether to use damage compensation, impact avoidance costs, stated preferences or behavioral valuation perspectives to define those values. Case studies as diverse as Australian roads, Wisconsin energy programs and Appalachian economic development programs are used to show how common methods are evolving among transport and non-transport agencies to improve impact measurement and its use in project evaluation.

  3. Collaborative Research and Education in the Ross Sea: A broader impact evaluation report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, C.; Kohut, J. T.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; Clark, H.

    2010-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team of researchers will focus on describing the high productivity patchiness observed in phytoplankton blooms in the mid-to-late summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. They will use a novel sampling strategy that employs a remotely controlled glider (AUV) to locate and map circumpolar deep water in near real time and also to direct further ship-based sampling. This unusual coordination of a polar research vessel with AUVs provides an exciting opportunity to engage formal and informal educators in a research adventure. As part of this NSF-funded project’s Criterion 2 broader impact, joining the researchers virtually will be 30 New Jersey middle-school teachers and their students. This summer in New Jersey, in partnership with Liberty Science Center educators, COSEE-NOW (Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-Networked Ocean World) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the project team introduced teachers to the Ross Sea, the research, the science behind it and the AUV. The summer workshop and ongoing schoolyear support is providing the teachers with the tools they need to bring the excitement of the research into their classrooms in real time during the Ross Sea cruise at the end of this year. This presentation by Chris Parsons, the project evaluator, will summarize the evaluation plan for this broader impact project, which follows teachers and their classes for a year, and provide the latest evaluation results from this project.

  4. Recommendations for Broader Impacts in K-12: Advice from Einstein Educator Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, H. A.; LaDue, N.; Moore, J. D.; Whitsett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1994, the Albert Einstein Distinguished Science Educator Fellowship Act has brought Master K-12 STEM educators to Washington D.C. and Virginia for 11-month appointments in STEM-related Federal agencies and Congressional Offices. These top educators are leaders in their communities and often have years of experience working with government-funded researchers reaching out to the K-12 community. During their fellowship year, Einstein Fellows use their years of experience and expertise in to inform efforts and initiatives in the federal departments, directorates and offices to which they are assigned. The collaborative efforts of a group of NSF Einstein Fellows has led to the development of "Broader Impacts in the K-12 Community", a suite of experience-based recommendations and ideas designed to leverage grant resources and maximize effective partnerships between the research and K-12 communities. The goal of this presentation is to communicate best practices for researchers engaging in the realm of K-12 education from the perspective of educators. Challenges are highlighted and mapped to realistic solutions. Written originally as a panel talk to help NSF panel members consider feasible, high-quality K-12 broader impacts, this presentation has become an invaluable resource for principle investigators as they consider engaging with the K-12 community. While this presentation specifically addresses merit review components of NSF solicitations, these recommendations are relevant for any STEM initiatives that involve partnerships between scientists and teachers.

  5. Geoscience Education and Public Outreach AND CRITERION 2: MAKING A BROADER IMPACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlino, M.; Scotchmoor, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    The geosciences influence our daily lives and yet often go unnoticed by the general public. From the moment we listen to the weather report and fill-up our cars for the daily commute, until we return to our homes constructed from natural resources, we rely on years of scientific research. The challenge facing the geosciences is to make explicit to the public not only the criticality of the research whose benefits they enjoy, but also to actively engage them as partners in the research effort, by providing them with sufficient understanding of the scientific enterprise so that they become thoughtful and proactive when making decisions in the polling booth. Today, there is broad recognition within the science and policy community that communication needs to be more effective, more visible, and that the public communication of the scientific enterprise is critical not only to its taxpayer support, but also to maintenance of a skilled workforce and the standard of living expected by many Americans. In 1997, the National Science Board took the first critical step in creating a cultural change in the scientific community by requiring explicit consideration of the broader impacts of research in every research proposal. The so-called Criterion 2 has catalyzed a dramatic shift in expectations within the geoscience community and an incentive for finding ways to encourage the science research community to select education and public outreach as a venue for responding to Criterion 2. In response, a workshop organized by the University of California Museum of Paleontology and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) was held on the Berkeley campus May 11-13, 2005. The Geoscience EPO Workshop purposefully narrowed its focus to that of education and public outreach. This workshop was based on the premise that there are proven models and best practices for effective outreach strategies that need to be identified and shared with research scientists. Workshop

  6. Broader impacts: international implications and integrative ethical consideration of policy decisions about US chimpanzee research.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Allyson J; Panicker, Sangeeta

    2016-12-01

    Recent decisions and unprecedented evaluative processes about research with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) continue to attract widespread attention by the public, media, and scientific community. Over the past 5 years, actions by the NIH and the United States Fish and Wildlife Services, have significantly truncated valuable scientific research and jeopardized future research. From a global perspective, the decisions have broad consequences for research aimed not only at human health, but also the conservation and welfare of other species. Full consideration of the role that research plays in improving animal welfare in captivity and in the wild, and the impact of the loss of access to chimpanzees for research, remains largely unexamined. At the same time, legal initiatives aimed at protecting chimpanzees by granting them "personhood" status have increasingly raised questions about equity in standards, oversight, and transparency for chimpanzees in other captive settings. Together, the decisions, subsequent actions, and public discussion put the growing need for a more integrative and global approach to decision-making about the future of captive chimpanzees into sharp relief. In this paper, we outline an expansive framework for ethical consideration to guide dialogue and decisions about animal research, welfare, and equitable treatment of nonhuman animals across settings. Regardless of the setting in which animals live, science plays an indispensable role in informing decisions about individual, species, societal, and environmental health. Thus, the scientific community and broader public need to engage in serious and thoughtful deliberations to weigh the harms and benefits of conducting (or failing to conduct) research that transcends geographic borders and that can guide responsible and informed decisions about the future of chimpanzees.

  7. Teen Science Cafés: A Vehicle for Scientists Seeking Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.

  8. "Broader impacts" or "responsible research and innovation"? A comparison of two criteria for funding research in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael; Laas, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Our subject is how the experience of Americans with a certain funding criterion, "broader impacts" (and some similar criteria) may help in efforts to turn the European concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into a useful guide to funding Europe's scientific and technical research. We believe this comparison may also be as enlightening for Americans concerned with revising research policy. We have organized our report around René Von Schomberg's definition of RRI, since it seems both to cover what the European research group to which we belong is interested in and to be the only widely accepted definition of RRI. According to Von Schomberg, RRI: "… is a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)." While RRI seeks fundamental changes in the way research is conducted, Broader Impacts is more concerned with more peripheral aspects of research: widening participation of disadvantaged groups, recruiting the next generation of scientists, increasing the speed with which results are used, and so on. Nevertheless, an examination of the broadening of funding criteria over the last four decades suggests that National Science Foundation has been moving in the direction of RRI.

  9. The New Oceanographic Research Institution: Scripps in the ``Broader Impact'' Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Things are changing at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Long renowned for excellence in Earth, ocean, atmospheric and interdisciplinary research as well as graduate student training, the Institution is now being called upon to address a new set of challenges. Opportunities to address diverse societal needs abound, and we at Scripps are prepared to respond. As the problems facing the globe in reconciling human and economic development with the limitations of the Earth system become more and more pressing, the potential impact of Scripps research on society grows. The full value of our work cannot be realized unless we share it with established and future economists, international relations specialists, public policy experts, and business leaders. To help our scientists realize this goal while maintaining their research excellence, Scripps has committed to: 1) expanding its faculty's role in undergraduate teaching; 2) establishment of the Center for Educational Outreach Connections that will enable Scripps scientists to participate in educational outreach efforts locally, regionally, nationally and internationally; 3) pursuing joint education programs with other elements of the UCSD community; and 4) launching a new interdisciplinary Center for Earth Observations and Applications in which scholars from throughout the university will develop new collaborations, new technologies, and new knowledge in many fields affecting the environment. Our ambition is to generate a continuous awareness of how Earth is behaving - an awareness that could be an integral part of all kinds of decisions about the environment. Scripps is not alone in recognizing and responding to societal needs. Funding agencies are increasingly requiring scientists to articulate how their research has impact beyond the academic community. With the establishment of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, NSF has led the way in assembling and leveraging the intellectual and organizational

  10. More than metabolic: Considering the broader paleoepidemiological impact of vitamin D deficiency in bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Anne Marie E; Buckley, Hallie R; Halcrow, Siân E

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has traditionally been viewed as a metabolic bone disease by bioarchaeologists and considered primarily in terms of the development of specific musculoskeletal changes used for diagnosis in paleopathological research. These skeletal manifestations are usually interpreted as representing general ill-health. Clinical research shows that vitamin D is also integral to a number of extra-skeletal physiological processes including immunoregulation, blood pressure homeostasis, cell division, and programmed cell death. Vitamin D deficiency and sub-clinical insufficiency are thought to be risk factors for infectious and autoimmune diseases, as well as certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological work indicates that the skeletal manifestations of vitamin D deficiency represent the extreme end of a spectrum of morbidity associated with negative health outcomes, including increased risk for secondary tuberculosis. This article provides a review of clinical research on the extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D and the pathological consequences of poor vitamin D status. Additionally, it presents an interpretive model for bioarchaeological analyses of rickets and osteomalacia for consideration of the whole-body impact of poor vitamin D nutriture and possible comorbidities that may have affected the wider population. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:183-196, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Student and Community Engagement in Astronomy Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.

    2015-08-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in astronomy is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our research and educational projects that introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science.

  12. Cascadia Initiative Broader Impacts to Influence Student Career Choices and Engage K-12 Schools in Seismic Hazard Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livelybrooks, D.; Richter, M.; Head, E.; Toomey, D. R.; Trehu, A. M.; Tolstoy, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Cascadia Initiative is an amphibious seismic and geodetic experiment addressing questions about volcanic arc structure to formation, hydration and deformation of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates to megathrust earthquake genesis, interface characterization and forearc prism phenomenon. Broader impacts for the Cascadia Initiative include a program placing community college students onboard cruises and following up with presentations and other outreach on community college campuses and elsewhere ('CC@sea'). The first two CC@sea-ers participated in the first cruise to deploy ocean-bottom seismometers off the Washington and Oregon coast in July, 2011 and returned to their home campuses in Portland and rural Oregon fall term. A goal of CC@sea is to increase participation by community college students, typically from diverse backgrounds, in geoscience career paths, either through direct participation in CC@sea or through indirect exposure to CC@sea-ers. Another outreach program (seismometers@school) will place seismometers in Pacific NW schools for long-term monitoring of ground motion at different buildings within a school district. High school teachers and students will help analyze their data to characterize local shaking at individual schools within their districts. This will supplement other assessments of seismic risk and culminate in presentations to school boards where students and teachers can advocate for improved K-12 preparedness for potentially devastating Cascadia megathrust events. A teacher workshop to kick-start seismometers@school takes place November, 2011.

  13. Fostering Students’ and Teachers’ Understanding of the Nature of Science: Where We Need the Broadest of Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Dauber, R.; Molnar, P. H.; Smith, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Making wise decisions about daunting societal and environmental problems requires understanding of both scientific concepts and the limits of scientific knowledge. While K-12 school standards now include topics on scientific inquiry and the nature of science, few science teachers have personal knowledge of these ideas through conducting science research first-hand. In their own education, most have experienced primarily fact-packed lecture courses rather than deep engagement with gathering, interpreting and communicating about scientific evidence. Teachers are thus at a disadvantage in teaching about the nature of science. Moreover, few curriculum materials directly address these ideas. Instead, instructors at all levels tend to rely on students gleaning ideas from their lab work, without ever making them explicit. The result is a poor understanding of the nature of science among many students and citizens. Thus the nature of science is an important and fruitful area for “broader impacts” efforts by NSF-funded projects across the entire spectrum of science. To address this gap, we have created a 20-minute educational documentary film focused on the nature and processes of science. The film is a broader impacts effort for a large, NSF-funded, multidisciplinary, collaborative research project to study the uplift of the Tibetan plateau and its impact on atmospheric and climate processes. The film, Upward and Outward: Scientific Inquiry on the Tibetan Plateau, focuses on the process of science, as seen through the lens of a specific project. Viewers follow an international team of scientists as they work in the laboratory and in the field, build new instruments and computer models, travel to exotic locales, argue about their findings, and enjoy collaboration and conversation. By gaining an insider’s glimpse into both the intellectual process of scientific inquiry and the everyday social and professional activities of science, students learn how science is a human

  14. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Bruckner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding trade-offs and interactions between water and energy is crucial in understanding many issues of sustainability faced by society in our changing environment. Increasing capcity through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges are key goals of the NSF STEP Center InTeGrate. We connect teaching about the Earth to societal issues for undergraduates across the curriculum. Understanding the interaction between engineering, sustainability and the geosciences and the role engineering plays in building a sustainable future, in areas such resource and energy use is a major foci of our work. Connecting this knowledge to societal issues that undergraduates can relate to, and improving interdisciplinary problem-solving are needed in addressing the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features interdisciplinary materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics and using evidence-based teaching practice. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include Environmental Justice and Freshwater Resources, Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface and Human Activity, and Human's Dependence on Earth's Mineral Resources. Upcoming, new topics include modules on Energy Environment and Our Future, Global Energy and Atmosphere, Ecosystem Services Approach to Water Resources and course-length material on Grand Challenges of Interdisciplinary Water Sustainability and Gateway to Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, contributing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  15. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  16. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  17. Having a Positive Impact in the K-12 Earth and Space Science Classroom for Teachers and Students through Education and Outreach Efforts - Best Practices for Effective Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M. A.; Passow, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Today's scientist is frequently asked to find ways to identify "broader impacts" in their research proposals, in addition to proposing a compelling project on the forefront of research. Broader impact requirements are designed to ensure that research results have a positive impact for the society at large, which in most cases is the source of the support for the research in the first place. Indeed, most research solicitations from funding agencies require components of the proposal that will benefit society and spread knowledge beyond the scientist's peer group. Developing these program elements in an efficient and effective way can be daunting to a scientist who is typically focused on their research and may not have expertise nor an extensive network in the education and outreach arena. Geoscientists seeking to make a significant contribution in K-12, working with teachers and students in a school setting, should develop an understanding of the state of Earth and space science education today across the country, develop partnerships with education and outreach specialists working in the K-12 setting, and learn from best practices to optimize their efforts. Where is Earth and space science taught today in K-12? Is it required? Is it an elective? Is it even in the curriculum? What is the background of the teachers teaching in this subject area? What resources do they need? What are science standards, and is Earth and space science tested in the schools? What are the key approaches scientists can use to have optimal positive impact in the K-12 setting? This presentation will provide answers to these questions based on surveys of K-12 Earth and space science educators through the National Earth Science Teachers Association, and highlight efficient and effective approaches for sharing your research with K-12 teachers and students.

  18. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  19. A broader look at ammonia production, excretion, and transport in fish: a review of impacts of feeding and the environment.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol

    2017-01-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have studied ammonia production and excretion in teleost fish. Stemming from past investigations a body of knowledge now exists on various aspects including biochemical mechanisms of ammonia formation and specific routes and tissues used for ammonia transport, culminating in a current detailed theoretical model of branchial transport, including the molecular identities of the moieties involved. However, typical studies examining ammonia balance use routine laboratory conditions and fasted fish. While avoiding additional variables that influence nitrogen balance, these studies are arguably idealistic and do not reflect the natural variety of conditions that fish encounter. Further studies have revealed the impacts of extrinsic factors (e.g. salinity, pH, temperature) on ammonia handling in fasted fish whereas others have explored intrinsic factors, such as life history and developmental impacts. One routine challenge for ammonia balance that fish encounter is feeding and digestion. Fortunately, many new studies have revealed the impact of feeding and digestion on several aspects of ammonia balance; from production to excretion and to transport, and several have done so incorporating supplemental extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors. Together, these complex studies reveal realistic responses to multifactorial challenges encountered by animals in the wild and begin to provide a holistic view of ammonia balance in freshwater teleost fish.

  20. Making Broader Impacts Through Scientist-Educator Partnerships: Observations from ANDRILL's Research Immersion for Science Educators Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, L.

    2007-12-01

    ANDRILL, the Antarctic geology Drilling project, sponsors an intense Scientist-Educator partnership opportunity: as participants, educators spend two months working with scientists, technicians, and drillers in Antarctica. The program is ANDRILL's Research Immersion for Science Educators Program (ARISE). During the austral summer of 2006, six ARISE participants from four countries worked as part of ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf project team. During that season, drillers recovered over 1200 m of rock core from beneath 85 m of ice and 850 m of sea water. Scientists, technicians, and educators worked together to process and interpret the core. The intensity, duration, and relative isolation of working in Antarctica fueled learning and inspired new teaching activities. Eight new ARISE participants are working on ANDRILL's Southern McMurdo Sound project in 2007. Building on these Scientist-Educator partnerships, ANDRILL is compiling a collection of educational materials and outreach capabilities that are broadening the impacts of Antarctic geoscience research across diverse communities. Past and current ARISE participants represent a range of grade levels and educational situations; each person makes outreach efforts in their own community, and shares their efforts among the group of educators. The results are reaching students, youth in informal science education venues, science educators, and the public, in the United States and around the world. This presentation will highlight outreach efforts and educational materials produced by ANDRILL staff and ARISE participants, and offer a list of best practices for maximizing impact from Scientist-Educator partnerships.

  1. HLA-E: Presentation of a Broader Peptide Repertoire Impacts the Cellular Immune Response—Implications on HSCT Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Thomas; Celik, Alexander A.; Huyton, Trevor; Kunze-Schumacher, Heike; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The HLA-E locus encodes a nonclassical class Ib molecule that serves many immune functions from inhibiting NK cells to activating CTLs. Structural analysis of HLA-E/NKG2A complexes visualized fine-tuning of protective immune responses through AA interactions between HLA-E, the bound peptide, and NKG2A/CD94. A loss of cellular protection through abrogation of the HLA-E/NKG2A engagement is dependent on the HLA-E bound peptide. The role of HLA-E in posttransplant outcomes is not well understood but might be attributed to its peptide repertoire. To investigate the self-peptide repertoire of HLA-E∗01:01 in the absence of protective HLA class I signal peptides, we utilized soluble HLA technology in class I negative LCL cells in order to characterize HLA-E∗01:01-bound ligands by mass-spectrometry. To understand the immunological impact of these analyzed ligands on NK cell reactivity, we performed cellular assays. Synthesized peptides were loaded onto recombinant T2 cells expressing HLA-E∗01:01 molecules and applied in cytotoxicity assays using the leukemia derived NK cell line (NKL) as effector. HLA-E in complex with the self-peptides demonstrated a shift towards cytotoxicity and a loss of cell protection. Our data highlights the fact that the HLA-E-peptidome is not as restricted as previously thought and support the suggestion of a posttransplant role for HLA-E. PMID:26366178

  2. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Long-term Soil, Water, and Vegetation Monitoring: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of soils, water, and vegetation is crucial in understanding sustainability-related issues faced by society in our changing environment. Promoting buy in through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges is a key goal of the InTeGrate project. The InTeGrate project is an NSF STEP Center that endeavors to infuse teaching about the Earth into undergraduate courses across the curriculum. The project aims to connect this knowledge to societal issues that students can relate to and opens the door to interdisciplinary problem-solving that is needed to face the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features publicly-available interdisciplinary, faculty-contributed teaching materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics. These topics include water, food resources, energy, and hazards. Further, web pages built around teaching methods such as service learning, working with data, and teaching in the field, help engage students in active learning and making meaningful connections to their coursework. In addition, teams of interdisciplinary faculty are creating project-developed courses and modules designed to engage and promote students' literacy in sustainability and global change issues. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include sustainable agriculture, soil and society, climate change, critical zone science, water resources, and more. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include contributing to the community collections by creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, designing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  3. Student and Community Engagement in Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa; Ahmed, Yasmin

    2015-04-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in Earth and environmental sciences is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields in general and in Earth, space, and environmental sciences in particular. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS. The project introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments that measure the quality of air, drinking water, and ultraviolet level in greater Cairo, Egypt, to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness on climate change and the underlying role of human activities. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science This work is part of the PEER research project 2-239 sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS Project Link (at National Academies website): http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/dsc/peerscience/PGA_084046.htm website: http://CleanAirEgypt.org Links to cited work: Core Curriculum Course

  4. Student and Community Engagement in Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Tutwiler, R.; Zakey, A.; Shokr, M. E.; Ahmed, Y.; Jereidini, D.; Eid, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in Earth and environmental sciences is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields in general and in Earth, space, and environmental sciences in particular. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS. The project introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments that measure the quality of air, drinking water, and ultraviolet level in greater Cairo, Egypt, to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness on climate change and the underlying role of human activities. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science Note: This presentation is a PEER project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS Project Link (at National Academies website): http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/dsc/peerscience/PGA_084046.htmwebsite: http://CleanAirEgypt.orgLinks to cited work: Core Curriculum Course: http

  5. The Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNardo, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLC) are one strategy aimed at facilitating teacher professional development, with a focus on increasing student achievement. This mixed methods study investigated the impact of professional learning on student achievement. A total of 6 teachers and 121 students recruited from the third and fifth grades of a…

  6. Teacher Impact on the Academic Achievement of Students of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Marshalynn Morgan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated teacher impact on the academic achievement of students of poverty. Teacher impact was analyzed based on two factors: (1) teacher emotional empathy and (2) teacher professional development experiences. The results of this study indicate a non-correlative relationship between teachers' overall emotional empathy and…

  7. Impact of Parent University on Parent Engagement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Watechia Evelyen

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined the impact of Parent University on parental engagement and the factors that impact a parent's decision to become involved in their child's education. In addition, the aim of the research was to offer recommendations for improvement, so Parent University is able to enhance academic achievement within MNPS. The key…

  8. Create powerful Broader Impact Tools and k-16 inquiry lessons aligned to next generation standards for this generation of science students by building a partnership between scientists and educational coordinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.; Quan, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    A model of collaboration between research scientists, educational non-profit organizations and practicing classroom teachers will be explained. This method can provide a researcher with support providing educationally sound age appropriate science lessons while doing what they love most, researching! Appointing an educational coordinator to fulfill broader impacts may sound out of the ordinary, but evaluators recognize the important aspect of finding experts to support research in the Broader Impact, just as you would in the science part of the grant. By creating a team using experts in their field, the scientist can focus on the science while the broader Impacts will impact students and teachers. There was a team made out of experts, research, and data from the International Ocean Drilling Program, Oklahoma State University, Rutgers, and public school teachers. The educational coordinator aligns the high end scientific work to standards and benchmark for each group of students. Once the content is academically leveled at age appropriate readiness, successful lessons can be created. The scientists provide content and the non-profits provide facilitation and a way to implement the lessons created over a national scope.

