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Sample records for achieving countercurrent integral

  1. Achieving clinical integration.

    PubMed

    Redding, John

    2013-11-01

    To develop an effective and sustainable clinically integrated network (CIN) that positions a healthcare organization for value-based payment and other effects of healthcare reform, leaders of CIN initiatives should: Embrace progress rather than perfection; Constrain the development timeline by project managing in reverse; Ensure that physician leaders play an oversight role in the development process. PMID:24340650

  2. Achieving Curriculum-Integrated Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudd, Samuel; Wilson, William

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of strategies for integrating computers into an undergraduate curriculum on an institution-wide basis focuses on quality instructional documents and the diffusion model, which is used to incorporate innovations in a user population. The plan at Gettysburg College for curriculum-integrated computing (CIC) based on the diffusion…

  3. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

  4. Achieving Integrated FEA Model and Loads Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Dominick; Huf, Brian; Hagstrom, Dustin

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in enterprise level simulation tools now enable CAE engineers and managers to keep up with today’s accelerating rate in the number and complexity of simulation models. All simulation related activities including Finite Element Models (FEM) variants and their respective results datasets can now be captured and managed. This provides valuable model pedigree from the source geometry referenced in the PDM system, spacecraft design and FEM configurations, external loads, simulation results and internal loads down to key results with the final critical design review and test correlation reports. The process presented in this paper demonstrates how simulation data capture and relationships can be achieved. Moreover, process management from conceptual design to spacecraft final proto-flight tests can now be achieved systematically and efficiently while performing and ensuring model quality, all the way from assembly level down to component level. MSC Software’s SimXpert and SimManager, two commercial off-the-shelf software codes, are used to highlight the benefits of this approach. In addition, an automation process that performs model validation per aerospace engineering best practice standards is also presented.

  5. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  6. Primary Process Integration on the Rorschach and Achievement in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between primary process integration (PPI) and achievement was investigated. Fifty-one second graders received the Rorschach, which was scored by Holt's Primary Process Scoring System. Achievement criteria were academic grade average and reading test scores. The hypothesis that PPI is positively related to achievement was…

  7. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  8. Countercurrent-distribution studies on histones

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J. A. V.; Power, D. F.; Palau, J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The possibilities of fractionating histones and histone fractions by means of countercurrent distribution between two phases formed by water and butan-2-ol, in the presence of various concentrations of trichloroacetic acid, have been examined. 2. Although the principal histone fractions differ considerably in their partition ratios, a satisfactory resolution of the principal histone fractions from the whole histone has not been achieved. 3. The histone fractions obtained by other methods can be resolved with suitable concentrations of trichloroacetic acid. Besides the main peak several subsidiary peaks are obtained in most cases, the composition of which corresponds with others of the main fractions. 4. The method is therefore capable of removing from the principal fractions as previously prepared contamination by other fractions. 5. Except in one case, no fraction with composition unlike other fractions has been obtained. In several cases the material isolated from the principal peak behaves as a single component on running again. In two cases fractions with similar compositions were distinguished by countercurrent distribution. PMID:6029613

  9. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  10. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  11. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  12. Integrating Technology for Academic Achievement in Phonics and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Hope I.

    2010-01-01

    With the push for teacher accountability and the controversy concerning high-stakes testing, more teachers are looking for systematic ways to increase academic achievement. If the U.S. is to regain its global position as number 1 in the education arena, education policy must dictate that teachers integrate technology as a regular part of core…

  13. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  14. Recent progress on countercurrent chromatography modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengkang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2014-01-01

    As countercurrent chromatography is becoming an established method in chromatography for many kinds of products, it is becoming increasingly important to model the process and to be able to predict the peaks for a given process. The CCC industries are looking for rapid methods to analyze the processes of countercurrent chromatography and select suitable solvent system. In this paper, recent progress is reviewed in the development and demonstration of several types of models of countercurrent chromatography. Literature lists a number of countercurrent chromatography (CCC) models that can predict the retention time and to a certain extent the peak width of a solute eluting from a CCC column, such as cell model, CCD model, CSTRs model, probabilistic model, temperature dependence plate model, physical models, etc. PMID:25580072

  15. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  16. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz's Human Values.

