Science.gov

Sample records for achieving broader impacts

  1. Achieving Broader Impacts Through Partnering in a Digital World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF Broader Impacts review criterion has many possible dimensions: advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning; broaden participation of under-represented groups; enhance infrastructure for research and education; broad dissemination to enhance scientific and technological understanding; and benefits to society (NSF OPP Advisory Committee). To effectively achieve and demonstrate broader impacts of a research project, it is essential to form meaningful partnerships among many stakeholders: scientists (i.e. content specialists) teachers/faculty, creators of educational resources, students, journalists, policy makers, institutions (e.g. schools, colleges and universities; museums, aquariums, parks), agencies (local, state and federal), and professional societies. Such partnerships are readily supported through digital information technologies and communication networks. The Science Education Resource Center (http://serc.carleton.edu) provides a number of on-line programs that are available for you to participate and contribute in a variety of E&O activities. Exemplars are in development to demonstrate effective ways to integrate research and education. The Using Data in the Classroom portal disseminates data sources, tools, activities and examples. The On the Cutting Edge professional development program will convene a workshop in July 2005 on "Teaching About the Ocean System Using New Research Techniques: Data, Models and Visualizations". The Microbial Life Education Resources digital library is in development and will focus on life in extreme environments this year, and life in the ocean system will be our emphasis in the second year. There is a registry of geochemical analytical instruments to help students and faculty gain access to instrumentation, and geophysical and geospatial analysis facilities will be added in the near future. There are also a wide range of pedagogical resources available to support E&O projects

  2. Broader Impacts Demystified (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Figuring out how to address NSF’s broader impacts merit review criterion presents a challenge for many investigators during proposal development. This presentation will offer tried and true tips for time-strapped scientists who find themselves wondering: What should I write in the broader impacts section? How can I pull together a plan that will favorably impress reviewers? Must I include education/outreach? How much funding should I allocate to support broader impacts? In addition to addressing to these sorts of questions, the author, who has worked on the development of broader impacts for hundreds of NSF proposals over the past seven years, will explain why doing an excellent job with broader impacts can be easier and more rewarding than many researchers imagine. A step-by-step how-to guide will be presented, and creative, reproducible strategies for achieving broader impacts will be highlighted.

  3. Canopy In The Clouds: Achieving Broader Impacts in Graduate Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fulton, A. D.; Witherill, C. D.; Dukeshire, E. E.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Federal science funding agencies are mandating that broader impacts associated with grant making are implemented because of the critical need to enhance scientific literacy and public perception of the roles science plays in society. As emphasis on broader impacts increases, scientists at all levels will need to incorporate explicit education and outreach activities into their programs. This will include a need to train and facilitate graduate student participation in outreach. For instance, the NSF includes broader impact statements in both their graduate research fellowship program and in their doctoral dissertation improvement grants. Here we present a collaborative science educational multimedia project initiated by a graduate student. Canopy In The Clouds uses interactive and immersive media designed around a tropical montane cloud forest as a platform for K-12 earth and life science education. Presented free of cost via the web in English and Spanish, Canopy In The Clouds has resources for students, educators and the general public. This includes a growing body of lesson plans standardized to current National Science Education Standards. We discuss the opportunities, challenges, and rewards associated with balancing research and outreach, interdisciplinary collaboration, and obtaining funding as a graduate student for such an effort. Finally, we consider how graduate student programs in the sciences can consider formalizing training in broader impacts and outreach. Canopy In The Clouds provides an example of effective science outreach, as well as a template for considering future best practices.

  4. A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K–12 STEM Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Komoroske, Lisa M.; Hameed, Sarah O.; Szoboszlai, Amber I.; Newsom, Amanda J.; Williams, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students’ capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. We provide a practical guide to help scientists overcome obstacles that inhibit their engagement in K–12 IBL outreach and to attain the accrued benefits. Strategies to overcome these challenges include scaling outreach projects to the time available, building collaborations in which scientists’ research overlaps with curriculum, employing backward planning to target specific learning objectives, encouraging scientists to share their passion, as well as their expertise with students, and transforming institutional incentives to support scientists engaging in educational outreach. PMID:26955078

  5. Broader Impacts of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, M.; Ruchti, R.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale scientific endeavors such as the International Linear Collider Project can have a lasting impact on education and outreach to our society. The ILC will provide a discovery platform for frontier physical science and it will also provide a discovery platform for broader impacts and social science. The importance of Broader Impacts of Science in general and the ILC in particular are described. Additionally, a synopsis of education and outreach activities carried out as an integral part of the Snowmass ILC Workshop is provided.

  6. Climate Science Broader Impacts Done Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. E.; Patino, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    At the National Science Foundation (NSF), broader impacts (BI) reflect the potential of research to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes, whereas intellectual merit (IM) refers to the potential to advance knowledge. While BI have always been important to NSF, the revised review criteria, effective 14 January 2013, put greater emphasis on BI by stating that the same principles used for evaluation of IM should be used to evaluate BI. The Earth Sciences Division (EAR) is actively engaged in the assessment and provision of resources related to BI. The expectation is that principal investigators (PIs) will contribute to the body of knowledge on this topic and that the actual activities that PIs complete should be impactful. We are using cutting-edge, text-mining tools with 100 strategically selected key words to analyze thousands of proposals and reports submitted to EAR programs from 2007-2012. This analysis provides insight into the range of BI that are being proposed, which BI are more successful than others, and whether PIs follow through with their proposed BI. We are discussing BI internally at EAR staff meetings and engaging in conversations about BI with individual program directors to get a clearer understanding of the diversity of cultures and values among programs. We are conducting panel surveys on BI to get feedback from the PI community. The intention behind this effort is to generate quality information on BI for the Earth Sciences community.

  7. Effective Broader Impacts - Lessons Learned by the Ocean Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    Effective broader impact activities have the potential for scientists to engage with educators, students, and the public in meaningful ways that lead to increased scientific literacy. These interactions provide opportunities for the results and discoveries of federally funded research projects, along with their implications for society, to reach non-scientist audiences. This is especially important for climate, ocean, and environmental science research that will aid citizens in better understanding how they affect Earth's systems and how these systems affect their daily lives. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Excellence (COSEE) Network has over 12 years of experience in conducting successful broader impact activities and has provided thousands of ocean scientists the opportunity to share the fruits of their research well beyond the scientific enterprise. COSEE evaluators and principal investigators collaborated over several years to determine the impacts of COSEE broader impact activities and to identify best practices. The lessons learned by the ocean science community can help to inform other disciplines. Fruitful broader impact activities require key elements, no matter the composition of the audience. For example, a high degree of success can be achieved when a "bridge builder" facilitates the interactions between scientists and non-science audiences. This presentation will offer other examples of best practices and successful strategies for engaging scientists in broader impact activities, increasing societal impacts of scientific research, and providing opportunities for collaboration on a national scale. http://www.cosee.net

  8. Responsive, Flexible and Scalable Broader Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharon, A.; Companion, C.; Steinman, M.

    2010-12-01

    In many educator professional development workshops, scientists present content in a slideshow-type format and field questions afterwards. Drawbacks of this approach include: inability to begin the lecture with content that is responsive to audience needs; lack of flexible access to specific material within the linear presentation; and “Q&A” sessions are not easily scalable to broader audiences. Often this type of traditional interaction provides little direct benefit to the scientists. The Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence - Ocean Systems (COSEE-OS) applies the technique of concept mapping with demonstrated effectiveness in helping scientists and educators “get on the same page” (deCharon et al., 2009). A key aspect is scientist professional development geared towards improving face-to-face and online communication with non-scientists. COSEE-OS promotes scientist-educator collaboration, tests the application of scientist-educator maps in new contexts through webinars, and is piloting the expansion of maps as long-lived resources for the broader community. Collaboration - COSEE-OS has developed and tested a workshop model bringing scientists and educators together in a peer-oriented process, often clarifying common misconceptions. Scientist-educator teams develop online concept maps that are hyperlinked to “assets” (i.e., images, videos, news) and are responsive to the needs of non-scientist audiences. In workshop evaluations, 91% of educators said that the process of concept mapping helped them think through science topics and 89% said that concept mapping helped build a bridge of communication with scientists (n=53). Application - After developing a concept map, with COSEE-OS staff assistance, scientists are invited to give webinar presentations that include live “Q&A” sessions. The webinars extend the reach of scientist-created concept maps to new contexts, both geographically and topically (e.g., oil spill), with a relatively small

  9. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (<10%) designated for these efforts, and evaluation efforts are rare. On the other hand, large projects such as research centers and major facilities typically have dedicated BI/education specialists and formal evaluation expertise. An additional complication is that many BI activities are unique or have novel aspects that reflect the local circumstances and opportunities, but make it difficult to develop broadly-applicable evaluation instruments;[2] There is not consensus on the perspective from which the evaluation should be conducted. Scientists, participants (teachers, students, museum/aquarium personnel), and the funding agencies typically have differing objectives and metrics for BI projects. [3] The timeframe for conducting any evaluation is frequently limited to a few years, placing limitations on the scope of the evaluation effort. Long-term learning, career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this

  10. Presenting Bionic: Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, K.

    2014-12-01

    Broader Impact plans are required of all NSF proposals. In 2011 the National Science Board, which oversees NSF, reconfirmed NSF's commitment to Broader Impacts in its task force report on the merit review system. At many institutions there are professionals that focus their work on supporting the Broader Impact work of researchers. This session will share the Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration (BIONIC) plan to create a professional network of individuals and offices committed to planning and carrying out effective Broader Impact programming. BIONIC is an NSF Research Coordination Network that is recommended for funding through the Biology Directorate. In this session we will share the goals of BIONIC, and the progress to date in reaching those goals (of which one aspect is the curating of effective Broader Impact initiatives).

  11. Better Broader Impacts through National Science Foundation Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    National Science Foundation Science and Technology Centers (STCs) play a leading role in developing and evaluating “Better Broader Impacts”; best practices for recruiting a broad spectrum of American students into STEM fields and for educating these future professionals, as well as their families, teachers and the general public. With staff devoted full time to Broader Impacts activities, over the ten year life of a Center, STCs are able to address both a broad range of audiences and a broad range of topics. Along with other NSF funded centers, such as Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, Engineering Research Centers and Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers, STCs develop both models and materials that individual researchers can adopt, as well as, in some cases, direct opportunities for individual researchers to offer their disciplinary research expertise to existing center Broader Impacts Programs. The National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics is an STC headquartered at the University of Minnesota. NCED’s disciplinary research spans the physical, biological and engineering issues associated with developing an integrative, quantitative and predictive understanding of rivers and river basins. Funded in 2002, we have had the opportunity to partner with individuals and institutions ranging from formal to informal education and from science museums to Tribal and women’s colleges. We have developed simple table top physical models, complete museum exhibitions, 3D paper maps and interactive computer based visualizations, all of which have helped us communicate with this wide variety of learners. Many of these materials themselves or plans to construct them are available online; in many cases they have also been formally evaluated. We have also listened to the formal and informal educators with whom we partner, from whom we have learned a great deal about how to design Broader Impacts activities and programs. Using NCED as a case study

  12. Improving Broader Impacts through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has designed and implemented successful Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs enabling teachers to work directly with polar scientists in the field and bring their experience back to their classrooms and communities. The PolarTREC TRE model, administered during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), is most effective, exhibiting far-reaching broader impacts when ideas are shared, each partners’ expertise is respected, and both work toward the common goal of delivering high-quality information. Between 2004 and 2009, ARCUS has selected, trained, and supported 77 teachers on polar teacher research experiences. Although a limited number of teachers are able to participate in a field experience, selected teachers have expertise in translating research approaches and results into widely shared learning tools and programs. Between 2007-2009, PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as a result of their experience. Selected teachers are usually well connected within their schools, communities, and professions, bringing the science to numerous followers during their expedition. Live events with teachers and researchers in the field have attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. The PolarTREC TRE Model includes numerous methods to support outreach activities while teachers and researchers are in the field. These include web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events—all easily replicable activities with the potential to affect large numbers of people. In addition, the TRE experience continues to produce broader impacts far into the future of the teacher and researcher’s careers through ongoing communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through activities including classroom visits, joint proposal development, and much more

  13. Developing Broader Impacts Activities through Informal STEM Education Collaborations and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James

    2015-03-01

    With the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies' renewed emphasis on broader impacts merit criterion in proposals, investigators and directors of education, outreach and engagement are challenged to identify, plan and implement innovative and transformative activities that engage a variety of audiences in the broader impacts of scientific research. These activities are also often required to have an evaluation plan for assessing the effectiveness of the strategies employed to achieve learning goals or other intended impacts. One approach to developing such plans is to partner with an informal science education institution, program, project or individual to create exhibits, media or programming that will convey the scientific concepts and processes involved in research and engage students and public audiences in appreciation for, and understanding of same. A growing body of evidence -based knowledge about what works for whom and under what conditions in fostering science learning and literacy in informal settings, as well as an expanding network of informal science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education professionals provide researchers, graduate students and staff resources to tap into as they consider their broader impacts directions. Web infrastructure like the informalscience.org website and others offer aggregated, vetted, and searchable examples of successful partnerships and strategies, as well as access to a community of colleagues working at the nexus of scientific research and informal education for further exploration. Through heightened awareness, stronger connectivity and a growing repository of knowledge, projects like the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE) hope to support and disseminate the results of efforts that are enhancing the quality and visibility of broader impacts activities in whatever form they take.

  14. Evaluating the Broader Impacts of Sponsored Research through the Lens of Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) broader impacts merit review criterion for research grant proposals has encountered persistent resistance from the scientific community. This study examined the factors that shape response to the broader impacts merit review criterion by investigating the effect of characteristics of NSF-funded researchers…

  15. Tobacco control litigation: broader impacts on health rights adjudication.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Oscar A; Carballo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that there are instances in which tobacco control litigation is strengthening the justiciability of the right to health and health-related rights. This is happening in different parts of the world, but in particular in Latin America. In part this is because, to a certain extent, tobacco control litigation based on fundamental rights overcomes the traditional arguments against economic, social and cultural rights adjudication: the anti-democratic argument, the lack of technical competency argument, the problem of the misallocation of scarce public resources and the problem of the implementation of judicial decisions. As we analyzed in this paper, tobacco control cases based on fundamental rights are allowing courts to elaborate on broader standards of judicial adjudication of social rights, e.g., expand notions of standing, progressive realization, and state obligations enshrined in the right to health. Key to this judicial trend is the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which provides a legal standard - supported by scientific evidence - defining concrete measures states should take to address the tobacco epidemic, and thus giving content to the right to health as it relates to tobacco control.

  16. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

  17. The Broader Impact Criteria- What's the solution? A panel discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosnitz, Don

    2012-02-01

    The need for social control of science---especially 20th and now 21st century science---has been debated for decades. Science is supported by society, and research results ultimately have large societal impacts. Physicists arguing for increased research budgets invariably point out the collateral benefits to society---often economic---of their discovery-based research. Congress agreed, and attempted to institutionalize this metric in the `America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010' by insisting that researchers illustrate how their work will provide for (among other things) increased economic competitiveness of the United States and increased National Security. Is such a metric inevitable in these days of constrained resources? Is it desirable or even implementable? Can benefits be predicted, or are the most important societal consequences of basic research serendipitous? This talk will examine these questions, including looking at how other nations are attempting to deal with the issue, and present some suggestions for satisfying both society's insistence on a return on their investment and scientists' need for unfettered exploration. The program will conclude with a Q and A and panel discussion with all of the session's speakers.

  18. High Return on Investments in Scientist-Educator Partnerships: Broader Impact Strategies That Endure and Propagate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, C. L.; Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Tackling the broader impact section of a research proposal need not be a dilemma that "rears its ugly head" with each proposal deadline. By investing in partnerships with informal science education (ISE) organizations, researchers can establish a foundation for efficient, high quality, research-based educational outreach (EO) that can help them fulfill their broader impact obligations for years to come. Just as an interdisciplinary research project requires collaboration among scientists from a variety of disciplines, a research project with exemplary EO requires partnerships with those who specialize in science education. By engaging in such partnerships scientists gain access to professionals who have expertise in translating research topics into concept-centered programs, exhibits and online resources, and to the diverse student, teacher and public audience reached through ISE. By leveraging the intellectual and material resources of researchers and educators, these potentially long-lived relationships provide an efficient and effective means for achieving broader impact. Ultimately, the efficacy of this investment strategy depends on relieving the researcher of the time consuming burden of seeking out appropriate partners, initiating partnerships and conferring with science educators on potential projects. Recognizing this barrier to scientists' participation, the California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (CACOSEE) has adopted a unique approach - one in which CACOSEE serves primarily as a catalyst and facilitator of researchers EO activities rather than as an EO provider. We have apprised ourselves of the programs, interests and needs of a carefully selected group of ISE organizations and used this information as the basis for creating a spectrum of EO opportunities for researchers. These options are flexible, scalable and easily customized to fit the research interests, time constraints and budgetary limitations of any researcher. Through e

  19. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  20. Separation of Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Achievement Goals : A Broader Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.; Yamagata, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on achievement goals, performance-approach goals (striving to do better than others) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid doing worse than others) tend to exhibit a moderate to high correlation, raising questions about whether the 2 goals represent distinct constructs. In the current article, we sought to examine…

  1. Applying Input-Output Model to Estimate Broader Economic Impact of Transportation Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Ridwan; Tamin, Ofyar; Wibowo, Sony S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships between infrastructure improvement and economic growth in the surrounding region. Traditionally, microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses are the mostly used tools for analyzing the linkage between transportation sectors and economic growth but offer little clues to the mechanisms linking transport improvements and the broader economy impacts. This study will estimate the broader economic benefits of the new transportation infrastructure investment, Cipularangtollway in West Java province, Indonesia, to the region connected (Bandung district) using Input-Output model. The result show the decrease of freight transportation costs by at 17 % and the increase of 1.2 % of Bandung District's GDP after the operation of Cipularangtollway.

  2. Applying Input-Output Model to Estimate Broader Economic Impact of Transportation Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Ridwan; Tamin, Ofyar; Wibowo, Sony S.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships between infrastructure improvement and economic growth in the surrounding region. Traditionally, microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses are the mostly used tools for analyzing the linkage between transportation sectors and economic growth but offer little clues to the mechanisms linking transport improvements and the broader economy impacts. This study will estimate the broader economic benefits of the new transportation infrastructure investment, Cipularangtollway in West Java province, Indonesia, to the region connected (Bandung district) using Input-Output model. The result show the decrease of freight transportation costs by at 17 % and the increase of 1.2 % of Bandung District's GDP after the operation of Cipularangtollway.

  3. Impact of broader sharing on the transport time for deceased donor livers.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Wickliffe, Corey E; Massie, Allan B; Leighton, Tabitha; Segev, Dorry L

    2014-10-01

    Recent allocation policy changes have increased the sharing of deceased donor livers across local boundaries, and sharing even broader than this has been proposed as a remedy for persistent geographic disparities in liver transplantation. It is possible that broader sharing may increase cold ischemia times (CITs) and thus harm recipients. We constructed a detailed model of transport modes (car, helicopter, and fixed-wing aircraft) and transport times between all hospitals, and we investigated the relationship between the transport time and the CIT for deceased donor liver transplants. The median estimated transport time was 2.0 hours for regionally shared livers and 1.0 hour for locally allocated livers. The model-predicted transport mode was flying for 90% of regionally shared livers but for only 22% of locally allocated livers. The median CIT was 7.0 hours for regionally shared livers and 6.0 hours for locally allocated livers. Variation in the transport time accounted for only 14.7% of the variation in the CIT, and the transport time on average composed only 21% of the CIT. In conclusion, nontransport factors play a substantially larger role in the CIT than the transport time. Broader sharing will have only a marginal impact on the CIT but will significantly increase the fraction of transplants that are transported by flying rather than driving. PMID:24975028

  4. Creating a Community to Strengthen the Broader Impacts of Condensed Matter Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenwalla, Shireen; Bosley, Jocelyn; Voth, Gregory; Smith, Leigh

    The Broader Impacts (BI) merit criteria set out by the National Science Foundation are essential for building the public support necessary for science to flourish. Condensed matter physicists (CMP) have made transformative impacts on our society, but these are often invisible to the public. Communicating the societal benefits of our research can be challenging, because CMP consists of many independent research groups for whom effective engagement in the public arena is not necessarily a forte. Other BI activities, such as engaging K-12 students and teachers to increase scientific literacy and strengthen the STEM workforce, may be very effective, but these are often isolated and short in duration. To increase the visibility of CMP and to make the implementation of BI activities more efficient, we have created a website with two sides: a public side to communicate to a broad audience exciting scientific discoveries in CMP and the technologies they enable, and a private side for condensed matter researchers to communicate with one another about effective broader impact activities. Here we discuss the content of the new website, and the best practices we have identified for communicating the excitement of CMP research to the broadest possible audience. Nsf-DMR 1550737, 1550724 and 1550681.

  5. Recommendations for Broader Impacts in K-12: Advice from Einstein Educator Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, H. A.; LaDue, N.; Moore, J. D.; Whitsett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1994, the Albert Einstein Distinguished Science Educator Fellowship Act has brought Master K-12 STEM educators to Washington D.C. and Virginia for 11-month appointments in STEM-related Federal agencies and Congressional Offices. These top educators are leaders in their communities and often have years of experience working with government-funded researchers reaching out to the K-12 community. During their fellowship year, Einstein Fellows use their years of experience and expertise in to inform efforts and initiatives in the federal departments, directorates and offices to which they are assigned. The collaborative efforts of a group of NSF Einstein Fellows has led to the development of "Broader Impacts in the K-12 Community", a suite of experience-based recommendations and ideas designed to leverage grant resources and maximize effective partnerships between the research and K-12 communities. The goal of this presentation is to communicate best practices for researchers engaging in the realm of K-12 education from the perspective of educators. Challenges are highlighted and mapped to realistic solutions. Written originally as a panel talk to help NSF panel members consider feasible, high-quality K-12 broader impacts, this presentation has become an invaluable resource for principle investigators as they consider engaging with the K-12 community. While this presentation specifically addresses merit review components of NSF solicitations, these recommendations are relevant for any STEM initiatives that involve partnerships between scientists and teachers.

  6. Preparing Scientists for Scientific Careers: Broader Impacts from an NSF CAREER Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    The scientific focus of my NSF CAREER Award is the impact of patterns, topographical and surface chemical in design, on the adhesion of soft polymer interfaces. Although this topic has provided a strong foundation for the mentoring and training of graduate students, the primary broader impacts of my award have focused on the development of ``soft'' skills in graduate and post-doctoral researchers in STEM disciplines. I have developed a course on ``Scientific and Engineering Management,'' which provides an open forum for students to explore the skills that, in many ways, define successful careers for many scientists. Topics include: leadership, proposal writing, group management, communication in diverse environments, and ethics. In this presentation, I highlight the primary phases of this program, how it meshes with scientific goals, and general statements about the mission of education outreach within STEM disciplines.