  9. The Broader Impact of Friend to Friend (F2F): Effects on Teacher-Student Relationships, Prosocial Behaviors, and Relationally and Physically Aggressive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke S

    2016-07-01

    Girls often harm others' social standing by starting rumors about peers or by excluding others from peer group activities, which is called relational aggression. Although relational aggression is not a new phenomenon, there have been relatively few interventions designed to address this, especially for urban ethnic minority girls. The Friend to Friend (F2F) program, developed through an iterative participatory action research process, has proven to be effective in improving targeted relationally aggressive urban girls' social problem-solving knowledge and decreasing levels of relational aggression, with effects being maintained 1 year after treatment. In the current article, we examine the broader effects of the F2F program. Findings suggest that the indicated F2F program has broader effects such as increasing prosocial behaviors, decreasing relational and physical aggression, and improving teacher-student relationships among non-targeted boys. In addition, the program demonstrated some effects for non-targeted girls including an increase in prosocial behaviors and improved teacher-student relationships. Implications for examining the cost-effectiveness of indicated interventions such as F2F are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Teacher Licensure Programs on Minority Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Rose S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the impact of teacher licensure routes, particularly those identified as either traditional or alternative on student achievement by comparing Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) end of year scores in math and reading for minority students in grades six through eight during the period from 2005 through 2009. To compare the…

  11. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  12. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  13. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  14. Essays on Gifted Education's Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick Ryan

    2009-01-01

    There are three self-contained essays in this dissertation. In the first essay (Chapter 2 of the dissertation) I estimate various achievement models for math and reading using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) dataset. An indicator for gifted program participation captures the impact of…

  15. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  16. Impact of cognitive absorption on Facebook on students' achievement.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sana

    2012-06-01

    In the great expansion of the social networking activity, young people are the main users whose choices have vast influence. This study uses the flow theory to gauge the impact of Facebook usage on Tunisian students' achievements, with the presumption that the high usage level might reduce students' scholar achievements. The research design suggests that this impact would vary among students with different interests for the university and multitasking capabilities. Facebook usage would develop students' satisfaction with friends and family, which could enhance their academic performance. Analyses from 161 Tunisian students show that Facebook usage does not affect significantly students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the family, whereas it decreases their actual satisfaction with friends. Yet, a high level of satisfaction of the student with his family continues to enhance his academic performance. Overall, though, Facebook usage appears to do not have a significant effect on undergraduate students' academic performance. However, this interdependency is significantly moderated by the student's interest for the university and his multitasking capabilities. Students with multitasking skills and students with initial interest for the university might experience a positive effect of Facebook usage on their studies, as they keep control over their activity and make it a beneficial leisure activity. However, students who do not have these characteristics tend to not have any significant effect. Results help to understand the psychological attitude and consequent behavior of the youths on this platform. Implications, limitations, and further research directions are offered.

  17. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment.

  18. EarthScope National Office (ESNO) Education and Outreach Program and its Broader Impacts: 2015 Update and Handoff to the Next ESNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Robinson, S.; Bohon, W.; Arrowsmith, R.; Garnero, E.; Baumback, D.; Boot, K. E.; Dick, C.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org), funded by the National Science Foundation, fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of geodesy, seismology, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. Data and scientific findings from EarthScope are impacting and revolutionizing wide areas of geoscientific research, the understanding and mitigation of geologic hazards, and applications of geoscience to environmental sustainability. The EarthScope Program also produces and disseminates resources and programs for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO), operated by Arizona State University from 2011 to 2015, serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes E&O through social media and the web, inSights newsletters and published articles, E&O workshops for informal educators (interpreters), an annual Speaker Series, assistance to K-12 STEM teacher professional development projects led by EarthScope researchers, continuing education for researchers, collaborations with other Earth-science E&O providers, and a biennial National Meeting. Significant activities during the final year of ESNO at ASU included the EarthScope National Meeting in Vermont; Native Science professional-development workshops for Native American teachers in Arizona and Minnesota; a sustained E&O presence online; and preparation for the transition of ESNO from ASU to the next host institution. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  19. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  20. Achievement Network's Investing in Innovation Expansion: Impacts on Educator Practice and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin R.; Morton, Beth A.; Herlihy, Corinne M.

    2016-01-01

    Data-based instructional programs have proliferated in American schools despite limited evidence of their effectiveness in improving educator practice and raising student achievement. We report results from a two-year school-randomized evaluation of the Achievement Network (ANet), a program providing schools with standards-aligned interim…

  1. The Impact and Racial Identity on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulzac, Anica Camela

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…

  2. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  3. Juvenile Delinquency and Recidivism: The Impact of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; Zhang, Dalun; Spann, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    For well over a century, behavioral researchers have attempted to understand the relation between juvenile delinquency and academic achievement. The authors review current literature pertaining to academic achievement and its effect on delinquency. While researchers have not yet been able to establish a direct causal relation between these two…

  4. Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality…

  5. The Dynamics of Gender Impact on Group Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen-Jones, Carolee; Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Charles, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    In cooperative learning groups of business students (n=38, 27, 28), half were self-selected, half were assigned. No differences in achievement were found across majors, gender, or membership choice. Groups with only one representative of a gender achieved significantly less than mixed or single-gender groups. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  6. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  7. An Examination of an Online Tutoring Program's Impact on Low-Achieving Middle School Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Shanan; Arnold, Pamela; Nunnery, John; Grant, Melva

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the impact of synchronous online tutoring services on struggling middle school students' mathematics achievement. The online tutoring was provided as a response to intervention (RTI) Tier 3 support (intensive, individualized intervention) in schools implementing a school-wide mathematics…

  8. How Rural School Superintendents in Illinois Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VonSchnase, Kyle T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a superintendent's role has been redefined and more focus has been placed on student achievement. Research demonstrates that rural public schools are faced with an educational crisis. Rural districts are faced with an epidemic of declining enrollments/budgets, increased drop-out rates, low…

  9. Suitability of AIOU Television and Its Impact on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Syed Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not…

  10. How Does Grit Impact College Students' Academic Achievement in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelais, Paul; Lemay, David John; Doleck, Tenzin

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that achievement is not solely based on the cognitive abilities of the learner, but rather on the combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. This paper explores how grit affects student academic performance and success in first-year college physics students in the context of a Quebec Collège d'enseignement…

  11. The Impact of "Achievement for All" on School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The "Achievement for All" (AfA) pilot initiative, delivered in partnership by the Department for Education (DfE), (formerly the Department for Children, Schools and Families [DCSF]), National Strategies and the National College (NCSL), aims to increase the attainment and progress of children in schools with special educational needs and…

  12. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports. First Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute. It is a daily, year-long, credit-bearing, physical education elective for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. PASS is based on the concept that the principles and skills…

  13. A Professional Learning Community's Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Minnie

    2016-01-01

    English language learners (ELL students) were not attaining and maintaining sufficient proficiency at public schools in Northern California, as measured by students' achievement scores on state and district assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research was to determine whether there were differences in academic language arts…

  14. Impact of Reading Strategy Use on Girls' and Boys' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchamma, Yamina; Poulin, Vincent; Ruel, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    We examined the reading strategies of boys and girls and identified those determining academic achievement in 13-year-old Canadian students. Students from each province and one territory (N = 20,094) answered a questionnaire on, among others, reading strategies. T-test results showed that girls use these strategies more regularly compared to boys.…

  15. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Brian John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  16. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  17. Classroom, School, and District Impacts on Diverse Student Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Lawson, Hal A.; Angelis, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has investigated the literacy achievement gap with particular focus on ethnically and linguistically diverse students' performance. This study extends that research by examining the relationships among classroom instructional practices, school priorities, and district policies in higher performing schools.…

  18. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  19. Impacts of Campus Involvement on Hospitality Student Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Dean; Lei, Simon A.

    2007-01-01

    Campus involvement affecting satisfaction and academic achievement (overall grade point average) of hospitality undergraduate students at a state university in the Midwest (University X) was investigated through a survey research. A four-part survey instrument was developed to facilitate this study. There were a number of academic, professional,…

  20. The Sibling Size Impact on the Educational Achievement in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adli, Rhonya; Louichi, Ahmed; Tamouh, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of sibling size on children's education. The theoretical framework shows an opposite relationship between the number of children within family and their school performance. Empirical works diverge between those corroborating this theory and those leading to ambiguous results such a positive correlation or the absence of any…

  1. The Impact of Interactive Engagement Methods on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Winnips, Koos; Beetsma, Yta

    2014-01-01

    Interactive engagement (IE) is a process that promotes students' conceptual understanding through activities, combined with immediate feedback from peers and/or instructors. The present study investigates the impact of IE on students' academic performance, using the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. Engineering students (n?=?158),…

  2. A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education Task Force is made up of 62 national policy experts, with diverse political affiliations, who come from fields that include education, social welfare, health, housing, and civil rights. This article presents a shortened version of the Task Force's recently released statement on the Broader, Bolder Approach…

  3. The Impact of Pupil Mobility on Assessment of Achievement and Its Implications for Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Carl; And Others

    This study examines the relationship between student mobility and achievement test results in predominately Black and Hispanic Community School District 17, Brooklyn, New York. The project is designed to assess the impact of mobility on pupil achievement and the interpretation of achievement data, as well as to map the pupil population mobility. A…

  4. Exploring the Impacts of Accelerated Delivery on Student Learning, Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Walker, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the impacts on student learning, achievement and satisfaction when year 13 (final year) students at a large UK sixth-form college take a GCE A level in one year instead of the usual two years. Data relating to the entry qualifications and final A level grades achieved by 879 students on both accelerated and non-accelerated…

  5. The Impact of Achievement Press on Student Success in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Kearney, W. Sean

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of achievement press on student success in elementary schools in the Southwestern USA. Design/methodology/approach: Data from individual teacher assessments and student achievement tests are collected and aggregated at the campus level. Hierarchical linear modeling is utilized to…

  6. The Impact of Graphing Calculators on Math Achievement: A Quantitative, Longevity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbini, Corey

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of high school students' graphing calculator usage on their math achievement over time. Achievement growth was measured using nationally-recognized standardized test scores from EXPLORE, PLAN, and ACT. Two groups of students were used in this study; one group had graphing calculators integrated beginning in…

  7. The Power of Perception: Mediating the Impact of Poverty on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Angelo, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Race and class often marginalize students in impoverished urban neighborhoods, and this reality is evident in consistently low student achievement in many of the schools in these neighborhoods. This study examines how a teacher's sense of agency can help mediate the detrimental impact of poverty on student achievement. Teachers in a large…

  8. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  9. Summer Study: A Two Part Investigation of the Impact of Exposure to Schooling on Achievement Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane Lisa

    This thesis is composed of two studies which look at the impact of exposure to schooling on achievement growth of children. Both use data from the National Follow Through Evaluation. The first study investigates the hypothesis that the difference in achievement growth between poor and non-poor children is greater during the summer months than…

  10. What Is the Impact of Full Access to Technology on the Achievement of the Hispanic Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The problem studied in this research was whether the impact of full access to technology both at home and in school would affect the achievement of Hispanic students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the access to technology and the achievement of the Hispanic students at a suburban middle school. What are the…

  11. Arts Achieve, Impacting Student Success in the Arts: Preliminary Findings after One Year of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal of the…

  12. Estimating the Impact of the Massachusetts English Immersion Law on Limited English Proficient Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English…

  13. Impact of the Inclusion of Students with Autism on the Academic Achievement of General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, James P., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of inclusion on general education students has barely been mentioned in the professional literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine impact of inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the academic achievement of the general education students in inclusive classes using an independent measures…

  14. Circuit life versus bleeding risk: the impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time versus achieved filtration fraction.

    PubMed

    MacEwen, Clare; Watkinson, Peter; Winearls, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Whilst prolonging hemofilter (circuit) life, heparin increases bleeding risk. The impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on circuit life and bleeding risk has not been assessed in a modern critically ill cohort. Lowering filtration fraction may be an alternative means of prolonging circuit life, but is often overlooked in critical care. An observational study of 309 consecutive circuits in a general intensive care unit was conducted using a wide target APTT range. Multilevel modeling was used to predict circuit life and bleeding according to achieved APTT and filtration fraction. Independent predictors of circuit failure (i.e. unplanned ending of treatment) included filtration fraction (P<0.001, HR 1.07 per 1% increase), peak APTT (P<0.001, HR 0.8 per 10 s increase or 0.3 APTR increase) and baseline PT (P=0.014, HR 0.91 for every 50% increase). The only significant predictor of bleeding was peak APTT (P=0.017, OR 1.05 per 10 s increase). Every 10 s APTT increase was associated with a 20% reduction in circuit failure, but a 5% increase in hemorrhage. A 3% reduction in filtration fraction was associated with the same improvement in circuit life as a 10 s increase in APTT. Increasing APTT prolongs circuit life but carries a substantial risk of bleeding even in modern practice. Filtration fraction has a large impact on circuit life in the critically ill: a 3% reduction in filtration fraction, e.g. by increasing blood flow or delivering some of the clearance via dialysis, would be expected to reduce circuit failure as much as a 10 s increase in APTT.

  15. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  16. Urban birds have broader environmental tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances; Martin, Paul R; Wingfield, John C

    2007-12-22

    Urbanization dramatically changes the composition and diversity of biotic communities. The characteristics distinguishing species that persist in urban environments, however, are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that broadly adapted organisms are better able to tolerate urbanization, using a phylogenetically controlled, global comparison of birds. We compared elevational and latitudinal distributions of 217 urban birds found in 73 of the world's largest cities with distributions of 247 rural congeners to test the hypothesis that urban birds possess broader environmental tolerance. Urban birds had markedly broader environmental tolerance than rural congeners, as estimated by elevational and latitudinal distributions. Our results suggest that broad environmental tolerance may predispose some birds to thrive in urban habitats. The mechanisms mediating such environmental tolerance warrant further investigation, but probably include greater behavioural, physiological and ecological flexibility.

  17. The impact of general practice attachments on foundation doctors: achieving the goals of Modernising Medical Careers.

    PubMed

    Firth, Adam; Wass, Val

    2011-09-01

    Modernising Medical Careers saw the introduction of four-month attachments in primary care during the second Foundation Year, to foster a broader understanding of healthcare settings. The North West Deanery offered this opportunity to virtually all trainees. Previous work had captured poor impressions of undergraduate experience in general practice. This study aimed to explore Foundation Doctors' perceptions of Foundation primary care attachments before and after the experience. Qualitative methodology was used. Two focus groups were held with 12 trainees at the end of their first Foundation Year to explore their expectations of pending rotation in general practice. Eighteen individual interviews were conducted with Foundation Doctors after the attachment. Themed analysis of transcripts revealed a striking contrast between trainees' perceptions of general practice before and after undertaking F2 rotations. Undergraduate exposure and secondary care bias in training had a significant negative impact on trainees' perceptions of general practice. The one-to-one opportunities for educational supervision, the range of patients seen and the opportunity to understand communication at the primary/secondary interface dispelled these concerns. The findings highlighted the beneficial impact of foundation posts in general practice for training, career planning in general and, as outlined in the initial goals of the programme, the interaction between primary and secondary care.

  18. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  19. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  20. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  1. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  2. Impact of Preschool Education on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of various types of preschool care and education on the reading achievement of children, kindergarten through fifth grade, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). The participants in this study are located throughout the United States of America. These…

  3. The Impact of Music on Student Achievement in the Third and Fifth Grade Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates students who engage in music exhibit improved cognitive development. The quantitative study was conducted in a large suburban school district in Southeast Georgia. This study investigated the impact of music on student achievement when music is incorporated with the core academic subject of mathematics at the elementary level.…

  4. The Impact of Eliminating Extraneous Sound and Light on Students' Achievement: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangipudy, Rajarajeswari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eliminating extraneous sound and light on students' achievement was investigated under four conditions: Light and Sound controlled, Sound Only controlled, Light Only controlled and neither Light nor Sound controlled. Group, age and gender were the control variables. Four randomly selected groups of high school freshmen students with…

  5. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  6. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  7. The Impact of Troops to Teachers Participants on Student Achievement: A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Kurt Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the impact of Troops to Teachers (TTT) participants on student achievement by comparing the mean scores of Texas students in the eighth grade during the 2011-2012 academic year taught by TTT participants with the mean scores of all other Texas eighth grade students on each of four…

  8. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  9. The Impact of Federally Tax Exempt Property Ownership on National County Poverty Rank and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuessner, Sonia Shedd

    2016-01-01

    Education in the 21st century is subject to standardized testing with financial implications associated with testing. Under continued focus at the federal level to close the socioeconomic achievement gap, equitable distribution of funding is critical to ensure all schools have resources available to offset impacts of low socioeconomic status on…

  10. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  11. Investigating the Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Professional Development on Lesson Planning and Student Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Rodney Lee

    2011-01-01

    K-12 teachers lack training in best practices of interactive lesson development. It is essential that teachers utilize interactive whiteboards effectively. Using a collaborative mentor training, this factorial between-within groups study investigated how student achievement was impacted when teachers applied a set of effective interactive…

  12. Impact of Discussion on Peer Evaluations: Perceptions of Low Achievement and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenecke, Todd M.; Waas, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors placed 5th-grade students into small groups of 3 in order to examine the impact of group discussion and displayed effort on children's evaluations of a low-achieving peer. Low effort by a target peer resulted in negative evaluations across attributional, affective, help-giving, and social response dimensions. Children who participated…

  13. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  14. Online Penalty: The Impact of Online Instruction on the Latino-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Despite a substantial body of research on the effectiveness of distance education at the post-secondary level, little is known about the impact of online course delivery on the achievement gap. In California, the gap between white and Latino post-secondary student outcomes is significant and persistent, with Latino students overrepresented in…

  15. The Impact on Student Achievement Following Professional Development on the Principles of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNome, Evonne C.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reviews the impact on student achievement following professional development on the principles of formative assessment. The study compared mathematics and reading performance data from student populations with teachers who received training in formative assessment to performance data from student populations with teachers…

  16. Measuring the Impact of Substance Abuse on Student Academic Achievement and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattermann, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…

  17. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  18. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  19. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  20. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required.

  1. Predicting maintenance or achievement of healthy weight in children: the impact of changes in physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Adela; Chomitz, Virginia R; Arsenault, Lisa N; Must, Aviva; Economos, Christina D; McGowan, Robert J; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Physical fitness is often inversely associated with adiposity in children cross-sectionally, but the effect of becoming fit or maintaining fitness over time on changes in weight status has not been well studied in children. We investigated the impact of changes in fitness over 1-4 years of follow-up on the maintenance or achievement of healthy weight among 2,793 schoolchildren who were first measured as 1st to 7th graders. Students were classified as "fit" or "underfit" according to age- and gender-specific norms in five fitness domains: endurance, agility, flexibility, upper body strength, and abdominal strength. Weight status was dichotomized by BMI percentile: "healthy weight" (<85th percentile) or "overweight/obese" (≥85th percentile). At baseline, of the 38.3% overweight/obese children, 81.9% (N = 875) were underfit. Underfit overweight students were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they achieved fitness (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-5.77; girls: OR = 4.67, 95%CI = 2.09-10.45). Initially fit overweight children (N = 194) were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR = 11.99, 95%CI = 2.18-65.89; girls: OR = 2.46, 95%CI = 1.04-5.83). Similarly, initially fit healthy-weight children (N = 717) were more likely to maintain healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR 3.70, 95%CI = 1.40-9.78; girls: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 1.95-8.78). Overweight schoolchildren who achieve or maintain physical fitness are more likely to achieve healthy weight, and healthy-weight children who maintain fitness are more likely to maintain healthy weight. School-based policies/practices that support physical fitness may contribute to obesity reduction and maintenance of healthy weight among schoolchildren.

  2. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  3. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  4. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  5. The impact of tutoring on early reading achievement for children with and without attention problems.

    PubMed

    Rabiner, David L; Malone, Patrick S

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether the benefits of reading tutoring in first grade were moderated by children's level of attention problems. Participants were 581 children from the intervention and control samples of Fast Track, a longitudinal multisite investigation of the development and prevention of conduct problems. Standardized reading achievement measures were administered after kindergarten and 1st grade, and teacher ratings of attention problems were obtained during 1st grade. During 1st grade, intervention participants received three 30-min tutoring sessions per week to promote the development of initial reading skills. Results replicated prior findings that attention problems predict reduced 1st grade reading achievement, even after controlling for IQ and earlier reading ability. Intervention was associated with modest reading achievement benefits for inattentive children without early reading difficulties, and substantial benefits for children with early reading difficulties who were not inattentive. It had no discernible impact, however, for children who were both inattentive and poor early readers. Results underscore the need to develop effective academic interventions for inattentive children, particularly for those with co-occurring reading difficulties.

  6. Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on Kindergarten Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Palamar, Joseph J.; Petkova, Eva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children’s kindergarten academic achievement. METHODS: This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). RESULTS: Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen’s d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen’s d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods. PMID:23589806

  7. The impact of an integrated math and science curriculum on third grade students' measurement achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Karen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a hands-on science curriculum, which integrates mathematics and supports the development of English language skills, on third grade students' mathematics achievement---specifically the measurement subscale of the statewide assessment. The data draws from a larger 5-year research project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops designed to promote effective instruction of science while integrating mathematics and supporting English language development. The third grade curriculum places a strong emphasis on developing measurement skills in the context of scientific investigations. Third grade students' performance on the measurement subscale of the statewide mathematics assessment at experimental and comparison schools were examined using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). Students participating in the treatment performed significantly higher than students at comparison schools. The results of this study provide evidence that an integrated approach to math and science instruction can benefit diverse populations of students.

  8. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  9. The Impact of the Length of Preschool Attendance on the Academic Achievement and Retention of Third and Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Bey, Michelle Rubee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the length of years of preschool attendance on the academic achievement and retention of third and fourth grade students in high and low achieving schools. The study consisted of the analysis of secondary data, i.e., mathematics and language arts literacy scores as the measurement of academic…

  10. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  11. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  12. The Impact of Student-Faculty Interaction on Academic Achievement and College Satisfaction for Black Males Attending Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Lamar R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student-faculty interactions on academic achievement and college satisfaction among Black males at predominately White institutions. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine if there was a difference in levels of academic achievement and college satisfaction based on how often Black…

  13. The Impact of Motivation on Student's Academic Achievement and Learning Outcomes in Mathematics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adedeji

    2007-01-01

    In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in mathematics at all levels of schooling. In an effort to achieve this, this study investigated the impact of motivation on students' school academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools using motivation for academic preference…

  14. There's More to Ethics than Justice and Harm: Teaching a Broader Understanding of Journalism Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Steven; McKinley, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Most applied ethics training in journalism in the West follows Enlightenment-era, reason-based ethical principles: Justice is intrinsically better than injustice (Kant), and the best choice is achieving the best outcome for all concerned (Mill). Recent scholarship in ethics suggests that ethics is much broader than this. This article examines a…

  15. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  16. Reducing the impact of snakebite envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-09-01

    Snakebite envenoming constitutes an important public health problem in Latin America and some countries of the Caribbean. The advances and pending tasks in the study and control of this neglected tropical disease in this region are reviewed in the light of a roadmap proposed in 2006. Significant progress has been achieved in the study of snake venoms, particularly regarding venom proteomics, i.e.'venomics', and the analysis of the mechanism of action of toxins. Likewise, a deeper understanding has been gained in the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms produced in the region. In contrast, despite advances made in the study of clinical manifestations of envenomings and safety and efficacy of antivenoms at the clinical level, much remains to be done in this subject. Improvements have occurred in antivenom manufacturing technologies and availability, although there are still countries where there is insufficient supply of antivenoms, or where manufacture has to be improved. In spite of considerable efforts in some countries in prevention, accessibility to treatment, and training of health staff in the management of envenomings, important challenges remain for the region as a whole, with the long term goal of reducing the impact of this disease in terms of personal and social suffering.