  7. Geoscience Education and Public Outreach AND CRITERION 2: MAKING A BROADER IMPACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlino, M.; Scotchmoor, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    The geosciences influence our daily lives and yet often go unnoticed by the general public. From the moment we listen to the weather report and fill-up our cars for the daily commute, until we return to our homes constructed from natural resources, we rely on years of scientific research. The challenge facing the geosciences is to make explicit to the public not only the criticality of the research whose benefits they enjoy, but also to actively engage them as partners in the research effort, by providing them with sufficient understanding of the scientific enterprise so that they become thoughtful and proactive when making decisions in the polling booth. Today, there is broad recognition within the science and policy community that communication needs to be more effective, more visible, and that the public communication of the scientific enterprise is critical not only to its taxpayer support, but also to maintenance of a skilled workforce and the standard of living expected by many Americans. In 1997, the National Science Board took the first critical step in creating a cultural change in the scientific community by requiring explicit consideration of the broader impacts of research in every research proposal. The so-called Criterion 2 has catalyzed a dramatic shift in expectations within the geoscience community and an incentive for finding ways to encourage the science research community to select education and public outreach as a venue for responding to Criterion 2. In response, a workshop organized by the University of California Museum of Paleontology and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) was held on the Berkeley campus May 11-13, 2005. The Geoscience EPO Workshop purposefully narrowed its focus to that of education and public outreach. This workshop was based on the premise that there are proven models and best practices for effective outreach strategies that need to be identified and shared with research scientists. Workshop

  8. Teen Science Cafés: A Vehicle for Scientists Seeking Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.

  9. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent with other health economic

  10. Leveraging the NSF Broader-Impacts Criterion for Change in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Robert D.; Pfund, Christine; Gillian-Daniel, Don

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to move, if not balance, the scales of activity toward increasing scientific capability across a diverse national population, U.S. federal funding agencies are purposefully linking research funding to broad national impact. Among United States federal agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has led the way in the integration…

  11. "Broader impacts" or "responsible research and innovation"? A comparison of two criteria for funding research in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael; Laas, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Our subject is how the experience of Americans with a certain funding criterion, "broader impacts" (and some similar criteria) may help in efforts to turn the European concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into a useful guide to funding Europe's scientific and technical research. We believe this comparison may also be as enlightening for Americans concerned with revising research policy. We have organized our report around René Von Schomberg's definition of RRI, since it seems both to cover what the European research group to which we belong is interested in and to be the only widely accepted definition of RRI. According to Von Schomberg, RRI: "… is a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)." While RRI seeks fundamental changes in the way research is conducted, Broader Impacts is more concerned with more peripheral aspects of research: widening participation of disadvantaged groups, recruiting the next generation of scientists, increasing the speed with which results are used, and so on. Nevertheless, an examination of the broadening of funding criteria over the last four decades suggests that National Science Foundation has been moving in the direction of RRI.

  12. "Broader impacts" or "responsible research and innovation"? A comparison of two criteria for funding research in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael; Laas, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Our subject is how the experience of Americans with a certain funding criterion, "broader impacts" (and some similar criteria) may help in efforts to turn the European concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into a useful guide to funding Europe's scientific and technical research. We believe this comparison may also be as enlightening for Americans concerned with revising research policy. We have organized our report around René Von Schomberg's definition of RRI, since it seems both to cover what the European research group to which we belong is interested in and to be the only widely accepted definition of RRI. According to Von Schomberg, RRI: "… is a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)." While RRI seeks fundamental changes in the way research is conducted, Broader Impacts is more concerned with more peripheral aspects of research: widening participation of disadvantaged groups, recruiting the next generation of scientists, increasing the speed with which results are used, and so on. Nevertheless, an examination of the broadening of funding criteria over the last four decades suggests that National Science Foundation has been moving in the direction of RRI. PMID:24155159

  13. The New Oceanographic Research Institution: Scripps in the ``Broader Impact'' Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Things are changing at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Long renowned for excellence in Earth, ocean, atmospheric and interdisciplinary research as well as graduate student training, the Institution is now being called upon to address a new set of challenges. Opportunities to address diverse societal needs abound, and we at Scripps are prepared to respond. As the problems facing the globe in reconciling human and economic development with the limitations of the Earth system become more and more pressing, the potential impact of Scripps research on society grows. The full value of our work cannot be realized unless we share it with established and future economists, international relations specialists, public policy experts, and business leaders. To help our scientists realize this goal while maintaining their research excellence, Scripps has committed to: 1) expanding its faculty's role in undergraduate teaching; 2) establishment of the Center for Educational Outreach Connections that will enable Scripps scientists to participate in educational outreach efforts locally, regionally, nationally and internationally; 3) pursuing joint education programs with other elements of the UCSD community; and 4) launching a new interdisciplinary Center for Earth Observations and Applications in which scholars from throughout the university will develop new collaborations, new technologies, and new knowledge in many fields affecting the environment. Our ambition is to generate a continuous awareness of how Earth is behaving - an awareness that could be an integral part of all kinds of decisions about the environment. Scripps is not alone in recognizing and responding to societal needs. Funding agencies are increasingly requiring scientists to articulate how their research has impact beyond the academic community. With the establishment of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, NSF has led the way in assembling and leveraging the intellectual and organizational

  14. Beyond the patient: the broader impact of genetic discrimination among individuals at risk of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Palin, JoAnne; Friedman, Jan M; Veenstra, Gerry; Creighton, Susan; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to address gaps in current understanding of the scope and impact of discrimination, by examining a cohort of individuals at-risk for Huntington disease (HD), to describe the prevalence of concern for oneself and one's family in multiple domains; strategies used to mitigate discrimination; and the extent to which concerns relate to experiences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 293 individuals at-risk for HD (80% response rate); 167 respondents were genetically tested and 66 were not. Fear of discrimination was widespread (86%), particularly in the insurance, family and social settings. Approximately half of concerned individuals experienced discrimination (40-62%, depending on genetic status). Concern was associated with "keeping quiet" about one's risk of HD or "taking action to avoid" discrimination. Importantly, concern was highly distressing for some respondents (21% for oneself; 32% for relatives). Overall, concerned respondents with high education levels, who discovered their family history at a younger age, and those who were mutation-positive were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than others who were concerned. Concerns were rarely attributed to genetic test results alone. Concern about genetic discrimination is frequent among individuals at-risk of HD and spans many settings. It influences behavioral patterns and can result in high levels of self-rated distress, highlighting the need for practice and policy interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Paving the Road to Broader Impact: California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (CA COSEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.; Peach, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    It's hardly surprising that new requirements to address how their research will have impact beyond academia send many ocean and earth scientists reaching for the aspirin. Sympathetic to the increasingly heavy demands on researchers' time, we at California COSEE work to make scientists' education and outreach efforts easier, more effective and more rewarding. Strategies we'll describe include: a) identifying and efficiently meeting the needs of the individual scientists and educators we serve; b) finding the right ``tool'' for the job, i.e. connecting scientists with the educators and organizations best positioned to incorporate elements of their research into widely-disseminated resources for teachers, students and the public; and c) building institutional and community-scale support for scientists' outreach contributions. We'll describe specific CA COSEE-facilitated collaborations between scientists and educators, as well as share lessons we're learning about the catalytic process we've undertaken. The value of the services we provide in terms of leveraging limited resources and forging partnerships that ultimately make ocean research relevant to non-scientists will be reflected in the quality of education resources generated as well as scientists' changing attitudes toward outreach. We invite all those interested, especially ocean scientists (including technical staff and graduate students) and informal science educators to visit { www.cacosee.net}, and click on { Engaging Scientists}.

  16. How Bigelow Laboratory Measured Broader Impacts: The Case Study of the Evaluation of the Keller BLOOM Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, R. A.; Repa, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss the impetus for, the results of the short and long term effects, and the impacts of the Keller BLOOM Program, hosted by Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences of West Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Each May, for the last 21 years, 16 bright high school juniors, one from each county in Maine, have been invited to spend five days with the research scientists at the lab conducting and reporting research on the bottom layers of the ocean’s food chain: phytoplankton and zooplankton. Bigelow has chosen to evaluate BLOOM through a series of questionnaires delivered during the program, and long term tracking of participants after the program, in order to better understand the impact of the program on participants. The short term effect of the experience, measured at the end of the week, found that participants are able to: 1) develop testable research questions, 2) collect multiple water samples from a local estuary, 3) measure various characteristics of those samples with the sophisticated instruments in Bigelow’s labs assisted by their research scientists, 4) analyze and integrate the results from the various labs, and 5) present their findings to a non-scientific audience. To measure long term participation effects, a random sample of 40 of the 332 participants were interviewed resulting in the following findings: 100% attend college; 62% have STEM majors; 88% graduate from college; 57% pursue STEM careers; and 60% live and work in Maine. Bigelow scientists include a description of the BLOOM Program and the evaluation results in their NSF Broader Impacts statements to demonstrate that their research activities are being integrated into a successful STEM education program. Evaluation results are also used by Bigelow scientists and program administrators to refine program content and delivery, to promote the program to potential applicants, and to strengthen proposals to funding agencies when seeking financial support for BLOOM.

  17. Student and Community Engagement in Astronomy Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.

    2015-08-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in astronomy is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our research and educational projects that introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science.

  18. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Bruckner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding trade-offs and interactions between water and energy is crucial in understanding many issues of sustainability faced by society in our changing environment. Increasing capcity through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges are key goals of the NSF STEP Center InTeGrate. We connect teaching about the Earth to societal issues for undergraduates across the curriculum. Understanding the interaction between engineering, sustainability and the geosciences and the role engineering plays in building a sustainable future, in areas such resource and energy use is a major foci of our work. Connecting this knowledge to societal issues that undergraduates can relate to, and improving interdisciplinary problem-solving are needed in addressing the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features interdisciplinary materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics and using evidence-based teaching practice. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include Environmental Justice and Freshwater Resources, Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface and Human Activity, and Human's Dependence on Earth's Mineral Resources. Upcoming, new topics include modules on Energy Environment and Our Future, Global Energy and Atmosphere, Ecosystem Services Approach to Water Resources and course-length material on Grand Challenges of Interdisciplinary Water Sustainability and Gateway to Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, contributing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  19. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  20. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  1. Redesigning Urban Classrooms to Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guice, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the No Child Left Behind school reform policies, public schools are gravely scrutinized. This analysis focuses on how to redesign the urban classroom in order to impact student achievement with the intent of being an impetus for better overall school performance ratings. All public school leaders are expected to adhere to the same…

  2. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  3. Assisting Scientists With Their Broader Impacts: Examples and Outcomes of Scientist Participation In The Centers For Ocean Science Education Excellence - Pacific Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodder, J.; Boehlert, G. W.; Rowe, S.; Morgan, K.; Gehrke, C.; Cheung, I.

    2010-12-01

    The mission of the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. One role of the COSEE centers is to assist ocean scientists in developing and implementing successful broader impact statements for grant proposals. COSEE - Pacific Partnerships (COSEE - PP) is a regional Center in the COSEE Network based at marine laboratories in Oregon, Washington, California, & Hawai'i. COSEE - PP is specifically focused on connecting research scientists with audiences that historically have been underserved by the ocean sciences community. We have developed programs that provide scientists with opportunities to fulfill the broader impact requirements of their research and have acted as a broker to connect them to audiences who can benefit from outreach. We have connected scientists with community college faculty to increase the inclusion of marine science instruction in community colleges by providing workshops where the two communities work together on current ocean science research. We have paired scientists with community college students to provide the students research and career exposure by developing a summer community college research experiences program. We have worked with scientists to deliver programs to adults who volunteer in organizations along the Oregon coast to improve their understanding of ocean science content. Each program provides scientists with opportunities to showcase their research interests and explore effective ways to present their information to different audiences. Details of the programs and outcomes for both the scientists and the participants will be presented.

  4. Broader Impact and the Arctic Coring Expedition of Summer 2004: A Science Teacher Brings the Pole to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couchon, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ARMADA Project, funded by NSF and administered through the University of Rhode Island Office of Marine Programs, pairs 12-14 teachers with ocean, polar, and environmental scientists each year, affording these teachers an authentic research experience. One middle-school science teacher, Kathleen Couchon of Narragansett, Rhode Island, participated in the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) in the summer of 2004. Sailing for 6 weeks aboard the Swedish Icebreaker Oden, Kathleen participated in many aspects of the polar ocean-drilling expedition and was accepted by scientists and crew alike as part of the international science party. Upon return to the classroom, Kathleen found multiple opportunities to share her Arctic research experiences through effective public outreach both within and outside of the educational community. In the classroom, she has developed and implemented inquiry-based activities, allowing her students the opportunity to function as scientists themselves. Mentoring new science teachers within the district and presenting multi- media presentations to other teachers and students at the Narragansett Pier Middle School and Narragansett High School in Rhode Island, provided a wider audience for this important polar geoscience enterprise. An expanded circle of impact was gained through presentations at local district, state, and national teacher gatherings, including two National Science Teacher Association annual conventions and a high school audience at Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona. Within the community-at-large, Kathleen has impacted diverse audiences including the Girl Scouts, the Rotary Club, and senior citizen groups - all enthusiastically receptive and appreciative of hearing the scientific news of research from the North Pole. These experiences have served to establish a linkage between the scientific community and the public, with a teacher-researcher sharing and interpreting the scientific research goals and methodologies, as

  5. HLA-E: Presentation of a Broader Peptide Repertoire Impacts the Cellular Immune Response—Implications on HSCT Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Thomas; Celik, Alexander A.; Huyton, Trevor; Kunze-Schumacher, Heike; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The HLA-E locus encodes a nonclassical class Ib molecule that serves many immune functions from inhibiting NK cells to activating CTLs. Structural analysis of HLA-E/NKG2A complexes visualized fine-tuning of protective immune responses through AA interactions between HLA-E, the bound peptide, and NKG2A/CD94. A loss of cellular protection through abrogation of the HLA-E/NKG2A engagement is dependent on the HLA-E bound peptide. The role of HLA-E in posttransplant outcomes is not well understood but might be attributed to its peptide repertoire. To investigate the self-peptide repertoire of HLA-E∗01:01 in the absence of protective HLA class I signal peptides, we utilized soluble HLA technology in class I negative LCL cells in order to characterize HLA-E∗01:01-bound ligands by mass-spectrometry. To understand the immunological impact of these analyzed ligands on NK cell reactivity, we performed cellular assays. Synthesized peptides were loaded onto recombinant T2 cells expressing HLA-E∗01:01 molecules and applied in cytotoxicity assays using the leukemia derived NK cell line (NKL) as effector. HLA-E in complex with the self-peptides demonstrated a shift towards cytotoxicity and a loss of cell protection. Our data highlights the fact that the HLA-E-peptidome is not as restricted as previously thought and support the suggestion of a posttransplant role for HLA-E. PMID:26366178

  6. Measuring Credential Candidates' Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagans, Kristi S.; Powers, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) requires faculty from educator preparation programs to provide evidence of credential candidates' impact on K-12 student learning. However, there is a paucity of information on preparation programs' use of direct assessments of student learning to gauge credential candidate…

  7. The Impact of the Math Enrichment Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickansrud, Kirk M.

    2011-01-01

    This QUAN-QUAL, quasi-experimental, research studied the impact of a math enrichment program on student achievement. Pre and post NJ ASK test data was analyzed to determine the impact of the program on student achievement. Additionally, a student survey was disseminated to inquire into personal perceptions about individual improvement as well as…

  8. The Achievement Impacts of Arkansas Open-Enrollment Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jonathan N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Arkansas charter schools on the academic achievement of participating students. Our findings are that charter schools have small but statistically significant, negative impacts on student achievements for both math and literacy. Such negative effects, however, tend to decline with the number of years of charter…

  9. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Long-term Soil, Water, and Vegetation Monitoring: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of soils, water, and vegetation is crucial in understanding sustainability-related issues faced by society in our changing environment. Promoting buy in through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges is a key goal of the InTeGrate project. The InTeGrate project is an NSF STEP Center that endeavors to infuse teaching about the Earth into undergraduate courses across the curriculum. The project aims to connect this knowledge to societal issues that students can relate to and opens the door to interdisciplinary problem-solving that is needed to face the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features publicly-available interdisciplinary, faculty-contributed teaching materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics. These topics include water, food resources, energy, and hazards. Further, web pages built around teaching methods such as service learning, working with data, and teaching in the field, help engage students in active learning and making meaningful connections to their coursework. In addition, teams of interdisciplinary faculty are creating project-developed courses and modules designed to engage and promote students' literacy in sustainability and global change issues. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include sustainable agriculture, soil and society, climate change, critical zone science, water resources, and more. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include contributing to the community collections by creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, designing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  10. Student and Community Engagement in Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa; Ahmed, Yasmin

    2015-04-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in Earth and environmental sciences is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields in general and in Earth, space, and environmental sciences in particular. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS. The project introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments that measure the quality of air, drinking water, and ultraviolet level in greater Cairo, Egypt, to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness on climate change and the underlying role of human activities. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science This work is part of the PEER research project 2-239 sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS Project Link (at National Academies website): http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/dsc/peerscience/PGA_084046.htm website: http://CleanAirEgypt.org Links to cited work: Core Curriculum Course

  11. Student and Community Engagement in Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences Through Experiential Learning and Citizen Science as Part of Research Broader Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Tutwiler, R.; Zakey, A.; Shokr, M. E.; Ahmed, Y.; Jereidini, D.; Eid, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fulfilling the broader impact of a research project in Earth and environmental sciences is an excellent opportunity for educational and outreach activities that connect scientists and society and enhance students and community engagement in STEM fields in general and in Earth, space, and environmental sciences in particular. Here we present the experience developed in this endeavor as part of our Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS. The project introduced educational and outreach activities that included core curriculum course development for university students from all majors, community-based learning projects, citizen science and outreach programs to school students and community members. Through these activities, students worked with the project scientists on a variety of activities that ranged from citizen science and undergraduate research to run mass experiments that measure the quality of air, drinking water, and ultraviolet level in greater Cairo, Egypt, to community awareness campaigns through the production of short documentaries and communicating them with stakeholders and target groups, including schools and TV stations. The activities enhanced students learning and the public awareness on climate change and the underlying role of human activities. It also connected effectively the project scientists with college and university students a well as the wider segments of the society, which resulted in a host of benefits including better scientific literacy and appreciation to the role of scientists, promoting scientists as role models, sharing the values of science, and motivating future generations to puruse a career in science Note: This presentation is a PEER project sponsored by USAID/NSF/NAS Project Link (at National Academies website): http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/dsc/peerscience/PGA_084046.htmwebsite: http://CleanAirEgypt.orgLinks to cited work: Core Curriculum Course: http

  12. The Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNardo, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLC) are one strategy aimed at facilitating teacher professional development, with a focus on increasing student achievement. This mixed methods study investigated the impact of professional learning on student achievement. A total of 6 teachers and 121 students recruited from the third and fifth grades of a…

  13. Impact of Parent University on Parent Engagement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Watechia Evelyen

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined the impact of Parent University on parental engagement and the factors that impact a parent's decision to become involved in their child's education. In addition, the aim of the research was to offer recommendations for improvement, so Parent University is able to enhance academic achievement within MNPS. The key…

  14. The Impact of Teacher Licensure Programs on Minority Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Rose S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the impact of teacher licensure routes, particularly those identified as either traditional or alternative on student achievement by comparing Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) end of year scores in math and reading for minority students in grades six through eight during the period from 2005 through 2009. To compare the…

  15. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  16. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  17. Principals and School Factors that Impact Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieselmann, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined principals and school factors associated with elementary school student achievement. Nine predictor variables were analyzed to determine their impact on student state assessment scores: (a) years of principal experience, (b) years of teaching experience by the principal, (c) years of principal experience at present site, (d)…

  18. The Impact of Class Size Reduction on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Penny

    This study examined the impact of class size reduction (CSR) on achievement among 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students with different numbers of years of participation in CSR. Single-year matched gains were calculated for the 1997-1998 and 1999-2000 school years. Student progress was assessed using scores from the SAT/9 reading, mathematics, and…

  19. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  20. A broader view of justice.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  1. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  2. Impact of cognitive absorption on Facebook on students' achievement.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sana

    2012-06-01

    In the great expansion of the social networking activity, young people are the main users whose choices have vast influence. This study uses the flow theory to gauge the impact of Facebook usage on Tunisian students' achievements, with the presumption that the high usage level might reduce students' scholar achievements. The research design suggests that this impact would vary among students with different interests for the university and multitasking capabilities. Facebook usage would develop students' satisfaction with friends and family, which could enhance their academic performance. Analyses from 161 Tunisian students show that Facebook usage does not affect significantly students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the family, whereas it decreases their actual satisfaction with friends. Yet, a high level of satisfaction of the student with his family continues to enhance his academic performance. Overall, though, Facebook usage appears to do not have a significant effect on undergraduate students' academic performance. However, this interdependency is significantly moderated by the student's interest for the university and his multitasking capabilities. Students with multitasking skills and students with initial interest for the university might experience a positive effect of Facebook usage on their studies, as they keep control over their activity and make it a beneficial leisure activity. However, students who do not have these characteristics tend to not have any significant effect. Results help to understand the psychological attitude and consequent behavior of the youths on this platform. Implications, limitations, and further research directions are offered. PMID:22703035

  3. Impact of cognitive absorption on Facebook on students' achievement.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sana

    2012-06-01

    In the great expansion of the social networking activity, young people are the main users whose choices have vast influence. This study uses the flow theory to gauge the impact of Facebook usage on Tunisian students' achievements, with the presumption that the high usage level might reduce students' scholar achievements. The research design suggests that this impact would vary among students with different interests for the university and multitasking capabilities. Facebook usage would develop students' satisfaction with friends and family, which could enhance their academic performance. Analyses from 161 Tunisian students show that Facebook usage does not affect significantly students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the family, whereas it decreases their actual satisfaction with friends. Yet, a high level of satisfaction of the student with his family continues to enhance his academic performance. Overall, though, Facebook usage appears to do not have a significant effect on undergraduate students' academic performance. However, this interdependency is significantly moderated by the student's interest for the university and his multitasking capabilities. Students with multitasking skills and students with initial interest for the university might experience a positive effect of Facebook usage on their studies, as they keep control over their activity and make it a beneficial leisure activity. However, students who do not have these characteristics tend to not have any significant effect. Results help to understand the psychological attitude and consequent behavior of the youths on this platform. Implications, limitations, and further research directions are offered.

  4. EarthScope National Office (ESNO) Education and Outreach Program and its Broader Impacts: 2015 Update and Handoff to the Next ESNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Robinson, S.; Bohon, W.; Arrowsmith, R.; Garnero, E.; Baumback, D.; Boot, K. E.; Dick, C.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org), funded by the National Science Foundation, fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of geodesy, seismology, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. Data and scientific findings from EarthScope are impacting and revolutionizing wide areas of geoscientific research, the understanding and mitigation of geologic hazards, and applications of geoscience to environmental sustainability. The EarthScope Program also produces and disseminates resources and programs for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO), operated by Arizona State University from 2011 to 2015, serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes E&O through social media and the web, inSights newsletters and published articles, E&O workshops for informal educators (interpreters), an annual Speaker Series, assistance to K-12 STEM teacher professional development projects led by EarthScope researchers, continuing education for researchers, collaborations with other Earth-science E&O providers, and a biennial National Meeting. Significant activities during the final year of ESNO at ASU included the EarthScope National Meeting in Vermont; Native Science professional-development workshops for Native American teachers in Arizona and Minnesota; a sustained E&O presence online; and preparation for the transition of ESNO from ASU to the next host institution. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  5. Alternative Routes to Teaching: The Impacts of Teach for America on Student Achievement and Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Mayer, Daniel; Decker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a randomized experiment to study the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program, Teach for America (TFA), on student achievement and other outcomes. We found that TFA teachers had a positive impact on math achievement and no impact on reading achievement. The size of the impact on math scores was about 15 percent of…

  6. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  7. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success.

  8. The Impact of Personal Digital Assistants on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A positive correlation has been found between laptops and student achievement. Laptops are similar to Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in many respects. This study seeks to determine the effect of PDA usage on high school student academic achievement. It was hypothesized that a positive correlation between PDA usage and academic achievement in…

  9. Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality…

  10. The Impact of Learning Time on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin; Wassmer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    As schools aim to raise student academic achievement levels and districts wrangle with decreased funding, it is essential to understand the relationship between learning time and academic achievement. Using regression analysis and a data set drawn from California's elementary school sites, we find a statistically significant and positive…

  11. Closing the Achievement Gap: Impact of Inclusion upon Achievement Rates of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between the amount of time a student with special needs spends in the inclusive classroom and their achievement passing rates in mathematics and reading. TAKS passing rates for mathematics and reading for third graders in 2007-2008, and the same cohort of fourth graders in…

  12. Managing the Politics of Evaluation to Achieve Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Rakesh; Sullivan, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Should evaluators care about the impact of evaluation on the public policy process? If the larger purpose of evaluation is social betterment, the public policy arena affords tremendous opportunities for evaluators to have both short- and long-term impact by influencing policy formulation, implementation, and outcomes. Working in the public policy…

  13. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  14. The Relationship between Mathematics Homework and Learning in Middle-School Students: Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Shelly L.O.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics homework and learning in middle-school students and the impact on achievement is the focus of this paper. A review of the literature reveals mixed results. Studies support both positive and a negative impacts of mathematics homework on student achievement or no impact at all. The purpose of this paper is two…

  15. The Impact of Principal Instructional Leadership Practices on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Kristen Kendrick

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…

  16. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  17. The Impact of "Achievement for All" on School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The "Achievement for All" (AfA) pilot initiative, delivered in partnership by the Department for Education (DfE), (formerly the Department for Children, Schools and Families [DCSF]), National Strategies and the National College (NCSL), aims to increase the attainment and progress of children in schools with special educational needs and…

  18. The Impact of Ready Environments on Achievement in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Regena Fails

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how young children's homes and preschool programs influence kindergarten achievement by being "ready environments." Ready environments provide opportunities for cognitive and social growth through culturally and developmentally appropriate activities, interactions, and materials. This study used…

  19. Impacts of Campus Involvement on Hospitality Student Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Dean; Lei, Simon A.

    2007-01-01

    Campus involvement affecting satisfaction and academic achievement (overall grade point average) of hospitality undergraduate students at a state university in the Midwest (University X) was investigated through a survey research. A four-part survey instrument was developed to facilitate this study. There were a number of academic, professional,…

  20. Suitability of AIOU Television and Its Impact on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Syed Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not…

  1. How Does Grit Impact College Students' Academic Achievement in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelais, Paul; Lemay, David John; Doleck, Tenzin

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that achievement is not solely based on the cognitive abilities of the learner, but rather on the combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. This paper explores how grit affects student academic performance and success in first-year college physics students in the context of a Quebec Collège d'enseignement…

  2. Impact of Looping on Middle School Science Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Looping may be defined as a teacher remaining with a group of students for multiple academic years. In this quantitative study, looping was examined as a factor on science achievement. State-wide eighth grade school level 2010 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data were used. By responding to a mailing, school administrators…

  3. Math Anxiety: Its Impact on Graduate Level Statistics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Vasu, Ellen S.

    This study investigates the effect of attitudes toward mathematics-related coursework, previous mathematics coursework, student sex, spatial ability, and masculinity-feminity of interest pattern on statistics achievement. Subjects were 188 student volunteers from inferential statistics classes taught at a midwestern university during 1977-78.…

  4. Classroom, School, and District Impacts on Diverse Student Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Lawson, Hal A.; Angelis, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has investigated the literacy achievement gap with particular focus on ethnically and linguistically diverse students' performance. This study extends that research by examining the relationships among classroom instructional practices, school priorities, and district policies in higher performing schools.…

  5. A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education Task Force is made up of 62 national policy experts, with diverse political affiliations, who come from fields that include education, social welfare, health, housing, and civil rights. This article presents a shortened version of the Task Force's recently released statement on the Broader, Bolder Approach…

  6. Teacher Turnover Impact on 1st-8th Grade Student Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Johnnie M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of schools and students not meeting academic achievement standards affects the community and the nation's future workforce. This paper examines many of the factors influencing achievement with special attention given to the facts of teacher turnover in the schools. Teacher turnover and the sad state of the academic achievement of…

  7. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  8. The Impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System on Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne; Monahan, Alicia K.

    This study analyzed the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System (DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special needs classrooms. DD was developed as a human centered, systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help teachers feel…

  9. Arts Achieve, Impacting Student Success in the Arts: Preliminary Findings after One Year of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal…

  10. The Impact of Graphing Calculators on Math Achievement: A Quantitative, Longevity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbini, Corey

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of high school students' graphing calculator usage on their math achievement over time. Achievement growth was measured using nationally-recognized standardized test scores from EXPLORE, PLAN, and ACT. Two groups of students were used in this study; one group had graphing calculators integrated beginning in…

  11. The Power of Perception: Mediating the Impact of Poverty on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Angelo, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Race and class often marginalize students in impoverished urban neighborhoods, and this reality is evident in consistently low student achievement in many of the schools in these neighborhoods. This study examines how a teacher's sense of agency can help mediate the detrimental impact of poverty on student achievement. Teachers in a large…

  12. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  13. Exploring the Impacts of Accelerated Delivery on Student Learning, Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Walker, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the impacts on student learning, achievement and satisfaction when year 13 (final year) students at a large UK sixth-form college take a GCE A level in one year instead of the usual two years. Data relating to the entry qualifications and final A level grades achieved by 879 students on both accelerated and non-accelerated…

  14. The Impact on Student Achievement of When CAS Technology Is Introduced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, David

    2012-01-01

    When a Computer Algebra System (CAS) is used as a pedagogical and functional tool in class and as a functional tool in exams, its effect on student achievement can be quite profound. The timing of when students are first introduced to a CAS has an impact on gains in student achievement. In this action research project, the CAS calculator was…

  15. Estimating the Impact of the Massachusetts English Immersion Law on Limited English Proficient Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English immersion law, and…

  16. Research into the Deployment and Impact of Support Staff Who Have Achieved HLTA Status. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebekah; Sharp, Caroline; Shuayb, Maha; Kendall, Lesley; Wade, Pauline; Easton, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This report details the findings of two surveys designed to investigate the deployment and impact of support staff who have achieved higher level teaching assistant (HLTA) status in England and to assess the impact or effect they are having in schools, along with interview data collected from nine case-study schools. The study sought to: (1)…

  17. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.

  18. Circuit life versus bleeding risk: the impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time versus achieved filtration fraction.

    PubMed

    MacEwen, Clare; Watkinson, Peter; Winearls, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Whilst prolonging hemofilter (circuit) life, heparin increases bleeding risk. The impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on circuit life and bleeding risk has not been assessed in a modern critically ill cohort. Lowering filtration fraction may be an alternative means of prolonging circuit life, but is often overlooked in critical care. An observational study of 309 consecutive circuits in a general intensive care unit was conducted using a wide target APTT range. Multilevel modeling was used to predict circuit life and bleeding according to achieved APTT and filtration fraction. Independent predictors of circuit failure (i.e. unplanned ending of treatment) included filtration fraction (P<0.001, HR 1.07 per 1% increase), peak APTT (P<0.001, HR 0.8 per 10 s increase or 0.3 APTR increase) and baseline PT (P=0.014, HR 0.91 for every 50% increase). The only significant predictor of bleeding was peak APTT (P=0.017, OR 1.05 per 10 s increase). Every 10 s APTT increase was associated with a 20% reduction in circuit failure, but a 5% increase in hemorrhage. A 3% reduction in filtration fraction was associated with the same improvement in circuit life as a 10 s increase in APTT. Increasing APTT prolongs circuit life but carries a substantial risk of bleeding even in modern practice. Filtration fraction has a large impact on circuit life in the critically ill: a 3% reduction in filtration fraction, e.g. by increasing blood flow or delivering some of the clearance via dialysis, would be expected to reduce circuit failure as much as a 10 s increase in APTT.

  19. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  20. The Impact of Advance Organizers upon Students' Achievement in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Houshmand

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine the impact of advance organizers on students' achievement in computer-assisted video instruction (CAVI). Treatments of the experimental and control groups are explained, and results indicate that advance organizers do not facilitate near-transfer of rule-learning in CAVI.…

  1. The Impact of Music on Student Achievement in the Third and Fifth Grade Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates students who engage in music exhibit improved cognitive development. The quantitative study was conducted in a large suburban school district in Southeast Georgia. This study investigated the impact of music on student achievement when music is incorporated with the core academic subject of mathematics at the elementary level.…

  2. The Impact of Age and Gender on Prep Children's Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…

  3. The Impact of Troops to Teachers Participants on Student Achievement: A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Kurt Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the impact of Troops to Teachers (TTT) participants on student achievement by comparing the mean scores of Texas students in the eighth grade during the 2011-2012 academic year taught by TTT participants with the mean scores of all other Texas eighth grade students on each of four…

  4. The Impact of Parental Participation Strategies on Reading Achievement in Elementary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was used to determine the impact of parental participation strategies on reading achievement of students in an elementary setting. The problem is that the identified school fails to implement strategies to increase parental participation, in preparing students for the 21st century. One hundred…

  5. Measuring the Impact of Substance Abuse on Student Academic Achievement and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattermann, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…

  6. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime; Parker, Katie

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of statewide research studies have been conducted to determine the impact of school library media centers and their school library media specialists (SLMSs) on student achievement. Research studies in eighteen states have clearly established the relationship between well-staffed, well-funded school libraries on student…

  7. Examining the Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the changes in principal-teacher relationships and school climate over time as witnessed by staff members in elementary level "Turn Around Schools" in Indiana and how these relationships impacted student achievement. School climate and subsequent principal-teacher relationships…

  8. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  9. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  10. Striking Differences: The Impact of Moderate and High Trauma on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Reigner, Ronald; Packard, Abbot

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood traumatic exposure, such as violence and loss of a significant other, and reading achievement. With a sample of 163 urban elementary children (grades 2-5), the impact of traumatic events on 3 years of reading scores was examined. Results suggested that violence exposure had an adverse effect…

  11. The Impact of Eliminating Extraneous Sound and Light on Students' Achievement: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangipudy, Rajarajeswari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eliminating extraneous sound and light on students' achievement was investigated under four conditions: Light and Sound controlled, Sound Only controlled, Light Only controlled and neither Light nor Sound controlled. Group, age and gender were the control variables. Four randomly selected groups of high school freshmen students with…

  12. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  13. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  14. The Impact of Response to Intervention on Student Reading Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Wendy Smyth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of a Response to Intervention framework had a positive impact on student reading achievement in urban elementary schools. This was a causal-comparative study that examined the reading performance of a sample of kindergarten through grade three students who experienced the Response to…

  15. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity on Academic Achievement in UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students in UK universities are presenting with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the impact of ADHD symptomatology on academic achievement in university students in the UK has not previously been explored. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms…

  16. Online Penalty: The Impact of Online Instruction on the Latino-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Despite a substantial body of research on the effectiveness of distance education at the post-secondary level, little is known about the impact of online course delivery on the achievement gap. In California, the gap between white and Latino post-secondary student outcomes is significant and persistent, with Latino students overrepresented in…

  17. Impact of Preschool Education on the Academic Achievement of Low Socio-Economic Status Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if attending a four-year-old preschool program had an impact on the academic achievement of elementary age students. With limited funding and the demands of No Child Left Behind legislation, schools are constantly evaluating the effectiveness and cost of ongoing programming. In addition, educational…

  18. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  19. On the Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Motivation, Achievement, and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ayala, Carlos C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Brandon, Paul R.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Tomita, Miki K.; Young, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment was hypothesized to have a beneficial impact on students' science achievement and conceptual change, either directly or indirectly by enhancing motivation. We designed and embedded formatives assessments within an inquiry science unit. Twelve middle-school science teachers with their students were randomly assigned either to…

  20. Impact of Environment-Based Teaching on Student Achievement: A Study of Washington State Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartosh, Oksana; Tudor, Margaret; Ferguson, Lynne; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which investigates the impact of systemic environmental education (EE) programs on student achievement on EE-based integrated tests and standardized tests in math, language arts, and listening. Systemic environmental education programs are defined by curriculum designed to align and integrate subjects around real…

  1. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  2. Comparison of the Impacts of Telementoring Services on Proteges' Academic Achievements and Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esgi, Necmi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research is to compare the impacts of telementoring services, delivered using chat with video, chat with instant message, mobile phone, discussion board and video conference on proteges' academic achievements and opinions. Telementoring services, made up with five different instruments, were administered to a group of proteges,…

  3. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  4. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  5. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  6. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment. PMID:1446552

  7. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required.

  8. Systems Biology — the Broader Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology has two general aims: a narrow one, which is to discover how complex networks of proteins work, and a broader one, which is to integrate the molecular and network data with the generation and function of organism phenotypes. Doing all this involves complex methodologies, but underpinning the subject are more general conceptual problems about upwards and downwards causality, complexity and information storage, and their solutions provide the constraints within which these methodologies can be used. This essay considers these general aspects and the particular role of protein networks; their functional outputs are often the processes driving phenotypic change and physiological function—networks are, in a sense, the units of systems biology much as proteins are for molecular biology. It goes on to argue that the natural language for systems-biological descriptions of biological phenomena is the mathematical graph (a set of connected facts of the general form [process] (e.g., [activates] ). Such graphs not only integrate events at different levels but emphasize the distributed nature of control as well as displaying a great deal of data. The implications and successes of these ideas for physiology, pharmacology, development and evolution are briefly considered. The paper concludes with some challenges for the future. PMID:24709708

  9. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  10. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  11. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  12. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  13. The impact of an integrated math and science curriculum on third grade students' measurement achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Karen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a hands-on science curriculum, which integrates mathematics and supports the development of English language skills, on third grade students' mathematics achievement---specifically the measurement subscale of the statewide assessment. The data draws from a larger 5-year research project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops designed to promote effective instruction of science while integrating mathematics and supporting English language development. The third grade curriculum places a strong emphasis on developing measurement skills in the context of scientific investigations. Third grade students' performance on the measurement subscale of the statewide mathematics assessment at experimental and comparison schools were examined using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). Students participating in the treatment performed significantly higher than students at comparison schools. The results of this study provide evidence that an integrated approach to math and science instruction can benefit diverse populations of students.

  14. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  15. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  16. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  17. The Impact of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Academic Achievement in a Swedish Elementary School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina B.; Nilsson, Michael; Lindén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic…

  18. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne T.; Mapp, Karen L.

    Noting that the evidence of families influence on their childrens school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement. Following an introduction, the first section of the report describes the methods used for selecting the studies;…

  19. Towards a broader concept of reproductive rights.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A A

    1994-01-01

    Although women have for centuries acted upon the belief that control over their bodies, fertility, and health should be in their hands, the formalization of this belief in the concept of reproductive rights is relatively recent. Founded in 1978, the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights defined reproductive rights as women's right to decide whether, when, and how to have children irrespective of nationality, class, ethnicity, race, age, religion, disability, sexuality, or marital status in the social, economic, and political conditions which make such decisions possible. The promotion of reproductive rights as fundamental to women's achievement of a just status in society had become a worldwide goal of women's rights activists by the time of the UN Decade of Women Conference in 1985. The specific issues and strategies contained within the concept, however, remain a matter of debate. What is meant by reproductive rights may differ according to the country of one's origin, the socioeconomic status of the women at issue, political factors, and the extent to which problems such as AIDS, drug addiction, and endemic poverty are a concern. The author considers reproductive rights as human rights, feminist arguments on the human rights approach, feminist principles of women's reproductive rights, the draft International Conference on Population and Development program of action, and population policy and women's health.

  20. There's More to Ethics than Justice and Harm: Teaching a Broader Understanding of Journalism Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Steven; McKinley, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Most applied ethics training in journalism in the West follows Enlightenment-era, reason-based ethical principles: Justice is intrinsically better than injustice (Kant), and the best choice is achieving the best outcome for all concerned (Mill). Recent scholarship in ethics suggests that ethics is much broader than this. This article examines a…

  1. Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

  2. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  3. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  4. Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K.; Reed, Jason B.; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009–2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection “Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up.” The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  5. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  6. The Impact of Structured Note Taking Strategies on Math Achievement of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gregory Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Student math achievement continues to be a national, state, and local concern. Research suggests that note taking can improve academic achievement, but current research has failed to report how low achievers might benefit from using note taking during math classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching students structured note…

  7. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  8. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  9. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  10. Year-Round Education in a Reform Environment: The Impact on Student Achievement and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dena; Munoz, Marco

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of year-round scheduling on student achievement and attendance and to conduct a cost-efficiency analysis associated with year-round education. Participants were students who attended year-round school in the fourth and fifth grades (N=95) and students who attended schools with traditional…

  11. The Impact of Year-Round Education on Fifth Grade African American Reading Achievement Scores in an Urban Illinois School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Carolyn Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…

  12. The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

  13. The Impact of California's Class Size Reduction Initiative on Student Achievement: Detailed Findings from Eight School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Mitchell, Ross E.

    This report presents a comprehensive preliminary analysis of how California's Class Size Reduction (CSR) initiative has impacted student achievement during the first 2 years of implementation. The analysis is based on complete student, classroom, and teacher records from 26,126 students in 1,174 classrooms from 83 schools in 8 Southern California…

  14. The Impact of Education Support Advisors on the Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study utilized ex post facto data to examine the impact of education support advisors (ESAs) on the discipline, attendance, and achievement of at-risk students in Grades 3-12. Fourteen education support advisors working in 16 elementary and 8 secondary schools of this mid-Atlantic school district consistently…

  15. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  16. The Impact of a Literacy Intervention Program on Student Achievement and Behavior at Two Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a literacy intervention program on student achievement and behavior at two urban high schools. Two groups were identified and the sample was a convenience sample for this study. One group of students is not enrolled in the intervention program, while the other group of students is enrolled in…

  17. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  18. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase II--In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of the second phase of a three-phase study on the impact of the New York State's school libraries' services and resources on student achievement and motivation. A representative sample of more than 1,600 classroom teachers, students, and school library media specialists (SMLSs) from 47 schools throughout New York…

  19. The Impact of Teachers' Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students' Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers' characteristics and self-reported practices on students' Algebra achievement while controlling for students' characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  20. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian Dee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the 7-year longitudinal study was to examine the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a student services intervention, to determine its impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University (CSU) system. Participants included 336 migrant students who were enrolled as first-time, full-time freshmen in fall…

  1. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  2. The Impact of School-Wide Discipline on Student Academic Achievement and Behavior in Elementary Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Alfreda

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of School-Wide Discipline on academic achievement and student behavior in elementary schools. In this study, Title One elementary schools in South Carolina were identified that have fully implemented the Positive Behavior Intervention Support and those Title One schools not implementing PBIS. This study…

  3. Ability Grouping: 1970 -- II. The Impact of Ability Grouping on School Achievement, Affective Development, Ethnic Separation and Socioeconomic Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Warren G.; Bryan, Miriam M.

    In this comprehensive review, important studies from the literature relevant to the impact of ability grouping on students are summarized. The following are considered: the effect of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping practices on academic achievement and affective development; the tendency of ability grouping to produce separation of students…

  4. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  5. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2009-01-01

    Contextual analysis of the achievement gap has gained much momentum within the last few decades. This study furthers the discourse by examining the applicability of 2 sociological contextual development approaches on achievement. We analyzed 79 neighborhoods organized by the level of crime and poverty from both a social disorganization and social…

  6. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  7. The Impact of Single-Gender Classrooms on Student Achievement in Seventh Grade Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Antwon M.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematics achievement gap exists between males and females. The measurement of achievement was compared between single-gender and traditional classroom students in the 7th grade to assess whether or not a single-gender environment affected their scores. The Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) state assessment served as the data collection…

  8. Gifted Achievers and Gifted Underachievers: The Impact of Learning Style Preferences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayneri, Letty J.; Gerber, Brian L.; Wiley, Larry P.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 62 gifted students (grades 6-8) found many low-achievers (n=16) showed a strong need for tactile and kinesthetic modalities; intake of food, drinks, or both; sound in the learning environment; informal seating design; and dim lighting. The low achievers did not perceive themselves to be persistent. (Contains references.)…

  9. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  10. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The perceived problem of low mathematics achievement is a concern to education leaders at all levels of PK-16 education. Results from various research raise concerns about mathematics learning of U.S. middle school students. Education leaders search for interventions to address issues related to improving mathematics achievement. This article…

  11. The Impact of Middle-Grades Mathematics Curricula and the Classroom Learning Environment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, James E.; Reys, Robert E.; Reys, Barbara J.; Chavez, Oscar; Shih, Jeffrey; Osterlind, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine student achievement of 2533 students in 10 middle schools in relation to the implementation of textbooks developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) or publisher-developed textbooks. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), curriculum type was not a significant predictor of student achievement on the Balanced…

  12. Within Our Reach: A Study of Professional Community in Schools and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Camille S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of professional learning community variables on student achievement in three Edison Learning Partnership Schools. The study examined three years of State School Assessment achievement data in reading and math, along with three years of Customer Satisfaction Data as collected by the…

  13. The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Grogger, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, estimates the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Finds that higher standards raise test scores throughout the distribution of achievement, but have no positive effect on educational attainment--in fact have negative effects on…

  14. A Penny and a Half and a Pool: Lead Poisoning and Its Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrman, Matthew Paul

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that has been shown to have a long and lasting impact on the brains, bodies, and behaviors of those who are poisoned. It also has a greater presence in communities with high levels of poverty and minority populations. Compounded over time, the effects of lead poisoning, even at low levels of exposure, impact a child's…

  15. 75 FR 4788 - FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... grant competition announcement, which published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009 (74 FR... of the Secretary FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools...: Grant competition announcement; amendment. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense Education Activity...

  16. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  17. Broader incorporation of bioinformatics in education: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Michael P; Temple, Glena G

    2010-11-01

    The major opportunities for broader incorporation of bioinformatics in education can be placed into three general categories: general applicability of bioinformatics in life science and related curricula; inherent fit of bioinformatics for promoting student learning in most biology programs; and the general experience and associated comfort students have with computers and technology. Conversely, the major challenges for broader incorporation of bioinformatics in education can be placed into three general categories: required infrastructure and logistics; instructor knowledge of bioinformatics and continuing education; and the breadth of bioinformatics, and the diversity of students and educational objectives. Broader incorporation of bioinformatics at all education levels requires overcoming the challenges to using transformative computer-requiring learning activities, assisting faculty in collecting assessment data on mastery of student learning outcomes, as well as creating more faculty development opportunities that span diverse skill levels, with an emphasis placed on providing resource materials that are kept up-to-date as the field and tools change.