  17. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  18. The impact of classroom organization in grade 4 on student achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, Edward Francis

    While qualitative studies of teacher perceptions of classroom organization have been performed, quantitative studies linked to standards-based assessments are noticeably absent. Two questions guided the research: What is the impact of classroom layout in grade 4 on student achievement in science? How does space use change in a classroom when the furniture is reorganized? The study was conducted in five classrooms in two rural, elementary schools. In two classrooms, teachers placed a large science materials table in the center of the room to make science activities a focal point for students. Two classrooms, that were used as controls, continued to operate using their established organization. The organization of the fifth classroom had included a large table in the center of the room for a number of years. This room was also used as a control. Data were collected in three ways. Quantitative data were collected from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test. Qualitative data were collected using the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Form and by creating a classroom map. The data were presented in quantitative, narrative, and graphic forms. Data from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test were analyzed using a matrix published by the New York State Education Department and by using SPSS software. Classroom spatial utilization and migration patterns were visually evaluated. The guiding hypothesis that placing a large table in the center of the room would result in improved student performance was not totally supported by the data. Student density was correlated to student achievement. Specifically, classroom space per student was positively correlated to the inquiry science skills of classifying, manipulating materials, measuring, recording data, using non-standard measurement, and making predictions. Classroom arrangement was not as important as open space per student. This research is important because classrooms that

  19. The impact of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts on student achievement in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Ruben, Jr.

    Educators in today's society are in search for different ways to reach their students in order to keep them engaged and active in the learning process. There are several strategies that teachers have utilized in the classroom in order to reach all students. Now seen more in the classroom is the use of technology in one form or another. There are several types of technologies that one may employ while in the classroom, but seen more recently is the use of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. The major purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of using podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts in conjunction with science curriculum on student academic achievement. Two intermediate schools from the south Texas region were chosen as a convenience sample for the study because one school utilized the technology of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level while the other school did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. The researcher collected scores from curriculum based assessments that were aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for comparison between the two different groups, while controlling grade five science TAKS scores for group equalization. Once all data was collected, scores were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and were analyzed using an analysis of covariance. The ANCOVA allowed the researcher to see that differences among curriculum based assessments scores existed between the two different schools. Scores were higher for the students who utilized podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level when compared to those scores for students who did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. This study showed the benefits reaped of having students create their own podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. Having students create their own technology has them actively engaged in the learning

  20. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  1. The Impact of Structured Note Taking Strategies on Math Achievement of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gregory Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Student math achievement continues to be a national, state, and local concern. Research suggests that note taking can improve academic achievement, but current research has failed to report how low achievers might benefit from using note taking during math classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching students structured note…

  2. Evaluating Math Recovery: Assessing the Causal Impact of Math Recovery on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas; Cobb, Paul; Farran, Dale; Cordray, David; Munter, Charles; Dunn, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    The authors' goal was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program that has been designed to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap and enabling participants to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the…

  3. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  4. The Impact of a School Loaner-Instrument Program on the Attitudes and Achievement of Low-Income Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ester, Don; Turner, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a public school loaner-instrument program on the attitudes and achievement of low-income students in an urban environment. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Instrument Status served as independent variables. Participants (N = 245) completed surveys at the beginning and end of the school year,…

  5. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  6. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  7. The Impact of Teachers' Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students' Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers' characteristics and self-reported practices on students' Algebra achievement while controlling for students' characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  8. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  9. The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

  10. The Impact of School Climate on the Achievement of Elementary School Students Who Are Economically Disadvantaged a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Gina W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of school climate on the achievement of third and fourth grade students who are economically disadvantaged in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts. Students' perception of school climate was studied using the "Tripod Survey" variables of a caring, captivating, and academically…

  11. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  12. The Impact of Education Support Advisors on the Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study utilized ex post facto data to examine the impact of education support advisors (ESAs) on the discipline, attendance, and achievement of at-risk students in Grades 3-12. Fourteen education support advisors working in 16 elementary and 8 secondary schools of this mid-Atlantic school district consistently…

  13. An Africentric Rite of Passage Program and Its Impact on Adolescent African-American Male Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Little, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its…

  14. The Impact of Interactive Environment and Metacognitive Support on Academic Achievement and Transactional Distance in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ramazan; Keser, Hafize

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to reveal the impact of the interactive environment and metacognitive support (MS) in online learning on academic achievement and transactional distance (TD). The study is designed as 2 × 2 factorial design, and both qualitative and quantitative research techniques are used. The study was carried out on 127…

  15. The Impact of Teacher Preparation on Academic Achievement of Eighth Grade Students in a South Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Barbara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of a teacher's preparation program on the academic achievement of eighth grade students in the areas of mathematics, reading, science, and social studies. Prior to the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001, the majority of classroom teachers earned their teaching…

  16. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  17. The Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Technology on Medical Students' Achievement in ESL Essay Writing: An Early Study in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaaly, Emad; Higgins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave…

  18. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  19. Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children's Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…

  20. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2009-01-01

    Contextual analysis of the achievement gap has gained much momentum within the last few decades. This study furthers the discourse by examining the applicability of 2 sociological contextual development approaches on achievement. We analyzed 79 neighborhoods organized by the level of crime and poverty from both a social disorganization and social…

  1. The Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act and School Choice on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettett, Wendy Ruddell

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act, signed into law in January 2002, established a decade of test-driven school reform in an attempt to increase student achievement and reduce the student achievement gap. The state of Georgia created the Criterion Reference Competency Test (CRCT) to align with the guidelines of NCLB. This study examined…

  2. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports: Second-Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. The program seeks to demonstrate that PASS is an effective intervention for promoting academic achievement and school success.…

  3. Schools in Violent Neighborhoods: The Impact on African American Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between African American and Caucasian students continues to be a major concern for policymakers and educators. This gap started to shrink in the 1970s and 1980s with integration, but the 1990s showed the achievement gap was on the rise again. The characteristics of the neighborhoods where children live and attend…

  4. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  5. The Impact of the Data Teams Process on Student Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Mokysha Benford

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the difference in the mathematics academic achievement of students when teachers engage in Data Teams, a continuous improvement process, and when they do not. Additionally, this study will examine differences in mathematics academic achievement of students by ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic status…

  6. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  7. Within Our Reach: A Study of Professional Community in Schools and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Camille S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of professional learning community variables on student achievement in three Edison Learning Partnership Schools. The study examined three years of State School Assessment achievement data in reading and math, along with three years of Customer Satisfaction Data as collected by the…

  8. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  9. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools located…

  10. The Impact of an Improvisational Dramatics Program on School Attitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Annette F.; And Others

    An improvisational dramatics program was developed to improve the reading achievement and school attitudes of disadvantaged elementary school children. The program, based on the rationale that encouraging self-awareness and creative self-expression will improve communication skills, reading achievement, and attitudes, was used with 141 fourth,…

  11. A Penny and a Half and a Pool: Lead Poisoning and Its Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrman, Matthew Paul

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that has been shown to have a long and lasting impact on the brains, bodies, and behaviors of those who are poisoned. It also has a greater presence in communities with high levels of poverty and minority populations. Compounded over time, the effects of lead poisoning, even at low levels of exposure, impact a child's…

  12. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students, students from high socioeconomic status (SES) families, students with higher motivation and higher self-efficacy, and students whose parents highly value science are more likely to demonstrate achievement in science. At the school level, the results showed school science achievement differences can be explained by school enrolment size, school SES composition, and instruction time per week. Contrary to the negative influence of school size that was reported in previous studies, our findings suggested a positive relationship between school enrolment size and science achievement. This finding leads to an international discussion of school size.

  13. The Impact of Group Processing On Achievement in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-20

    using to achieve its outcome goals. The feedback gives students information that helps them inprove performance. And it reinforces students for...cooperative learning in which members disciissed how well their group was functioning and how they could improve its effectiveness, (b) cooperative learning ...achievement of (a) cooperative learning in which members discussed how well their group was functioning and how they could improve its .ffectiveness, (b

  14. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  15. Beyond Behavior: Eliciting Broader Change With Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christopher C.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of Motivational interviewing (MI) usually focus on helping clients change a single problematic behavior. In contrast, the current case study shows that MI can serve as a more comprehensive psychotherapy, focused not only on multiple problem behaviors but also on broader change consistent with its roots in client-centered therapy. In this case, the therapist interwove a focus on several discrete behaviors with a focus on broader lifestyle change as well as increased clarity of client cognitions, values, and choices, resulting in several lasting changes. PMID:19760743

  16. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  17. Sustained Silent Reading in Middle School and Its Impact on Students' Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a period of time given to students to read self-selected materials during their school day. This study examines the effect of participation in a SSR program on reading attitudes and reading achievement of students as measured by the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) and the Northwest Evaluation…

  18. The Impact of Reading Recovery on the Reading Achievement of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…

  19. 75 FR 4788 - FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... of the Secretary FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools...: Grant competition announcement; amendment. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA... grant competition announcement, which published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009 (74...

  20. Academic Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools: The Impact of Violence during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national survey (N = 6,979) of young people in their last year in Norwegian secondary schools in 2007 (aged 18 and 19), this paper examines the effect of experience of violence including sexual abuse during childhood (before the age of 13) on the later academic achievement of young people. This investigation includes three types…

  1. The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…

  2. The Impact of Professional Development on Literacy Achievement of Kindergarten Hispanic English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fizer, Selena E.

    2009-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELL) across public schools in the United States continues to rise (Brice & Roseberry-McKibbin, 2006). However, teacher preparation for these students is not growing (McKeon, 2005). This quantitative study explored the relationship between teacher professional development and literacy achievement of…

  3. Instructional Innovations: The Impact of Comprehensive School Reforms on Middle School Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Senetha G.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. middle schools are beset with a multitude of problems that encompasses a lack of achievement, access to necessary resources, failure to make adequate yearly progress, and an inadequate supply of effective teachers. This is particularly alarming because social and intellectual capital have become the prevailing values of the 21st century.…

  4. The Impact of Home and School Collaboration on Student Achievement in K-5 Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Joy L.

    2012-01-01

    Public schools struggle with ways to encourage parental involvement in the classroom. Home and school collaboration is needed if students are to succeed academically. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a significant difference in the reading achievement of students by the number of workshop sessions attended by parents…

  5. National Board Certification: Impact on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 0917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    The combination of difficult economic times and increased accountability has led policymakers to call for evidence that students taught by National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers make greater achievement gains than those taught by non-NBPTS-certified teachers. Overall, studies show mixed results regarding the…

  6. Impact of Teacher Qualification on Student Achievement at the Elementary and Middle School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that classroom teachers be highly qualified, the assumption that achieving the highly qualified endorsement equates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom is unverified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of teacher qualification, as defined by the NCLB Act and…

  7. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  8. The Impact of Reading Recovery on Later Achievement in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhe, Valerie; Paula, Moore

    2005-01-01

    Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention for first-grade children with reading and writing difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the performance of a cohort of 1998 Reading Recovery students on later literacy achievement as measured by the 2001 Grade 4 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). The results showed that the average MEA…

  9. The Impact of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement in Rural Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Shontier Prescott

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine significant differences, if any, in student achievement in the area of math and science of students taught by traditionally certified teachers and alternatively certified teachers. This study examined alternatively certified teachers, as identified from through the Georgia TAPP (Teacher Alternative…

  10. The Impact of Discovery Learning in Writing Instruction on Fifth-Grade Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Julie Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The problem is that 5th-grade students are not achieving sufficient writing scores on Georgia state-mandated writing assessments, which the researcher hypothesized was due to the teacher-directed instructional approach utilized at the school. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine whether discovery learning, a method based on the…

  11. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  12. How Do Life Goals and Motivations of International Students Studying in Australia Impact Their Achievement Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guns, Ann; Richardson, Paul W.; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Many international students aim beyond their country boundaries by moving away from home and studying abroad. This longitudinal design addressed a gap in current research, by linking together antecedent life goals and motivations on entry to students' studies, to predict exit achievement scores, to provide information concerning optimising…

  13. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  14. The Impact on Writing Achievement of Two Bilingual Education Models for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) within the school system in one Western U.S. state continues to rise; writing scores of ELLs lag well behind those of their English speaking peers. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative causal comparative study was to examine the writing achievement of fourth grade ELLs instructed within a…

  15. Impact of Attending Jump Start Literacy Camp on Reading Achievement among Third and Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Carrie B.

    2010-01-01

    The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…

  16. Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solati-Dehkordi, Seyed Amir; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Studying explicit vocabulary instruction effects on improving L2 learners' writing skill and their short and long-term retention is the purpose of the present study. To achieve the mentioned goal, a fill-in-the-blank test including 36 single words and 60 lexical phrases were administrated to 30 female upper-intermediate EFL learners. The EFL…

  17. Impact of Facebook Usage on Students' Academic Achievement: Role of Self-Regulation and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouis, Sana; Limayem, Moez; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper provides a preliminary analysis of the effects of Facebook usage by undergraduate students at Lulea University of Technology in Sweden. The proposed research model tests the perceived effect of personality traits, self-regulation, and trust on students' achievements. Based on flow theory, the model suggests negative…

  18. The Impact of Handheld Graphing Calculator Use on Student Achievement in Algebra 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joan I.; Curtis, Deborah A.; Jaffe, Rebecca; Verboncoeur, Carol J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between instructional use of handheld graphing calculators and student achievement in Algebra 1. Three end-of-course test forms were administered (without calculators) using matrix sampling to 458 high-school students in two suburban school districts in Oregon and Kansas. Test questions on two forms were…

  19. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  20. The Impact of Acculturation on the Perception of Academic Achievement by Immigrant Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Geva, Esther; Rogers, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of acculturation on definitions and attributions towards children's school achievement. Iranian and Iranian-Canadian immigrant mothers and their upper-elementary school children were interviewed about their definitions and attributions about school success and failure. There were significant effects of…

  1. The Impact of Early Childhood Education upon the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that the current Black-White achievement gap provides evidence for a long-standing history of racial inequity within American society, as well as an informative barometer of progress toward educational parity. By all accounts, the measurements registered by this barometer continue to be cause for alarm. The disturbing Black-White…

  2. The Impact of Instructional Methodology on the Reading Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terri I.

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…

  3. Lagging in the Race: The Impact of Teacher Morale on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Char-Shenda D.

    2010-01-01

    The effect teachers have on student achievement is perennial. Several factors contribute to declining teacher morale. Teachers have an insuperable amount of responsibilities and duties. Stress related to increased federal, state, and local demands, low pay, lack of administrative support, and heightened discipline problems, are all factors that…

  4. Classroom Learning and Achievement: How the Complexity of Classroom Interaction Impacts Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of…

  5. The Impact of Principal Leadership on School Culture and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Lisa Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the United States school principals are subject to increasingly high demands for student accountability. Under the pressures and mandates of this federal legislation, principals are asking themselves what specific leadership practices affect student achievement. A review of literature shows that principals are regarded as a major factor…

  6. Working on the Work Framework for Engagement: Impacting Students' Perceived Learning, Attitudes toward School, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Michael Joshua

    2014-01-01

    A quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test nonequivalent control group study was utilized to determine the difference in students' perceived learning, attitudes toward school, and achievement when participating in classes utilizing engagement design qualities as compared to students in classes not utilizing engagement design qualities. To inform the…

  7. The Impact of Music Education and Athletic Participation on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Timothy W.; Klotz, Jack

    This study sought to determine if participation as a musician or an athlete had an effect on academic achievement as measured by standardized test scores. It was hypothesized that students who received training as musicians would score higher on the core battery composite of reading, language, and mathematics sections of the California Achievement…

  8. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  9. An Investigation of the Impact of Asynchronous Online Learning on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous online learning is well documented with adults, but fewer studies of effectiveness have emphasized elementary education learning environments. This study investigated student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test for fifth grade students who had participated in synchronous and asynchronous courses…

  10. Servant Leadership and Its Impact on Classroom Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research was to see to what degree a relationship existed between servant leadership, classroom climate, and student achievement in a collegiate environment. This was a quantitative, correlational study. The foundational theories for this research included servant leadership and organizational climate that pertain…

  11. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  12. The Impact of Online Algorithm Visualization on ICT Students' Achievements in Introduction to Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Online Algorithm Visualization (OAV) is one of the recent developments in the instructional technology field that aims to help students handle difficulties faced when they begin to learn programming. This study aims to investigate the effect of online algorithm visualization on students' achievement in the introduction to programming course. To…

  13. The Impact of High School Size on Math Achievement and Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Duesbery, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the ways in which school size influences two important student outcomes commonly used in school effects research: growth in mathematics achievement and dropout rate. Past research suggests that smaller high schools can lead to increased benefits for students. In this study, multilevel analytic models of the first two waves of…

  14. The Impact of the Data Team Structure on Collaborative Teams and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rone, Brenda Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implementing a specific collaborative structure would create effective teacher teams that in turn would lead to improved student achievement. An effective team can be viewed as one that uses collaboration to increase its knowledge and improve its practices. The structure that was implemented during…

  15. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  16. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement. Policy Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, P.

    2008-01-01

    Access to education is recognized as a basic human right and yet projections based on current trends show that more than 50 countries will not achieve universal primary education by 2015. This briefing paper looks at the role of malnutrition and diseases in the failure of countries to meet EFA targets. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access…

  17. The Impact of Principal Movement and School Achievement on Principal Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Buckman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether principals' movements and school achievement are associated with their salaries. Predictors of principal salaries were examined using three years of panel data. Results from a fixed-effects regression analysis suggest that principals who moved to school leadership positions in other districts leveraged higher salaries…

  18. The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Krista D.; Klein, James D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how scaffolds and student achievement levels influence inquiry and performance in a problem-based learning environment. The scaffolds were embedded within a hypermedia program that placed students at the center of a problem in which they were trying to become the youngest person to fly around the world in a balloon. One-hundred…

  19. The Impact of School Management Strategies on Academic Achievement in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogundokun, Olubunmi K.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between school management strategies and student's academic achievement, while controlling for factors such as the school principals' age, gender, experience, as well as school size and location, Student's Social Economics Status (SES), English as a Second Language learner's population (ESL), Special Education…

  20. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  1. Impact of Video Presentation Features on Instructional Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation in Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed instructional achievement and intrinsic motivation among 21st century secondary students utilizing a video lecture incorporating both student reaction cutaway images and immediate content interaction within the lecture. Respondents (n = 155) were from multiple classes and grade levels at a suburban Texas high school. Four…

  2. The Impact of Direct Instruction on Elementary Students' Reading Achievement in an Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Kemper, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Examined preliminary achievement outcomes of the first years of direct instruction reading within six Baltimore elementary schools. Overall, members of the original second grade cohort were nearing grade level by the end of fifth grade in both intervention and control schools. Future research based on well-established program implementation might…

  3. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  4. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  5. Predictors of Creative Achievement: Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurial Potential, Perfectionism, and Employee Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Harding, Xanthe; Akhtar, Reece; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a key ingredient of organizational effectiveness, business innovation, and entrepreneurship. Yet there remain substantial gaps in the literature in terms of understanding the antecedents of creative achievement. This study investigated the effect of perfectionism, employee engagement, and entrepreneurial potential as predictors of…

  6. Using State or Study-Administered Achievement Tests in Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Abt Associates for the Institute of Education Sciences' National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, takes an important first step in sorting out the implications of relying on state tests for general, student-level measures of reading and math achievement in evaluations of educational…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) middle school improved students' reading, math, social studies, and science achievement for up to 4 years following enrollment. The study reported that students attending KIPP middle schools scored statistically significantly higher than matched students on all of the state…

  8. The impact of home computers on 12th grade students' achievement in the computer science curriculum in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljuwaiber, Mohammed A.

    Technology has improved many educational issues. This is a very exciting time for technology and education. The primary purpose of this study was aimed at understanding the impact of home computer use on academic achievement in the computer curriculum of the 12th grade students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In particular, the study attempted to determine if the use of home computers would be an effective manner for increasing students' academic achievement. The participants of the study were 240 male and female students as a random sample from 12th grade from eight random high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An achievement exam and survey were developed by the researcher based on the computer science curriculum topics, the quantitative data was collected in both a single achievement exam and a single survey from a sample of 240 Saudi high school students. Both the survey and an achievement exam were split equally between male and female students. The study sought the answer to 10 questions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by tests of simple main effects and post hoc comparisons using Scheffe, as well as Pearson Correlation were conducted to answer the research questions. The study results pointed out that home computers were important to support the students in their academic achievement in the computer science curriculum. Therefore, more attention must be given to the use of home computers for all students. Moreover, we should attempt to treat the difficulties which students face for getting computers in their homes.

  9. The Impact of Music Education on Academic Achievement in Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deere, Kelli Beth

    2010-01-01

    Increased scrutiny on the place of music education in school systems has caused some school systems to eliminate their music program entirely. School systems are being forced to place more emphasis on increased testing and accountability with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This study examined the impact music education has on academic…

  10. Achieving a Greater Impact: Developing the Skills of Teaching Artists to Lead Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duma, Amy L.; Silverstein, Lynne B.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching artists know that there are many more students who could benefit from learning in and through the arts, but school budgets as well as teaching artists' time and energy are limited. As years pass, teaching artists face the reality that they will reach only a fraction of the students in need. To extend their impact dramatically, some…

  11. The Impact of Supplemental Instruction on Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.; Pennington, Jessica; Buckman, D. Matt

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a supplemental reading course on 462 sixth-grade students' reading engagement and performance as compared with 389 students in a control group. They further explored students' cognitive strategy use through think aloud processes with a subset of students who participated in the intervention.…

  12. How Does School Mobility Impact Indicators of Academic Achievement for Highly Mobile Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-McBrien, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Children who are homeless or in foster care change schools more often than their non-mobile peers. The impact of school mobility increases their risk of academic failure (Evans, 1996; Ingersoll, Scamman, & Eckerling, 1989; Mao, 1997, Mehana & Reynolds, 2003; Reynolds & Wolf, 1999). Laws enforcing the right of students to remain in…

  13. Impact of Teacher Perceptions of Their Working Conditions on Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Bonnie W.

    2012-01-01

    Reading and math proficiency is important for all students because education is a leading indicator of personal health and success and national prosperity. Improved student performance has also been linked to teacher satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher perceptions of their working conditions on student…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  15. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  16. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  17. Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raegen T.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2008-01-01

    This article exploits highly detailed data on teacher absences from a large urban school district in the northern United States to shed light on the determinants and effects of teacher absences. The topic is important because both school and district policies can influence teachers' propensity to be absent. The authors estimate the impact of…

  18. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  19. The Impact of SMART Board Technology on Growth in Mathematics Achievement of Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riska, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether SMART Board technology increased growth in mathematics performance of fourth grade gifted students. Gifted students in North Carolina were studied to determine if the use of SMART Board technology during mathematics instruction impacted their growth on standardized state tests. The sample consisted of 175 students from…

  20. Technology Facilitated PBL Pedagogy and Its Impact on Nursing Students' Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne; Lin, Chunfu Charlie; Ho, Mei-Hsin; Wang, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The impact of particular learning environments and self-regulation could be a beneficial area for research focus. More specifically, there has not been sufficient attention given to the role played by disposition or "will" in facilitating self-regulation to be successful. A student can possess the skills or ability to think critically…

  1. Impact of National Board for the Professional Teaching Standards Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Sarah Irvine; Husted, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of teachers have undertaken National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification training since its inception over twenty-five years ago. Previous empirical research on the impact of NBCTs on student performance has focused on state or district-level exams in individual states and found mixed results. This…

  2. Biology and Beyond: Domain Specificity in a Broader Developmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    The assumption of domain specificity has been invaluable to the study of the emergence of biological thought in young children. Yet, domains of thought must be understood within a broader context that explains how those domains relate to the surrounding cultures, to different kinds of cognitive constraints, to framing effects, to abilities to…

  3. Identifying Neurobiological Markers of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    2014; proposed extended deadline: Jan 19, 2015). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Social...than can be experienced by people with autism spectrum disorders . BODY The information below describes the research accomplishments...large families with multiple individuals affected with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).  Recruitment of control participants for participation in

  4. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  5. The Impact of a Standalone, Patient-centered Communication Course Series on Student Achievement, Preparedness, and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Chelsea D.; Linnebur, Sunny A.; Valdez, Connie; Trujillo, Toby C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a standalone, patient-centered communication (PCC) course series on student achievement of and perceived preparedness for PCC skills and to assess student attitudes regarding learning methods used. Design. During curriculum renewal, a standalone PCC course series that integrated horizontally and vertically within the curriculum was developed. Student achievement of outcomes was evaluated by aggregate performance on simulated evaluations. Students who completed the PCC series were surveyed to assess preparedness and attitudes. Students in the prior curriculum were also surveyed. Assessment. The majority of students who completed the PCC series met or exceeded expectations for the simulated evaluations. Preparedness responses were more positive from students who completed the PCC series than from those who completed the prior curriculum. Student attitudes about the learning methods use in the courses also were more positive. Conclusion. The standalone PCC course series effectively achieved PCC outcomes and improved student preparedness for communication-based activities. PMID:28179723

  6. The Impact of a Standalone, Patient-centered Communication Course Series on Student Achievement, Preparedness, and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Jennifer M; McNair, Chelsea D; Linnebur, Sunny A; Valdez, Connie; Trujillo, Toby C

    2016-12-25

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a standalone, patient-centered communication (PCC) course series on student achievement of and perceived preparedness for PCC skills and to assess student attitudes regarding learning methods used. Design. During curriculum renewal, a standalone PCC course series that integrated horizontally and vertically within the curriculum was developed. Student achievement of outcomes was evaluated by aggregate performance on simulated evaluations. Students who completed the PCC series were surveyed to assess preparedness and attitudes. Students in the prior curriculum were also surveyed. Assessment. The majority of students who completed the PCC series met or exceeded expectations for the simulated evaluations. Preparedness responses were more positive from students who completed the PCC series than from those who completed the prior curriculum. Student attitudes about the learning methods use in the courses also were more positive. Conclusion. The standalone PCC course series effectively achieved PCC outcomes and improved student preparedness for communication-based activities.

  7. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  8. Impact of instructional Approaches to Teaching Elementary Science on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensinger, Seth H.

    Strengthening our science education in the United States is essential to the future success of our country in the global marketplace. Immersing our elementary students with research-based quality science instruction is a critical component to build a strong foundation and motivate our students to become interested in science. The research for this study pertained to the type of elementary science instruction in correlation to academic achievement and gender. Through this study, the researcher answered the following questions: 1. What is the difference in achievement for elementary students who have been taught using one of the three science instructional approaches analyzed in this study: traditional science instruction, inquiry-based science instruction with little or no professional development and inquiry-based science instruction with high-quality professional development? 2. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry-based instruction and non-inquiry based (traditional) instruction? 3. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry with high quality professional development and inquiry with little or no professional development? 4. Do the three instructional approaches have differentiated effects across gender? The student achievement was measured using the 2010 fourth grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) in Science. Data was collected from 15 elementary schools forming three main groupings of similar schools based on the results from the 2009 third grade PSSA in Mathematics and student and community demographics. In addition, five sub-group triads were formed to further analyze the data and each sub-group was composed of schools with matching demographic data. Each triad contained a school using a traditional approach to teaching science, a school utilizing an inquiry science approach with little or no professional development, and a school incorporating inquiry science instruction with high quality

  9. Superior Ballistic Impact Resistance Achieved by the Co-Base Alloy Haynes 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is required to contain a fan blade in the rare event of a blade loss during operation. Because of its function, the fan case is the largest structural component in high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines used in commercial aircraft. Therefore, the use of lighter and stronger materials would be advantageous in most engines and is practically a necessity in the latest generation of high-bypass engines. Small panels, 7 in. wide by 7 in. long, of a number of metallic alloys were impact tested at room temperature with a 0.50-caliber blunt-nose titanium alloy projectile at the NASA Glenn Research Center (ref. 1). These metallic systems included several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-based laminates, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs), nickel-base superalloys (Inconel 718 and 625), several titanium (Ti) alloys in different heat treated conditions, 304L stainless steel, a stainless-steel-based laminate, and a high strength steel (Nitronic 60). It was determined that a simple Co-base alloy (Haynes 25) had the best impact resistance on an areal weight basis. Haynes 25 was at least 10 percent better than IMI 550, the best titanium alloy tested to date, and it was far superior to other metals, especially at higher impact velocities (greater than 1100 ft/sec). Because this material could be ideal for fan containment applications in supersonic aircraft as a replacement for titanium, impact tests were also conducted at 371 oC and compared with results from alloys tested at elevated temperature under previous programs (i.e., Inconel 718, Ti-6242, M-152, Timetal 21S, and Aeromet 100). Although cobalt-base alloys are used in some high-temperature engine applications, to our knowledge they are not used in any containment systems. Advantages of cobalt over titanium include lower cost, easier processing, better high-temperature strength, and no fire hazard if tip rub occurs. Future plans include testing of lightweight sandwich panels with Haynes

  10. Advancing efforts to achieve health equity: equity metrics for health impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L; Yuen, Tina K; Gould, Solange; Jandu, Maria Benkhalti; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-10-24

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  11. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  12. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    DOE PAGES

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; ...

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodologymore » of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.« less

  13. How archer fish achieve a powerful impact: hydrodynamic instability of a pulsed jet in Toxotes jaculatrix.

    PubMed

    Vailati, Alberto; Zinnato, Luca; Cerbino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy.

  14. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodology of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.

  15. How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Alberto; Zinnato, Luca; Cerbino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy. PMID:23112861

  16. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-02-02

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400-450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0-1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3-5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry.

  17. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400–450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0–1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3–5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry. PMID:28150692

  18. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-02-01

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400–450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0–1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3–5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry.

  19. Classroom learning and achievement: how the complexity of classroom interaction impacts students' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of a task and the probability of a student solving it. Purpose: Thus far, few detailed investigations explore the importance of complexity in actual classroom lessons. Moreover, the few efforts made so far revealed inconsistencies. Hence, the present study sheds light on the influence the complexity of students' and teachers' class contributions have on students' learning outcomes. Sample: Videos of 10 German 8th grade physics courses covering three consecutive lessons on two topics each (electricity, mechanics) have been analyzed. The sample includes 10 teachers and 290 students. Design and methods: Students' and teachers' verbal contributions were coded manual-based according to the level of complexity. Additionally, pre-post testing of knowledge in electricity and mechanics was applied to assess the students' learning gain. ANOVA analysis was used to characterize the influence of the complexity on the learning gain. Results: Results indicate that the mean level of complexity in classroom contributions explains a large portion of variance in post-test results on class level. Despite this overarching trend, taking classroom activities into account as well reveals even more fine-grained patterns, leading to more specific relations between the complexity in the classroom and students' achievement. Conclusions: In conclusion, we argue for more reflected teaching approaches intended to gradually increase class complexity to foster students' level of competency.

  20. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  1. The Impact of a Teaching-Learning Program Based on a Brain-Based Learning on the Achievement of the Female Students of 9th Grade in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabatat, Kawthar; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the impact of teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of female students of 9th grade in chemistry, to accomplish the goal of this study the researchers designed instruments of: instructional plans, pre achievement and past achievement exams to use them for the study-validity and…

  2. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  3. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  4. The Impact of Interactive Lecture Experiments on Student Academic Achievement, Motivation and Attitudes towards Science (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Moll, R.; Kotlicki, A.; Bates, F.; Rieger, G.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE) have been used in the introductory physics course at the University of British Columbia for over two years. During the Fall of 2006 a systematic study was conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS), Force Concept Inventory (FCI), physics open-ended exam problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. FCI and CLASS were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Qualitative data on students’ attitudes was also collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. Preliminary results will be presented with conclusions about the impact of using ILE as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses.

  5. Impact of a school district's science reform effort on the achievement and attitudes of third- and fourth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.

    2004-10-01

    This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, [1997]) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., [1998]), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.

  6. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-01-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  7. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  8. Latinas' heritage language as a source of resiliency: impact on academic achievement in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Alma D.; Gallard Martínez, Alejandro José; Brkich, Katie Lynn; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Claeys, Lorena; Pitts, Wesley

    2017-03-01

    This article highlights how the preservation of heritage languages is essential in the construction of three Georgia Latina participants' cultural identities and the creation of support networks that allow them to develop resiliency and achieve academically. We conceptualize resiliency as a strategy developed by the Latina participants using contextually mitigating factors during their STEM education. The findings presented in this manuscript are part of a larger, ongoing study of Latina resiliency and their paths to success in STEM fields in two states: Georgia and Texas. Following James Spradley's guidelines, data were collected via three separate semi-structured interviews with each participant. Intrinsic, multiple case studies were used to find both commonalities and differences, as well as to deepen our understanding of the role of the participants' heritage language in their development of resiliency in each particular case. The findings presented here were not part of a preconceived research hypothesis, but rather a theme that emerged while analyzing data collected in the state of Georgia. Georgia is not home to a long-established Hispanic/Latino population, but rather is part of the New Latino Diaspora (Wortham, Murillo and Hamann in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Publishing, New York, 2002), and therefore local natives do not necessarily perceive Latino immigrants and the Spanish language either as long-standing or permanent features of the state. In fact, in response to the growing diversity of the state during the past generation, Georgia has implemented multiple educational policies hostile toward immigrants and linguistic diversity (Beck and Allexsaht-Snider in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Press, Westport, 2002). Our findings suggest that the Latina participants' heritage languages allow them to engage in cultural traditions, encouraged by their

  9. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  10. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

  11. How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Project-Based Learning (PBL) Affects High, Middle, and Low Achievers Differently: The Impact of Student Factors on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunyoung; Capraro, Robert; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students' individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge…

  12. How Does Teacher Qualifications Impact Student Achievement in Relation to the Achievement Model Established by the Mississippi State Department of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Timothy Darren

    2011-01-01

    The following study was conducted in a six-county geographical region and involved teachers from various high schools that taught classes which were involved in the subject area testing program. Each participant taught one of the four state-mandated subject area classes that are tested to determine achievement levels and accreditation ratings for…

  13. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, Mark E.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.

  14. Interpreting megalithic tomb orientation and siting within broader cultural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2016-02-01

    This paper assesses the measured axial orientations and siting of Irish passage tombs. The distribution of monuments with passages/entrances directed at related tombs/cairns is shown. Where this phenomenon occurs, the targeted structure is invariably located at a higher elevation on the skyline and this could suggest a symbolic and hierarchical relationship in their relative siting in the landscape. Additional analysis of astronomical declinations at a national scale has identified tombs with an axial alignment towards the rising and setting positions of the Sun at the winter and summer solstices. A criteria-based framework is developed which potentially allows for these types of data to be more meaningfully considered and culturally interpreted within broader archaeological and social anthropological contexts.

  15. Year-Round School versus Traditional School: The Impact of Academic Calendars on Student Achievement at Selected Elementary Schools in North Central South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay-Brown, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact that a year-round school calendar and a traditional school calendar may have on student achievement at selected elementary schools in North Central South Carolina. Specifically it investigated mean differences in academic achievement between elementary students at two year-round schools versus two traditional…

  16. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  17. An Examination of the Impact That Selected School Characteristics Have on the Academic Achievement of Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of school locale, size and poverty levels (SES) on student achievement has been of great interest in school research for more than the last five decades. The increasing public demand to hold schools accountable for their effects on student outcomes lends urgency to the task of exploring variables related to student achievement that are…

  18. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008" examined whether shifting from traditional district management to management by a for-profit or nonprofit organization improves student achievement. The study analyzed data on six cohorts of elementary and middle school…

  19. The Impact of a School-Based Enterprise Program on the Achievement and Behavior of Special Education Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilot, Grover Cleve

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's K-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges that affect student achievement and consequently impact society. Key challenges, such as elevating academic achievement, meeting state and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) standards, high dropout rates, at-risk students, parental involvement, and the recruitment and retention of…

  20. The Impact of the Social, Academic, and Moral Development Programs of an Achievable Dream on Students during Their College and University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…

  1. Differential Impacts of Intensive District-Level Technical Assistance on Student Achievement: A Study of California's District Assistance and Intervention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Building on Strunk, McEachin, and Westover (2011), the authors examine whether or not District Assistance and Intervention Teams (DAITs) have a differential impact on student performance across school and student characteristics. They use a quasi-experimental design to examine the impacts of DAITs on student achievement on math and English…

  2. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina…

  3. Considering the Sociolinguistic Impact of Instability of Educational Philosophy on Reading Achievement of Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the sociolinguistic impact of philosophical instability on reading comprehension achievement of students who are deaf and hard of hearing at a state school for the deaf. The research conducted examined the sociolinguistic impact by investigating the following: (1) what non-malleable factors influenced…

  4. Toward Population Impact from Home Visiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Goodman, W. Benjamin; Murphy, Robert; O'Donnell, Karen J.; Sato, Jeannine M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some home visiting programs have proven effective with the families they serve, no program has yet demonstrated broader impact on an entire county or state population. This article describes the Durham Connects program, which aims to achieve broad county-level effects by coalescing community agencies to serve early-intervention goals…

  5. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes Towards Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Luisa

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to improved student perception of the integration of science and mathematics. Although there is adequate literature to substantiate students' positive responses to integration in terms of attitudes, there has been little empirical data to support significant academic improvement when both disciplines are taught in an integrated method. This research study, conducted at several school districts on Long Island and New York City, New York, examined teachers' attitudes toward integration and students' attitudes about, and achievement on assessments in, an integrated 8th grade science classroom compared to students in a non-integrated classroom. An examination of these parameters was conducted to analyze the impact of the sizeable investment of time and resources needed to teach an integrated curriculum effectively. These resources included substantial teacher training, planning time, collaboration with colleagues, and administration of student assessments. The findings suggest that students had positive outcomes associated with experiencing an integrated science and mathematics curriculum, though these were only weakly correlated with teacher confidence in implementing the integrated model successfully. The positive outcomes included the ability of students to understand scientific concepts within a concrete mathematical framework, improved confidence in applying mathematics to scientific ideas, and increased agreement with the usefulness of mathematics in interpreting science concepts. Implications of these research findings may be of benefit to educators and policymakers looking to adapt integrated curricula in order to

  6. Exploring assumptions about child neglect in relation to the broader field of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Polonko, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child neglect is the type of maltreatment most frequently reported to and acted on by official agencies, its proportion of all maltreatment in the general population is comparatively smaller. The issue.of "neglect of neglect" is placed within the larger framework of the low priority of research on child maltreatment in general. While research shows that all forms of child maltreatment are associated with devastating consequences for children, child physical neglect has the most profound effects on cognitive functioning and academic achievement, while child physical abuse has the most serious effects on aggression and subsequent violent behavior. Child emotional neglect, sexual and physical abuse have similarly grave effects on psychopathology, in contrast to child physical neglect which is associated with the least adverse consequences. These findings are discussed within the framework of research on the neurodevelopmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Research on the causes of child neglect, in particular as they relate to the perpetrators, points to a distressing "cycle of neglect." Finally, suggestions for breaking this cycle and keeping our children safe are discussed.

  7. The Impact of Coteaching on Regular Education Eighth Grade Student Achievement on a Basic Skills Algebra Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Misty B.

    2010-01-01

    Coteaching strategies have been implemented in many of the inclusion math classrooms in an attempt to improve the achievement of students. Math achievement continues to be a concern as reported by the National Mathematics Advisory Council in 2007. Educators and previous research reported that coteaching does not improve student achievement. The…

  8. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  9. Mendel's Research Legacy in the Broader Historical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orel, Vítězslav; Peaslee, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    This historical narrative describes the foundation of education as established by J. A. Comenius (1592-1670). It explores the transfer of Comenius' tenets, utilized and modified through the years, up to their impact upon the ground-breaking experiments of G. Mendel (1822-1884), `the father of genetics'. It explores the questions of heredity discussed among experts in the agricultural and natural sciences in the early 1800s and reviews the controversies and disputes that have occurred since Mendel was `rediscovered' in 1900. The value of studying the history of science as it impacts science today is underscored.

  10. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.

  11. The Impact of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Language in Fourth Grade Students and Its Relation to Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Mery Luz; Hederich M., Christian

    2015-01-01

    This study is expected to determine the impact of a program based on the cooperative learning methodology. This, in comparison to a traditional learning situation in both mathematics and language achievement. The study was carried out on a group of fourth grade students of primary school. In addition, it tried to find the differential impact…

  12. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  13. The Impacts of Success for All on Reading Achievement in Grades 3-5: Does Intervening during the Later Elementary Grades Produce the Same Benefits as Intervening Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of Success for All literacy instruction in grades 3 through 5 using data from the same cluster randomized trial used to evaluate effects in the earlier grades (K-2). In contrast to the early benefits, there is no effect on reading achievement in the later grades, either overall or for students and schools with high or low…

  14. The Impact of Academic Self-Concept, Expectations and the Choice of Learning Strategy on Academic Achievement: The Case of Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence of the impact of two critical self-regulation components--academic self-concept and outcome expectations--on the selection of learning strategies conducive to academic achievement in undergraduate business education. Self-concept theory is the framework for the analysis of students' motivations and learning behaviors.…

  15. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private…

  16. The Impact of Asynchronous Computer-Assisted Language Learning Approaches on English as a Foreign Language High and Low Achievers' Vocabulary Retention and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjian, Bahman; Moosavinia, Seyyed Rahim; Kavari, Kamal Ebrahimi; Asgari, Parviz; Hydarei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the impact of asynchronous computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches on high and low achievers' vocabulary retention and recall of English as foreign language learners. Fifty participants were assigned into two homogeneous groups. Both groups covered eight expository passages, which included "Select readings:…

  17. Examining the Impact of Online Labeling on Tutoring Behavior and Its Effect on the English Learning and Motivation of Low-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ejean; Yang, Shu Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the differential impact of tutor labeling vs. non-labeling approaches on the performance; motivation beliefs; and cognitive, social, and teaching presence of low-achieving students. Two interactive tutoring strategy patterns are investigated based on the taxonomical e-moderating model of Salmon. In addition, the tutees' online…

  18. Revisiting the Impact of NCLB High-Stakes School Accountability, Capacity, and Resources: State NAEP 1990-2009 Reading and Math Achievement Gaps and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Reeves, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes school accountability, capacity, and resources under NCLB on reading and math achievement outcomes through comparative interrupted time-series analyses of 1990-2009 NAEP state assessment data. Through hierarchical linear modeling latent variable regression with inverse probability of treatment…

  19. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  20. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared…

  1. A Qualitative Study: The Impact of Selected Non-Cognitive Variables on the Academic Success and Achievement of Culturally Diverse Academic Scholarship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda Louise

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether select non-cognitive variables such as, (Sedlacek, 1989, 1991, 1993, 2004; Tracey & Sedlacek 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989) impacted the academic achievement, retention and graduation rates of culturally diverse academic scholarship students at a predominantly white higher education institutions. The subjects of the study…

  2. Teacher Collaboration in Music Education: The Impact of the DuFour Model on Music Teachers' Attitudes and Their Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The DuFour PLC model is one of several reforms today based on the theory that organizing teachers into learning communities will promote professional collaboration and collegial relationships which will improve teacher skills, motivation, and increase student achievement. A small number of studies have explored the impact of PLC's on teaching…

  3. The Impact of Online or F2F Lecture Choice on Student Achievement and Engagement in a Large Lecture-Based Science Course: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Stewart, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning options vary and universities are exploring an assortment of instructional combinations, some involving video lectures as a replacement for face-to-face (f2f) lectures. This methodological study investigates the impact of the provision of lecture choice (online or f2f) on overall student achievement and course engagement. This…

  4. The Impact of Whole-Faculty Study Groups on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices in Grades K-3 of a Nebraska School District: A Mixed Method Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendell, Cynthia F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Whole Faculty Study Groups on student achievement and teacher practices in grades K-3 of a Nebraska school district. Whole-Faculty Study Groups (WFSG) are a type of professional learning community (PLC). Using a mixed method approach, both K-3 student scores on Dynamic Indicators of Basic…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Impact of the Rural Ugandan Village Library and Other Factors on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Valeda Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study used archival data to explore the impact of the rural village library and other factors on the academic achievement of secondary school students in the Ugandan village of Kitengesa, and related these findings to rural library development currently taking place in Uganda and other African countries such as Burkina Faso and Ghana. A…

  6. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison with a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in…

  7. The Impact of the Brazosport Model on English Language Learners' Reading Achievement in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Debra Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of the Brazosport Model improves student reading achievement as determined by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). In particular, this study examined the implementation of the Brazosport Model and its effect on the achievement of English Language Learners (ELLs)…

  8. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  9. An Analysis of the Impact of Demographic, Structural, Student, and Financial Factors on Texas High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of demographic (indicators describing student characteristics), structural (indicators describing school characteristics), student (indicators of student academic achievement), and financial (indicators of instructional expenditures) factors to student mathematics achievement. A sample (n…

  10. The impact of informative tutoring feedback and self-efficacy on motivation and achievement in concept learning.

    PubMed

    Narciss, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Informative tutoring feedback (ITF) provides assisted multiple response tries by offering strategically useful information for task completion as opposed to simply offering the solution. Previous studies on ITF focused on its effects on achievement. The present studies examine the assumption that ITF affects not only achievement, but also motivational variables such as task engagement, effort, persistence, and satisfaction with performance. In two experiments, students differing in self efficacy (SE) for identifying concepts worked on concept identification tasks. In cases of incorrect hypothesis about the concept, they received either outcome feedback or ITF. Results reveal that motivation and achievement depend on both SE and type of feedback. Future research should examine in more detail how ITF affects the self-enhancing processes between on-task motivation, achievement, and self-evaluation.

  11. Sampling-Based RBDO Using Stochastic Sensitivity and Dynamic Kriging for Broader Army Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    AND DYNAMIC KRIGING FOR BROADER ARMY APPLICATIONS K.K. Choi, Ikjin Lee, Liang Zhao, and Yoojeong Noh Department of Mechanical and Industrial...Thus, for broader Army applications, a sampling-based RBDO method using surrogate model has been developed recently. The Dynamic Kriging (DKG) method...Uuing Stochastic Sensitivity and Dynamic Kriging for Broader Army Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  12. Multiculturalism as a dimension of school climate: the impact on the academic achievement of Asian American and Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N

    2010-10-01

    Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth.

  13. Impact of achievement of complete cytogenetic response on outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with hypomethylating agents.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias; Strati, Paolo; Cabrero, Monica; O'Brien, Susan; Ravandi, Farhad; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Wei, Qiao; Hu, Jianhua; Abi Aad, Simon; Short, Nicholas J; Dinardo, Courtney; Daver, Naval; Kadia, Tapan; Wierda, William; Wei, Yue; Colla, Simona; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Two hundred and sixteen consecutive patients with MDS and abnormal karyotype treated with hypomethylating agents between 4/04 and 10/12 were reviewed. Median follow-up was 17 months. Using IWG criteria, best responses were complete response (CR) in 79 patients (37%), partial response (PR) in 4 (2%), and hematologic improvement (HI) in 10 (5%). Cytogenetic response (CyR) was achieved in 78 patients (36%): complete (CCyR) in 62 (29%) and partial in 16 (7%). CyR was achieved in 48 of 79 patients (61%) with CR, 1 of 14 (7%) with PR/HI, and in 29 of the 123 (24%) with no morphologic response. Median overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) for patients with and without CCyR were 21 and 13 months (P = .007), and 16 and 9 months (P = .001), respectively. By multivariate analysis, the achievement of CCyR was predictive for better OS (HR = 2.1; P < .001). In conclusion, CyR occurs at a rate of 36% (complete in 29%) in patients with MDS treated with HMA and is not always associated with morphological response. The achievement of CCyR is associated with survival improvement and constitutes a major predictive factor for outcome particularly in patients without morphologic response. Therefore, the achievement of CCyR should be considered a milestone in the management of patients with MDS.