  18. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  19. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  20. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  1. The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…

  2. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  3. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  4. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  5. The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Liu, Ying; Brown, Geoffrey L.; Hong, Sungjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of early parenting on later parental school involvement and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the 1st and 2nd waves of the Child Development Supplement data set of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, consisted of 390 children age 2-5 at Time 1 and their…

  6. Impact of Reading Strategy Use on Girls' and Boys' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchamma, Yamina; Poulin, Vincent; Ruel, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    We examined the reading strategies of boys and girls and identified those determining academic achievement in 13-year-old Canadian students. Students from each province and one territory (N = 20,094) answered a questionnaire on, among others, reading strategies. T-test results showed that girls use these strategies more regularly compared to boys.…

  7. Stories from School: Dyslexia and Learners' Voices on Factors Impacting on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Suanne; Kendall, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Students with dyslexia often experience low self-esteem and, linked with this, low academic achievement. Our research, commissioned by the Higher Education Academy, was carried out by academics in two universities, one in the south-west of England and one in the north-west, over 2009-2010. It set out to address "transitions and questions of…

  8. The Impact of Professional Development on Literacy Achievement of Kindergarten Hispanic English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fizer, Selena E.

    2009-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELL) across public schools in the United States continues to rise (Brice & Roseberry-McKibbin, 2006). However, teacher preparation for these students is not growing (McKeon, 2005). This quantitative study explored the relationship between teacher professional development and literacy achievement of…

  9. The Impact of Reading Recovery on the Reading Achievement of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…

  10. The Impact of Challenging Geometry and Measurement Units on the Achievement of Grade 2 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Firmender, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of Project M[superscript 2] was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for all K-2 students. This article reports on the achievement results for students in Grade 2 at 12 urban and suburban sites in 4 states using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics concepts subtest and an open-response…

  11. The Impact of Advanced Curriculum on the Achievement of Mathematically Promising Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Carroll, Susan R.; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of Project M[superscript 3]: Mentoring Mathematical Minds was to develop and field test advanced units for mathematically promising elementary students based on exemplary practices in gifted and mathematics education. This article describes the development of the units and reports on mathematics achievement results for students in…

  12. The Impact on Writing Achievement of Two Bilingual Education Models for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) within the school system in one Western U.S. state continues to rise; writing scores of ELLs lag well behind those of their English speaking peers. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative causal comparative study was to examine the writing achievement of fourth grade ELLs instructed within a…

  13. Impact of Teacher Qualification on Student Achievement at the Elementary and Middle School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that classroom teachers be highly qualified, the assumption that achieving the highly qualified endorsement equates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom is unverified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of teacher qualification, as defined by the NCLB Act and…

  14. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  15. The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 15531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas; Jacob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act compelled states to design school-accountability systems based on annual student assessments. The effect of this Federal legislation on the distribution of student achievement is a highly controversial but centrally important question. This study presents evidence on whether NCLB has influenced student…

  16. An Exploration of the Impact of Reform-Based Science Instruction on Second Graders' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data…

  17. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement. Policy Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, P.

    2008-01-01

    Access to education is recognized as a basic human right and yet projections based on current trends show that more than 50 countries will not achieve universal primary education by 2015. This briefing paper looks at the role of malnutrition and diseases in the failure of countries to meet EFA targets. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access…

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) middle school improved students' reading, math, social studies, and science achievement for up to 4 years following enrollment. The study reported that students attending KIPP middle schools scored statistically significantly higher than matched students on all of the state…

  19. National Board Certification: Impact on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 0917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    The combination of difficult economic times and increased accountability has led policymakers to call for evidence that students taught by National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers make greater achievement gains than those taught by non-NBPTS-certified teachers. Overall, studies show mixed results regarding the…

  20. The Impact of Principal Leadership on School Culture and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Lisa Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the United States school principals are subject to increasingly high demands for student accountability. Under the pressures and mandates of this federal legislation, principals are asking themselves what specific leadership practices affect student achievement. A review of literature shows that principals are regarded as a major factor…

  1. Academic Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools: The Impact of Violence during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national survey (N = 6,979) of young people in their last year in Norwegian secondary schools in 2007 (aged 18 and 19), this paper examines the effect of experience of violence including sexual abuse during childhood (before the age of 13) on the later academic achievement of young people. This investigation includes three types…

  2. Impact of Video Presentation Features on Instructional Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation in Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed instructional achievement and intrinsic motivation among 21st century secondary students utilizing a video lecture incorporating both student reaction cutaway images and immediate content interaction within the lecture. Respondents (n = 155) were from multiple classes and grade levels at a suburban Texas high school. Four…

  3. The Impact of Reading Recovery on Later Achievement in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhe, Valerie; Paula, Moore

    2005-01-01

    Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention for first-grade children with reading and writing difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the performance of a cohort of 1998 Reading Recovery students on later literacy achievement as measured by the 2001 Grade 4 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). The results showed that the average MEA…

  4. Impact of Facebook Usage on Students' Academic Achievement: Role of Self-Regulation and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouis, Sana; Limayem, Moez; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper provides a preliminary analysis of the effects of Facebook usage by undergraduate students at Lulea University of Technology in Sweden. The proposed research model tests the perceived effect of personality traits, self-regulation, and trust on students' achievements. Based on flow theory, the model suggests negative…

  5. Instructional Innovations: The Impact of Comprehensive School Reforms on Middle School Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Senetha G.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. middle schools are beset with a multitude of problems that encompasses a lack of achievement, access to necessary resources, failure to make adequate yearly progress, and an inadequate supply of effective teachers. This is particularly alarming because social and intellectual capital have become the prevailing values of the 21st century.…

  6. A History of NAEP Achievement Levels: Issues, Implementation, and Impact 1989-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Mary Lyn

    2009-01-01

    A history of the achievement levels for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) could be documented in different ways. A chronological history might be the obvious approach, but in the author's view, that could miss the most salient aspects of setting student performance standards on an assessment like NAEP. Further, new initiatives…

  7. Teacher Attitude toward Black English and Its Impact on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Evelyn Roshonn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher attitude toward Black English and student achievement in reading. For this study, 61 teachers of reading or English/Language Arts in grades 3-6 were surveyed. These teachers, whose informed consent letters indicated a willingness to participate, were selected from 17…

  8. Predictors of Creative Achievement: Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurial Potential, Perfectionism, and Employee Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Harding, Xanthe; Akhtar, Reece; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a key ingredient of organizational effectiveness, business innovation, and entrepreneurship. Yet there remain substantial gaps in the literature in terms of understanding the antecedents of creative achievement. This study investigated the effect of perfectionism, employee engagement, and entrepreneurial potential as predictors of…

  9. Parent Involvement and the Impact on Student Achievement in Grades 2-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Yvonne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative research study examined the relationship between student achievement in reading and mathematics on the STAR (Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading and Mathematics) and parent involvement in specific character development activities. The research design was quantitative in nature and conducted in two similar elementary…

  10. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  11. The Impact of the Data Team Structure on Collaborative Teams and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rone, Brenda Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implementing a specific collaborative structure would create effective teacher teams that in turn would lead to improved student achievement. An effective team can be viewed as one that uses collaboration to increase its knowledge and improve its practices. The structure that was implemented during…

  12. The Impact of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement in Rural Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Shontier Prescott

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine significant differences, if any, in student achievement in the area of math and science of students taught by traditionally certified teachers and alternatively certified teachers. This study examined alternatively certified teachers, as identified from through the Georgia TAPP (Teacher Alternative…

  13. Sustained Silent Reading in Middle School and Its Impact on Students' Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a period of time given to students to read self-selected materials during their school day. This study examines the effect of participation in a SSR program on reading attitudes and reading achievement of students as measured by the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) and the Northwest Evaluation…

  14. The Impact of Early Childhood Education upon the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that the current Black-White achievement gap provides evidence for a long-standing history of racial inequity within American society, as well as an informative barometer of progress toward educational parity. By all accounts, the measurements registered by this barometer continue to be cause for alarm. The disturbing Black-White…

  15. The Impact of School Management Strategies on Academic Achievement in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogundokun, Olubunmi K.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between school management strategies and student's academic achievement, while controlling for factors such as the school principals' age, gender, experience, as well as school size and location, Student's Social Economics Status (SES), English as a Second Language learner's population…

  16. Classroom Learning and Achievement: How the Complexity of Classroom Interaction Impacts Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of…

  17. Utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Interventions to Positively Impact Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett; Joseph, Arline Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Empirical research suggests a correlation between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions and increased academic achievement of students in middle schools. An argument was presented for utilizing CBT intervention within the delivery system of comprehensive school counseling programs in middle schools; specifically in individual…

  18. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  19. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  20. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  1. The Impact of Different Forms of Multimedia CAI on Students' Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that explored the effects of teacher-centered versus student-centered multimedia computer-assisted instruction on the science achievements of tenth-grade students in Taiwan. Results of analysis of covariance on pretests-posttest scores showed the teacher-centered approach was more effective in promoting students' science…

  2. Reformed undergraduate instruction and its subsequent impact on secondary school teaching practice and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Scott L.; Banks, Debra; Burtch, Mark; Cox, Frank, III; Judson, Eugene; Turley, Jeffery B.; Benford, Russell; Lawson, Anton E.

    2003-12-01

    The Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT) Program is one of several reform efforts supported by the National Science Foundation. The primary ACEPT reform mechanism has been month-long summer workshops in which university and community college science and mathematics faculty learn about instructional reforms and then attempt to apply them in their courses. Previous ACEPT evaluation efforts suggest that, when implemented, the reforms boost undergraduate student achievement. The initial purpose of the present study was to discover whether enrollment of preservice teachers in one or more of these reformed undergraduate courses is linked to the way they teach after they graduate and become in-service teachers. Assuming that a link is found, a second purpose was to discover whether the presumed positive effect is in turn linked to their students' achievement. In short, the answer appears to be yes, at least among the biology teachers and students surveyed. Compared with controls, the biology teachers who had enrolled in one or more ACEPT reformed course during their teacher preparation program demonstrated significantly higher scores on the measure of reformed instruction and their students demonstrated significantly higher achievement in terms of scientific reasoning, nature of science, and biology concepts. These results support the hypothesis that teachers teach as they have been taught. Furthermore, it appears that instructional reform in teacher preparation programs including both methods and major's courses can improve secondary school student achievement.

  3. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  4. Leadership for School Numeracy: How School Leaders' Knowledge and Attitudes Impact Student Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Glenn, Michelle Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Although most high schools espouse school-wide literacy initiatives, few schools place equal emphasis on numeracy, or quantitative literacy. This lack of attention to quantitative skills is ironic in light of documented deficiencies in student mathematics achievement. While significant research exists regarding best practices for mathematics…

  5. The Missing Link: An Econometric Analysis on the Impact of Curriculum Standards on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nicola A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data collected by the New York State Department of Education to examine effects of curriculum standards on student achievement (via estimation of a one-way fixed-effects model of the education-production function). Findings suggest that curriculum standards can improve student performance; they do little to improve equity. (Contains 23…

  6. Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solati-Dehkordi, Seyed Amir; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Studying explicit vocabulary instruction effects on improving L2 learners' writing skill and their short and long-term retention is the purpose of the present study. To achieve the mentioned goal, a fill-in-the-blank test including 36 single words and 60 lexical phrases were administrated to 30 female upper-intermediate EFL learners. The EFL…

  7. What Is the Best Way to Achieve Broader Reach of Improved Practices in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a common problem in higher education--how to create more widespread use of improved practices, often commonly referred to as innovations. I argue that policy models of scale-up are often advocated in higher education but that they have a dubious history in community development and K-12 education and that higher education…

  8. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  9. Beyond the Three R's: A Broader Agenda for School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battistich, Victor; Watson, Marilyn; Solomon, Daniel; Lewis, Catherine; Schaps, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three classes of nonacademic outcomes to foster in students: (1) social, ethical, and civic dispositions; (2) attitudes toward school and learning motivation; and (3) metacognitive skills. Provides guidance about how to accomplish these goals. Suggests that this broader school reform agenda will promote dispositions needed to sustain a…

  10. The Impact of Interactive Engagement Methods on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Winnips, Koos; Beetsma, Yta

    2014-01-01

    Interactive engagement (IE) is a process that promotes students' conceptual understanding through activities, combined with immediate feedback from peers and/or instructors. The present study investigates the impact of IE on students' academic performance, using the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. Engineering students…

  11. Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raegen T.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2008-01-01

    This article exploits highly detailed data on teacher absences from a large urban school district in the northern United States to shed light on the determinants and effects of teacher absences. The topic is important because both school and district policies can influence teachers' propensity to be absent. The authors estimate the impact of…

  12. Technology Facilitated PBL Pedagogy and Its Impact on Nursing Students' Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne; Lin, Chunfu Charlie; Ho, Mei-Hsin; Wang, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The impact of particular learning environments and self-regulation could be a beneficial area for research focus. More specifically, there has not been sufficient attention given to the role played by disposition or "will" in facilitating self-regulation to be successful. A student can possess the skills or ability to think critically…

  13. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  14. The Impact of Part-Time Jobs in Years 12 and 13 on Qualification Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Presents data from nationally representative sample of the England/Wales Youth Cohort Study, describing patterns of paid work among full-time students in Years 12/13 working for qualifications. Shows paid work of a few hours has negligible impact on "A" level grades, but long working hours significantly reduce grades. (BT)

  15. Impact of Online Professional Development on Teacher Quality and Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sheralyn; de Kramer, Raquel Magidin; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Masters, Jessica; Russell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of online professional development (OPD) programs, relatively few studies have been conducted to examine the efficacy of such programs for teachers and students. This manuscript presents findings from an impact study of OPD courses in fractions, algebraic thinking, and measurement on 79 fifth grade teachers'…

  16. The Impact of Public Housing Demolitions on Student Achievement in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    This paper exploits a natural experiment created by public housing closings in Chicago to examine the impact of residential relocation on educational outcomes. During the 1990s, the Chicago Housing Authority closed over 7,400 units of public housing as part of redevelopment and consolidation efforts. Households affected by the closures were…

  17. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  18. Impact of Guided Notes on Achievement in K-12 and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Dawson, Daniel; Erickson, Matthew; Larwin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the K-12 and special education classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes…

  19. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  20. How Does School Mobility Impact Indicators of Academic Achievement for Highly Mobile Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-McBrien, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Children who are homeless or in foster care change schools more often than their non-mobile peers. The impact of school mobility increases their risk of academic failure (Evans, 1996; Ingersoll, Scamman, & Eckerling, 1989; Mao, 1997, Mehana & Reynolds, 2003; Reynolds & Wolf, 1999). Laws enforcing the right of students to remain in their "original…

  1. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  2. Teacher Social Capital and Student Achievement: Impact of a Cyber-Enabled Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This is an evaluative research study of a NSF-funded, DRK-12 cyber-enabled teacher professional development program in elementary engineering education. The finding shows the significant impact of the program on students' science and engineering knowledge in the second year of the program's implementation. However, student learning gain…

  3. Bridging or Buffering? The Impact of Schools' Adaptive Strategies on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Rational and open system theories offer divergent sets of tactics on how best to deal with factors outside the boundary of the school. This study compared two competing strategies that emerge from these theories: bridging and buffering. The impact of how schools interact with their environments was examined in relation to student…

  4. Impact of Teacher Perceptions of Their Working Conditions on Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Bonnie W.

    2012-01-01

    Reading and math proficiency is important for all students because education is a leading indicator of personal health and success and national prosperity. Improved student performance has also been linked to teacher satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher perceptions of their working conditions on student…

  5. Impact of a Professional Learning Community on Teacher Collaboration, Teaching Practice, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Iris J.

    2011-01-01

    Best instructional practice occurs when teachers work collaboratively. Many teachers in the target elementary school appeared to work in isolation, struggling to respond to the needs of low-performing students without the benefit of collaboration with colleagues. The purpose of this applied dissertation was to investigate the impact of a…

  6. The Impact of Music Education on Academic Achievement in Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deere, Kelli Beth

    2010-01-01

    Increased scrutiny on the place of music education in school systems has caused some school systems to eliminate their music program entirely. School systems are being forced to place more emphasis on increased testing and accountability with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This study examined the impact music education has on academic…

  7. The Impact of Supplemental Instruction on Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.; Pennington, Jessica; Buckman, D. Matt

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a supplemental reading course on 462 sixth-grade students' reading engagement and performance as compared with 389 students in a control group. They further explored students' cognitive strategy use through think aloud processes with a subset of students who participated in the intervention.…

  8. Achieving a Greater Impact: Developing the Skills of Teaching Artists to Lead Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duma, Amy L.; Silverstein, Lynne B.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching artists know that there are many more students who could benefit from learning in and through the arts, but school budgets as well as teaching artists' time and energy are limited. As years pass, teaching artists face the reality that they will reach only a fraction of the students in need. To extend their impact dramatically, some…

  9. The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Higher Education Students' Academic Attainment and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Term-time employment among Britain's undergraduates is a growing phenomenon but it has received scant attention from government and policy makers. Although there are numerous studies on the subject, few have explored the impact of term-time employment on students' actual attainment and those that have are limited. This article attempts to fill…

  10. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  11. Impact of instructional Approaches to Teaching Elementary Science on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensinger, Seth H.

    Strengthening our science education in the United States is essential to the future success of our country in the global marketplace. Immersing our elementary students with research-based quality science instruction is a critical component to build a strong foundation and motivate our students to become interested in science. The research for this study pertained to the type of elementary science instruction in correlation to academic achievement and gender. Through this study, the researcher answered the following questions: 1. What is the difference in achievement for elementary students who have been taught using one of the three science instructional approaches analyzed in this study: traditional science instruction, inquiry-based science instruction with little or no professional development and inquiry-based science instruction with high-quality professional development? 2. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry-based instruction and non-inquiry based (traditional) instruction? 3. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry with high quality professional development and inquiry with little or no professional development? 4. Do the three instructional approaches have differentiated effects across gender? The student achievement was measured using the 2010 fourth grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) in Science. Data was collected from 15 elementary schools forming three main groupings of similar schools based on the results from the 2009 third grade PSSA in Mathematics and student and community demographics. In addition, five sub-group triads were formed to further analyze the data and each sub-group was composed of schools with matching demographic data. Each triad contained a school using a traditional approach to teaching science, a school utilizing an inquiry science approach with little or no professional development, and a school incorporating inquiry science instruction with high quality

  12. Superior Ballistic Impact Resistance Achieved by the Co-Base Alloy Haynes 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is required to contain a fan blade in the rare event of a blade loss during operation. Because of its function, the fan case is the largest structural component in high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines used in commercial aircraft. Therefore, the use of lighter and stronger materials would be advantageous in most engines and is practically a necessity in the latest generation of high-bypass engines. Small panels, 7 in. wide by 7 in. long, of a number of metallic alloys were impact tested at room temperature with a 0.50-caliber blunt-nose titanium alloy projectile at the NASA Glenn Research Center (ref. 1). These metallic systems included several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-based laminates, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs), nickel-base superalloys (Inconel 718 and 625), several titanium (Ti) alloys in different heat treated conditions, 304L stainless steel, a stainless-steel-based laminate, and a high strength steel (Nitronic 60). It was determined that a simple Co-base alloy (Haynes 25) had the best impact resistance on an areal weight basis. Haynes 25 was at least 10 percent better than IMI 550, the best titanium alloy tested to date, and it was far superior to other metals, especially at higher impact velocities (greater than 1100 ft/sec). Because this material could be ideal for fan containment applications in supersonic aircraft as a replacement for titanium, impact tests were also conducted at 371 oC and compared with results from alloys tested at elevated temperature under previous programs (i.e., Inconel 718, Ti-6242, M-152, Timetal 21S, and Aeromet 100). Although cobalt-base alloys are used in some high-temperature engine applications, to our knowledge they are not used in any containment systems. Advantages of cobalt over titanium include lower cost, easier processing, better high-temperature strength, and no fire hazard if tip rub occurs. Future plans include testing of lightweight sandwich panels with Haynes

  13. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  14. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  15. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodology of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.

  16. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    DOE PAGES

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodologymore » of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.« less

  17. How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Alberto; Zinnato, Luca; Cerbino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy. PMID:23112861

  18. Classroom learning and achievement: how the complexity of classroom interaction impacts students' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of a task and the probability of a student solving it. Purpose: Thus far, few detailed investigations explore the importance of complexity in actual classroom lessons. Moreover, the few efforts made so far revealed inconsistencies. Hence, the present study sheds light on the influence the complexity of students' and teachers' class contributions have on students' learning outcomes. Sample: Videos of 10 German 8th grade physics courses covering three consecutive lessons on two topics each (electricity, mechanics) have been analyzed. The sample includes 10 teachers and 290 students. Design and methods: Students' and teachers' verbal contributions were coded manual-based according to the level of complexity. Additionally, pre-post testing of knowledge in electricity and mechanics was applied to assess the students' learning gain. ANOVA analysis was used to characterize the influence of the complexity on the learning gain. Results: Results indicate that the mean level of complexity in classroom contributions explains a large portion of variance in post-test results on class level. Despite this overarching trend, taking classroom activities into account as well reveals even more fine-grained patterns, leading to more specific relations between the complexity in the classroom and students' achievement. Conclusions: In conclusion, we argue for more reflected teaching approaches intended to gradually increase class complexity to foster students' level of competency.

  19. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  20. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  1. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  2. The Impact of a Teaching-Learning Program Based on a Brain-Based Learning on the Achievement of the Female Students of 9th Grade in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabatat, Kawthar; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the impact of teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of female students of 9th grade in chemistry, to accomplish the goal of this study the researchers designed instruments of: instructional plans, pre achievement and past achievement exams to use them for the study-validity and…

  3. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    PubMed

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  4. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    PubMed

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-11

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  5. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  6. Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Manoj V; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We sought to quantify the epidemiological impact of achieving these targets in India. Methods We constructed a dynamic-transmission model of the Indian HIV epidemic to project HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths that would occur in India over 15 years. We considered several scenarios: continuation of current care engagement (with early ART initiation), achieving 90-90-90 targets on time and delaying achievement by 5 or 10 years. Results In the base case, assuming continuation of current care engagement, we project 794 000 (95% uncertainty range (UR) 571 000–1 104 000) HIV infections and 689 000 (95% UR 468 000–976 000) AIDS-related deaths in India over 15 years. In this scenario, nearly half of PLWH diagnosed would fail to achieve viral suppression by 2030. With achievement of 90-90-90 targets, India could avert 392 000 (95% UR 248 000–559 000) transmissions (48% reduction) and 414 000 (95% UR 260 000–598 000) AIDS-related deaths (59% reduction) compared to the base-case scenario. Furthermore, fewer than 20 000 (95% UR 12 000–30 000) HIV infections would occur in 2030. Delaying achievement of targets resulted in a similar reduction in HIV incidence by 2030 but at the cost of excess overall infections and mortality. Conclusions India can halve the epidemiological burden of HIV over 15 years with achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Reaching the targets on time will require comprehensive healthcare strengthening, especially in early diagnosis and treatment, expanded access to second-line and third-line ART and long-term retention in care. PMID:27388363

  7. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

  8. How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Project-Based Learning (PBL) Affects High, Middle, and Low Achievers Differently: The Impact of Student Factors on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunyoung; Capraro, Robert; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students' individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge…

  9. Fusion materials development program in the broader approach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Jitsukawa, S.; Nozawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Yamanishi, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Möslang, A.; Baluc, N.; Pizzuto, A.; Hodgson, E. R.; Laesser, R.; Gasparotto, M.; Kohyama, A.; Kasada, R.; Shikama, T.; Takatsu, H.; Araki, M.