  14. The impact of the healthy schools program on reading, mathematics, and science achievement of 5th grade students: A causal-comparative inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Christina Lynn

    The obesity rate for children has become a national epidemic in America, resulting in the need to incorporate physical fitness and nutrition into the curriculum in an effort to improve health and academic achievement. The Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is an initiative that assists schools in establishing and sustaining healthy environments, which can be instrumental in making students perform better in school. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the HSP on academic achievement. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Reaching (and retaining) Broader Audiences in Citizen Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalier, D.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals come to citizen science from different perspectives and preferences, and engage in a wide range of projects from data collection to public policy (Irwin 1995, Bonney et al. 2009a). Many participate exclusively online in crowdsourcing projects such as Galaxy Zoo, Fold-It, and Eyewire. Hundreds of thousands gather data on-the-ground for academic andcommunity research projects led by scientists at universities, government agencies/NGOs, and nonprofits. Untold others initiate their own projects in response to local environmental and health issues. All types of citizen science endeavors face challenges around data access and management, around relationships with scientists and project managers, and around making their scientific accomplishments visible as they accumulate over time. Among the most universal and ongoing challenges for all types of citizen science, however, "is attracting and retaining enough participants to make achievement of project goals possible." (Crowston and Prestopnik One known reason for this issue is the reality that individual projects and project types exist in "silos" - as self-segregated groups with particular shared interests (Dickinson et al. 2010). What efforts can be made in digital infrastructures and community building efforts to enable the unprecedented ability to support and retain diverse types of citizen science participation and data exchange between communities? How do we support participation in, and management of, multiple projects; continuity in, and sharing of, a broad and accessible citizen science community; and related social components? This presentation will provide a brief overview of the known barriers to this "utopia" and a snapshot of efforts underway to address many of these barriers.

  16. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  17. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father's SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models

  18. A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Waldhoff, S.; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, J.; Jantarasami, L.; Shouse, K.; Crimmins, A.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the physical impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change. The primary goal of this framework is to estimate the degree to which climate change impacts and damages in the United States are avoided or reduced in the 21st century under multiple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation scenarios. The first phase of the CIRA project is a modeling exercise that included two integrated assessment models and 15 sectoral models encompassing five broad impacts sectors: water resources, electric power, infrastructure, human health, and ecosystems. Three consistent socioeconomic and climate scenarios are used to analyze the benefits of global GHG mitigation targets: a reference scenario and two policy scenarios with total radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2. In this exercise, the implications of key uncertainties are explored, including climate sensitivity, climate model, natural variability, and model structures and parameters. This presentation describes the motivations and goals of the CIRA project; the design and academic contribution of the first CIRA modeling exercise; and briefly summarizes several papers published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The results across impact sectors show that GHG mitigation provides benefits to the United States that increase over time, the effects of climate change can be strongly influenced by near-term policy choices, adaptation can reduce net damages, and impacts exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that may inform mitigation and adaptation policy discussions.

  19. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  20. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  1. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  2. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  3. The Differential Impact of Academic Self-Regulatory Methods on Academic Achievement among University Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; McGuire, Joan M.; Reis, Sally M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving university students with (n=53) and without (n=417) learning disabilities (LD) found students with LD differed significantly in the relationships between their motivation for and use of standard self-regulated learning and compensation strategies, which provided a differential explanation of academic achievement for students with…

  4. The Impact of Teacher Classroom Practices on Student Achievement during the Implementation of a Reform-Based Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Gillian; Garrow, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Evidence of a gap in student understanding has been well documented in chemistry: the typical student holds an abundance of misconceptions. The current expectation is that educational reform will foster greater student achievement via inquiry teaching within classrooms. Using assessments involving both conceptual and algorithmic knowledge of gas…

  5. Examining the Early Impacts of the Leading Educators Fellowship on Student Achievement and Teacher Retention. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaly, Kata; Master, Benjamin K.; Yoon, Cate

    2015-01-01

    The Leading Educators Fellowship program selects promising mid-career teachers through a competitive application process and develops their skills as leaders of school improvement efforts. The specific objectives of the program are to (1) increase the leadership skills and capacity of teacher leaders in order to improve student achievement in…

  6. Impact of the Systemic Approach on Literacy Achievement of Jordanian 1st Graders at Mu'tah University Model School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hajaya, Nail

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the systemic approach in literacy achievement of the first grade students at Mu'tah University's Model School. The sample (N = 45) consisted of all first grade students, who were assigned into two groups; a control group taught traditionally while the other group was exposed to the system approach during the…

  7. Impact of the Child Development Program on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Students in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tai E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders are charged with making informed decisions regarding various aspects of schooling that affect the overall achievement of students. Numerous legislative ideas, funding initiatives, programming standards, and practicing guidelines for early childhood education programs have been introduced (Buyssee & Wesley, 2006). Early care…

  8. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  9. The Relationship between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Classroom disruptions present an obstacle to raising student achievement for teachers and school administrators. This study was designed to investigate potential relationships between weather, specifically barometric pressure, or the lunar cycle, and whether either had a direct correlation with student discipline referrals. The intent was to…

  10. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  11. Achieve 3000: An Analysis of Usage and Impact, 2013-14. Technical Note. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdegar, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Achieve 3000 is an online differentiated reading program for students with disabilities and English Language Learners in grades 6-8. The software delivers differentiated assignments at 12 different reading levels. The software features internal assessments that continuously gauge students' reading levels, provides feedback to teachers, and…

  12. The Impact of Guided Student-Generated Questioning on Chemistry Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Elementary Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…

  13. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  14. Does Hands-On Science Practices Make an Impact on Achievement in Science? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglak, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate to what extent the use of hands-on science activities influences on students? academic achievement in science. Review of literature revealed several research studies focusing upon such aim and thus, a meta-analysis of these researches was carried out to obtain an overall effect size estimate of hands-on science…

  15. A Quantitative Investigation into the Impacts of 1:1 iPads on Early Learners' ELA and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebell, Damian; Pedulla, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Many parents, educators, and policy makers see great potential for leveraging tools like laptop computers, tablets, and smartphones in the classrooms of the world. Although increasing students' technology access may be associated with increased student achievement, there is little research directly investigating objective measures of student…

  16. The Impact of Advanced Geometry and Measurement Curriculum Units on the Mathematics Achievement of First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Firmender, Janine M.; Carroll, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Project M2 was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for K-2 students. The units were developed using recommendations from gifted, mathematics, and early childhood education. This article reports on achievement results for students in Grade 1 at 12 diverse sites in four states using the Iowa Tests of…

  17. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  18. Improving Achievement in Secondary Schools: Impact of a Literacy Project on Reading Comprehension and Secondary School Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…

  19. The Impacts of Distance Interactivity on Learners' Achievements in Online Mobile Language Learning: Social Software and Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellati, Morteza; Khademi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of technological applications such as computers and mobile phones in the past three decades has impacted our life from different perspectives. Language teaching is no exception and like other fields of study, language teaching has also influenced by new language teaching sources and software. More recently, there has been a…

  20. The Impact of School Improvement Grants on Achievement: Plans for a National Evaluation Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Does receipt of School Improvement Grants (SIG) funding to implement a school intervention model have an impact on outcomes for low-performing schools? This study answers this question using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits cutoff values on the continuous variables used to define SIG eligibility tiers, comparing outcomes in…

  1. Impact of the Accelerated Reader Technology-Based Literacy Program on Overall Academic Achievement and School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Terrance; VanderZee, Darrel; Rue, Tom; Swanson, Scott

    A study demonstrated the positive impact of school ownership of the Accelerated Reader (AR) technology-based literacy program on attendance and standardized test scores at a representative sample of 2,500 elementary, middle, and high schools. These schools were compared with approximately 3,500 schools of similar geographic and demographic…

  2. A Training Programme on Managing Science Class Interactions: Its Impact on Teachers' Practises and on Their Pupils' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Ludovic; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Chakroun, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the impact of a training programme on trainee physics and chemistry teachers, focusing on the way pupils' explanations are dealt with during teacher-pupil interaction. The population is composed of 10 teachers and 303 pupils, from which the experimental sample was taken (8 teachers and 172 pupils). The qualitative analysis…

  3. The Impact of Organizational Culture on High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNicola, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that school culture, comprised of the variables cultivating a culture of collaboration, employing a data-informed focus on improvement through professional communication, and organizational commitment had on teachers' self-efficacy (teacher autonomy, interpersonal efficacy, and professional…

  4. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  5. Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps Career Academies and Their Impact on Academic Achievement in Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Sheryl Austin

    2012-01-01

    Low attendance, poor behavior, low test scores, and low graduation rates among at-risk students have created a concern in urban school districts. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the impact of Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) Academy programs on students' academic performance. The theoretical foundation of the research…

  6. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  7. Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as well…

  8. An Examination of the Impact of Teacher Quality and "Opportunity Gap" on Student Science Achievement in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Danhui; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to better understand questions related to the impact of teacher quality and access to qualified teachers in China. A large-scale data set collected in 2010 in China was used along with concurrently collected teacher questionnaires. In total, surveys from 9,943 8th grade students from 343 middle schools in 6 provinces were used,…

  9. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  10. The Impact of Design-Based STEM Integration Curricula on Student Achievement in Engineering, Science, and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcen Guzey, S.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Peralta, Yadira; Moore, Tamara J.

    2016-11-01

    The new science education reform documents call for integration of engineering into K-12 science classes. Engineering design and practices are new to most science teachers, meaning that implementing effective engineering instruction is likely to be challenging. This quasi-experimental study explored the influence of teacher-developed, engineering design-based science curriculum units on learning and achievement among grade 4-8 students of different races, gender, special education status, and limited English proficiency (LEP) status. Treatment and control students (n = 4450) completed pretest and posttest assessments in science, engineering, and mathematics as well as a state-mandated mathematics test. Single-level regression results for science outcomes favored the treatment for one science assessment (physical science, heat transfer), but multilevel analyses showed no significant treatment effect. We also found that engineering integration had different effects across race and gender and that teacher gender can reduce or exacerbate the gap in engineering achievement for student subgroups depending on the outcome. Other teacher factors such as the quality of engineering-focused science units and engineering instruction were predictive of student achievement in engineering. Implications for practice are discussed.

  11. The Impact of Design-Based STEM Integration Curricula on Student Achievement in Engineering, Science, and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcen Guzey, S.; Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Peralta, Yadira; Moore, Tamara J.

    2017-04-01

    The new science education reform documents call for integration of engineering into K-12 science classes. Engineering design and practices are new to most science teachers, meaning that implementing effective engineering instruction is likely to be challenging. This quasi-experimental study explored the influence of teacher-developed, engineering design-based science curriculum units on learning and achievement among grade 4-8 students of different races, gender, special education status, and limited English proficiency (LEP) status. Treatment and control students ( n = 4450) completed pretest and posttest assessments in science, engineering, and mathematics as well as a state-mandated mathematics test. Single-level regression results for science outcomes favored the treatment for one science assessment (physical science, heat transfer), but multilevel analyses showed no significant treatment effect. We also found that engineering integration had different effects across race and gender and that teacher gender can reduce or exacerbate the gap in engineering achievement for student subgroups depending on the outcome. Other teacher factors such as the quality of engineering-focused science units and engineering instruction were predictive of student achievement in engineering. Implications for practice are discussed.

  12. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  13. Achieving Research Impact Through Co‐creation in Community‐Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, CLAIRE; SHAW, SARA; JANAMIAN, TINA

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development.It has potential for “moving beyond the ivory towers” to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community‐academic partnerships.Principles of successful co‐creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process.If these principles are not followed, co‐creation efforts may fail. Context Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—reflects a “Mode 2” relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co‐creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co‐creation relevant to community‐based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community‐based research‐service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary‐Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Findings Co‐creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies (“value co‐creation”), design science (“experience‐based co‐design”), computer science (“technology co‐design”), and community development (“participatory research”). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human

  14. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  15. The differential impact of academic self-regulatory methods on academic achievement among university students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Lilia M; McCoach, D Betsy; McGuire, Joan M; Reis, Sally M

    2003-01-01

    Although research on academic self-regulation has proliferated in recent years, no studies have investigated the question of whether the perceived usefulness and the use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies provide a differential prediction of academic achievement for university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). We developed and tested a model explaining interrelationships among self-regulatory variables and grade point average (GPA) using structural equation modeling and multiple group analysis for students with LD (n = 53) and without LD (n = 421). Data were gathered using a new instrument, the Learning Strategies and Study Skills survey. The results of this study indicate that students with LD differed significantly from students without LD in the relationships between their motivation for and use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies, which in turn provided a differential explanation of academic achievement for students with and without LD. These paths of influence and idiosyncrasies of academic self-regulation among students with LD were interpreted in terms of social cognitive theory, metacognitive theory, and research conducted in the LD field.

  16. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, p<0.05). Additionally, results suggested that there were a few significant differences in Afro-Caribbean and African American students' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity

  17. Is the increasing policy use of Impact Assessment in Europe likely to undermine efforts to achieve healthy public policy?

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine E; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Gilmore, Anna B

    2010-06-01

    European policymakers have recently become increasingly committed to using Impact Assessment (IA) to inform policy decisions. Welcoming this development, the public health community has not yet paid sufficient attention to conceptual concerns about IA or to corporate efforts to shape the way in which IA is used. This essay is a thematic analysis of literature concerning IA and associated tools and a related assessment of the European Union's (EU) new 'integrated' IA tool. Eight key concerns regarding IA are identified from the literature, many of which relate to the potential for undue corporate influence. Assessment of the EU's IA tool suggests that many of these concerns are valid. The findings raise crucial questions about the role of IA in public policy. By focusing mainly on the impact on the economy and business environment, the EU's current approach to IA may undermine healthy public policy. Those interested in public health need to acknowledge and respond to the problems associated with IA and evaluate the effects of 'integrated' IA tools on policy decisions affecting public health.

  18. [ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma). Achievements in 10 years and future needs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Zernotti, Mario E; Larenas-Linnemann, Désireé; Cruz, Alvaro A; González-Díaz, Sandra N; Ivancevich, Juan C; Aldrey-Palacios, Oscar; Sisul, Juan C; Solé, Dirceu; Cepeda, Alfonso M; Jares, Edgardo J; Calvo Gil, Mario; Valentin-Rostán, Marylin; Yáñez, Anahí; Gereda, José; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Rosario, Nelson; Croce, Víctor H; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, G Walter; Demoly, Pascal; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schünemann, Holger J; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bedbrook, Anna; Zuberbier, Torsten; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma represent global problems of public health affecting all age groups; asthma and allergic rhinitis frequently coexist in the same patients. In Latin American prevalence of allergic rhinitis, although variable, is very high. Allergic rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) started during a workshop of the World Health Organization performed in 1999 and was published in 2001. ARIA proposed a new classification of allergic rhinitis in intermittent or persistent and mild or moderate-severe. This approach of classification reflects more nearly the impact of allergic rhinitis in patients. In its review of 2010 ARIA developed guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis and of clinical practices for management of comorbidities of allergic rhinitis and asthma based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Development and Evaluation). ARIA has been spread and implemented in more than 50 countries. In Latin American an intense activity has been developed to spread these recommendations in almost all the countries of the region and it is important to record the obtained goals in the diffusion and implementation of ARIA, as well as to identify the unsatisfied needs from the clinical, research and implementation points of view. Final objective is to reinforce the priority that allergy and asthma should have, especially in children, in the programs of public health, as they have been prioritized in European Union in 2011.

  19. Achieving a “Grand Convergence” in Global Health: Modeling the Technical Inputs, Costs, and Impacts from 2016 to 2030

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Colin F.; Levin, Carol; Hatefi, Arian; Madriz, Solange; Santos, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The Commission on Investing in Health published its report, GlobalHealth2035, in 2013, estimating an investment case for a grand convergence in health outcomes globally. In support of the drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we estimate what the grand convergence investment case might achieve—and what investment would be required—by 2030. Methods and Findings Our projection focuses on a sub-set of low-income (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). We start with a country-based (bottom-up) analysis of the costs and impact of scaling up reproductive, maternal, and child health tools, and select HIV and malaria interventions. We then incorporate global (top-down) analyses of the costs and impacts of scaling up existing tools for tuberculosis, additional HIV interventions, the costs to strengthen health systems, and the costs and benefits from scaling up new health interventions over the time horizon of this forecast. These data are then allocated to individual countries to provide an aggregate projection of potential cost and impact at the country level. Finally, incremental costs of R&D for low-income economies and the costs of addressing NTDs are added to provide a global total cost estimate of the investment scenario. Results Compared with a constant coverage scenario, there would be more than 60 million deaths averted in LIC and 70 million deaths averted in LMIC between 2016 and 2030. For the years 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, the incremental costs of convergence in LIC would be (US billion) $24.3, $21.8, $24.7, and $27, respectively; in LMIC, the incremental costs would be (US billion) $34.75, $38.9, $48.7, and $56.3, respectively. Conclusion Key health outcomes in low- and low-middle income countries can significantly converge with those of wealthier countries by 2030, and the notion of a “grand convergence” may serve as a unifying theme for health indicators in the SDGs. PMID:26452263

  20. Education and Outreach at the Earthscope National Office: 2012 Update on Activities and Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.; Bohon, W.; Pacheco, H. A.; Schwab, P.; Baumback, D.; Pettis, L.; Colunga, J.; Robinson, S.; Dick, C.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org) funded by the National Science Foundation fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of seismology, geodesy, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. EarthScope scientific data and findings are transforming the study of Earth structure and processes throughout the planet. These data enhance the understanding and mitigation of hazards and inform environmental and economic applications of geoscience. The EarthScope Program also offers significant resources and opportunities for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO continues to actively support and promote E&O with programmatic activities such as a regularly updated presence on the web and social media, newsletters, biannual national conferences, workshops for E&O providers and informal educators (interpreters), collaborative interaction with other Earth science organizations, continuing education for researchers, promotion of place-based education, and support for regional K-12 teacher professional-development programs led by EarthScope stakeholders. EarthScope E&O, coordinated by ESNO, leads the compilation and dissemination of the data, findings, and legacy of the epic EarthScope Program. In this presentation we offer updated reports and outcomes from ESNO E&O activities, including web and social-media upgrades, the Earth Science E&O Provider Summit for partnering organizations, the Central Appalachian Interpretive Workshop for informal Earth science educators, the U.S. Science and Engineering Fair, and collaborative efforts with partner organizations. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  1. A Reflection on the Broader, Systemic Impacts of Youth Volunteer Abroad Programmes: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluim, Gary W. J.; Jorgenson, Shelane R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and appeal of youth volunteer abroad (YVA) programmes, powerful critiques are emerging. While these programmes tend to promise much in the way of global ethics and global citizenship in youth participants, they often neglect to seriously interrogate the one-way movement of people from the centre to the periphery…

  2. Early Care for Infants and Toddlers: Examining the Broader Impacts of Universal Prekindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Heitzman, Emma H.; Cochran, Mon

    In 1997, New York State passed legislation implementing Universal Prekindergarten (UPK), a new educational program with the goal of providing a voluntary, high-quality preschool experience to all 4-year-olds and improving school readiness. One of the program requirements is that school districts contract out at least 10 percent of UPK funds to…

  3. Earthscope National Office Education and Outreach Program: 2014 Update on Broader-Impacts Activities and Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Robinson, S.; Bohon, W.; Schwab, P.; Arrowsmith, R.; Garnero, E.; Pettis, L.; Baumback, D.; Dick, C.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org), funded by the National Science Foundation, fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of geodesy, seismology, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. EarthScope data, and the scientific findings they underpin, continue to revolutionize geoscientific research, enhance understanding and mitigation of geologic hazards, and bolster applications of geoscience in environmental management and sustainability. The EarthScope Program also produces and shares a wide range of resources and opportunities for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes E&O through social media and the web, inSights newsletters and published articles, E&O workshops for informal educators (interpreters), an annual Speaker Series, assistance to grassroots K-12 STEM teacher professional development projects (typically led by EarthScope researchers), continuing education for researchers, collaborations with other Earth-science E&O providers, and biennial National Conferences. The EarthScope E&O program at ESNO, now in its final year at Arizona State University, leads and supports wide dissemination of the data, findings, and legacy of EarthScope. Significant activities in 2014 include an Interpretive Workshop in Alaska; the US Science and Engineering Festival; the Decade Symposium in Washington, DC; the Great ShakeOut; local and regional outreach; and a continued strong and exemplary E&O presence online. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  4. Views from the global south: exploring how student volunteers from the global north can achieve sustainable impact in global health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. Discussion To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or ‘chaotic’ approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student’s short-term placement ended. Summary Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student’s placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes. PMID:23889908

  5. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies.

  6. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the…

  7. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages.

  8. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  9. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  10. Visual Orienting in the Early Broader Autism Phenotype: Disengagement and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Volein, Agnes; Holmboe, Karla; Tucker, Leslie; Csibra, Gergely; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies of infant siblings of children diagnosed with autism have allowed for a prospective approach to examine the emergence of symptoms and revealed behavioral differences in the broader autism phenotype within the early years. In the current study we focused on a set of functions associated with visual attention, previously…

  11. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Impressions of Interviewee Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickles, A.; Parr, J. R.; Rutter, M. L.; De Jonge, M. V.; Wallace, S.; Le Couteur, A. S.; van Engeland, H.; Wittemeyer, K.; McConachie, H.; Roge, B.; Mantoulan, C.; Pedersen, L.; Isager, T.; Poustka, F.; Bolte, S.; Bolton, P.; Weisblatt, E.; Green, J.; Papanikolaou, K.; Bailey, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    A 20 item observational measure of social functioning, the Impression of Interviewee rating scale, is one of three measures devised to assess the broader autism phenotype. The sample studied included families containing at least two individuals with autism spectrum disorder; observations were undertaken by the researcher who interviewed the…

  12. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  13. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Group Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Maretha; Parr, Jeremy; Rutter, Michael; Wallace, Simon; Kemner, Chantal; Bailey, Anthony; van Engeland, Herman; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of…

  14. Why We Should Study the Broader Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a term applied to individuals with personality and cognitive traits that are similar to but milder than those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle autistic traits in the core diagnostic domains of social communication and rigid behavior were described in family members of people with an ASD even…

  15. The impact of a science-based integrated instructional protocol on the motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth and fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kathy E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing an integrated instructional protocol of science-based informational texts as teacher read alouds, student independent reading, and written journal responses on motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth- and fifth-grade students with attention to specific student groups, including gender and ethnicities. A mixed methods research design included a 12-week intervention conducted with 68 fourth and fifth graders and 30 nonintervention fourth and fifth graders. Participating fourth and fifth graders completed the comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ([GMRT] MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000) and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills ([TAKS] Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2005a). The Reading Survey of the Motivation to Read Profile ([MRP], Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) served as another quantitative data source. Qualitative data sources included classroom observations, key informant interviews, and student journal entries. The GMRT results indicated that the intervention fourth graders demonstrated the largest growth in reading comprehension achievement. Significant differences were noted by GMRT results between the intervention and nonintervention fourth graders. A significant difference was found between fourth-grade males and females on the GMRT, with a larger gain posted by the females. No significant differences were found on the GMRT in fifth grade Reading TAKS results indicated a significant difference between intervention fourth-grade Hispanic and African American students, while fifth-grade Science TAKS results indicated no significant differences. The MRP Reading Survey results indicated no significant differences; however, fourth-grade Hispanic and fifth-grade male students demonstrated significant growth. Classroom observations documented the progress of the 12-week intervention; 9 primary instructional and

  16. Investigating the impact of teachers' implementation practices on academic achievement in science during a long-term professional development program on the Science Writing Heuristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunel, Murat

    This study is a part of a bigger project known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) Partnership Professional Development Project, conducted at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa in association with the Iowa Department of Education to help improve science teaching. Overall, the goal of the project is to help practicing science teachers understand and apply a student-oriented instructional approach, using the SWH. The purpose of this research study was to examine the link between teachers' implementation of a student-oriented teaching approach through the SWH approach with embedded non-traditional writing practices and students' performances on standardized tests over a 3-year period. This study investigated the impact of 6 teachers' (3 high school teachers and 3 middle school teachers) implementation of the SWH approach on student standardized test scores over the 3-year period. A mixed method approach was adopted as a research method. A major premise underpinning this study is that in the rate of change differs by teachers, and that change is not a linear process for teachers. Results of the study indicated a differential across teachers in terms of improvement in pedagogical skills related to the SWH approach. Further, results showed that the SWH approach in-service program did have an impact on participating teachers' pedagogical practices. The majority of the participating teachers improved their pedagogical practices of implementing science inquiry through the SWH approach over the 3-year period of the professional development program. Further, when teachers' rankings were correlated against students' standardized test scores, the results indicated that as their implementation levels increased their students' test achievements also increased.

  17. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison With a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Gita

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in students' lives, the importance of chemistry, the difficulty of chemistry, interest in chemistry, and the usefulness of chemistry for their future career. Though the STS approach students had higher attitude post scores, there was no significant difference between the STS and textbook students' attitude post scores. It was noted that females had higher postattitude scores in the STS group, while males had higher postattitude scores in the textbook group. With regard to postachievement, I noted that males had higher scores in both groups. A correlation existed between postattitude and postachievement in the STS classroom. In summary, while an association between attitude and achievement was found in the STS classroom, teaching approach or sex was not found to influence attitudes, while sex was also not found to influence achievement. These results, overall, suggest that attitudes are not expected to change on the basis of either teaching approach or gender, and that techniques other than changing the teaching approach would need to be used in order to improve the attitudes of students. Qualitative analysis of an online discussion activity on Energy revealed that STS students were able to apply aspects of chemistry in decision making related to socioscientific issues. Additional analysis of interview and written responses provided insight regarding attitudes toward chemistry, with respect to topics of applicability of chemistry to life, difficulties with chemistry, teaching approach for chemistry, and the intent for enrolling in additional chemistry courses. In addition, the surveys of female students brought out

  18. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective: A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.; Connolly, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However, limited funds may impede the implementation of population-based programmes. Governmental investments in the prevention of infectious disease may have broader economic and fiscal benefits, which are not accounted in conventional economic analyses. This study estimates the broader economic and fiscal impacts of implementing HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening in Indonesia from the perspective of the government. Methods A government-perspective quantitative analytic framework was applied to assess the Net Present Value (NPV) of investment on cervical cancer prevention strategies including HPV vaccination, cervical screening and its combination in Indonesia. All monetary values were presented in International Dollars (I$). Results Based on a cohort of 10,000,000 Indonesian 12-year-old females, it was estimated that HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening result in a positive NPV for the Indonesian government. The combination of cervical screening and HPV vaccination generated a substantial reduction of cervical cancer incidence and HPV-related mortality of 87,862 and 19,359, respectively. It was estimated that HPV vaccination in combination with cervical screening is the most favorable option for cervical cancer prevention (NPV I$2.031.786.000), followed by HPV vaccination alone (NPV I$1.860.783.000) and cervical screening alone (NPV I$375.244.000). Conclusion In addition to clinical benefits, investing in HPV vaccination and cervical screening may yield considerable fiscal benefits for the Indonesian governments due to lifelong benefits resulting from reduction of cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:27490258

  19. Beyond the justification hypothesis: a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Robins, Richard W

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate Henriques' Justification Hypothesis (JH; this issue) and argue that his explanation for the evolution of self-consciousness is overly narrow and the evolutionary sequence of events is backwards. Instead, we propose a broader theory of the evolution of self-consciousness, with four categories of adaptive functions: (a) self-regulation, (b) selective information processing, (c) understanding others, and (d) identity formation.

  20. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Thomas S.; Hess, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists’ personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers’ personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications’ topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one’s current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists’ personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  1. The Appropriateness of Consolidation in Illinois: A Study of the Impact of Poverty, District Type, and Size on Expenditures and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether or not enrollment, poverty rate, and district type could be used to predict cost and achievement, as measured on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and Prairie State Achievement Exam, at the building and district levels within the state of Illinois. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational…

  2. The Relationship between the Broader Environment and the Work System in a University Setting: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lone, Jon Anders; Riege, Anine H.; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato

    2017-01-01

    Recent work design theories propose that the work design configuration (i.e. "work system") in an organization interacts with its broader social and economic environment. Nevertheless, there are few studies of how the broader environment affects the work system. In the present study, the authors used a qualitative theory-elaboration…

  3. A detailed seismic zonation model for shallow earthquakes in the broader Aegean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamvakaris, D. A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Papaioannou, Ch. A.; Scordilis, E. M.; Karakaisis, G. F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we propose a new seismic zonation model of area type sources for the broader Aegean area, which can be readily used for seismic hazard assessment. The definition of this model is based not only on seismicity information but incorporates all available seismotectonic and neotectonic information for the study area, in an attempt to define zones which show not only a rather homogeneous seismicity release but also exhibit similar active faulting characteristics. For this reason, all available seismological information such as fault plane solutions and the corresponding kinematic axes have been incorporated in the analysis, as well as information about active tectonics, such as seismic and active faults. Moreover, various morphotectonic features (e.g. relief, coastline) were also considered. Finally, a revised seismic catalogue is employed and earthquake epicentres since historical times (550 BC-2008) are employed, in order to define areas of common seismotectonic characteristics, that could constitute a discrete seismic zone. A new revised model of 113 earthquake seismic zones of shallow earthquakes for the broader Aegean area is finally proposed. Using the proposed zonation model, a detailed study is performed for the catalogue completeness for the recent instrumental period.Using the defined completeness information, seismicity parameters (such as G-R values) for the 113 new seismic zones have been calculated, and their spatial distribution was also examined. The spatial variation of the obtained b values shows an excellent correlation with the geotectonic setting in the area, in good agreement with previous studies. Moreover, a quantitative estimation of seismicity is performed in terms of the mean return period, Tm, of large (M ≥ 6.0) earthquakes, as well as the most frequent maximum magnitude, Mt, for a typical time period (T = 50 yr), revealing significant spatial variations of seismicity levels within the study area. The new proposed

  4. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

  6. The Impact of a Project-Based Science Curriculum on Minority Student Achievement, Attitudes, and Careers: The Effects of Teacher Content and Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Inquiry-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, David E.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Project-based science (PBS) curricula have project- and inquiry-based aspects that leverage the strengths of urban students from ethnic and racial groups underrepresented in science careers, potentially impacting positively these students' science achievement and attitudes and thus their college and career plans. We aimed to determine the extent…

  7. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  8. Valuing the broader benefits of dengue vaccination, with a preliminary application to Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer C

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of dengue has been on the rise since at least the 1960s, bringing greater urgency to the need for a vaccine to prevent the disease. Recent advances suggest that the scientific world is moving closer to an effective dengue vaccine. However, there are concerns that the price of a future vaccine could limit its uptake. High prices, in addition to other challenges, have already weighed negatively in government decisions to include other new vaccines in national immunization programs, e.g., the pneumococcal, rotavirus, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Recent research on the value of vaccination, however, suggests that vaccination confers benefits that are often neglected by traditional economic evaluations. In the case of dengue, commonly overlooked benefits are likely to include reduced spending on outbreak control, averted losses in tourism flows, and avoided productivity losses due to long-term dengue sequelae. Accounting for these and other broader benefits of dengue vaccination could reveal significantly greater economic value and strengthen the case for inclusion of dengue vaccination in national immunization programs. In this article we discuss a framework for the broader value of vaccination and review its application in the context of dengue vaccination for Brazil.

  9. Focusing the EarthScope for a broader audience: Advancing geoscience education with interactive kiosks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Solis, T.

    2012-12-01

    A primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research, however, is often the translation of a technical result into a clear teachable moment that is accessible to a broader audience. As 4D multimedia now dominate most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), we have made a major effort to construct and install customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. We are also developing new kiosk content that reflect career stories showcasing the personal journeys of EarthScope scientists. To truly bring the interactive aspect of our EarthScope kiosk media into the classroom, we have collaborated with local teachers to develop a one-page EarthScope TerraMap activity worksheet that guides students through kiosk content. These activities are shaping a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  10. First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load.

    PubMed Central

    Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Allavena, Clotilde; Delpierre, Cyrille; Duvivier, Claudine; Obry-Roguet, Véronique; Cano, Carla E.; Guillouet de Salvador, Francine; Rey, David; Dellamonica, Pierre; Cheret, Antoine; Cuzin, Lise; Katlama, Christine; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT’AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients. We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8+ T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed. CD8+ T-cell counts were assessed in 572 patients treated with 2NRTIs+1PI/r (n= 297), 2NRTIs+1NNRTI (n= 207) and 3NRTIs (n= 68). In multivariate analysis, after 12 months of follow-up, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a significantly smaller decrease of CD8+ T-cell count compared with NNRTI-containing regimens (–10.2 cells/μL in 3NRTIs vs –105.1 cells/μL; P=0.02) but not compared with PI-containing regimens (10.2 vs –60.9 cells/μL; P=0.21). After 24 months, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a smaller decrease of CD8+ T-cell count and % compared with PI/r- and NNRTI-containing regimens (0.2 in 3NRTIs vs –9.9 with PI/r-regimens, P=0.001, and vs –11.1 with NNRTI-regimens, p < 0.0001). A focus analysis on 11 patients treated with an INSTI-containing cART regimen during the study period showed after 12 months of follow-up, a median decrease of CD8+ T-cell count of –155 [inter quartile range: –302; –22] cells/μL. Our data highlight the fact that cART regimens have differential effects on CD8 pool down regulation. PMID:27741125

  11. The Impact of Substance Use and Violence/Delinquency on Academic Achievement for Groups of Middle and High School Students in Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Dorothy J.; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, Louise; Brandon, Richard N.

    Noting that little is known about how the social environment affects academic achievement among groups of students, this study examined the associations among substance use, violent/delinquent behavior, and academic achievement in groups of middle and high school students. Data sources for middle school students were the 1998 Washington State…

  12. The Impact of Resources on Education: A Position Paper on How Theories of Social Capital Provide Insight on the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…

  13. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  14. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  15. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  16. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management (“no ban”, n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown (“ban”, n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. Fishery Income in Implementing Villages In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing

  17. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change in the United States. The primary goal of this framework to estimate how climate change impac...

  18. Violence and suffering in television news: toward a broader conception of harmful television content for children.

    PubMed

    Walma van der Molen, Juliette H

    2004-06-01

    Traditionally, the public and professional debate about the inappropriateness of media violence for children focuses mainly on the negative effects of violence in entertainment programming. However, since the terrorist attacks on September 11th and the recent coverage of the war in Iraq, the suitability of real-life news violence for children may be doubted more than ever. To draw attention to the potential harmful effects of violence presented in news programs, it is argued in the present article that health care professionals should advocate a broader conception of media violence than thus far has been used. On the basis of recent research, potential effects of violent news content, such as fear, aggression, and desensitization, are discussed and recommendations are provided on how to abate these outcomes.

  19. Giving time purpose: The S. elongatus clock in a broader network context

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Ralph J.; Golden, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    Early research on the cyanobacterial clock focused on characterizing the genes that are needed to keep, entrain, and convey time within the cell. As the scope of assays used in molecular genetics expanded to capture systems-level properties (i.e. RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, metabolomics, high-throughput screening of genetic variants), so did our understanding of how the clock fits within and influences a broader cellular context. Here we review the work that has established a global perspective of the clock with a focus on: (1) an emerging network-centric view of clock architecture, (2) mechanistic insights on how temporal and environmental cues are transmitted and integrated within this network, (3) the systematic alteration of gene expression and cellular metabolism by the clock, and (4) insights on the evolution of temporal control in cyanobacteria. PMID:26442846

  20. Broader autism phenotype and nonverbal sensitivity: evidence for an association in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and two tests of nonverbal sensitivity, the Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK), and the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA2). AQ score was correlated with TONCK performance and number of errors on the adult faces subtest of the DANVA2, but not adult paralanguage or postures. These findings suggest that characteristics of ASD in the general population are associated with differences in both explicit and implicit knowledge of nonverbal cues.

  1. Multilevel water governance and problems of scale: setting the stage for a broader debate.

    PubMed

    Moss, Timothy; Newig, Jens

    2010-07-01

    Environmental governance and management are facing a multiplicity of challenges related to spatial scales and multiple levels of governance. Water management is a field particularly sensitive to issues of scale because the hydrological system with its different scalar levels from small catchments to large river basins plays such a prominent role. It thus exemplifies fundamental issues and dilemmas of scale in modern environmental management and governance. In this introductory article to an Environmental Management special feature on "Multilevel Water Governance: Coping with Problems of Scale," we delineate our understanding of problems of scale and the dimensions of scalar politics that are central to water resource management. We provide an overview of the contributions to this special feature, concluding with a discussion of how scalar research can usefully challenge conventional wisdom on water resource management. We hope that this discussion of water governance stimulates a broader debate and inquiry relating to the scalar dimensions of environmental governance and management in general.

  2. Suggestions on how to do Successful Science and Contribute to the Broader Aims of Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    I would like make the following suggestions to early career scientists, especially if they want they want to contribute to science policy. First of all it is important that they first establish a reputation in their respective fields by the normal method of publishing papers and giving presentations at scientific meetings. They should become involved in the scientific societies by volunteering for committees and helping organize sessions at annual and specialized meetings. They should also develop a broader perspective of their field of research and be willing to serve on committees dealing with science priorities, science education, and science policy. I plan to cite my experience as well as others as examples of what can be done.

  3. Broader autism phenotype in parents of autistic children: reality or myth?

    PubMed

    Scheeren, Anke M; Stauder, Johannes E A

    2008-02-01

    The finding that relatives of individuals with autism show mild autistic traits is referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In the current study, 25 parents with a child with high-functioning autism and 25 parents with typically developed children were compared on: (1) the Block Design Test, (2) the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and (3) a reaction time task to examine reflexive covert visual orienting to social (eyes) and non-social (arrows) cues. The parent groups were scored similar on the Block Design Test and the AQ. However, fathers with an autistic child demonstrated a different reaction time pattern and responded slower on the social cues than control fathers. These results partly support and further elaborate on the BAP in parents with an autistic child.

  4. The broader autism phenotype and friendships in non-clinical dyads.

    PubMed

    Wainer, Allison L; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-10-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and friendship similarity was evaluated, and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test how both friends' BAP characteristics jointly and uniquely contribute to the experiences of friendships. Results suggest self-informant agreement about the BAP, friendship closeness, quality, and conflict. Actor effects were observed for the BAP and friendship values, quality, conflict, and loneliness. Findings suggest that the BAP relates in meaningful ways to self-perceptions of friendship variables in the general population.

  5. Romantic attachment, empathy, and the broader autism phenotype among college students.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Dustin; Turner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mild autistic-like characteristics can be measured among relatives of individuals with autism and in the general population. These characteristics have been referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), and include pragmatic language difficulties, aloofness, and rigidity. Evidence is growing to suggest that individuals with BAP encounter difficulties in their social interactions. Recent work demonstrates that college students scoring high on the BAP report more loneliness (Jobe & Williams White, 2007) and more interpersonal problems (Wainer, Ingersoll, & Hopwood, 2012). Because intimate relationships are important in development and are very salient in emerging adulthood, the authors examined the relation of the BAP to romantic attachment and empathy among young adults. Higher BAP scores were associated with lower empathy and higher attachment anxiety and avoidance. Specifically, pragmatic language difficulties were related to higher rates of avoidant attachment and this relationship was mediated by empathy. In contrast, pragmatic language deficits were directly related to anxious attachment.

  6. Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Alba-Duran, J.; Allegretti, L.; Allfrey, S.; Amiel, S.; Ané, J. M.; Aniel, T.; Antar, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Arnaud, J.; Arranger, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Audisio, D.; Aumeunier, M.; Autissier, E.; Azcona, L.; Back, A.; Bahat, A.; Bai, X.; Baiocchi, B.; Balaguer, D.; Balme, S.; Balorin, C.; Barana, O.; Barbier, D.; Barbuti, A.; Basiuk, V.; Baulaigue, O.; Bayetti, P.; Baylard, C.; Beaufils, S.; Beaute, A.; Bécoulet, M.; Bej, Z.; Benkadda, S.; Benoit, F.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Berne, A.; Bertrand, B.; Bertrand, E.; Beyer, P.; Bigand, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Borel, G.; Boron, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Bouchand, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Bourg, J.; Bourmaud, S.; Brémond, S.; Bribiesca Argomedo, F.; Brieu, M.; Brun, C.; Bruno, V.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buravand, Y.; Cai, L.; Cantone, V.; Cantone, B.; Caprin, E.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Castagliolo, A.; Belo, J.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Caulier, G.; Chaix, J.; Chantant, M.; Chatelier, M.; Chauvin, D.; Chenevois, J.; Chouli, B.; Christin, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Clapier, R.; Cloez, H.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Colas, L.; Colledani, G.; Commin, L.; Coquillat, P.; Corbel, E.; Corre, Y.; Cottet, J.; Cottier, P.; Courtois, X.; Crest, I.; Dachicourt, R.; Dapena Febrer, M.; Daumas, C.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Gentile, B.; Dechelle, C.; Decker, J.; Decool, P.; Deghaye, V.; Delaplanche, J.; Delchambre-Demoncheaux, E.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Devynck, P.; Dias Pereira Bernardo, J.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doceul, L.; Dong, Y.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Dubuit, N.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Ducobu, L.; Dugue, B.; Dumas, N.; Dumont, R.; Durocher, A.; Durocher, A.; Duthoit, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elbeze, D.; Escarguel, A.; Escop, J.; Faïsse, F.; Falchetto, G.; Farjon, J.; Faury, M.; Fedorzack, N.; Féjoz, P.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Fiet, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Francisquez, M.; Franel, B.; Frauche, J.; Frauel, Y.; Futtersack, R.; Garbet, X.; Garcia, J.; Gardarein, J.; Gargiulo, L.; Garibaldi, P.; Garin, P.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gaye, O.; Geraud, A.; Gerome, M.; Gervaise, V.; Geynet, M.; Ghendrih, P.; Giacalone, I.; Gibert, S.; Gil, C.; Ginoux, S.; Giovannangelo, L.; Girard, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Goletto, C.; Goncalves, R.; Gonde, R.; Goniche, M.; Goswami, R.; Grand, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Gravil, B.; Grisolia, C.; Gros, G.; Grosman, A.; Guigue, J.; Guilhem, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Guillerminet, B.; Guimaraes Filho, Z.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Gurcan, O.; Guzman, F.; Hacquin, S.; Hariri, F.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hennequin, P.; Hernandez, C.; Hertout, P.; Heuraux, S.; Hillairet, J.; Honore, C.; Hornung, G.; Houry, M.; Hunstad, I.; Hutter, T.; Huynh, P.; Icard, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Isoardi, L.; Jacquinot, J.; Jacquot, J.; Jiolat, G.; Joanny, M.; Joffrin, E.; Johner, J.; Joubert, P.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Jouve, M.; Junique, C.; Keller, D.; Klepper, C.; Kogut, D.; Kubič, M.; Labassé, F.; Lacroix, B.; Lallier, Y.; Lamaison, V.; Lambert, R.; Larroque, S.; Latu, G.; Lausenaz, Y.; Laviron, C.; Le, R.; Le Luyer, A.; Le Niliot, C.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Lebourg, P.; Lefevre, T.; Leroux, F.; Letellier, L.; Li, Y.; Lipa, M.; Lister, J.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, F.; Loarer, T.; Lombard, G.; Lotte, P.; Lozano, M.; Lucas, J.; Lütjens, H.; Magaud, P.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Mahieu, J.-F.; Maini, P.; Malard, P.; Manenc, L.; Marandet, Y.; Marbach, G.; Marechal, J.-L.; Marfisi, L.; Marle, M.; Martin, C.; Martin, V.; Martin, G.; Martinez, A.; Martino, P.; Masset, R.; Mazon, D.; Mellet, N.; Mercadier, L.; Merle, A.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Messina, P.; Meyer, O.; Millon, L.; Missirlian, M.; Moerel, J.; Molina, D.; Mollard, P.; Moncada, V.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, M.; Moreau, P.; Morel, P.; Moriyama, T.; Motassim, Y.; Mougeolle, G.; Moulton, D.; Moureau, G.; Mouyon, D.; Naim Habib, M.; Nardon, E.; Négrier, V.; Nemeth, J.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, M.; Nicolas, L.; Nicolas, T.; Nicollet, S.; Nilsson, E.; N'Konga, B.; Noel, F.; Nooman, A.; Norscini, C.; Nouailletas, R.; Oddon, P.; Ohsako, T.; Orain, F.; Ottaviani, M.; Pagano, M.; Palermo, F.; Panayotis, S.; Parrat, H.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Passeron, C.; Pastor, P.; Patterlini, J.; Pavy, K.; Pecquet, A.-L.; Pégourié, B.; Peinturier, C.; Pelletier, T.; Peluso, B.; Petrzilka, V.; Peysson, Y.; Pignoly, E.; Pirola, R.; Pocheau, C.; Poitevin, E.; Poli, V.; Poli, S.; Pompon, F.; Porchy, I.; Portafaix, C.; Preynas, M.; Prochet, P.; Prou, M.; Ratnani, A.; Raulin, D.; Ravenel, N.; Renard, S.; Ricaud, B.; Richou, M.; Ritz, G.; Roche, H.; Roubin, P.; Roux, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabathier, F.; Sabot, R.; Saille, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sakamoto, R.; Salasca, S.; Salmon, T.; Salmon, T.; Samaille, F.; Sanchez, S.; Santagiustina, A.; Saoutic, B.; Sarazin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Schlosser, J.; Schneider, M.; Schwob, J.; Segui, J.; Seguin, N.; Selig, G.; Serret, D.; Signoret, J.; Signoret, J.; Simonin, A.; Soldaini, M.; Soler, B.; Soltane, C.; Song, S.; Sourbier, F.; Sparagna, J.; Spitz, P.; Spuig, P.; Storelli, A.; Strugarek, A.; Tamain, P.; Tena, M.; Theis, J.; Thomine, O.; Thouvenin, D.; Torre, A.; Toulouse, L.; Travère, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Turck, B.; Urban, J.; Vallet, J.-C.; Vallory, J.; Valognes, A.; Van Helvoirt, J.; Vartanian, S.; Verger, J.-M.; Vermare, L.; Vermare, C.; Vezinet, D.; Vicente, K.; Vidal, J.; Vignal, N.; Vigne, T.; Villecroze, F.; Villedieu, E.; Vincent, B.; Volpe, B.; Volpe, D.; Volpe, R.; Wagrez, J.; Wang, H.; Wauters, T.; Wintersdorff, O.; Wittebol, E.; Zago, B.; Zani, L.; Zarzoso, D.; Zhang, Y.; Zhong, W.; Zou, X. L.