    2009-04-01

    Breeding blankets are the most important components in DEMO. The DEMO blanket has to withstand high neutron flux typically 15-30 dpa/year under continuous operation. Therefore integrated and effective development of blanket structural materials and breeding/multiplying materials is essential in the blanket development for DEMO. In parallel to the ITER program, broader approach (BA) activities are initiated by EU and Japan. Based on the common interest of each party towards DEMO, R&D on reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a DEMO blanket structural material, SiC f/SiC composites which have potential for use in DEMO blankets, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier for DEMO blankets, and tritium technologies including tritium behavior studies in advanced materials for DEMO blanket applications will be carried out as a part of the BA activities.

  10. Interpreting megalithic tomb orientation and siting within broader cultural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2016-02-01

    This paper assesses the measured axial orientations and siting of Irish passage tombs. The distribution of monuments with passages/entrances directed at related tombs/cairns is shown. Where this phenomenon occurs, the targeted structure is invariably located at a higher elevation on the skyline and this could suggest a symbolic and hierarchical relationship in their relative siting in the landscape. Additional analysis of astronomical declinations at a national scale has identified tombs with an axial alignment towards the rising and setting positions of the Sun at the winter and summer solstices. A criteria-based framework is developed which potentially allows for these types of data to be more meaningfully considered and culturally interpreted within broader archaeological and social anthropological contexts.

  11. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, Mark E.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.

  12. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: Placental programming: how the maternal environment can impact placental function.

    PubMed

    Vonnahme, K A; Lemley, C O; Shukla, P; O'Rourke, S T

    2013-06-01

    Proper establishment of the placenta is important for fetal survival; however, placental adaptations to inadequate maternal nutrition or other stressors are imperative for fetal growth to be optimal. The effects of maternal nutritional status and activity level on placental vascular function and uteroplacental blood flows are important to understand as improper placental function leads to reduced growth of the fetus. In environments where fetal growth can be compromised, potential therapeutics may augment placental function and delivery of nutrients to improve offspring performance during postnatal life. Factors that could enhance placental function include supplementation of specific nutrients, such as protein, hormone supplements, such as indolamines, and increased activity levels of the dam. To understand the mechanism of how the maternal environment can impact uterine or umbilical blood flows, assessment of placental vascular reactivity has been studied in several large animal models. As we begin to understand how the maternal environment impacts uterine and umbilical blood flows and other uteroplacental hemodynamic parameters, development of management methods and therapeutics for proper fetal growth can be achieved.

  13. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  14. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008" examined whether shifting from traditional district management to management by a for-profit or nonprofit organization improves student achievement. The study analyzed data on six cohorts of elementary and middle school students…

  15. The Impact of a School-Based Enterprise Program on the Achievement and Behavior of Special Education Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilot, Grover Cleve

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's K-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges that affect student achievement and consequently impact society. Key challenges, such as elevating academic achievement, meeting state and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) standards, high dropout rates, at-risk students, parental involvement, and the recruitment and retention of…

  16. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina Department of…

  17. Toward Population Impact from Home Visiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Goodman, W. Benjamin; Murphy, Robert; O'Donnell, Karen J.; Sato, Jeannine M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some home visiting programs have proven effective with the families they serve, no program has yet demonstrated broader impact on an entire county or state population. This article describes the Durham Connects program, which aims to achieve broad county-level effects by coalescing community agencies to serve early-intervention goals…

  18. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes Towards Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Luisa

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to improved student perception of the integration of science and mathematics. Although there is adequate literature to substantiate students' positive responses to integration in terms of attitudes, there has been little empirical data to support significant academic improvement when both disciplines are taught in an integrated method. This research study, conducted at several school districts on Long Island and New York City, New York, examined teachers' attitudes toward integration and students' attitudes about, and achievement on assessments in, an integrated 8th grade science classroom compared to students in a non-integrated classroom. An examination of these parameters was conducted to analyze the impact of the sizeable investment of time and resources needed to teach an integrated curriculum effectively. These resources included substantial teacher training, planning time, collaboration with colleagues, and administration of student assessments. The findings suggest that students had positive outcomes associated with experiencing an integrated science and mathematics curriculum, though these were only weakly correlated with teacher confidence in implementing the integrated model successfully. The positive outcomes included the ability of students to understand scientific concepts within a concrete mathematical framework, improved confidence in applying mathematics to scientific ideas, and increased agreement with the usefulness of mathematics in interpreting science concepts. Implications of these research findings may be of benefit to educators and policymakers looking to adapt integrated curricula in order to

  19. Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromaylgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition marked by centrally-mediated augmentation of pain and sensory processes. Skepticism has marked the history of this condition, but more recent study has identified neurobiological underpinnings supporting many of the symptoms associated with this condition. Early research in FM had unprecedented latitude within the Rheumatology community to borrow heavily from theory and methods being applied in chronic pain research more generally. These insights facilitated rapid advances in FM research; not the least of which was the abandonment of a peripheral focus in favor of studying central mechanisms associated with central augmentation. Currently, rapid paced discovery is taking place in FM genetics, patient assessment, new therapeutic targets, and novel methods of treatment delivery. Such insights are not likely to be limited in application just to FM; but could have relevance to the broader field of pain research as well. Perspective This manuscript reviews the history of FM and its diagnosis, evidence supporting central augmentation of pain in FM, potential mechanisms of central augmentation, current approaches to integrated care of FM, and areas of active collaboration between FM research and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:19638325

  20. HeartDrive: A Broader Concept of Interoperability to Implement Care Processes for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lettere, M; Guerri, D; La Manna, S; Groccia, M C; Lofaro, D; Conforti, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper originates from the HeartDrive project, a platform of services for a more effective, efficient and integrated management of heart failure and comorbidities. HeartDrive establishes a cooperative approach based on the concepts of continuity of care and extreme, patient oriented, customization of diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up procedures. Definition and development of evidence based processes, migration from parceled and episode based healthcare provisioning to a workflow oriented model and increased awareness and responsibility of citizens towards their own health and wellness are key objectives of HeartDrive. In two scenarios for rehabilitation and home monitoring we show how the results are achieved by providing a solution that highlights a broader concept of cooperation that goes beyond technical interoperability towards semantic interoperability explicitly sharing process definitions, decision support strategies and information semantics. PMID:27225572

  1. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  2. The Impact of Coteaching on Regular Education Eighth Grade Student Achievement on a Basic Skills Algebra Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Misty B.

    2010-01-01

    Coteaching strategies have been implemented in many of the inclusion math classrooms in an attempt to improve the achievement of students. Math achievement continues to be a concern as reported by the National Mathematics Advisory Council in 2007. Educators and previous research reported that coteaching does not improve student achievement. The…

  3. Mendel's Research Legacy in the Broader Historical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orel, Vítězslav; Peaslee, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    This historical narrative describes the foundation of education as established by J. A. Comenius (1592-1670). It explores the transfer of Comenius' tenets, utilized and modified through the years, up to their impact upon the ground-breaking experiments of G. Mendel (1822-1884), `the father of genetics'. It explores the questions of heredity discussed among experts in the agricultural and natural sciences in the early 1800s and reviews the controversies and disputes that have occurred since Mendel was `rediscovered' in 1900. The value of studying the history of science as it impacts science today is underscored.

  4. Is Gifted Education a Bright Idea? Assessing the Impact of Gifted and Talented Programs on Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 17089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa A.; Craig, Steven G.; Imberman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we determine how the receipt of gifted and talented (GT) services affects student outcomes. We identify the causal relationship by exploiting a discontinuity in eligibility requirements and find that for students on the margin there is no discernable impact on achievement even though peers improve substantially. We then use…

  5. The Impact of Asynchronous Computer-Assisted Language Learning Approaches on English as a Foreign Language High and Low Achievers' Vocabulary Retention and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjian, Bahman; Moosavinia, Seyyed Rahim; Kavari, Kamal Ebrahimi; Asgari, Parviz; Hydarei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the impact of asynchronous computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches on high and low achievers' vocabulary retention and recall of English as foreign language learners. Fifty participants were assigned into two homogeneous groups. Both groups covered eight expository passages, which included "Select readings:…

  6. A Qualitative Study: The Impact of Selected Non-Cognitive Variables on the Academic Success and Achievement of Culturally Diverse Academic Scholarship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda Louise

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether select non-cognitive variables such as, (Sedlacek, 1989, 1991, 1993, 2004; Tracey & Sedlacek 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989) impacted the academic achievement, retention and graduation rates of culturally diverse academic scholarship students at a predominantly white higher education institutions. The subjects of the study were…

  7. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared grantmaking…

  8. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  9. Teacher Collaboration in Music Education: The Impact of the DuFour Model on Music Teachers' Attitudes and Their Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The DuFour PLC model is one of several reforms today based on the theory that organizing teachers into learning communities will promote professional collaboration and collegial relationships which will improve teacher skills, motivation, and increase student achievement. A small number of studies have explored the impact of PLC's on teaching…

  10. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  11. Examining the Impact of Online Labeling on Tutoring Behavior and Its Effect on the English Learning and Motivation of Low-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ejean; Yang, Shu Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the differential impact of tutor labeling vs. non-labeling approaches on the performance; motivation beliefs; and cognitive, social, and teaching presence of low-achieving students. Two interactive tutoring strategy patterns are investigated based on the taxonomical e-moderating model of Salmon. In addition, the tutees' online…

  12. The Impact of Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Collaborative Learning Groups in Multicultural Classes on the Achievement and Attitudes of Nine Graders towards Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ahmed O.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims at investigating the impact of homogeneous versus heterogeneous collaborative learning grouping in multicultural classes on the students' achievements and attitudes towards learning science. In the present study, heterogeneity was unpacked through two dimensions: the cultural background, represented by the different…

  13. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison with a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in…

  14. A Multistate District-Level Cluster Randomized Trial of the Impact of Data-Driven Reform on Reading and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Robinson, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing mathematics and reading achievement outcomes from a district-level random assignment study fielded in over 500 schools within 59 school districts and seven states, the authors estimate the 1-year impacts of a data-driven reform initiative implemented by the Johns Hopkins Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE). CDDRE…

  15. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private…

  16. The Impact of Institutional Factors on the Relationship Between High School Mathematics Curricula and College Mathematics Course-Taking and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to examine the moderating effect of institutional factors on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and college mathematics course-taking and achievement from a sample of 32 colleges. The findings suggest that the impact of curriculum on college mathematics outcomes is not generally moderated by…

  17. The Impact of Online or F2F Lecture Choice on Student Achievement and Engagement in a Large Lecture-Based Science Course: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Stewart, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning options vary and universities are exploring an assortment of instructional combinations, some involving video lectures as a replacement for face-to-face (f2f) lectures. This methodological study investigates the impact of the provision of lecture choice (online or f2f) on overall student achievement and course engagement. This…

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of Parent Education Level and Family Income on the Academic Achievement of Students of Hispanic and White Ethnicities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the socioeconomic factors of parent education level and family income on the academic achievement of students of Hispanic and white ethnicities. Scaled scores from the 2009 administration of the California Standards Tests in English language arts and mathematics and matched demographic…

  19. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  20. Curricular Modifications, Family Outreach, and a Mentoring Program: Impacts on Achievement and Gifted Identification in High-Risk Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Tonya R.; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of specific interventions (mentoring, parental involvement, and multicultural curricula) on academic achievement of 273 elementary students from low-socioeconomic environments. The interventions had no statistically significant effect on student achievement in any grade. However, by the end of the program,…

  1. Changing Self-Esteem: The Impact of Self-Esteem Changes on At-Risk Students Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine M.

    Participants in a program to raise the academic achievement of at-risk elementary school students in the Newark (New Jersey) School District by raising their self-esteem showed both increased self-esteem and achievement gains. The program included individual and group counseling sessions, parent participation, and the use of the Toward Affective…

  2. An Analysis of the Impact of Demographic, Structural, Student, and Financial Factors on Texas High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of demographic (indicators describing student characteristics), structural (indicators describing school characteristics), student (indicators of student academic achievement), and financial (indicators of instructional expenditures) factors to student mathematics achievement. A sample (n…

  3. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  4. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  5. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  6. Multiculturalism as a dimension of school climate: the impact on the academic achievement of Asian American and Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N

    2010-10-01

    Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth.

  7. Towards Engineering Biological Systems in a Broader Context.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Ophelia S; Egbert, Robert G; Arkin, Adam P

    2016-02-27

    Significant advances have been made in synthetic biology to program information processing capabilities in cells. While these designs can function predictably in controlled laboratory environments, the reliability of these devices in complex, temporally changing environments has not yet been characterized. As human society faces global challenges in agriculture, human health and energy, synthetic biology should develop predictive design principles for biological systems operating in complex environments. Natural biological systems have evolved mechanisms to overcome innumerable and diverse environmental challenges. Evolutionary design rules should be extracted and adapted to engineer stable and predictable ecological function. We highlight examples of natural biological responses spanning the cellular, population and microbial community levels that show promise in synthetic biology contexts. We argue that synthetic circuits embedded in host organisms or designed ecologies informed by suitable measurement of biotic and abiotic environmental parameters could be used as engineering substrates to achieve target functions in complex environments. Successful implementation of these methods will broaden the context in which synthetic biological systems can be applied to solve important problems.

  8. Reaching (and retaining) Broader Audiences in Citizen Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalier, D.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals come to citizen science from different perspectives and preferences, and engage in a wide range of projects from data collection to public policy (Irwin 1995, Bonney et al. 2009a). Many participate exclusively online in crowdsourcing projects such as Galaxy Zoo, Fold-It, and Eyewire. Hundreds of thousands gather data on-the-ground for academic andcommunity research projects led by scientists at universities, government agencies/NGOs, and nonprofits. Untold others initiate their own projects in response to local environmental and health issues. All types of citizen science endeavors face challenges around data access and management, around relationships with scientists and project managers, and around making their scientific accomplishments visible as they accumulate over time. Among the most universal and ongoing challenges for all types of citizen science, however, "is attracting and retaining enough participants to make achievement of project goals possible." (Crowston and Prestopnik One known reason for this issue is the reality that individual projects and project types exist in "silos" - as self-segregated groups with particular shared interests (Dickinson et al. 2010). What efforts can be made in digital infrastructures and community building efforts to enable the unprecedented ability to support and retain diverse types of citizen science participation and data exchange between communities? How do we support participation in, and management of, multiple projects; continuity in, and sharing of, a broad and accessible citizen science community; and related social components? This presentation will provide a brief overview of the known barriers to this "utopia" and a snapshot of efforts underway to address many of these barriers.

  9. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  10. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father's SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models

  11. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  12. The Relationship between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Classroom disruptions present an obstacle to raising student achievement for teachers and school administrators. This study was designed to investigate potential relationships between weather, specifically barometric pressure, or the lunar cycle, and whether either had a direct correlation with student discipline referrals. The intent was to…

  13. Impact of the Child Development Program on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Students in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tai E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders are charged with making informed decisions regarding various aspects of schooling that affect the overall achievement of students. Numerous legislative ideas, funding initiatives, programming standards, and practicing guidelines for early childhood education programs have been introduced (Buyssee & Wesley, 2006). Early care…

  14. Improving Achievement in Secondary Schools: Impact of a Literacy Project on Reading Comprehension and Secondary School Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…

  15. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  16. The Continued Evaluation of Voucher Impact on the Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Boone, William J.; Legan, Natalie A.; Paul, Kelli M.

    Vouchers for students in urban school districts may promote the increased participation of underrepresented groups in the fields of science and engineering in at least two ways: (a) by optimizing the achievement of students who use vouchers and (b) by expanding the scope of educational and curricular options available to students. Presently, nearly 5,000 children in Cleveland, Ohio, attend private schools with publicly funded vouchers. This study presents the results of evaluating the achievement of a cohort of these students from the fall of first grade to the spring of fourth grade. For public school students, first grade seems to be a time during which they catch up with peers who attend private schools with vouchers. The analysis of data using adjusted measures suggests no differences in achievement from first grade to fourth grade with respect to achievement in many content areas. The use of unadjusted measures suggests possible differences with respect to fourth grade reading (with voucher students performing at a statistically higher level than their peers). The present data set neither clearly supports nor refutes the use of vouchers.

  17. The Impact of Teacher Content Knowledge in Mathematics and Teacher Efficacy on Fifth Graders' Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate fifth grade teacher mathematical content knowledge, compare that mathematical content knowledge to efficacy in teaching the new rigorous mathematical standards, and to ascertain if these two factors played a role in student achievement. Quantitative results were derived from student assessment…

  18. The Impact of Advanced Geometry and Measurement Curriculum Units on the Mathematics Achievement of First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Firmender, Janine M.; Carroll, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Project M2 was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for K-2 students. The units were developed using recommendations from gifted, mathematics, and early childhood education. This article reports on achievement results for students in Grade 1 at 12 diverse sites in four states using the Iowa Tests of…

  19. The Impact of Teacher Classroom Practices on Student Achievement during the Implementation of a Reform-Based Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Gillian; Garrow, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Evidence of a gap in student understanding has been well documented in chemistry: the typical student holds an abundance of misconceptions. The current expectation is that educational reform will foster greater student achievement via inquiry teaching within classrooms. Using assessments involving both conceptual and algorithmic knowledge of gas…

  20. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  1. Do Intervention Impacts on Academic Achievement Vary by School Climate? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    Given established links between social-emotional skills and academic achievement, there is growing support for implementing universal social/behavioral interventions in early schooling (Jones & Bouffard, 2012). Advocates have been particularly interested in implementing such programming in low income urban schools where students are likely to…

  2. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  3. The Impact of Leadership Practices on the Academic Achievement of Elementary Students in Satisfactory Schools and Unsatisfactory Schools in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's k-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges: elevating academic achievement, recruitment and retention of high-caliber teachers, improving teacher quality, and meeting the mandates of the "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") legislation and state standards (Simpson, Lacava, & Graner, 2004; & (Kowalski, 2009). Today's school…

  4. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants…

  5. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  6. Achieve 3000: An Analysis of Usage and Impact, 2013-14. Technical Note. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdegar, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Achieve 3000 is an online differentiated reading program for students with disabilities and English Language Learners in grades 6-8. The software delivers differentiated assignments at 12 different reading levels. The software features internal assessments that continuously gauge students' reading levels, provides feedback to teachers, and…

  7. The Impact of Involvement of African American Parents on Students' Achievement in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to provide better understanding of issues related to parental involvement to school officials and scholars. The parental involvement at the school was very low and academic achievement was also low. The school leaders were requested to increase parental involvement and the School Improvement Plan specified…

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Impact of Two Professional Development Interventions on Early Reading Instruction and Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the "Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling" ("LETRS)" professional development curriculum on the reading achievement of second graders. The authors examined data on more than 5,000 second graders from ninety elementary schools in four states during the 2005-06 school year. Study schools were…

  9. The Impact of Guided Student-Generated Questioning on Chemistry Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Elementary Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…

  10. A Quantitative Investigation into the Impacts of 1:1 iPads on Early Learners' ELA and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebell, Damian; Pedulla, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Many parents, educators, and policy makers see great potential for leveraging tools like laptop computers, tablets, and smartphones in the classrooms of the world. Although increasing students' technology access may be associated with increased student achievement, there is little research directly investigating objective measures of student…

  11. The Impact of Employment on the Academic Achievement of Full-Time Community College Students. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; And Others

    Is college student academic performance harmed by competing employment obligations? At what point do the hours spent on the job begin to interfere with the predicted academic achievement of full-time students? This study addresses these questions by analyzing data collected from students at two non-residential community colleges. Using an outcomes…

  12. The Impact of Different Modes of Assessment on Achievement and Progress in the Learning and Skills Sector. LSRC Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry; Colley, Helen; Garratt, Dean; Jarvis, Janis; Piper, Heather; Ecclestone, Kathryn; James, David

    2005-01-01

    This study was commissioned to investigate whether or not, and if so, how, use of different assessment methods makes a difference to learner achievement and progress in the learning and skills sector (LSS). This is the first comprehensive study of assessment procedures and practices employed across the full range of LSS contexts--school sixth…

  13. The Impact of Family Functioning on African American Males' Academic Achievement: A Review and Clarification of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and clarifies many inconsistencies and misconceptions in the research literature on the effects of family functioning on African American male academic achievement. It was concluded that when parents use an African American version of authoritative parenting, teach children about their cultural heritage and personal power to…

  14. The Impact of Online and Traditional Homework on the Attitudes, Achievement, and Learning Styles of Sixth Grade Language Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Hope McGee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of online homework as one way to bridge the gap between how students live and the diverse ways they learn by focusing on the attitudes, academic achievement, and learning styles of sixth grade language arts students. Students in the treatment group completed online homework, while the control group…

  15. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. NBER Working Paper No. 14599

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2008-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes in…

  16. Examining the Early Impacts of the Leading Educators Fellowship on Student Achievement and Teacher Retention. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaly, Kata; Master, Benjamin K.; Yoon, Cate

    2015-01-01

    The Leading Educators Fellowship program selects promising mid-career teachers through a competitive application process and develops their skills as leaders of school improvement efforts. The specific objectives of the program are to (1) increase the leadership skills and capacity of teacher leaders in order to improve student achievement in…

  17. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  18. A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Waldhoff, S.; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, J.; Jantarasami, L.; Shouse, K.; Crimmins, A.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the physical impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change. The primary goal of this framework is to estimate the degree to which climate change impacts and damages in the United States are avoided or reduced in the 21st century under multiple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation scenarios. The first phase of the CIRA project is a modeling exercise that included two integrated assessment models and 15 sectoral models encompassing five broad impacts sectors: water resources, electric power, infrastructure, human health, and ecosystems. Three consistent socioeconomic and climate scenarios are used to analyze the benefits of global GHG mitigation targets: a reference scenario and two policy scenarios with total radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2. In this exercise, the implications of key uncertainties are explored, including climate sensitivity, climate model, natural variability, and model structures and parameters. This presentation describes the motivations and goals of the CIRA project; the design and academic contribution of the first CIRA modeling exercise; and briefly summarizes several papers published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The results across impact sectors show that GHG mitigation provides benefits to the United States that increase over time, the effects of climate change can be strongly influenced by near-term policy choices, adaptation can reduce net damages, and impacts exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that may inform mitigation and adaptation policy discussions.

  19. Impact of the Twenty-First Century Afterschool Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the academic impacts of the Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers on students who participated in this program. The following research questions guided the study: (a) are there significant differences between the Criterion Reference Competency Test English Language Arts scores of…

  20. The Impact of Financial Incentives on Academic Achievement and Household Behavior: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Dhiraj

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence on the impact of piece rate financial incentives on students' school outcomes from a randomized field experiment in Nepal. Despite several experimental and institutional factors making it less likely of finding a positive treatment effect, I find that incentives increase average aggregate scores by 0.09 standard deviations.…

  1. The Impact of School Libraries on Academic Achievement: A Research Study Based on Responses from Administrators in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Rodney, Marcia J.; Schwarz, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Where administrators value strong library programs and can see them doing their part for student success, students are more likely to thrive academically. This is the over-arching conclusion that can be drawn from the latest study of the impact of school libraries--this one in Idaho. The study included survey responses from 176 principals and…

  2. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  3. An Examination of the Impact of Teacher Quality and "Opportunity Gap" on Student Science Achievement in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Danhui; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to better understand questions related to the impact of teacher quality and access to qualified teachers in China. A large-scale data set collected in 2010 in China was used along with concurrently collected teacher questionnaires. In total, surveys from 9,943 8th grade students from 343 middle schools in 6 provinces were used,…

  4. Small Rural School District Consolidation in Texas: An Analysis of Its Impact on Cost and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Dwight A.; Floyd, Koy A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the number of public school districts in the United States has decreased despite a dramatic increase in the number of students enrolled. Although public school district consolidation has impacted districts of all sizes, since the late 1930's smaller rural districts facing dwindling community resources have merged or consolidated with…

  5. Impact of the Accelerated Reader Technology-Based Literacy Program on Overall Academic Achievement and School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Terrance; VanderZee, Darrel; Rue, Tom; Swanson, Scott

    A study demonstrated the positive impact of school ownership of the Accelerated Reader (AR) technology-based literacy program on attendance and standardized test scores at a representative sample of 2,500 elementary, middle, and high schools. These schools were compared with approximately 3,500 schools of similar geographic and demographic…

  6. The Impacts of Distance Interactivity on Learners' Achievements in Online Mobile Language Learning: Social Software and Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellati, Morteza; Khademi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of technological applications such as computers and mobile phones in the past three decades has impacted our life from different perspectives. Language teaching is no exception and like other fields of study, language teaching has also influenced by new language teaching sources and software. More recently, there has been a…

  7. The Impact of School Improvement Grants on Achievement: Plans for a National Evaluation Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Does receipt of School Improvement Grants (SIG) funding to implement a school intervention model have an impact on outcomes for low-performing schools? This study answers this question using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits cutoff values on the continuous variables used to define SIG eligibility tiers, comparing outcomes in…

  8. Capturing the Cumulative Effects of School Reform: An 11-Year Study of the Impacts of America's Choice on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of an 11-year longitudinal study of the impact of America's Choice comprehensive school reform (CSR) design on student learning gains in Rochester, New York. A quasi-experimental interrupted time-series approach using Bayesian hierarchical growth curve analysis with crossed random effects is used to compare the…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Reading First Programs on Student Achievement in K-3 Classrooms in Selected Mississippi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Meeks, Angel LaKease

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation and impact of Reading First programs in 8 elementary schools across the state of Mississippi. The study assessed how principals, literacy coaches, and kindergarten through third grade teachers perceived the implementation of the Reading First program at their respective schools. Data from these three…

  10. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  11. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  12. The Impact of Instructional Practices in Grades 1 and 2 on Reading and Spelling Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Eakin, Michelle N.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Moats, Louisa C.; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine how instructional practices in 107 first- and second-grade classrooms in 17 high poverty schools moderate the impact on literacy outcomes of literacy-related skills students bring to the classroom. Ratings of teaching effectiveness and time allocation to literacy activities were obtained. Twenty…

  13. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  14. Achieving Research Impact Through Co‐creation in Community‐Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, CLAIRE; SHAW, SARA; JANAMIAN, TINA

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development.It has potential for “moving beyond the ivory towers” to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community‐academic partnerships.Principles of successful co‐creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process.If these principles are not followed, co‐creation efforts may fail. Context Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—reflects a “Mode 2” relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co‐creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co‐creation relevant to community‐based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community‐based research‐service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary‐Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Findings Co‐creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies (“value co‐creation”), design science (“experience‐based co‐design”), computer science (“technology co‐design”), and community development (“participatory research”). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human

  15. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  16. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, p<0.05). Additionally, results suggested that there were a few significant differences in Afro-Caribbean and African American students' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity

  17. [ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma). Achievements in 10 years and future needs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Zernotti, Mario E; Larenas-Linnemann, Désireé; Cruz, Alvaro A; González-Díaz, Sandra N; Ivancevich, Juan C; Aldrey-Palacios, Oscar; Sisul, Juan C; Solé, Dirceu; Cepeda, Alfonso M; Jares, Edgardo J; Calvo Gil, Mario; Valentin-Rostán, Marylin; Yáñez, Anahí; Gereda, José; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Rosario, Nelson; Croce, Víctor H; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, G Walter; Demoly, Pascal; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schünemann, Holger J; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bedbrook, Anna; Zuberbier, Torsten; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma represent global problems of public health affecting all age groups; asthma and allergic rhinitis frequently coexist in the same patients. In Latin American prevalence of allergic rhinitis, although variable, is very high. Allergic rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) started during a workshop of the World Health Organization performed in 1999 and was published in 2001. ARIA proposed a new classification of allergic rhinitis in intermittent or persistent and mild or moderate-severe. This approach of classification reflects more nearly the impact of allergic rhinitis in patients. In its review of 2010 ARIA developed guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis and of clinical practices for management of comorbidities of allergic rhinitis and asthma based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Development and Evaluation). ARIA has been spread and implemented in more than 50 countries. In Latin American an intense activity has been developed to spread these recommendations in almost all the countries of the region and it is important to record the obtained goals in the diffusion and implementation of ARIA, as well as to identify the unsatisfied needs from the clinical, research and implementation points of view. Final objective is to reinforce the priority that allergy and asthma should have, especially in children, in the programs of public health, as they have been prioritized in European Union in 2011.

  18. Achieving a “Grand Convergence” in Global Health: Modeling the Technical Inputs, Costs, and Impacts from 2016 to 2030

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Colin F.; Levin, Carol; Hatefi, Arian; Madriz, Solange; Santos, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The Commission on Investing in Health published its report, GlobalHealth2035, in 2013, estimating an investment case for a grand convergence in health outcomes globally. In support of the drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we estimate what the grand convergence investment case might achieve—and what investment would be required—by 2030. Methods and Findings Our projection focuses on a sub-set of low-income (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). We start with a country-based (bottom-up) analysis of the costs and impact of scaling up reproductive, maternal, and child health tools, and select HIV and malaria interventions. We then incorporate global (top-down) analyses of the costs and impacts of scaling up existing tools for tuberculosis, additional HIV interventions, the costs to strengthen health systems, and the costs and benefits from scaling up new health interventions over the time horizon of this forecast. These data are then allocated to individual countries to provide an aggregate projection of potential cost and impact at the country level. Finally, incremental costs of R&D for low-income economies and the costs of addressing NTDs are added to provide a global total cost estimate of the investment scenario. Results Compared with a constant coverage scenario, there would be more than 60 million deaths averted in LIC and 70 million deaths averted in LMIC between 2016 and 2030. For the years 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, the incremental costs of convergence in LIC would be (US billion) $24.3, $21.8, $24.7, and $27, respectively; in LMIC, the incremental costs would be (US billion) $34.75, $38.9, $48.7, and $56.3, respectively. Conclusion Key health outcomes in low- and low-middle income countries can significantly converge with those of wealthier countries by 2030, and the notion of a “grand convergence” may serve as a unifying theme for health indicators in the SDGs. PMID:26452263

  19. Impact of an Online Homework Program on the Achievement of College Students Enrolled in First Semester General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesgen, Brian D.

    Technology is finding an ever increasing role in university level courses. One area of particular interest is the use of online or computer based homework programs. This study investigated the potential impact of one of the leading commercial chemistry homework management systems on the performance of students in a first semester general chemistry course. Two groups of students were identified, one which used a basic homework program and one which used a Web-based, customizable, problem-grading application that was provided prompt feedback. The 2005 American Chemical Society First Semester General Chemistry Exam as the benchmark of understanding general chemistry. No statistically significant difference was found between the scores of the two groups. A statistically significant correlation between performance on the homework assignments and the final exam was noted, but seemed to disappear when analysis was particularized.

  20. Achieving social change on gender-based violence: a report on the impact evaluation of Soul City's fourth series.

    PubMed

    Usdin, S; Scheepers, E; Goldstein, Susan; Japhet, Garth

    2005-12-01

    The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication--a South African multi-media health promotion project--together with the National Network on Violence Against Women, formulated an intervention to address domestic violence. Recognising that behavioural change interventions aimed solely at individuals have limited impact, the intervention was designed to impact at multiple mutually reinforcing levels; individual, community and socio-political environment. The intervention and its evaluation results are presented. Soul City successfully reached 86%, 25% and 65% of audiences through television, print booklets and radio, respectively. On an individual level there was a shift in knowledge around domestic violence including 41% of respondents hearing about the helpline. Attitude shifts were also associated with the intervention, with a 10% increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence was a private affair. There was also a 22% shift in perceptions of social norms on this issue. Qualitative data analysis suggests the intervention played a role in enhancing women's and communities' sense of efficacy, enabling women to make more effective decisions around their health and facilitating community action. The evaluation concluded that implementation of the Domestic Violence Act can largely be attributed to the intervention. While demonstrating actual reductions in levels of domestic violence was not possible, the evaluation shows a strong association between exposure to intervention components and a range of intermediary factors indicative of, and necessary to bring about social change. This paper reports on the evaluation, discusses its limitations and challenges as well as lessons learned regarding multi-level interventions on domestic violence.

  1. Education and Outreach at the Earthscope National Office: 2012 Update on Activities and Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.; Bohon, W.; Pacheco, H. A.; Schwab, P.; Baumback, D.; Pettis, L.; Colunga, J.; Robinson, S.; Dick, C.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org) funded by the National Science Foundation fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of seismology, geodesy, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. EarthScope scientific data and findings are transforming the study of Earth structure and processes throughout the planet. These data enhance the understanding and mitigation of hazards and inform environmental and economic applications of geoscience. The EarthScope Program also offers significant resources and opportunities for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO continues to actively support and promote E&O with programmatic activities such as a regularly updated presence on the web and social media, newsletters, biannual national conferences, workshops for E&O providers and informal educators (interpreters), collaborative interaction with other Earth science organizations, continuing education for researchers, promotion of place-based education, and support for regional K-12 teacher professional-development programs led by EarthScope stakeholders. EarthScope E&O, coordinated by ESNO, leads the compilation and dissemination of the data, findings, and legacy of the epic EarthScope Program. In this presentation we offer updated reports and outcomes from ESNO E&O activities, including web and social-media upgrades, the Earth Science E&O Provider Summit for partnering organizations, the Central Appalachian Interpretive Workshop for informal Earth science educators, the U.S. Science and Engineering Fair, and collaborative efforts with partner organizations. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  2. Earthscope National Office Education and Outreach Program: 2014 Update on Broader-Impacts Activities and Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Robinson, S.; Bohon, W.; Schwab, P.; Arrowsmith, R.; Garnero, E.; Pettis, L.; Baumback, D.; Dick, C.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope Program (www.earthscope.org), funded by the National Science Foundation, fosters interdisciplinary exploration of the geologic structure and evolution of the North American continent by means of geodesy, seismology, magnetotellurics, in-situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high-resolution topographic measurements. EarthScope data, and the scientific findings they underpin, continue to revolutionize geoscientific research, enhance understanding and mitigation of geologic hazards, and bolster applications of geoscience in environmental management and sustainability. The EarthScope Program also produces and shares a wide range of resources and opportunities for education and outreach (E&O) in the Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves all EarthScope stakeholders, including researchers, educators, students, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes E&O through social media and the web, inSights newsletters and published articles, E&O workshops for informal educators (interpreters), an annual Speaker Series, assistance to grassroots K-12 STEM teacher professional development projects (typically led by EarthScope researchers), continuing education for researchers, collaborations with other Earth-science E&O providers, and biennial National Conferences. The EarthScope E&O program at ESNO, now in its final year at Arizona State University, leads and supports wide dissemination of the data, findings, and legacy of EarthScope. Significant activities in 2014 include an Interpretive Workshop in Alaska; the US Science and Engineering Festival; the Decade Symposium in Washington, DC; the Great ShakeOut; local and regional outreach; and a continued strong and exemplary E&O presence online. The EarthScope National Office is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants EAR-1101100 and EAR-1216301. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  3. A Reflection on the Broader, Systemic Impacts of Youth Volunteer Abroad Programmes: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluim, Gary W. J.; Jorgenson, Shelane R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and appeal of youth volunteer abroad (YVA) programmes, powerful critiques are emerging. While these programmes tend to promise much in the way of global ethics and global citizenship in youth participants, they often neglect to seriously interrogate the one-way movement of people from the centre to the periphery…

  4. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages.

  5. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  6. The impact of concomitant diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis on the achievement of minimal disease activity in subjects with psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pappone, Nicola; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Iervolino, Salvatore; Lupoli, Roberta; Mader, Reuven; Zincarelli, Carmela; Peluso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by ossification of different entheses. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a seronegative spondyloarthritis associated with psoriasis. Given the possible overlap of the two diseases, we assessed whether DISH presence may affect PsA clinical outcomes. Also, predictors of DISH presence in the cohort were investigated. Consecutive PsA patients from two Italian Rheumatology Research Units were enrolled. Subjects were splitted into two groups, according to the current treatment (TNF-α blockers or traditional DMARDs). All patients underwent a rheumatologic examination, blood sample collections and spine radiographs. Information about traditional vascular risk factors was recorded. In each patient, the presence of minimal disease activity was evaluated and the presence of DISH was established according to the Resnick and Niwayama criteria. Among the 80 enrolled subjects (57.5 % men, mean age 56.5 ± 11.1 years), the overall prevalence of DISH was 30.0 %. Patients with DISH were older, with higher BMI and waist circumference. DISH subjects showed worsen BASMI, HAQ and ESR. In a multivariate regression model, BASMI was a significant predictor of DISH presence (OR 3.027, 95 % CI 1.449-6.325, p = 0.003). The prevalence of MDA was lower in DISH patients than in no-DISH (16.7 vs 41.1 %, p = 0.041), and the presence of DISH was a predictor of not achieving MDA (OR 3.485, 95 % CI 1.051-11.550, p = 0.041). PsA subjects with DISH showed worsen indices of spine mobility and articular function and lower prevalence of minimal disease activity than no-DISH patients.

  7. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the reforms led…

  8. Quantifying the broader economic consequences of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Germany applying a government perspective framework.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Remy, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    HPV infections can cause substantial burden in females and males as it is associated with several genital cancers, in addition to genital warts. Traditional economic evaluations often focus on quantifying cost-effectiveness, however, it is increasingly recognized that vaccinations may generate broader benefits not captured in cost-effectiveness analysis. Τhe aim of this study was to evaluate the broader economic consequences associated with HPV vaccination in males and females and to conduct a lifetime cost-benefit analysis of investing in universal vaccination in Germany from the perspective of government. Methodologies from generational accounting, human capital and health economics were combined to estimate the broader economic consequences of HPV vaccination including the fiscal impact for the government. A cohort model was developed simulating the medical costs and average lifetime fiscal transfers between the government and 12-year-old immunized and non-immunized males and females. To estimate tax revenue attributed to vaccination-related changes in morbidity and mortality, direct and indirect tax rates were linked to differences in age- and gender-specific earnings. Based on HPV vaccination costs, the base case cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that investing 1 in universal HPV vaccination could yield 1.7 in gross tax revenue over the lifetime of the cohorts. After taking into consideration the governmental transfers, universal HPV vaccination in Germany could result in incremental positive net discounted taxes (i.e. tax revenue-transfers) from 62 million for the German government. The vaccination of males and females with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is likely to have positive effects on public finances.

  9. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  10. Why We Should Study the Broader Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a term applied to individuals with personality and cognitive traits that are similar to but milder than those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle autistic traits in the core diagnostic domains of social communication and rigid behavior were described in family members of people with an ASD even…

  11. Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents of Autistic Children: Reality or Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.

    2008-01-01

    The finding that relatives of individuals with autism show mild autistic traits is referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In the current study, 25 parents with a child with high-functioning autism and 25 parents with typically developed children were compared on: (1) the Block Design Test, (2) the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and (3)…

  12. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  13. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Group Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Maretha; Parr, Jeremy; Rutter, Michael; Wallace, Simon; Kemner, Chantal; Bailey, Anthony; van Engeland, Herman; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of…

  14. Broader Autism Phenotype and Nonverbal Sensitivity: Evidence for an Association in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…

  15. The impact of a science-based integrated instructional protocol on the motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth and fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kathy E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing an integrated instructional protocol of science-based informational texts as teacher read alouds, student independent reading, and written journal responses on motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth- and fifth-grade students with attention to specific student groups, including gender and ethnicities. A mixed methods research design included a 12-week intervention conducted with 68 fourth and fifth graders and 30 nonintervention fourth and fifth graders. Participating fourth and fifth graders completed the comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ([GMRT] MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000) and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills ([TAKS] Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2005a). The Reading Survey of the Motivation to Read Profile ([MRP], Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) served as another quantitative data source. Qualitative data sources included classroom observations, key informant interviews, and student journal entries. The GMRT results indicated that the intervention fourth graders demonstrated the largest growth in reading comprehension achievement. Significant differences were noted by GMRT results between the intervention and nonintervention fourth graders. A significant difference was found between fourth-grade males and females on the GMRT, with a larger gain posted by the females. No significant differences were found on the GMRT in fifth grade Reading TAKS results indicated a significant difference between intervention fourth-grade Hispanic and African American students, while fifth-grade Science TAKS results indicated no significant differences. The MRP Reading Survey results indicated no significant differences; however, fourth-grade Hispanic and fifth-grade male students demonstrated significant growth. Classroom observations documented the progress of the 12-week intervention; 9 primary instructional and

  16. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison With a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Gita

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in students' lives, the importance of chemistry, the difficulty of chemistry, interest in chemistry, and the usefulness of chemistry for their future career. Though the STS approach students had higher attitude post scores, there was no significant difference between the STS and textbook students' attitude post scores. It was noted that females had higher postattitude scores in the STS group, while males had higher postattitude scores in the textbook group. With regard to postachievement, I noted that males had higher scores in both groups. A correlation existed between postattitude and postachievement in the STS classroom. In summary, while an association between attitude and achievement was found in the STS classroom, teaching approach or sex was not found to influence attitudes, while sex was also not found to influence achievement. These results, overall, suggest that attitudes are not expected to change on the basis of either teaching approach or gender, and that techniques other than changing the teaching approach would need to be used in order to improve the attitudes of students. Qualitative analysis of an online discussion activity on Energy revealed that STS students were able to apply aspects of chemistry in decision making related to socioscientific issues. Additional analysis of interview and written responses provided insight regarding attitudes toward chemistry, with respect to topics of applicability of chemistry to life, difficulties with chemistry, teaching approach for chemistry, and the intent for enrolling in additional chemistry courses. In addition, the surveys of female students brought out

  17. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective: A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.; Connolly, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However, limited funds may impede the implementation of population-based programmes. Governmental investments in the prevention of infectious disease may have broader economic and fiscal benefits, which are not accounted in conventional economic analyses. This study estimates the broader economic and fiscal impacts of implementing HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening in Indonesia from the perspective of the government. Methods A government-perspective quantitative analytic framework was applied to assess the Net Present Value (NPV) of investment on cervical cancer prevention strategies including HPV vaccination, cervical screening and its combination in Indonesia. All monetary values were presented in International Dollars (I$). Results Based on a cohort of 10,000,000 Indonesian 12-year-old females, it was estimated that HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening result in a positive NPV for the Indonesian government. The combination of cervical screening and HPV vaccination generated a substantial reduction of cervical cancer incidence and HPV-related mortality of 87,862 and 19,359, respectively. It was estimated that HPV vaccination in combination with cervical screening is the most favorable option for cervical cancer prevention (NPV I$2.031.786.000), followed by HPV vaccination alone (NPV I$1.860.783.000) and cervical screening alone (NPV I$375.244.000). Conclusion In addition to clinical benefits, investing in HPV vaccination and cervical screening may yield considerable fiscal benefits for the Indonesian governments due to lifelong benefits resulting from reduction of cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:27490258

  18. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas S; Hess, Andrew M

    2015-03-24

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists' personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers' personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications' topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one's current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists' personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  19. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Thomas S.; Hess, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists’ personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers’ personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications’ topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one’s current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists’ personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  20. Broader Geographic Sharing of Pediatric Donor Lungs Improves Pediatric Access to Transplant.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, W M; Chan, K M; Skeans, M A; Pyke, J; Hertz, M I; Israni, A J; Robbins-Callahan, L; Visner, G; Wang, X; Wozniak, T C; Valapour, M

    2016-03-01

    US pediatric transplant candidates have limited access to lung transplant due to the small number of donors within current geographic boundaries, leading to assertions that the current lung allocation system does not adequately serve pediatric patients. We hypothesized that broader geographic sharing of pediatric (adolescent, 12-17 years; child, <12 years) donor lungs would increase pediatric candidate access to transplant. We used the thoracic simulated allocation model to simulate broader geographic sharing. Simulation 1 used current allocation rules. Simulation 2 offered adolescent donor lungs across a wider geographic area to adolescents. Simulation 3 offered child donor lungs across a wider geographic area to adolescents. Simulation 4 combined simulations 2 and 3. Simulation 5 prioritized adolescent donor lungs to children across a wider geographic area. Simulation 4 resulted in 461 adolescent transplants per 100 patient-years on the waiting list (range 417-542), compared with 206 (range 180-228) under current rules. Simulation 5 resulted in 388 adolescent transplants per 100 patient-years on the waiting list (range 348-418) and likely increased transplant rates for children. Adult transplant rates, waitlist mortality, and 1-year posttransplant mortality were not adversely affected. Broader geographic sharing of pediatric donor lungs may increase pediatric candidate access to lung transplant. PMID:26523747

  1. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas S; Hess, Andrew M

    2015-03-24

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists' personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers' personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications' topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one's current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists' personal dispositions influence research processes and products.

  2. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  3. The Appropriateness of Consolidation in Illinois: A Study of the Impact of Poverty, District Type, and Size on Expenditures and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether or not enrollment, poverty rate, and district type could be used to predict cost and achievement, as measured on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and Prairie State Achievement Exam, at the building and district levels within the state of Illinois. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational…

  4. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  6. Focusing the EarthScope for a broader audience: Advancing geoscience education with interactive kiosks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Solis, T.