    2013-10-01

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives.

  7. High perceptual load leads to both reduced gain and broader orientation tuning

    PubMed Central

    Stolte, Moritz; Bahrami, Bahador; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-01-01

    Due to its limited capacity, visual perception depends on the allocation of attention. The resultant phenomena of inattentional blindness, accompanied by reduced sensory visual cortex response to unattended stimuli in conditions of high perceptual load in the attended task, are now well established (Lavie, 2005; Lavie, 2010, for reviews). However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain to be elucidated. Specifically, is reduced perceptual processing under high perceptual load a result of reduced sensory signal gain, broader tuning, or both? We examined this question with psychophysical measures of orientation tuning under different levels of perceptual load in the task performed. Our results show that increased perceptual load leads to both reduced sensory signal and broadening of tuning. These results clarify the effects of attention on elementary visual perception and suggest that high perceptual load is critical for attentional effects on sensory tuning. PMID:24610952

  8. Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with ASD—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pisula, Ewa; Ziegart-Sadowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Although less pronounced, social, cognitive, and personality characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be present in people who do not meet ASD diagnostic criteria, especially in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD. Research on these characteristics, referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP), provides valuable data on potential expressions of autism-specific deficits in the context of family relations. This paper offers a review of research on BAP in siblings of individuals with ASD, focusing on reports regarding social, communication, and cognitive deficits, published from 1993 to 2014. The studies are divided into two groups based on participants’ age: papers on preschool and older siblings of individuals with ASD; and publications on infants at risk for ASD. On the basis of this review, suggestions are offered for further research and its significance for our understanding of the genetic determinants of autism. PMID:26068453

  9. The 'diagonal' approach to Global Fund financing: a cure for the broader malaise of health systems?

    PubMed Central

    Ooms, Gorik; Van Damme, Wim; Baker, Brook K; Zeitz, Paul; Schrecker, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Background The potentially destructive polarisation between 'vertical' financing (aiming for disease-specific results) and 'horizontal' financing (aiming for improved health systems) of health services in developing countries has found its way to the pages of Foreign Affairs and the Financial Times. The opportunity offered by 'diagonal' financing (aiming for disease-specific results through improved health systems) seems to be obscured in this polarisation. In April 2007, the board of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria agreed to consider comprehensive country health programmes for financing. The new International Health Partnership Plus, launched in September 2007, will help low-income countries to develop such programmes. The combination could lead the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to a much broader financing scope. Discussion This evolution might be critical for the future of AIDS treatment in low-income countries, yet it is proposed at a time when the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is starved for resources. It might be unable to meet the needs of much broader and more expensive proposals. Furthermore, it might lose some of its exceptional features in the process: its aim for international sustainability, rather than in-country sustainability, and its capacity to circumvent spending restrictions imposed by the International Monetary Fund. Summary The authors believe that a transformation of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria into a Global Health Fund is feasible, but only if accompanied by a substantial increase of donor commitments to the Global Fund. The transformation of the Global Fund into a 'diagonal' and ultimately perhaps 'horizontal' financing approach should happen gradually and carefully, and be accompanied by measures to safeguard its exceptional features. PMID:18364048

  10. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Caroline A.; Bradley, Bethany A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance. Methods We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the ‘plant characteristics’ information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF) and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN), and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size. Results Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001). The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation. Conclusion Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts’ knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic

  11. Evidence for broader autism phenotype characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Raphael; Gerdts, Jennifer; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2012-02-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) was assessed in parents who have two or more children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (multiplex (MPX) autism), parents who have no more than one child with ASD (simplex autism), parents who have a child with developmental delay without ASD, and parents who have typically developing children. Clinicians, naive to parent group membership status, rated BAP characteristics from videotaped administration of the Broader Autism Phenotype Symptom Scale (BPASS). Differences among groups in BPASS scores in the four assessed domains (social motivation, conversational skills, expressiveness, and restricted interests) were examined using multivariate ANOVA and post hoc comparisons. Further, ratings of videotapes by observers naïve to family status were compared with live, non-naive ratings by observers who were aware of family status (non-naïve). Findings demonstrate that the BPASS is an instrument resistant to rater bias. Parents from MPX autism families showed significantly more autism phenotype characteristics than the parents in the other groups. Moreover, the parents from simplex autism families did not differ from the parents of children with developmental delay or typical development. Finally, no differences between live, non-naive ratings and videotaped, naive ratings were observed. These findings suggest that characteristics of the BAP, specifically in the social and communication domains, are present in MPX autism parents to a greater degree than simplex autism and control parents. Further, the results provide support for the notion that genetic transmission mechanisms may differ between families with more than one child with autism and families with only one child with autism.

  12. Width of the levator aponeurosis is broader than the tarsal plate.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dae Joong; Huan, Fan; Han, Seung Ho; Hwang, Se Won

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the width of the levator aponeurosis and tarsal plate in different levels grossly and histologically. Twelve eyelids of 6 Korean adult cadavers were used. Ten eyelids were dissected, and 2 were prepared for histologic study. Widths of the tarsal plate at its lower border, midheight, and upper border were 21.8 ± 1.8, 16.2 ± 1.6, and 8.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. The widths of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 32.0 ± 2.2, 29.2 ± 3.5, and 27.2 ± 3.9 mm, respectively. Its width was 19.9 ± 4.3 mm at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament. The width of the levator aponeurosis was broader than tarsal plate at all 3 levels. The medial brims of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 3.6 ± 1.1, 5.1 ± 1.0, and 6.2 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The lateral brims of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 6.6 ± 0.9, 7.9 ± 2.6, and 12.7 ± 3.7 mm, respectively. The width of the levator aponeurosis is broader than the tarsal plate at all levels. This result might be useful in upper-eyelid surgery.

  13. Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Prabhu L.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a “redux” version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  14. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified.

  15. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  16. Exploring the impact of phonological awareness, visual-spatial working memory, and preschool quantity-number competencies on mathematics achievement in elementary school: findings from a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at 5 years of age, was mediated by early QNC, which predicted math achievement in third grade. Importantly, and confirming our isolated number words hypothesis, phonological awareness had no impact on higher numerical competencies (i.e., when number words needed to be linked with quantities [QNC Level II and above]) but predicted basic numerical competencies (i.e., when number words were isolated from quantities [QNC Level I]), explaining the moderate relationship between early literacy development and the development of mathematical competencies.

  17. An Examination of the Impact of the ASCA National Model[R] on Student Achievement at Recognized ASCA Model Program (RAMP) Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) requires that all schools demonstrate that their students meet or exceed expectations on various measures of academic performance. This means that stakeholders at every level of the school system, including school counselors, must demonstrate how their efforts lead to greater student achievement (Bemak,…

  18. The Impact of Using Technology on Student Achievement: Teaching Functions with the TI-Nspire to 9th Grade Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Barbara Renee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TI-Nspire graphing calculator use on student achievement and on teacher behavior variables of planning, teaching, and assessing. This study investigated the teaching of functions by teachers using the TI-Nspire graphing calculator versus teachers using a non-graphing scientific calculator. …

  19. The Impact of an Advisor-Advisee Mentoring Program on the Achievement, School Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Rural Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory two-group pretest-posttest comparative survey study was to determine the effect of a team adviser-advisee academic, behavior, and character mentoring program on the achievement, school engagement, and behavior outcomes of eighth grade students determined to be above (n = 21) and below (n = 15) eligibility guidelines…

  20. The Differential Impact of Pre-College and Self-Regulatory Factors on Academic Achievement of University Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; McCoach, D. Betsy; Nora, Amaury

    Even though research on academic self-regulation has proliferated in recent years, no studies have investigated the question of whether the perceived usefulness and the use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies provide a differential prediction of academic achievement for college students with and without…

  1. The Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement in the Middle Schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Quantitative Analysis of Existing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  3. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. Discussion Paper No. 1361-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes…

  4. The Impact of Differentiated Reading Homework Assignments on Students' Attitudes toward Homework, Motivation to Read, Interest in Reading, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickerson, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that there is no relationship between traditional homework completion and academic achievement among elementary grade students. Yet, elementary school teachers continue to utilize this practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between nontraditional, differentiated reading…

  5. The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

  6. 21st Century Community Learning Centers 2013: A Quasi-Experimental Investigation of Program Impacts on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry; Hixson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation study investigating the effects of participation in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program on student achievement in mathematics and reading/language arts, for the cohort of students who participated during the 2012-2013 school year. The report is a supplement to the Office of Assessment,…

  7. 21st Century Community Learning Centers 2014: A Quasi-Experimental Investigation of Program Impacts on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry; Whisman, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation study investigating the effects of participation in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program on student achievement in mathematics and reading/language arts, for the cohort of students who participated during the 2013-2014 school year. The report is a supplement to the Office of Assessment,…

  8. Commentary Regarding Bui, Craig, and Imberman (2011): "Is Gifted Education a Bright Idea? Assessing the Impacts of Gifted and Talented Programs on Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Tonya R.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a large southwestern school district, Bui, Craig, and Imberman investigated the effects of gifted and talented programming on middle school students' achievement and behavior (attendance and discipline) through two avenues. Using a regression discontinuity design for the first set of analyses, the authors took advantage of a…

  9. Impact of a Career Intervention on At-Risk Middle School Students' Career Maturity Levels, Academic Achievement, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…

  10. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  11. Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gleason, Philip; Knechtel, Virginia; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Booker, Kevin; Chojnacki, Gregory; Coen, Thomas; Goble, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term…

  12. Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's "Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gleason, Philip; Knechtel, Virginia; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Booker, Kevin; Chojnacki, Gregory; Coen, Thomas; Goble, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term…

  13. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  14. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  15. The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Minerva Mungia

    2013-01-01

    Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for…

  16. Examining the Impact of an Integrative Method of Using Technology on Students' Achievement and Efficiency of Computer Usage and on Pedagogical Procedure in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurevich, Irina; Gurev, Dvora

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we follow the development of the pedagogical procedure for the course "Constructions in Geometry" that resulted from using dynamic geometry software (DGS), where the computer became an integral part of the educational process. Furthermore, we examine the influence of integrating DGS into the course on students' achievement and…

  17. Girl Friends as Significant-Others: Their Influence on Young Men's Career Aspirations and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.

    1977-01-01

    Girl friends are significant-others who influence young men's career aspirations and achievements. Girl friends and same sex peers evaluate a youth's educational potential using broader criteria than do parents. (Author/MV)

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Impacts of GIS on the Motivation and Achievement in Geography among Underachieving Students of Smart School in Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Soon Singh Bikar; Kleeman, Grant; Van Bergen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, the integrated secondary school curriculum was introduced as a continuation of the curriculum changes introduced in the primary school. These changes have impacted geography subject in the secondary school. Geography becomes a compulsory subject for lower secondary and elective subject at the upper secondary school level. As a result,…

  19. The Impact of Cooperative and Traditional Learning on the Academic Achievement of Third Grade Students in Selected Rural School Districts in Northeast, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shawn Lamont L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that cooperative learning and traditional learning have on the academic performance of elementary school students in rural school districts. Cooperative learning is considered a typical model that can maximize the effectiveness of constructivism. Slavin (1991, p. 71) completed a synthesis of research on cooperative…

  20. Achieving equity in Medicare disproportionate share payments to rural hospitals: an assessment of the financial impact of recent and proposed changes to the disproportionate share hospital payment formula.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Lan; Cheng, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payment program has been less favorable to rural hospitals: eligibility thresholds were higher and the payment adjustment was smaller for rural than for urban hospitals. Although the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefit Improvement and Protection Act (BIPA) of 2000 established a uniform low-income threshold and increased the magnitude of the adjustment for certain small and rural hospitals as a means to promote payment equity, the DSH distribution formula continues to vary by location. This study examines how the DSH revisions mandated under BIPA are likely to affect rural hospitals' financial performance and simulates the financial impact of implementing a uniform DSH payment adjustment. Using data from the 1998 Medicare cost report and impact files, this study found that two-thirds of both rural and urban hospitals would have qualified for DSH payments following BIPA compared with only one-fifth of rural hospitals and one-half of urban hospitals prior to BIPA. Although the impact of BIPA revisions on rural hospitals' total margins were found to be modest, the financial impact of a uniform payment adjustment would be somewhat greater: rural hospitals' average total margins would have increased by 1.6 percentage points. Importantly, 20% of rural hospitals with negative total margins would have been "in the black" if rural and urban hospitals were reimbursed using the same DSH formula. These findings suggest that elimination of rural and urban disparities in DSH payment could strengthen the rural health care safety net.

  1. Master Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program on Leadership Practices, School Cultures and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Diana

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative dissertation study was conducted to examine the impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program through the perspective of those who have completed the entire program and attained designation as a Master Principal. A logic model for the Master Principal Program offered a context for the study. A review of…

  2. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  3. An Assessment of the Impact of a Science Outreach Program, Science In Motion, on Student Achievement, Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Phillip Allen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student…

  4. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  5. Anticoagulant factor V: factors affecting the integration of novel scientific discoveries into the broader framework.

    PubMed

    LaBonte, Michelle L

    2014-09-01

    Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, factor V has long been viewed as an important procoagulant protein in the coagulation cascade. However, in the later part of the 20th century, two different scientists proposed novel anticoagulant roles for factor V. Philip Majerus proposed the first anticoagulant function for factor V in 1983, yet ultimately it was not widely accepted by the broader scientific community. In contrast, Björn Dahlbäck proposed a different anticoagulant role for factor V in 1994. While this role was initially contested, it was ultimately accepted and integrated into the scientific framework. In this paper, I present a detailed historical account of these two anticoagulant discoveries and propose three key reasons why Dahlbäck's anticoagulant role for factor V was accepted whereas Majerus' proposed role was largely overlooked. Perhaps most importantly, Dahlbäck's proposed anticoagulant role was of great clinical interest because the discovery involved the study of an important subset of patients with thrombophilia. Soon after Dahlbäck's 1994 work, this patient population was shown to possess the factor V Leiden mutation. Also key in the ultimate acceptance of the second proposed anticoagulant role was the persistence of the scientist who made the discovery and the interest in and ability of others to replicate and reinforce this work. This analysis of two different yet similar discoveries sheds light on factors that play an important role in how new discoveries are incorporated into the existing scientific framework.

  6. Subgrouping siblings of people with autism: Identifying the broader autism phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron‐Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Autistic traits were measured in typical controls (n = 2,000), siblings (n = 496), and volunteers with ASC (n = 2,322) using the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient (AQ), both self‐report and parent‐report versions. Using cluster analysis of AQ subscale scores, two sibling subgroups were identified for both males and females: a cluster of low‐scorers and a cluster of high‐scorers. Results show that while siblings as a group have intermediate levels of autistic traits compared to control individuals and participants with ASC, when examined on a cluster level, the low‐scoring sibling group is more similar to typical controls while the high‐scoring group is more similar to the ASC clinical group. Further investigation into the underlying genetic and epigenetic characteristics of these two subgroups will be informative in understanding autistic traits, both within the general population and in relation to those with a clinical diagnosis. Autism Res 2016, 9: 658–665. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26332889

  7. A broader definition of occupancy: A reply to Hayes and Monofils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fatif, Quresh; Ellis, Martha M.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence–absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility. Animal mobility is an important consideration, not just for occupancy models, but for a variety of population and habitat models (Boyce 2006, Royle et al. 2009, Manning and Goldberg 2010, Dormann et al. 2013, Renner et al. 2015). Nevertheless, we believe the ultimate conclusions of Hayes and Monfils are shortsighted mainly due to a narrow interpretation of occupancy. Rather than turn away from the use of occupancy models, we believe they remain an appropriate method for analyzing many data sets collected from avian point count surveys. Further, we suggest that there is value in having a broader and more nuanced interpretation of occupancy that incorporates the potential for animal movement. 

  8. Mechanisms of developmental regression in autism and the broader phenotype: a neural network modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Knowland, Victoria C P; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Loss of previously established behaviors in early childhood constitutes a markedly atypical developmental trajectory. It is found almost uniquely in autism and its cause is currently unknown (Baird et al., 2008). We present an artificial neural network model of developmental regression, exploring the hypothesis that regression is caused by overaggressive synaptic pruning and identifying the mechanisms involved. We used a novel population-modeling technique to investigate developmental deficits, in which both neurocomputational parameters and the learning environment were varied across a large number of simulated individuals. Regression was generated by the atypical setting of a single pruning-related parameter. We observed a probabilistic relationship between the atypical pruning parameter and the presence of regression, as well as variability in the onset, severity, behavioral specificity, and recovery from regression. Other neurocomputational parameters that varied across the population modulated the risk that an individual would show regression. We considered a further hypothesis that behavioral regression may index an underlying anomaly characterizing the broader autism phenotype. If this is the case, we show how the model also accounts for several additional findings: shared gene variants between autism and language impairment (Vernes et al., 2008); larger brain size in autism but only in early development (Redcay & Courchesne, 2005); and the possibility of quasi-autism, caused by extreme environmental deprivation (Rutter et al., 1999). We make a novel prediction that the earliest developmental symptoms in the emergence of autism should be sensory and motor rather than social and review empirical data offering preliminary support for this prediction.

  9. A T3 and T7 Recombinant Phage Acquires Efficient Adsorption and a Broader Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiao-Yin; Lo, Yi-Haw; Tseng, Pin-Wei; Chang, Shun-Fu; Lin, Yann-Tsyr; Chen, Ton-Seng

    2012-01-01

    It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. Furthermore, a T3/7 hybrid phage exhibits a broader host range relative to that of T3, T7, as well as T7M, and is able to overcome the male exclusion. The T7M sequence closely resembles that of T3. T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 displays inferior adsorption to strains tested herein compared to T7. The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 and T7 recombine was previously unclear. This study is the first to show that recombination can occur accurately within only 8 base-pair homology, where four-way junction structures are identified. Genomic recombination models based on endonuclease I cleavages at equivalent and nonequivalent sites followed by strand annealing are proposed. Retention of pseudo-palindromes can increase recombination frequency for reviving under stress. PMID:22347414

  10. A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiao-Yin; Lo, Yi-Haw; Tseng, Pin-Wei; Chang, Shun-Fu; Lin, Yann-Tsyr; Chen, Ton-Seng

    2012-01-01

    It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. Furthermore, a T3/7 hybrid phage exhibits a broader host range relative to that of T3, T7, as well as T7M, and is able to overcome the male exclusion. The T7M sequence closely resembles that of T3. T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 displays inferior adsorption to strains tested herein compared to T7. The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 and T7 recombine was previously unclear. This study is the first to show that recombination can occur accurately within only 8 base-pair homology, where four-way junction structures are identified. Genomic recombination models based on endonuclease I cleavages at equivalent and nonequivalent sites followed by strand annealing are proposed. Retention of pseudo-palindromes can increase recombination frequency for reviving under stress.

  11. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge: An Innovative Broader Impacts Strategy for Helping Scientists Share Discoveries and Connect with Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Watson, M.; Windsor, J. G.; Buckley, M.; Diederick, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists conduct exciting, ground-breaking research that addresses many of world's greatest challenges. Yet, far too often, the importance, meaning, and relevance of their discoveries are never shared with persons outside their discipline. Recognizing the need for scientists to communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) saw an opportunity to connect the two through film. In the fall 2013, COSEE Florida launched the Ocean 180 Video Challenge to tap into the competitive spirit of scientists and inspire them to share their latest discoveries with the public. The competition encouraged scientists to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Videos were initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts and the winners (from a field of ten finalists) were selected by more than 30,000 middle school students from 285 schools in 13 countries. Our presentation will review the outcomes and lessons learned from the 2014 competition and describe how contest videos are being used for professional development/training and educational purposes. We will also describe how video competitions can benefit both scientists and the target audience and be effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students and the public.

  12. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of ‘evo-devo’. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters—the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids—a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  13. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure.

  14. Patent Certification and Technical Report (Development of Human Resources & Broader Impacts under DOE Grant to Professor Akbar Montaser)

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, Akbar

    2006-09-01

    The products of this research are listed, including publications and patents/applications, presentations, dissertations/theses, and degrees. It describes the diversity of the students, awards, and post-doctoral positions. Practical applications invented include a sensitive approach for detection of radionuclides with no radioactive solution waste; a selective and sensitive method for analyzing small volume biological samples having Cr bound to human lung DNA at the femtogram level; a precise method for determination of depleted uranium in urine via isotope ratio measurements

  15. Exploring the broader health and well-being outcomes of mining communities in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mactaggart, Fiona; McDermott, Liane; Tynan, Anna; Whittaker, Maxine

    2016-10-17

    Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes. Narrative synthesis was conducted. Twelve articles were included. Mining was perceived to influence health behaviours, employment conditions, livelihoods and socio-political factors, which were linked to poorer health outcomes. Family relationships, mental health and community cohesion were negatively associated with mining activity. High-risk health behaviours, population growth and changes in vector ecology from environmental modification were associated with increased infectious disease prevalence. This review presents the broader health and well-being outcomes and their determinants, and strengthens the evidence to improve measurement and management of the public health implications of mining. This will support the mining sector to make sustainable investments, and support governments to maximise community development and minimise negative impacts.

  16. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  17. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  18. A broader view of perirhinal function: from recognition memory to fluency-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Dew, Ilana T Z; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-09-04

    Although it is well established that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) makes an important contribution to recognition memory, the specific nature of this contribution remains uncertain. The finding that PRC activity is reduced for old compared with new items is typically attributed to the recovery of a long-term memory (LTM) signal. However, because old items are processed more easily or fluently than new items, reduced PRC activity could reflect increased fluency rather than LTM retrieval per se. We tested this hypothesis in humans using fMRI and a well-validated method to manipulate fluency: the masked priming paradigm. Some words during an old-new recognition test were preceded by conceptually related words (primes) that were subliminally presented (masked). The behavioral results replicated previous findings using this paradigm, whereby the fluency manipulation increased "oldness" responses to both old and new items. The fMRI analyses yielded two main sets of results. First, in the case of new items, which are independent from LTM retrieval, masked priming reduced PRC activity and predicted behavioral misattribution of fluency to oldness. Second, in the case of old items, the same PRC region showing fluency-related reductions for new items also contributed to "old" responding to old items. Individual differences in PRC attenuation also predicted oldness ratings to old items, and fluency modulated PRC connectivity with other brain regions associated with processing oldness signals, including visual cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex. These results support a broader view in which the PRC serves a function more general than memory.