    2012-12-01

    A primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research, however, is often the translation of a technical result into a clear teachable moment that is accessible to a broader audience. As 4D multimedia now dominate most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), we have made a major effort to construct and install customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. We are also developing new kiosk content that reflect career stories showcasing the personal journeys of EarthScope scientists. To truly bring the interactive aspect of our EarthScope kiosk media into the classroom, we have collaborated with local teachers to develop a one-page EarthScope TerraMap activity worksheet that guides students through kiosk content. These activities are shaping a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  7. Valuing the broader benefits of dengue vaccination, with a preliminary application to Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer C

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of dengue has been on the rise since at least the 1960s, bringing greater urgency to the need for a vaccine to prevent the disease. Recent advances suggest that the scientific world is moving closer to an effective dengue vaccine. However, there are concerns that the price of a future vaccine could limit its uptake. High prices, in addition to other challenges, have already weighed negatively in government decisions to include other new vaccines in national immunization programs, e.g., the pneumococcal, rotavirus, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Recent research on the value of vaccination, however, suggests that vaccination confers benefits that are often neglected by traditional economic evaluations. In the case of dengue, commonly overlooked benefits are likely to include reduced spending on outbreak control, averted losses in tourism flows, and avoided productivity losses due to long-term dengue sequelae. Accounting for these and other broader benefits of dengue vaccination could reveal significantly greater economic value and strengthen the case for inclusion of dengue vaccination in national immunization programs. In this article we discuss a framework for the broader value of vaccination and review its application in the context of dengue vaccination for Brazil. PMID:23886895

  8. First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load.

    PubMed Central

    Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Allavena, Clotilde; Delpierre, Cyrille; Duvivier, Claudine; Obry-Roguet, Véronique; Cano, Carla E.; Guillouet de Salvador, Francine; Rey, David; Dellamonica, Pierre; Cheret, Antoine; Cuzin, Lise; Katlama, Christine; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT’AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients. We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8+ T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed. CD8+ T-cell counts were assessed in 572 patients treated with 2NRTIs+1PI/r (n= 297), 2NRTIs+1NNRTI (n= 207) and 3NRTIs (n= 68). In multivariate analysis, after 12 months of follow-up, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a significantly smaller decrease of CD8+ T-cell count compared with NNRTI-containing regimens (–10.2 cells/μL in 3NRTIs vs –105.1 cells/μL; P=0.02) but not compared with PI-containing regimens (10.2 vs –60.9 cells/μL; P=0.21). After 24 months, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a smaller decrease of CD8+ T-cell count and % compared with PI/r- and NNRTI-containing regimens (0.2 in 3NRTIs vs –9.9 with PI/r-regimens, P=0.001, and vs –11.1 with NNRTI-regimens, p < 0.0001). A focus analysis on 11 patients treated with an INSTI-containing cART regimen during the study period showed after 12 months of follow-up, a median decrease of CD8+ T-cell count of –155 [inter quartile range: –302; –22] cells/μL. Our data highlight the fact that cART regimens have differential effects on CD8 pool down regulation. PMID:27741125

  9. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  10. A Multi-Site Case Study of a Professional Learning Community Model: The Impact of Learning Team Meetings on Teacher Practice and Student Achievement from the Perspective of Teachers and Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meles, Ora

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the implementation of a structured professional learning community model referred to as Learning Team Meetings (LTMs) on teacher practice and student achievement from the perspective of teachers and instructional leaders at high-need schools. To accomplish this purpose, a multi-site case study…

  11. Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

  12. The Impact of Resources on Education: A Position Paper on How Theories of Social Capital Provide Insight on the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…

  13. The Impact of Learning Styles on Student Achievement in a Web-Based versus an Equivalent Face-to-Face Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharis, Nick Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between students' learning styles and their achievement in two different learning environments: online instruction and traditional instruction. The results indicated that a) students in the traditional learning group had higher, but not statistically significant higher, levels of achievement than students…

  14. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  15. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management (“no ban”, n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown (“ban”, n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. Fishery Income in Implementing Villages In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing

  16. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change in the United States. The primary goal of this framework to estimate how climate change impac...

  17. Suggestions on how to do Successful Science and Contribute to the Broader Aims of Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    I would like make the following suggestions to early career scientists, especially if they want they want to contribute to science policy. First of all it is important that they first establish a reputation in their respective fields by the normal method of publishing papers and giving presentations at scientific meetings. They should become involved in the scientific societies by volunteering for committees and helping organize sessions at annual and specialized meetings. They should also develop a broader perspective of their field of research and be willing to serve on committees dealing with science priorities, science education, and science policy. I plan to cite my experience as well as others as examples of what can be done.

  18. Multilevel water governance and problems of scale: setting the stage for a broader debate.

    PubMed

    Moss, Timothy; Newig, Jens

    2010-07-01

    Environmental governance and management are facing a multiplicity of challenges related to spatial scales and multiple levels of governance. Water management is a field particularly sensitive to issues of scale because the hydrological system with its different scalar levels from small catchments to large river basins plays such a prominent role. It thus exemplifies fundamental issues and dilemmas of scale in modern environmental management and governance. In this introductory article to an Environmental Management special feature on "Multilevel Water Governance: Coping with Problems of Scale," we delineate our understanding of problems of scale and the dimensions of scalar politics that are central to water resource management. We provide an overview of the contributions to this special feature, concluding with a discussion of how scalar research can usefully challenge conventional wisdom on water resource management. We hope that this discussion of water governance stimulates a broader debate and inquiry relating to the scalar dimensions of environmental governance and management in general.

  19. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Jennifer; Bernier, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP), these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical twins showing high concordance for the diagnosis and related traits and approximately 20% of all ASD cases having an identified genetic mechanism. This paper highlights the studies conducted to date regarding the BAP and considers the implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of ASD. PMID:22937250

  20. New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype: group differentiation.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Maretha; Parr, Jeremy; Rutter, Michael; Wallace, Simon; Kemner, Chantal; Bailey, Anthony; van Engeland, Herman; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of parents of 28 multiplex autism families were compared with parents from, 32 DS families. The BAP measures provided good group differentiation but when considered together, the subject interview did not improve group differentiation. The differentiation was better for fathers than mothers. The measures do carry an important degree of validity; whether they can differentiate the BAP from other social disorders should be tested. PMID:25245786

  1. Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with ASD—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pisula, Ewa; Ziegart-Sadowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Although less pronounced, social, cognitive, and personality characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be present in people who do not meet ASD diagnostic criteria, especially in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD. Research on these characteristics, referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP), provides valuable data on potential expressions of autism-specific deficits in the context of family relations. This paper offers a review of research on BAP in siblings of individuals with ASD, focusing on reports regarding social, communication, and cognitive deficits, published from 1993 to 2014. The studies are divided into two groups based on participants’ age: papers on preschool and older siblings of individuals with ASD; and publications on infants at risk for ASD. On the basis of this review, suggestions are offered for further research and its significance for our understanding of the genetic determinants of autism. PMID:26068453

  2. Giving Time Purpose: The Synechococcus elongatus Clock in a Broader Network Context.

    PubMed

    Shultzaberger, Ryan K; Boyd, Joseph S; Diamond, Spencer; Greenspan, Ralph J; Golden, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Early research on the cyanobacterial clock focused on characterizing the genes needed to keep, entrain, and convey time within the cell. As the scope of assays used in molecular genetics has expanded to capture systems-level properties (e.g., RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, metabolomics, high-throughput screening of genetic variants), so has our understanding of how the clock fits within and influences a broader cellular context. Here we review the work that has established a global perspective of the clock, with a focus on (a) an emerging network-centric view of clock architecture, (b) mechanistic insights into how temporal and environmental cues are transmitted and integrated within this network,

  3. Intranodal myofibroblastoma presenting in the submandibular region: evidence of a broader clinical and histological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, C D; Stirling, R W

    1990-03-01

    Intranodal myofibroblastoma is an uncommon benign mesenchymal tumour of lymph nodes which was first described in May 1989. All the cases described to date have presented exclusively in the groin, a feature which has been regarded as distinctive. Two new cases are presented herein, both of which arose in the submandibular region of middle-aged females. Both lesions showed histological features marginally different from the cases originally described, which may reflect their different anatomical location. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for muscle-specific actin (HHF 35), as previously described, and ultrastructural examination in one case confirmed the presence of myofibroblasts. The data presented suggest that this distinctive lesion has a broader clinicopathological spectrum than previously realised.

  4. The 'diagonal' approach to Global Fund financing: a cure for the broader malaise of health systems?

    PubMed Central

    Ooms, Gorik; Van Damme, Wim; Baker, Brook K; Zeitz, Paul; Schrecker, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Background The potentially destructive polarisation between 'vertical' financing (aiming for disease-specific results) and 'horizontal' financing (aiming for improved health systems) of health services in developing countries has found its way to the pages of Foreign Affairs and the Financial Times. The opportunity offered by 'diagonal' financing (aiming for disease-specific results through improved health systems) seems to be obscured in this polarisation. In April 2007, the board of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria agreed to consider comprehensive country health programmes for financing. The new International Health Partnership Plus, launched in September 2007, will help low-income countries to develop such programmes. The combination could lead the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to a much broader financing scope. Discussion This evolution might be critical for the future of AIDS treatment in low-income countries, yet it is proposed at a time when the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is starved for resources. It might be unable to meet the needs of much broader and more expensive proposals. Furthermore, it might lose some of its exceptional features in the process: its aim for international sustainability, rather than in-country sustainability, and its capacity to circumvent spending restrictions imposed by the International Monetary Fund. Summary The authors believe that a transformation of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria into a Global Health Fund is feasible, but only if accompanied by a substantial increase of donor commitments to the Global Fund. The transformation of the Global Fund into a 'diagonal' and ultimately perhaps 'horizontal' financing approach should happen gradually and carefully, and be accompanied by measures to safeguard its exceptional features. PMID:18364048

  5. Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Prabhu L.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a “redux” version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  6. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified.

  7. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  8. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  9. The Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement in the Middle Schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Quantitative Analysis of Existing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  11. Does Subject Matter Matter? Estimating the Impact of Instructional Practices and Resources on Student Achievement in Science and Mathematics: Findings from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabah, Saed; Hammouri, Hind

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of selected classroom factors (the emphasis on a student-centred approach, the shortage of instructional resources and homework) on the science and mathematics achievement of Jordanian eighth graders using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study of 2007. The analytical model also included…

  12. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  13. The Impact of Differentiated Reading Homework Assignments on Students' Attitudes toward Homework, Motivation to Read, Interest in Reading, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickerson, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that there is no relationship between traditional homework completion and academic achievement among elementary grade students. Yet, elementary school teachers continue to utilize this practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between nontraditional, differentiated reading…

  14. The Impact of Using Technology on Student Achievement: Teaching Functions with the TI-Nspire to 9th Grade Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Barbara Renee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TI-Nspire graphing calculator use on student achievement and on teacher behavior variables of planning, teaching, and assessing. This study investigated the teaching of functions by teachers using the TI-Nspire graphing calculator versus teachers using a non-graphing scientific calculator. …

  15. The Impact of Shadow Education on Student Academic Achievement: Why the Research Is Inconclusive and What Can Be Done about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have brought global expansion of private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education. Such tutoring consumes considerable resources and is usually viewed by participating households as an investment that will increase the recipients' academic achievements. However, research on the effectiveness of tutoring has…

  16. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. Discussion Paper No. 1361-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes…

  17. The Impact of Additional Weekdays of Active Commuting to School on Children Achieving a Criterion of 300+ Minutes of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly-Smith, Andy J. W.; McKenna, Jim; Radley, Duncan; Long, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of additional days of active commuting for meeting a criterion of 300+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 60+ mins/day x 5) during the school week. Methods: Based on seven-day diaries supported by teachers, binary logistic regression analyses were used to predict achievement of MVPA…

  18. Examining the Impact of an Integrative Method of Using Technology on Students' Achievement and Efficiency of Computer Usage and on Pedagogical Procedure in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurevich, Irina; Gurev, Dvora

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we follow the development of the pedagogical procedure for the course "Constructions in Geometry" that resulted from using dynamic geometry software (DGS), where the computer became an integral part of the educational process. Furthermore, we examine the influence of integrating DGS into the course on students' achievement and…

  19. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  20. The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Minerva Mungia

    2013-01-01

    Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for…

  1. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  2. Impact of a Career Intervention on At-Risk Middle School Students' Career Maturity Levels, Academic Achievement, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…

  3. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  4. The Impact of the Use of One-to-One Netbooks on Student Achievement, Teacher Practice, and Perceptions of Technology in a Fourth-Grade Bilingual Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukofser, J. Holly

    2013-01-01

    This research involved a 14-month qualitative case study of a fourth-grade bilingual class embarking on a one-to-one netbook computer initiative. Students in this program had unlimited use of the netbooks during the school day. The main foci of the data collected were student achievement, teacher instruction, and student and teacher perceptions of…

  5. Commentary Regarding Bui, Craig, and Imberman (2011): "Is Gifted Education a Bright Idea? Assessing the Impacts of Gifted and Talented Programs on Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Tonya R.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a large southwestern school district, Bui, Craig, and Imberman investigated the effects of gifted and talented programming on middle school students' achievement and behavior (attendance and discipline) through two avenues. Using a regression discontinuity design for the first set of analyses, the authors took advantage of a…

  6. An Investigation of Linguistic, Cognitive, and Affective Factors that Impact English Language Learners' Performance on a State Standardized Reading Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel Halpern, Carine S.

    2009-01-01

    The explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies has been proposed as a means to better prepare secondary school-aged students for today's information-dense, fast-paced, fast-changing global society, and to improve the academic performance of struggling adolescent readers. This proposition of a direct and positive impact of reading…

  7. Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as…

  8. The Impact of Cooperative and Traditional Learning on the Academic Achievement of Third Grade Students in Selected Rural School Districts in Northeast, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shawn Lamont L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that cooperative learning and traditional learning have on the academic performance of elementary school students in rural school districts. Cooperative learning is considered a typical model that can maximize the effectiveness of constructivism. Slavin (1991, p. 71) completed a synthesis of research on cooperative…

  9. Master Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program on Leadership Practices, School Cultures and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Diana

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative dissertation study was conducted to examine the impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program through the perspective of those who have completed the entire program and attained designation as a Master Principal. A logic model for the Master Principal Program offered a context for the study. A review of…

  10. Achieving College Success: The Impact of the College Success/STEM Program on Students' Matriculation to and Persistence in College. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Souvanna, Phomdaen

    2014-01-01

    This College Success Research Brief is one of a series of briefs documenting the implementation and impact of Mass Insight's College Success/STEM program. The research briefs are intended to share key findings, highlight ongoing questions and lines of inquiry, and inform the thinking of practitioners and policymakers on how to scale up efforts to…

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Impacts of GIS on the Motivation and Achievement in Geography among Underachieving Students of Smart School in Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Soon Singh Bikar; Kleeman, Grant; Van Bergen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, the integrated secondary school curriculum was introduced as a continuation of the curriculum changes introduced in the primary school. These changes have impacted geography subject in the secondary school. Geography becomes a compulsory subject for lower secondary and elective subject at the upper secondary school level. As a result,…

  12. An Assessment of the Impact of a Science Outreach Program, Science In Motion, on Student Achievement, Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Phillip Allen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student…

  13. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  14. Hedonic Capacity in the Broader Autism Phenotype: Should Social Anhedonia Be Considered a Characteristic Feature?

    PubMed

    Novacek, Derek M; Gooding, Diane C; Pflum, Madeline J

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social motivational processes may partially explain the differences in social interaction seen among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social motivation hypothesis would predict an association between reduced hedonic capacity and ASD. However, to date, findings have been mixed regarding hedonic deficits among individuals with ASD; adults report lower levels of both social and physical pleasure whereas adolescents only report experiencing lower social pleasure. Moreover, very few studies examining the association between anhedonia and autistic traits have used measures of hedonic response or taken temporal aspects of pleasure into account. The present study examined associations between autistic traits and the experience of pleasure using a non-clinical sample of young adults to further clarify the nature of hedonic deficits in the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Results revealed that autistic traits were negatively associated with both the experience of social pleasure as well as general pleasure, although the association was stronger for social pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that reduced social pleasure was a better predictor of autistic traits than general pleasure. Together these findings suggest that reduced social hedonic capacity is associated with autistic traits in the general population and should be included in conceptualizations of the BAP.

  15. Recent progress in blanket materials development in the Broader Approach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Nozawa, T.; Jitsukawa, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Baluc, N.; Möslang, A.; Lindou, R.; Tosti, S.; Hodgson, E. R.; Clement Lorenzo, S.; Kohyama, A.; Kimura, A.; Shikama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Araki, M.

    2011-10-01

    As a part of the Broader Approach activities, R&D on blanket related materials, reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a structural material, SiC f/SiC composites for flow channel insert in the liquid blanket and/or use as advanced structural material, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier, has been initiated directed at DEMO. As part of the RAFM steel mass production development, a 5 ton heat of RAFM steel (F82H) was procured by Electro Slag Re-melting as the secondary melting method, which was effective in controlling unwanted impurities. An 11 ton heat of EUROFER was also produced. For the SiC f/SiC composite development, NITE- and CVI-SiC f/SiC composites were prepared as reference materials and preliminary mechanical and physical properties were measured. Also compatibility tests between SiC and Pb-17Li have been prepared, related to the He-cooled Li-Pb blanket concept. For the beryllide neutron multiplayer Be-Ti alloy development, large size rods of about 30 mm diameter were fabricated successfully in EU.

  16. Metal ion activated lipase from halotolerant Bacillus sp. VITL8 displays broader operational range.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Lavanya; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2014-06-01

    Lipase producing halo tolerant Bacillus sp. VITL8 was isolated from oil contaminated areas of Vellore. The identity of the organism was established by 16S rDNA sequence, in addition to the morphological and biochemical characterization. The purified enzyme (22kDa, 8680U/mg) exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 40°C and retained more than 50% of its activity in the NaCl concentration range of 0-3.0M, pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-60°C. Secondary structure analysis, using circular dichroism, revealed that the enzyme is composed of 38% α-helix and 29% β-turns. The lipase activity significantly increased in the presence of (1mM) Mn(2+) (139%), Ca(2+) (134%) and Mg(2+) (130%). Organic solvents such as butanol and acetonitrile (25%, v/v) enhanced the activity whereas DMSO (25% v/v) retained the activity. The Km of enzyme-p-Nitrophenyl palmitate complex was determined to be 191μM with a Vmax of 68μM/mg/min. Though halotolerant Bacillus sp. has been explored for hydrocarbon degradation, to our knowledge this is the first report on the lipase activity of the isolate. The characteristics of the enzyme presented in this report, imply broader operational range of the enzyme and therefore could be suitable for many of the industrial chemical processes. PMID:24704541

  17. Opening a Window into Reading Development: Eye Movements’ Role Within a Broader Literacy Research Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brett; O’Donnell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative body of eye movement research provides significant insight into how readers process text. The heart of this work spans roughly 40 years reflecting the maturity of both the topics under study and experimental approaches used to investigate reading. Recent technological advancements offer increased flexibility to the field providing the potential to more concertedly study reading and literacy from an individual differences perspective. Historically, eye movement research focused far less on developmental issues related to individual differences in reading; however, this issue and the broader change it represents signal a meaningful transition inclusive of individual differences. The six papers in this special issue signify the recent, increased attention to and recognition of eye movement research’s transition to emphasize individual differences in reading while appreciating early contributions (e.g., Rayner, 1986) in this direction. We introduce these six papers and provide some historical context for the use of eye movement methodology to examine reading and context for the eye movement field’s early transition to examining individual differences, culminating in future research recommendations. PMID:24391304

  18. Mechanisms of developmental regression in autism and the broader phenotype: a neural network modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Knowland, Victoria C P; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Loss of previously established behaviors in early childhood constitutes a markedly atypical developmental trajectory. It is found almost uniquely in autism and its cause is currently unknown (Baird et al., 2008). We present an artificial neural network model of developmental regression, exploring the hypothesis that regression is caused by overaggressive synaptic pruning and identifying the mechanisms involved. We used a novel population-modeling technique to investigate developmental deficits, in which both neurocomputational parameters and the learning environment were varied across a large number of simulated individuals. Regression was generated by the atypical setting of a single pruning-related parameter. We observed a probabilistic relationship between the atypical pruning parameter and the presence of regression, as well as variability in the onset, severity, behavioral specificity, and recovery from regression. Other neurocomputational parameters that varied across the population modulated the risk that an individual would show regression. We considered a further hypothesis that behavioral regression may index an underlying anomaly characterizing the broader autism phenotype. If this is the case, we show how the model also accounts for several additional findings: shared gene variants between autism and language impairment (Vernes et al., 2008); larger brain size in autism but only in early development (Redcay & Courchesne, 2005); and the possibility of quasi-autism, caused by extreme environmental deprivation (Rutter et al., 1999). We make a novel prediction that the earliest developmental symptoms in the emergence of autism should be sensory and motor rather than social and review empirical data offering preliminary support for this prediction.

  19. Opening a Window into Reading Development: Eye Movements' Role Within a Broader Literacy Research Framework.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; O'Donnell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative body of eye movement research provides significant insight into how readers process text. The heart of this work spans roughly 40 years reflecting the maturity of both the topics under study and experimental approaches used to investigate reading. Recent technological advancements offer increased flexibility to the field providing the potential to more concertedly study reading and literacy from an individual differences perspective. Historically, eye movement research focused far less on developmental issues related to individual differences in reading; however, this issue and the broader change it represents signal a meaningful transition inclusive of individual differences. The six papers in this special issue signify the recent, increased attention to and recognition of eye movement research's transition to emphasize individual differences in reading while appreciating early contributions (e.g., Rayner, 1986) in this direction. We introduce these six papers and provide some historical context for the use of eye movement methodology to examine reading and context for the eye movement field's early transition to examining individual differences, culminating in future research recommendations. PMID:24391304

  20. Receiver psychology turns 20: is it time for a broader approach?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Bee, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Twenty years ago, a new conceptual paradigm known as 'receiver psychology' was introduced to explain the evolution of animal communication systems. This paradigm advanced the idea that psychological processes in the receiver's nervous system influence a signal's detectability, discriminability and memorability, and thereby serve as powerful sources of selection shaping signal design. While advancing our understanding of signal diversity, more recent studies make clear that receiver psychology, as a paradigm, has been structured too narrowly and does not incorporate many of the perceptual and cognitive processes of signal reception that operate between sensory transduction and a receiver's response. Consequently, the past two decades of research on receiver psychology have emphasized considerations of signal evolution but failed to ask key questions about the mechanisms of signal reception and their evolution. The primary aim of this essay is to advocate for a broader receiver psychology paradigm that more explicitly includes a research focus on receivers' psychological landscapes. We review recent experimental studies of hearing and sound communication to illustrate how considerations of several general perceptual and cognitive processes will facilitate future research on animal signalling systems. We also emphasize how a rigorous comparative approach to receiver psychology is critical to explicating the full range of perceptual and cognitive processes involved in receiving and responding to signals.

  1. Anticoagulant factor V: factors affecting the integration of novel scientific discoveries into the broader framework.

    PubMed

    LaBonte, Michelle L

    2014-09-01

    Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, factor V has long been viewed as an important procoagulant protein in the coagulation cascade. However, in the later part of the 20th century, two different scientists proposed novel anticoagulant roles for factor V. Philip Majerus proposed the first anticoagulant function for factor V in 1983, yet ultimately it was not widely accepted by the broader scientific community. In contrast, Björn Dahlbäck proposed a different anticoagulant role for factor V in 1994. While this role was initially contested, it was ultimately accepted and integrated into the scientific framework. In this paper, I present a detailed historical account of these two anticoagulant discoveries and propose three key reasons why Dahlbäck's anticoagulant role for factor V was accepted whereas Majerus' proposed role was largely overlooked. Perhaps most importantly, Dahlbäck's proposed anticoagulant role was of great clinical interest because the discovery involved the study of an important subset of patients with thrombophilia. Soon after Dahlbäck's 1994 work, this patient population was shown to possess the factor V Leiden mutation. Also key in the ultimate acceptance of the second proposed anticoagulant role was the persistence of the scientist who made the discovery and the interest in and ability of others to replicate and reinforce this work. This analysis of two different yet similar discoveries sheds light on factors that play an important role in how new discoveries are incorporated into the existing scientific framework. PMID:24853975

  2. A broader definition of occupancy: A reply to Hayes and Monofils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fatif, Quresh; Ellis, Martha M.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence–absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility. Animal mobility is an important consideration, not just for occupancy models, but for a variety of population and habitat models (Boyce 2006, Royle et al. 2009, Manning and Goldberg 2010, Dormann et al. 2013, Renner et al. 2015). Nevertheless, we believe the ultimate conclusions of Hayes and Monfils are shortsighted mainly due to a narrow interpretation of occupancy. Rather than turn away from the use of occupancy models, we believe they remain an appropriate method for analyzing many data sets collected from avian point count surveys. Further, we suggest that there is value in having a broader and more nuanced interpretation of occupancy that incorporates the potential for animal movement. 

  3. Broader incubation temperature tolerances for microbial drinking water testing with enzyme substrate tests.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Robert L; Tung, Rosalind

    2014-03-01

    Microbiological testing is an integral part of measures to ensure safe drinking water. However, testing can be restricted in low-resource settings by the requirement for specialized laboratory facilities and testing procedures. Precisely controlled incubation temperature is one example. The effect of varied incubation temperatures on the performance of two enzyme substrate tests for the detection of Escherichia coli and total coliforms has been examined. The aim was to determine whether these tests would provide consistent and comparable enumeration over a broader temperature range than currently specified. Recovery of chlorine-injured and wild type E. coli was examined over a range of non-standard incubation temperatures in comparison to 37 °C ± 1. Colilert(®) and Aquatest, a new E. coli-specific detection medium, served as the two representative enzyme substrate media. Recovery of chlorine-injured E. coli in Colilert was not impaired within the range 33-39 °C; the equivalent range in Aquatest medium was 31-43 °C. Both these tests recovered E. coli without significant loss of performance over a wider range of temperatures than currently specified.

  4. Subgrouping siblings of people with autism: Identifying the broader autism phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Autistic traits were measured in typical controls (n = 2,000), siblings (n = 496), and volunteers with ASC (n = 2,322) using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), both self-report and parent-report versions. Using cluster analysis of AQ subscale scores, two sibling subgroups were identified for both males and females: a cluster of low-scorers and a cluster of high-scorers. Results show that while siblings as a group have intermediate levels of autistic traits compared to control individuals and participants with ASC, when examined on a cluster level, the low-scoring sibling group is more similar to typical controls while the high-scoring group is more similar to the ASC clinical group. Further investigation into the underlying genetic and epigenetic characteristics of these two subgroups will be informative in understanding autistic traits, both within the general population and in relation to those with a clinical diagnosis. Autism Res 2016, 9: 658-665. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  5. Patient and Clinician Openness to Including a Broader Range of Healing Options in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Clarissa; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Hoffmeyer, Sylvia; Sherman, Karen J.; Phillips, William R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We studied the openness of patients and clinicians to introducing a broader range of healing options into primary care. METHODS Focus groups were conducted with primary care patients (4 groups) and clinicians (3 groups) from an integrated medical care system in 2008. Transcripts of discussions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization approach. RESULTS Both patients (n = 44) and clinicians (n = 32) were open to including a wider variety of healing options in primary care. Patients desired some evidence of effectiveness, although there was wide variation in the type of evidence required. Many patients believed that the clinician’s personal and practice experience was an important form of evidence. Patients wanted to share in the decision to refer and the choice of options. Clinicians were most concerned with safety of specific treatments, including some of the herbs and dietary supplements. They also believed they lacked adequate information about the nature, benefits, and risks of many alternatives, and they were not aware of local practitioners and resources to whom they could confidently refer their patients. Both patients and clinicians were concerned that services recommended be covered by insurance or be affordable to patients. CONCLUSIONS Integrating additional healing options into primary care may be feasible and desirable, as well as help meet the needs of patients with conditions that have not been responsive to standard medical treatments. PMID:21911764

  6. Receiver psychology turns 20: is it time for a broader approach?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Bee, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, a new conceptual paradigm known as ‘receiver psychology’ was introduced to explain the evolution of animal communication systems. This paradigm advanced the idea that psychological processes in the receiver's nervous system influence a signal's detectability, discriminability and memorability, and thereby serve as powerful sources of selection shaping signal design. While advancing our understanding of signal diversity, more recent studies make clear that receiver psychology, as a paradigm, has been structured too narrowly and does not incorporate many of the perceptual and cognitive processes of signal reception that operate between sensory transduction and a receiver's response. Consequently, the past two decades of research on receiver psychology have emphasized considerations of signal evolution but failed to ask key questions about the mechanisms of signal reception and their evolution. The primary aim of this essay is to advocate for a broader receiver psychology paradigm that more explicitly includes a research focus on receivers' psychological landscapes. We review recent experimental studies of hearing and sound communication to illustrate how considerations of several general perceptual and cognitive processes will facilitate future research on animal signalling systems. We also emphasize how a rigorous comparative approach to receiver psychology is critical to explicating the full range of perceptual and cognitive processes involved in receiving and responding to signals. PMID:24013277

  7. Hedonic Capacity in the Broader Autism Phenotype: Should Social Anhedonia Be Considered a Characteristic Feature?

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Derek M.; Gooding, Diane C.; Pflum, Madeline J.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social motivational processes may partially explain the differences in social interaction seen among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social motivation hypothesis would predict an association between reduced hedonic capacity and ASD. However, to date, findings have been mixed regarding hedonic deficits among individuals with ASD; adults report lower levels of both social and physical pleasure whereas adolescents only report experiencing lower social pleasure. Moreover, very few studies examining the association between anhedonia and autistic traits have used measures of hedonic response or taken temporal aspects of pleasure into account. The present study examined associations between autistic traits and the experience of pleasure using a non-clinical sample of young adults to further clarify the nature of hedonic deficits in the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Results revealed that autistic traits were negatively associated with both the experience of social pleasure as well as general pleasure, although the association was stronger for social pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that reduced social pleasure was a better predictor of autistic traits than general pleasure. Together these findings suggest that reduced social hedonic capacity is associated with autistic traits in the general population and should be included in conceptualizations of the BAP. PMID:27199879

  8. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts.

  9. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  10. Patent Certification and Technical Report (Development of Human Resources & Broader Impacts under DOE Grant to Professor Akbar Montaser)

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, Akbar

    2006-09-01

    The products of this research are listed, including publications and patents/applications, presentations, dissertations/theses, and degrees. It describes the diversity of the students, awards, and post-doctoral positions. Practical applications invented include a sensitive approach for detection of radionuclides with no radioactive solution waste; a selective and sensitive method for analyzing small volume biological samples having Cr bound to human lung DNA at the femtogram level; a precise method for determination of depleted uranium in urine via isotope ratio measurements

  11. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure.

  12. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure. PMID:26372681

  13. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge: An Innovative Broader Impacts Strategy for Helping Scientists Share Discoveries and Connect with Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Watson, M.; Windsor, J. G.; Buckley, M.; Diederick, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists conduct exciting, ground-breaking research that addresses many of world's greatest challenges. Yet, far too often, the importance, meaning, and relevance of their discoveries are never shared with persons outside their discipline. Recognizing the need for scientists to communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) saw an opportunity to connect the two through film. In the fall 2013, COSEE Florida launched the Ocean 180 Video Challenge to tap into the competitive spirit of scientists and inspire them to share their latest discoveries with the public. The competition encouraged scientists to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Videos were initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts and the winners (from a field of ten finalists) were selected by more than 30,000 middle school students from 285 schools in 13 countries. Our presentation will review the outcomes and lessons learned from the 2014 competition and describe how contest videos are being used for professional development/training and educational purposes. We will also describe how video competitions can benefit both scientists and the target audience and be effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students and the public.

  14. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of ‘evo-devo’. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters—the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids—a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  15. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  16. Evaluating SRTM and ASTER DEM accuracy for the broader area of Sparti, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Zervakou, Alexandra

    2007-10-01

    One of the major projects of the Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (IGME) is called "Urban Geology". In the frame of that project there is need for a high accuracy DEM covering the whole country. The DEM should be used for the orthorectification of high resolution images and other applications such as slope map creation, environmental planning et.c. ASTER and SRTM are two possible sources for DEM covering the whole country. According to the specifications the ASTER vertical accuracy of DEM is about 20m with 95% confidence while the horizontal geolocation accuracy appears to be better than 50 m. More recent studies have shown that the use of GCP's resulted in a plannimetric accuracy of 15 m and in a near pixel size vertical accuracy. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. An SRTM 3-arc-second product (90m resolution) is available for the entire world. In this paper we examine the accuracy of SRTM and ASTER DEMs in comparison to the accuracy of the 1/5.000 topographic maps. The area of study is the broader area of Sparti, Greece. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. A DEM derived from digitized contours of the 1:5.000 topographic maps was created and compared with ASTER and SRTM derived DEMs. Fifty-five points of known elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these three DEMs. Slope and aspect maps were created and compared. The elevation difference between the three DEMs was calculated. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed. The three DEMs were used for the orthorectification of very high resolution data and the final orthophotos were compared.

  17. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  18. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  19. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  20. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women.

  1. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  2. Teaching for All? Teach for America's Effects across the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates…

  3. Heads UP!: A Nested Intervention with Freshmen Male College Students and the Broader Campus Community to Promote Responsible Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Lamb, Toby F.; Bove, Lane

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed several guidelines for effective interventions in dealing with problematic college student drinking, including targeted individual interventions paired with broader campus community involvement. The project Heads UP! combines these suggestions in an effort to intervene with high-risk…

  4. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample.…

  5. A Comparison of Three Self-Report Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wainer, Allison; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2011-01-01

    Three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) were evaluated in terms of their internal consistency, distribution of scores, factor structure, and criterion-related validity in a non-clinical sample. All measures showed a continuous distribution. The SRS-A and BAPQ showed expected sex differences and were superior to the AQ in…

  6. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  7. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  8. The Role of Higher Education within Broader Skills Policies, a Comparison of Emerging Scottish and English Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the important role played by higher education in broader skills and economic development policies in England and Scotland. It places the often divergent policy experiments and structural developments in these two countries' higher education systems within an international policy context and explains why England and…

  9. The impact of time-varying phosphorus doping on ZnMgO thin films and achievement of dominant acceptor-bound-exciton peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Nagar, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-03-01

    ZnO is a highly efficient and promising semiconductor material because of its large bandgap (3.37 eV) and exciton binding energy (60 meV). MgO also has a very high bandgap (7.8 eV), and the incorporation of Mg into ZnO can result in an alloy with a bandgap of more than 4 eV . We used plasma immersion ion implantation to dope phosphorus into Zn0.85Mg0.15O for achieving p-type ZnMgO. RF sputtering was used to deposit ZnMgO on a Si substrate. Phosphorus doping was conducted from 10 s to 70 s. Rapid thermal annealing of the samples was performed to remove any implantation defects. A highly dominant acceptor-bound-exciton peak was observed at 3.36 eV by photoluminescence measurements, which continued to dominate from low temperature to room temperature. Donor-bound acceptor and free-electron acceptor peaks were also observed at 3.24 eV and 3.28 eV, respectively.

  10. The impact of focused, long-term, and collaborative professional development in math and science participants' self-efficacy, classroom practice, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, Mary E.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a 2-year professional development model in math and science on the self-efficacy of the teacher and its effects on teacher practice and student outcomes. Further, this study sought to incorporate the instructional use of Inquiry-Based Learning methods of Problem-Based Learning, Japanese Lesson Study, and Action Research. Additionally, this study examined the impacts of these interventions on teacher efficacy and student outcomes. Thirty-eight collaborating participants were purposefully selected by the Math and Science Teacher Academy (MASTA) project grant co-directors because of their content-focused classrooms of mathematics and science. This quasi-experimental study included mathematics and science in-service teachers working on their masters in education. The 2-year, bi-monthly professional development model included collaborating Inquiry-Based Learning communities with in-depth focus on Japanese Lesson Study, Problem-Based Learning instruction, and Action Research. A chi-square analysis was conducted by grade on the difference in passing rate from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills mathematics and science tests between the MASTA participants and the state passing average. In mathematics there were significant v differences only at grades 3 and 7 where the state passing average was significantly higher than the MASTA students' passing rate. Only at grade 5 was the MASTA students' passing rate higher than the state, but the difference was not significantly different. The science passing rate received from three grade 5 MASTA participants was compared to the state average and a chi-squared was conducted. Although the passing rate for the grade 5 science test was 6% higher for MASTA student that the state, the difference was not statistically significant. However, after analyzing the qualitative participant responses from data gathered during the 2-year MASTA grant the data clearly reflected that

  11. Mendel's Research Legacy in the Broader Historical Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orel, Vítezslav; Peaslee, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    This historical narrative describes the foundation of education as established by J. A. Comenius (1592-1670). It explores the transfer of Comenius' tenets, utilized and modified through the years, up to their impact upon the ground-breaking experiments of G. Mendel (1822-1884), "the father of genetics". It explores the questions of…

  12. Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Empirical Investigation of the Broader Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased…

  13. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  14. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  15. Quaternary shorelines of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. (SE Peloponnese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Tsivgoulis, Nikolaos; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information about the landscape evolution of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. during the Quaternary. In order to investigate the geomorphic evolution of the study area the uplifted coastal landforms, such as shore platforms, notches and remnants of marine terraces, were studied in detail through extensive field-work using topographic diagrams at a scale of 1:5,000, obtained from the Hellenic Military Geographical Service. Additionally, a spatial database was constructed derived from analogue topographic maps at various scales (1:50,000 and 1:5,000), geological maps (1:50,000 maps of IGME), aerial photographs and Google earth images using GIS techniques. The study area is located in SE Peloponnese in a particularly tectonically active area. Geodynamic processes in the region, which is part of the Hellenic island arc, are related to the active subduction of the African lithosphere beneath the Eurasian plate. The Paleozoic basement of the study area consists of geological formations of the geotectonic units of Arna, Tripolis, and Pindus. The Alpine basement is overlain by extensive outcrops of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene formations are composed of marine - lacustrine deposits which are mainly pelites, sandstones, conglomerates, calcarenites and carbonate rocks with red algae whereas Pleistocene formations consist of fluvioterrential deposits (clay, sands, loams and angular rock fragments). The Holocene deposits consist of talus cones, scree, and unconsolidated alluvial deposit, eluvial mantle materials and coastal sand dunes along the N, NE and S shoreline of Elafonissos Isl. as well as at Cape Punta. The general trend of the faults in the study area is mainly NW-SE with some secondary ones having NE-SW direction. Along the coast between Cape Koulendi and Cape Maleas, uplifted geomorphological features were mapped, including marine terraces, shore platforms and

  16. An assessment of the impact of a science outreach program, Science In Motion, on student achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Phillip Allen

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student cognitive functioning, data were collected from the Mobile County Public School System based upon student performance on Criterion Referenced Tests (CRT's), consisting of the students' average score, percent of students passing the test (students scoring 60 percent or above), and the percent of students who were considered proficient, (students scoring 70 percent or above). The researcher hypothesized that (1) the students of teachers who participate in the SIM program would have statistically significant higher scores on their science CRT's than students of the same teacher prior to the teacher's participation in the SIM program, (2) students of science teachers who participate in the SIM program would have statistically significant higher scores on their science CRT's than students of science teachers who do not participate in the SIM program, and (3) teachers who participate in the SIM program would have a higher efficacy, as measured on the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale developed by Tschnnen-Moran & Hoy (2001), than science teachers who do not participate in the SIM program. Statistical significant differences at the p < .05 level were found for all research hypotheses except for hypothesis 3. No statistical significant differences were found between the efficacy of teachers who participate in the SIM program and those who do not participate. The researcher also investigated whether or not being involved in the SIM program affected the participating teachers' perspectives towards teaching science, funding of the science laboratory, and high stakes science testing and accountability. A phenomenological qualitative study was

  17. Enzymatically cross-linked gelatin-phenol hydrogels with a broader stiffness range for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shan; Du, Chan; Chung, Joo Eun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2012-05-01

    An injectable hydrogel system, composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugates chemically cross-linked by an enzyme-mediated oxidation reaction, has been designed as a biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering. In light of the role of substrate stiffness on cell differentiation, we herein report a newly improved Gtn hydrogel system with a broader range of stiffness control that uses Gtn-HPA-tyramine (Gtn-HPA-Tyr) conjugates to stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The Gtn-HPA-Tyr conjugate was successfully synthesized through a further conjugation of Tyr to Gtn-HPA conjugate by means of a general carbodiimide/active ester-mediated coupling reaction. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible measurements showed a higher total phenol content in the Gtn-HPA-Tyr conjugate than that content in the Gtn-HPA conjugate. The Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by the oxidative coupling of phenol moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Rheological studies revealed that a broader range of storage modulus (G') of Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel (600-26,800 Pa) was achieved using different concentrations of H(2)O(2), while the G' of the predecessor Gtn-HPA hydrogels was limited to the range of 1000 to 13,500 Pa. The hMSCs on Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel with G' greater than 20,000 showed significantly up-regulated expressions of osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) on both the gene and protein level, with the presence of alkaline phosphatase, and the evidence of calcium accumulation. These studies with the Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel with G' greater than 20,000 collectively suggest the stimulation of the hMSCs into osteogenic differentiation, while these same observations were not found with the Gtn-HPA hydrogel with a G' of 13,500.

  18. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims at determining the synoptic conditions that favour the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin. In a first step, an objective and dynamic algorithm was set up to identify the strong aerosol episodes, based on daily aerosol optical depth values at 550nm (AOD550nm) from MODIS-Terra satellite database over the period 2000-2007. According to the algorithm, strong aerosol episodes occurred in each geographical cell (1o x 1o spatial resolution) of the study area whenever AODmean+2STDV≤AOD550nm

  19. Columbia River food webs: Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Naiman, Robert J.; Pearcy, William; Rieman, Bruce; Ruggerone, Greg; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter; Wood, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to provide a fundamental understanding of aquatic food webs in the Columbia River Basin and to illustrate and summarize their influences on native fish restoration efforts. The spatial scope addresses tributaries, impoundments, the free-flowing Columbia and Snake rivers, as well as the estuary and plume. Achieving the Council's vision for the Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC 2009-09) of sustaining a "productive and diverse community" that provides "abundant" harvest, is best accomplished through a time-prioritized action plan, one that complements other approaches while addressing important challenges and uncertainties related to the Basin's food webs. Note that the oceanic food webs, although of immense importance in sustaining fish populations, are not considered beyond the plume since they involve an additional set of complex and rapidly evolving issues. An analysis of oceanic food webs of relevance to the Columbia River requires a separately focused effort (e.g., Hoegh- Guldberg and Bruno 2010).

  20. Designing Personalized Spaces that Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Randy

    2009-01-01

    "Yes we can!" Those famous three words of the Obama campaign could serve as the theme for the culture of hope and excellence at the Cristo Rey Jesuit High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Many of the students arrive in the 9th grade with reading and math skills at an early elementary school level. Others lack the basic life skills to look an…

  1. Direct radiative effects induced by intense desert dust outbreaks over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Obiso, Vincenzo; Vendrell, Lluis; Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Gassó, Santiago; Baldasano, Jose Maria

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the year, under favorable conditions, massive loads of mineral particles originating in the northern African and Middle East deserts are transported over the Mediterranean basin. Due to their composition and size, dust aerosols perturb the Earth-Atmosphere system's energy budget interacting directly with the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The present study aims to compute the Mediterranean dust outbreaks' direct radiative effects (DREs) as well as to assess the effect of including dust DREs in numerical simulations of a regional model. To this aim, 20 intense dust outbreaks have been selected based on their spatial coverage and intensity. Their identification, over the period 2000-2013, has been achieved through an objective and dynamic algorithm which utilizes as inputs daily satellite retrievals derived by the MODIS-Terra, EP-TOMS and OMI-Aura sensors. For each outbreak, two simulations of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model were made for a forecast period of 84 hours, with the model initialized at 00 UTC of the day when the dust outbreak was ignited, activating (RADON) and deactivating (RADOFF) dust-radiation interactions. The simulation domain covers the northern Africa, the Middle East and Europe at 0.25° x 0.25° horizontal resolution, for 40 hybrid sigma pressure levels up to 50 hPa. The instantaneous and regional DREs have been calculated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), into the atmosphere (ATMAB), and at surface, for the downwelling (SURF) and the absorbed (NETSURF) radiation, for the SW, LW and NET (SW+LW) radiation. The interaction between dust aerosols and NET radiation, locally leads to an atmospheric warming (DREATMAB) by up to 150 Wm-2, a surface cooling (DRENETSURF) by up to 250 Wm-2 and a reduction of the downwelling radiation at the surface (DRESURF) by up to 300 Wm-2. At TOA, DREs are mainly negative (down to -150 Wm-2) indicating a cooling of the Earth-Atmosphere system, although positive values (up to 50 Wm-2) are encountered

  2. The Relationship between the Broader Autism Phenotype, Child Severity, and Stress and Depression in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child symptom severity, parent broader autism phenotype (BAP), and stress and depression in parents of children with ASD. One hundred and forty-nine parents of children with ASD completed a survey of parenting stress, depression, broader autism phenotype, coping styles, perceived social support, and…

  3. Digital literacy in a landscape of data: a plea for a broader definition for citizens and patients.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Jean A

    2005-01-01

    The term 'digital literacy' is taking on a broader definition and greater urgency, as ubiquitous computing becomes a reality, and individuals and communities find their bodies and actions creating an exuberant wellspring of rich, complex data. These biological and sociological data can be ignored, used alone or shared with others for various reasons - for personal or social good or ill. Although strategies to protect our data from commercial, criminal, and governmental access are already being debated daily in the media, this paper is a brief plea for why we need to expand our concerns beyond the current financial and medical record security issues.

  4. Digital literacy in a landscape of data: a plea for a broader definition for citizens and patients.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Jean A

    2005-01-01

    The term 'digital literacy' is taking on a broader definition and greater urgency, as ubiquitous computing becomes a reality, and individuals and communities find their bodies and actions creating an exuberant wellspring of rich, complex data. These biological and sociological data can be ignored, used alone or shared with others for various reasons - for personal or social good or ill. Although strategies to protect our data from commercial, criminal, and governmental access are already being debated daily in the media, this paper is a brief plea for why we need to expand our concerns beyond the current financial and medical record security issues. PMID:16301785

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature–pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jesse P.; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  7. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature-pH-salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-09-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  8. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature-pH-salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-09-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division.

  9. Taking a Broader View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    A study on stem cells is presented by understanding the environment in which they are found, the support cells and blood vessels as well as the protein scaffolds and other molecules. Researchers found that stem cells in reproductive tissue are surrounded by a pocket of support cells that hold them in place and align them to divide properly, so…

  10. Polling analysis: public support for health reform was broader than reported and depended on how proposals were framed.

    PubMed

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Asch, David A

    2011-07-01

    The excessive focus of news organizations on "horse race" public opinion polls during the debate about health reform in 2010 left the impression that the public was fickle, as well as sharply divided on whether the government's role in health care should expand. We examined polling data and found that public support for health reform depended very much on how individual policies were described. For example, support for the public insurance option, which was not included in the final version of the Affordable Care Act, ranged from 46.5 percent to 64.6 percent depending on how pollsters worded their questions. Our findings indicate that public support for health reform was broader and more consistent than portrayed at the time. Going forward, policy makers should strive to communicate how health care policy choices are consistent with existing public preferences or should make changes to policy that reflect those preferences.

  11. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  12. Committed dis(s)idents: participation in radical collective action fosters disidentification with the broader in-group but enhances political identification.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver

    2011-08-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that participation in radical, but not moderate, action results in disidentification from the broader in-group. Study 1 (N = 98) was a longitudinal study conducted in the context of student protests against tuition fees in Germany and confirmed that participation in radical collective action results in disidentification with the broader in-group (students) whereas participation in moderate collective action does not. Both types of action increased politicized identification. Study 2 (N = 175) manipulated the normativeness of different types of imagined collective actions in the same context and replicated this disidentification effect for radical actions, but only when this action mismatched the broader in-group's norms. This study also indicated that these effects were partially mediated by perceived lack of solidarity and perceived lack of commitment to the cause among the broader in-group. The implications of these findings for understanding radicalization within social movements are discussed. PMID:21543649

  13. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…