  19. Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: Similarities, differences, and broader implications

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Michael; Young, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is a characteristic of virtually all mammals. The maternal neural system may have provided the scaffold upon which other types of social bonds in mammals have been built. For example, most mammals exhibit a polygamous mating system, but monogamy and pair bonding between mating partners occurs in ∼5% of mammalian species. In mammals, it is plausible that the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding have been modified by natural selection to establish the capacity to develop a selective bond with a mate during the evolution of monogamous mating strategies. Here we compare the details of the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding in rats and other mammals with those that underpin pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole. Although details remain to be resolved, remarkable similarities and a few differences between the mechanisms underlying these two types of bond formation are revealed. For example, amygdala and nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum (NA-VP) circuits are involved in both types of bond formation, and dopamine and oxytocin action within NA appears to promote the synaptic plasticity that allows either infant or mating partner stimuli to persistently activate NA-VP attraction circuits, leading to an enduring social attraction and bonding. Further, although the medial preoptic area is essential for maternal behavior, its role in pair bonding remains to be determined. Our review concludes by examining the broader implications of this comparative analysis, and evidence is provided that the maternal care system may have also provided the basic neural foundation for other types of strong social relationships, beyond pair bonding, in mammals, including humans. PMID:26062432

  20. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  1. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  2. Impacts of air pollution on cultural heritage corrosion at European level: What has been achieved and what are the future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Di Turo, Francesca; Proietti, Chiara; Screpanti, Augusto; Fornasier, M Francesca; Cionni, Irene; Favero, Gabriele; De Marco, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of pollutants with Cultural Heritage materials leads to artworks and materials degradation and loss, causing an unpriceless damage. This works aims to estimate the impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on limestone, copper and bronze and represents the European risk assessment for corrosion of Cultural Heritage materials. The measures and policies for atmospheric pollution reduction have cut off the SO2 concentration and consequently its impact on materials is drastically reduced. Indeed, in 1980 the number of UNESCO sites in danger was extremely high (94% for limestone, 54% for copper and 1% for bronze) while in 2010 these sites did not exceed the tolerable value of surface recession and corrosion. However, some problem related to air pollution persists. In particular, Random Forest Analysis (RFA), highlights PM10 as the main responsible for materials corrosion, in 2010. Two scenarios in 2030 have been tested, highlighting that the corrosion levels of limestone, copper and bronze exceed the tolerable limits only in the Balkan area and Turkey. Our results show the importance in the air quality modelling as a powerful tool for the UNESCO sites conservation.

  3. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education in the U.S.: Quantitative Comparisons of Programs and Graduates in the Broader Context of Undergraduate Life Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raddy L; Esposito, Anthony W; O'Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T; Grisham, William

    2016-01-01

    The impact of undergraduate neuroscience programs on the broader landscape of life sciences education has not been described. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics, we found that the number of undergraduate neuroscience programs in the U.S. continues to grow. Within any given institution, neuroscience programs exist alongside a small number of other life sciences undergraduate programs, suggesting that neuroscience is one of few major options from which students can choose from at many institutions. Neuroscience majors constitute a substantial proportion of all life sciences graduates at many institutions, and in several cases, neuroscience majors were the majority of life sciences graduates. Thus, neuroscience programs contribute substantially to life sciences education, and neuroscience is a highly attractive major among undergraduate students where these programs are available. These data have implications for institutions with existing neuroscience programs as well as for institutions seeking to establish a new program.

  4. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education in the U.S.: Quantitative Comparisons of Programs and Graduates in the Broader Context of Undergraduate Life Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Esposito, Anthony W.; O’Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T.; Grisham, William

    2016-01-01

    The impact of undergraduate neuroscience programs on the broader landscape of life sciences education has not been described. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics, we found that the number of undergraduate neuroscience programs in the U.S. continues to grow. Within any given institution, neuroscience programs exist alongside a small number of other life sciences undergraduate programs, suggesting that neuroscience is one of few major options from which students can choose from at many institutions. Neuroscience majors constitute a substantial proportion of all life sciences graduates at many institutions, and in several cases, neuroscience majors were the majority of life sciences graduates. Thus, neuroscience programs contribute substantially to life sciences education, and neuroscience is a highly attractive major among undergraduate students where these programs are available. These data have implications for institutions with existing neuroscience programs as well as for institutions seeking to establish a new program. PMID:27980463

  5. Teaching for All? Teach for America's Effects across the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates…

  6. Heads UP!: A Nested Intervention with Freshmen Male College Students and the Broader Campus Community to Promote Responsible Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Lamb, Toby F.; Bove, Lane

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed several guidelines for effective interventions in dealing with problematic college student drinking, including targeted individual interventions paired with broader campus community involvement. The project Heads UP! combines these suggestions in an effort to intervene with high-risk…

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Autism Symptom-Related Traits in Probands and Parents: Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Schellenberg, Gerard; Bernier, Raphael; Abbott, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Autism susceptibility genes likely have effects on continuously distributed autism-related traits, yet few measures of such traits exist. The Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale (BPASS), developed for use with affected children and family members, measures social motivation, social expressiveness, conversational skills, and flexibility. Based…

  8. The Role of Higher Education within Broader Skills Policies, a Comparison of Emerging Scottish and English Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the important role played by higher education in broader skills and economic development policies in England and Scotland. It places the often divergent policy experiments and structural developments in these two countries' higher education systems within an international policy context and explains why England and Scotland…

  9. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  10. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were…

  11. The impact of focused, long-term, and collaborative professional development in math and science participants' self-efficacy, classroom practice, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, Mary E.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a 2-year professional development model in math and science on the self-efficacy of the teacher and its effects on teacher practice and student outcomes. Further, this study sought to incorporate the instructional use of Inquiry-Based Learning methods of Problem-Based Learning, Japanese Lesson Study, and Action Research. Additionally, this study examined the impacts of these interventions on teacher efficacy and student outcomes. Thirty-eight collaborating participants were purposefully selected by the Math and Science Teacher Academy (MASTA) project grant co-directors because of their content-focused classrooms of mathematics and science. This quasi-experimental study included mathematics and science in-service teachers working on their masters in education. The 2-year, bi-monthly professional development model included collaborating Inquiry-Based Learning communities with in-depth focus on Japanese Lesson Study, Problem-Based Learning instruction, and Action Research. A chi-square analysis was conducted by grade on the difference in passing rate from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills mathematics and science tests between the MASTA participants and the state passing average. In mathematics there were significant v differences only at grades 3 and 7 where the state passing average was significantly higher than the MASTA students' passing rate. Only at grade 5 was the MASTA students' passing rate higher than the state, but the difference was not significantly different. The science passing rate received from three grade 5 MASTA participants was compared to the state average and a chi-squared was conducted. Although the passing rate for the grade 5 science test was 6% higher for MASTA student that the state, the difference was not statistically significant. However, after analyzing the qualitative participant responses from data gathered during the 2-year MASTA grant the data clearly reflected that

  12. Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Empirical Investigation of the Broader Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased…

  13. Mendel's Research Legacy in the Broader Historical Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orel, Vítezslav; Peaslee, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    This historical narrative describes the foundation of education as established by J. A. Comenius (1592-1670). It explores the transfer of Comenius' tenets, utilized and modified through the years, up to their impact upon the ground-breaking experiments of G. Mendel (1822-1884), "the father of genetics". It explores the questions of…

  14. Impact of an acute coronary syndrome pathway in achieving target heart rate and utilization of evidence-based doses of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Irani, Farzan; Herial, Nabeel; Colyer, William R

    2012-11-01

    Beta-blockers remain a cornerstone of therapy in the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction guideline revisions recommend a target heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats per minute (bpm). Despite improved trends toward utilization of beta-blockers therapy, beta-blockers continue to be underdosed. Guideline-based tools have been shown to improve adherence to evidence-based therapy in patients with ACS. Implementation of a standardized ACS pathway would lead to titration of beta-blockers to recommended dosages with improved HRs in eligible patients. The ACS clinical protocol was implemented at the University of Toledo Medical Center in May 2007. A retrospective study of 516 patients admitted during a comparable 6-month period, before and after the institution of the protocol, was conducted. The preprotocol and protocol group included 237 and 279 patients, respectively. Patient information extracted from the medical records included age, gender, HR on admission, blood pressure on admission, duration of hospital stay, preadmission use of beta-blocker, type of beta-blocker and dosage, discharge beta-blocker and dosage, peak troponin levels, and therapeutic intervention. A target HR of less than 60 bpm was achieved in 19% of the protocol group, as compared with 6% in the preprotocol group (P < 0.001). The protocol group had a significantly lower mean discharge HR than the preprotocol group (67 vs. 74 bpm; P < 0.001). The mean discharge dose of metoprolol in the protocol group was noted to be significantly higher (118 vs. 80 mg/d; P < 0.001). The institution of an ACS clinical pathway led to utilization of beta-blockers in significantly higher dosages, resulting in improved HR control and increased attainment of target HR.

  15. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. Quaternary shorelines of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. (SE Peloponnese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Tsivgoulis, Nikolaos; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information about the landscape evolution of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. during the Quaternary. In order to investigate the geomorphic evolution of the study area the uplifted coastal landforms, such as shore platforms, notches and remnants of marine terraces, were studied in detail through extensive field-work using topographic diagrams at a scale of 1:5,000, obtained from the Hellenic Military Geographical Service. Additionally, a spatial database was constructed derived from analogue topographic maps at various scales (1:50,000 and 1:5,000), geological maps (1:50,000 maps of IGME), aerial photographs and Google earth images using GIS techniques. The study area is located in SE Peloponnese in a particularly tectonically active area. Geodynamic processes in the region, which is part of the Hellenic island arc, are related to the active subduction of the African lithosphere beneath the Eurasian plate. The Paleozoic basement of the study area consists of geological formations of the geotectonic units of Arna, Tripolis, and Pindus. The Alpine basement is overlain by extensive outcrops of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene formations are composed of marine - lacustrine deposits which are mainly pelites, sandstones, conglomerates, calcarenites and carbonate rocks with red algae whereas Pleistocene formations consist of fluvioterrential deposits (clay, sands, loams and angular rock fragments). The Holocene deposits consist of talus cones, scree, and unconsolidated alluvial deposit, eluvial mantle materials and coastal sand dunes along the N, NE and S shoreline of Elafonissos Isl. as well as at Cape Punta. The general trend of the faults in the study area is mainly NW-SE with some secondary ones having NE-SW direction. Along the coast between Cape Koulendi and Cape Maleas, uplifted geomorphological features were mapped, including marine terraces, shore platforms and

  18. An assessment of the impact of a science outreach program, Science In Motion, on student achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Phillip Allen

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student cognitive functioning, data were collected from the Mobile County Public School System based upon student performance on Criterion Referenced Tests (CRT's), consisting of the students' average score, percent of students passing the test (students scoring 60 percent or above), and the percent of students who were considered proficient, (students scoring 70 percent or above). The researcher hypothesized that (1) the students of teachers who participate in the SIM program would have statistically significant higher scores on their science CRT's than students of the same teacher prior to the teacher's participation in the SIM program, (2) students of science teachers who participate in the SIM program would have statistically significant higher scores on their science CRT's than students of science teachers who do not participate in the SIM program, and (3) teachers who participate in the SIM program would have a higher efficacy, as measured on the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale developed by Tschnnen-Moran & Hoy (2001), than science teachers who do not participate in the SIM program. Statistical significant differences at the p < .05 level were found for all research hypotheses except for hypothesis 3. No statistical significant differences were found between the efficacy of teachers who participate in the SIM program and those who do not participate. The researcher also investigated whether or not being involved in the SIM program affected the participating teachers' perspectives towards teaching science, funding of the science laboratory, and high stakes science testing and accountability. A phenomenological qualitative study was

  19. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.

  20. Columbia River food webs: Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Naiman, Robert J.; Pearcy, William; Rieman, Bruce; Ruggerone, Greg; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter; Wood, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to provide a fundamental understanding of aquatic food webs in the Columbia River Basin and to illustrate and summarize their influences on native fish restoration efforts. The spatial scope addresses tributaries, impoundments, the free-flowing Columbia and Snake rivers, as well as the estuary and plume. Achieving the Council's vision for the Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC 2009-09) of sustaining a "productive and diverse community" that provides "abundant" harvest, is best accomplished through a time-prioritized action plan, one that complements other approaches while addressing important challenges and uncertainties related to the Basin's food webs. Note that the oceanic food webs, although of immense importance in sustaining fish populations, are not considered beyond the plume since they involve an additional set of complex and rapidly evolving issues. An analysis of oceanic food webs of relevance to the Columbia River requires a separately focused effort (e.g., Hoegh- Guldberg and Bruno 2010).

  1. No senescence despite declining selection pressure: Hamilton's result in broader perspective.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Maarten J; Wrycza, Tomasz F; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-04-21

    Theory predicts that senescence should inevitably evolve because selection pressure declines with age. Yet, data show that senescence is not a universal phenomenon. How can these observations peacefully coexist? Evolution of any trait hinges on its impact on fitness. A complete mathematical description of change in fitness, the total fitness differential, involves selection pressure along with a perturbation function that describes how the vital rates, mortality and fecundity, are affected across ages. We propose that the perturbation function can be used to model trade-offs when vital rates are perturbed in different directions and magnitude at different ages. We find that for every trade-off we can identify parameter values for which senescence does evolve and others for which it does not. We argue that this reconciles the apparent contradiction between data and theory. The total fitness differential is also instrumental in deriving mathematical relationships between alternative indicators of selection pressure. We show examples and highlight that any indicator combined with the right perturbation function can be used to parameterize a specific biological change. Biological considerations should motivate what perturbation functions are used. We interpret the relevance of Hamilton's finding that selection pressure declines for the evolution of senescence: declining selection pressure is a necessary but not a sufficient condition.

  2. Designing Personalized Spaces that Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Randy

    2009-01-01

    "Yes we can!" Those famous three words of the Obama campaign could serve as the theme for the culture of hope and excellence at the Cristo Rey Jesuit High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Many of the students arrive in the 9th grade with reading and math skills at an early elementary school level. Others lack the basic life skills to…

  3. International Women's Year: Impact and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipila, Helvi

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the International Women's Year, 1975, the World Conference of the International Women's Year, the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year, and a Declaration of Principles adopted by the World Conference is presented. (LH)

  4. Developing an Adequately Specified Model of State Level Student Achievement with Multilevel Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence

    Limitations of using linear, unilevel regression procedures in modeling student achievement are discussed. This study is a part of a broader study that is developing an empirically-based predictive model of variables associated with academic achievement from a multilevel perspective and examining the differences by which parameters are estimated…

  5. Fragmentation of SIV-gag Vaccine Induces Broader T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Benlahrech, Adel; Meiser, Andrea; Herath, Shanthi; Papagatsias, Timos; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Li, Fucheng; Self, Steve; Bachy, Veronique; Hervouet, Catherine; Logan, Karen; Klavinskis, Linda; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background High mutation rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) allows escape from T cell recognition preventing development of effective T cell vaccines. Vaccines that induce diverse T cell immune responses would help overcome this problem. Using SIV gag as a model vaccine, we investigated two approaches to increase the breadth of the CD8 T cell response. Namely, fusion of vaccine genes to ubiquitin to target the proteasome and increase levels of MHC class I peptide complexes and gene fragmentation to overcome competition between epitopes for presentation and recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Three vaccines were compared: full-length unmodified SIV-mac239 gag, full-length gag fused at the N-terminus to ubiquitin and 7 gag fragments of equal size spanning the whole of gag with ubiquitin-fused to the N-terminus of each fragment. Genes were cloned into a replication defective adenovirus vector and immunogenicity assessed in an in vitro human priming system. The breadth of the CD8 T cell response, defined by the number of distinct epitopes, was assessed by IFN-γ-ELISPOT and memory phenotype and cytokine production evaluated by flow cytometry. We observed an increase of two- to six-fold in the number of epitopes recognised in the ubiquitin-fused fragments compared to the ubiquitin-fused full-length gag. In contrast, although proteasomal targeting was achieved, there was a marked reduction in the number of epitopes recognised in the ubiquitin-fused full-length gag compared to the full-length unmodified gene, but there were no differences in the number of epitope responses induced by non-ubiquitinated full-length gag and the ubiquitin-fused mini genes. Fragmentation and ubiquitination did not affect T cell memory differentiation and polyfunctionality, though most responses were directed against the Ad5 vector. Conclusion/Significance Fragmentation but not fusion with ubiquitin increases the breadth of the CD8 T vaccine response against SIV-mac239 gag

  6. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  7. The Relationship between the Broader Autism Phenotype, Child Severity, and Stress and Depression in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child symptom severity, parent broader autism phenotype (BAP), and stress and depression in parents of children with ASD. One hundred and forty-nine parents of children with ASD completed a survey of parenting stress, depression, broader autism phenotype, coping styles, perceived social support, and…

  8. Direct radiative effects induced by intense desert dust outbreaks over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Obiso, Vincenzo; Vendrell, Lluis; Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Gassó, Santiago; Baldasano, Jose Maria

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the year, under favorable conditions, massive loads of mineral particles originating in the northern African and Middle East deserts are transported over the Mediterranean basin. Due to their composition and size, dust aerosols perturb the Earth-Atmosphere system's energy budget interacting directly with the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The present study aims to compute the Mediterranean dust outbreaks' direct radiative effects (DREs) as well as to assess the effect of including dust DREs in numerical simulations of a regional model. To this aim, 20 intense dust outbreaks have been selected based on their spatial coverage and intensity. Their identification, over the period 2000-2013, has been achieved through an objective and dynamic algorithm which utilizes as inputs daily satellite retrievals derived by the MODIS-Terra, EP-TOMS and OMI-Aura sensors. For each outbreak, two simulations of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model were made for a forecast period of 84 hours, with the model initialized at 00 UTC of the day when the dust outbreak was ignited, activating (RADON) and deactivating (RADOFF) dust-radiation interactions. The simulation domain covers the northern Africa, the Middle East and Europe at 0.25° x 0.25° horizontal resolution, for 40 hybrid sigma pressure levels up to 50 hPa. The instantaneous and regional DREs have been calculated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), into the atmosphere (ATMAB), and at surface, for the downwelling (SURF) and the absorbed (NETSURF) radiation, for the SW, LW and NET (SW+LW) radiation. The interaction between dust aerosols and NET radiation, locally leads to an atmospheric warming (DREATMAB) by up to 150 Wm-2, a surface cooling (DRENETSURF) by up to 250 Wm-2 and a reduction of the downwelling radiation at the surface (DRESURF) by up to 300 Wm-2. At TOA, DREs are mainly negative (down to -150 Wm-2) indicating a cooling of the Earth-Atmosphere system, although positive values (up to 50 Wm-2) are encountered

  9. Narrowing the broader autism phenotype: a study using the Communication Checklist-Adult Version (CC-A).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Coon, Hilary; Miller, Judith; Salisbury, Bryanna; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated whether the Communication Checklist - Adult (CC-A) could identify subtypes of social and communication dysfunction in autism probands and their parents. The CC-A is divided into subscales measuring linguistic ability as well as two aspects of social communication: the Pragmatic Skills subscale assesses the level of pragmatic oddities (e.g. excessive talking), while the Social Engagement subscale picks up on those behaviours that reflect a more passive communication style (e.g. failure to engage in social interactions). CC-A data were collected for 69 autism probands, 238 parents of autism probands and 187 typical participants. The CC-A proved sensitive to the communication difficulties of autism probands and a proportion of their parents. The majority of parents who demonstrated the broader phenotype scored poorly on either the Pragmatic Skills or Social Engagement scale only. The Social Engagement scale was particularly sensitive to the difficulties of the parents, indicating that social-communicative passivity may be an important part of the broader autism phenotype. The findings provide evidence for the existence of more constrained pragmatic phenotypes in autism. Molecular genetic studies in this area may benefit from stratifying samples according to these phenotypes.

  10. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature–pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jesse P.; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  11. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  12. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  13. Taking a Broader View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    A study on stem cells is presented by understanding the environment in which they are found, the support cells and blood vessels as well as the protein scaffolds and other molecules. Researchers found that stem cells in reproductive tissue are surrounded by a pocket of support cells that hold them in place and align them to divide properly, so…

  14. Collective Leadership Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Mascall, Blair

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. As well, it inquired about the relative contribution of different sources of such leadership and whether differences among patterns of collective leadership were related to differences in student achievement.…

  15. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  16. Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sucksmith, E; Roth, I; Hoekstra, R A

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis, intervention and support for people with autism can be assisted by research into the aetiology of the condition. Twin and family studies indicate that autism spectrum conditions are highly heritable; genetic relatives of people with autism often show milder expression of traits characteristic for autism, referred to as the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP). In the past decade, advances in the biological and behavioural sciences have facilitated a more thorough examination of the BAP from multiple levels of analysis. Here, the candidate phenotypic traits delineating the BAP are summarised, including key findings from neuroimaging studies examining the neural substrates of the BAP. We conclude by reviewing the value of further research into the BAP, with an emphasis on deriving heritable endophenotypes which will reliably index autism susceptibility and offer neurodevelopmental mechanisms that bridge the gap between genes and a clinical autism diagnosis.

  17. A comparison of three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hopwood, Christopher J; Wainer, Allison; Brent Donnellan, M

    2011-12-01

    Three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) were evaluated in terms of their internal consistency, distribution of scores, factor structure, and criterion-related validity in a non-clinical sample. All measures showed a continuous distribution. The SRS-A and BAPQ showed expected sex differences and were superior to the AQ in terms of internal consistency. The proposed factor structure of the BAPQ replicated better than the proposed structures of the other measures. All measures showed evidence of criterion validity via correlations with related constructs and each measure incremented the others in predicting related constructs. However, the SRS-A and BAPQ were generally stronger in this domain. Recommendations for the use of these instruments for measuring the BAP in non-clinical populations are discussed.

  18. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  19. Parental broader autism subphenotypes in ASD affected families: relationship to gender, child's symptoms, SSRI treatment, and platelet serotonin.

    PubMed

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Maltman, Nell; Francis, Sunday M; Guter, Steve; Anderson, George M; Cook, Edwin H; Jacob, Suma

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between parental broader autism phenotype (BAP) scores, gender, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, serotonin (5HT) levels, and the child's symptoms were investigated in a family study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) was used to measure the BAP of 275 parents. Fathers not taking SSRIs (F-SSRI; n = 115) scored significantly higher on BAP Total and Aloof subscales compared to mothers not receiving treatment (M-SSRI; n = 136.) However, mothers taking SSRIs (M + SSRI; n = 19) scored higher than those not taking medication on BAP Total and Rigid subscales, and they were more likely to be BAPQ Total, Aloof, and Rigid positive. Significant correlations were noted between proband autism symptoms and parental BAPQ scores such that Total, Aloof, and Rigid subscale scores of F-SSRI correlated with proband restricted repetitive behavior (RRB) measures on the ADOS, CRI, and RBS-R. However, only the Aloof subscale score of M + SSRI correlated with proband RRB on the ADOS. The correlation between the BAPQ scores of mothers taking SSRIs and child scores, as well as the increase in BAPQ scores of this group of mothers, requires careful interpretation and further study because correlations would not withstand multiple corrections. As expected by previous research, significant parent-child correlations were observed for 5HT levels. However, 5HT levels were not correlated with behavioral measures. Study results suggest that the expression of the BAP varies not only across parental gender, but also across individuals using psychotropic medication and those who do not.

  20. Committed dis(s)idents: participation in radical collective action fosters disidentification with the broader in-group but enhances political identification.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver

    2011-08-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that participation in radical, but not moderate, action results in disidentification from the broader in-group. Study 1 (N = 98) was a longitudinal study conducted in the context of student protests against tuition fees in Germany and confirmed that participation in radical collective action results in disidentification with the broader in-group (students) whereas participation in moderate collective action does not. Both types of action increased politicized identification. Study 2 (N = 175) manipulated the normativeness of different types of imagined collective actions in the same context and replicated this disidentification effect for radical actions, but only when this action mismatched the broader in-group's norms. This study also indicated that these effects were partially mediated by perceived lack of solidarity and perceived lack of commitment to the cause among the broader in-group. The implications of these findings for understanding radicalization within social movements are discussed.