    PubMed

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz's universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  17. Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of weather and climate. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1,-4,6,-4,1) filter instead of a (1,-2,1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models. Reference Williams PD (2013) Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations. Monthly Weather Review 141(9), pp 3037-3051. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00303.1

  18. Isolation of chlorophylls a and b from spinach by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jubert, Carole; Bailey, George

    2007-01-26

    A method for the isolation of chlorophylls from spinach by counter-current chromatography was developed. An initial extraction protocol was devised to avoid the notorious sensitivity of chlorophylls to degradation by light, heat, oxygen, acids and bases. Further purification and separation of chlorophylls a and b were achieved using counter-current chromatography. Chlorophyll structures and purities were established by HPLC, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Purity was estimated to be >95% (100% by HPLC). Typical yields from 30g of freeze-dried spinach were 300mg of chlorophyll a and 100mg of chlorophyll b. PMID:17164074

  19. Fidelity as a Precondition for Integrity in Grading Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2010-01-01

    If a grade is to be trusted as an authentic representation of a student's level of academic achievement, one of the requirements is that all the elements that contribute to that grade must qualify as achievement, and not be something else. The implications of taking this proposition literally turn out to be far reaching. Many elements that are…

  20. When Achievement Data Meet Drama and Arts Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine; Tabone, Carmine; Weltsek, Gustave

    2011-01-01

    In this research, two questions related to arts integration are studied: First, the extent to which sixth and seventh grade students' language arts and mathematics performance, as well as their engagement with school are positively impacted by classroom settings in which theater strategies are integrated into language arts instruction; and second,…

  1. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  2. Achieving "Querencia": Integrating a Sense of Place with Disciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Charles R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish word "querencia," evocative of how feelings and deepest beliefs attach the self to place (Lopez, 1992), invites the rediscovery of the meaning of equity as a reciprocal relationship between peoples and the landscapes they inhabit. This article begins with an exploration of a concept of "reciprocal equity," cultivated by achieving such…

  3. Evaluating Biology Achievement Scores in an ICT Integrated PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Kamisah; Kaur, Simranjeet Judge

    2014-01-01

    Students' achievement in Biology is often looked up as a benchmark to evaluate the mode of teaching and learning in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that focuses on students' solving a problem through collaborative groups. There were eighty samples involved in this study. The samples were divided into three…

  4. The effects of instruction on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Michael J.; Okey, James R.; Garrard, Kathryn

    While the philosophical importance of the integrated science process skills is often unchallenged, there is a lack of research with middle and secondary school students to indicate when or how these skills might best be taught. In this study different patterns and amounts of instruction on planning experiments were used with sixth- and eighth-grade students. A model for generating integrated process skill lessons was used to produce all lessons. Treatment One involved a two-week introductory unit on integrated process skills, followed by one period-long process skill activity per week for 14 weeks. Treatment Two involved only the same two-week introductory unit. Treatment Three was a contrast group which received only content oriented instruction. Results showed that both sixth- and eighth-grade students can learn to use certain integrated process skills; growth was apparent in identifying variables and stating hypotheses. Differences generally favored treatment one over treatment three. No differences favoring any treatment were found for formal operational ability outcomes.

  5. Relational Integration as a Predictor of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Stefan; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Schmidt-Atzert, Lothar; Buhner, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at applying a broad model of cognitive functions to predict performance in science and language courses at school as well as performance in a science course at university. We hypothesized that performance in science courses was predominantly related to the cognitive function known as relational integration, whereas…

  6. Achieving revenue integrity in hospitals and health systems.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Marianne; Najera, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Bellevue Hospital sought to improve its performance in three areas-days in accounts receivable (A/R), denials, and charge capture-to enhance revenue integrity. Results included the following: A 30-percent reduction in days in A/R. A nearly 200 percent increase in bad debt collections. A more than $1.6 million reduction in denials write-offs. An improvement in net revenue of more than $1 million. PMID:22978037

  7. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  8. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles. PMID:23240206

  9. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  10. Countercurrent Separation of Natural Products: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the current instrumentation, method development, and applications in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), collectively referred to as countercurrent separation (CCS). The article provides a critical review of the CCS literature from 2007 since our last review (J. Nat. Prod.2008, 71, 1489–1508), with a special emphasis on the applications of CCS in natural products research. The current state of CCS is reviewed in regard to three continuing topics (instrumentation, solvent system development, theory) and three new topics (optimization of parameters, workflow, bioactivity applications). The goals of this review are to deliver the necessary background with references for an up-to-date perspective of CCS, to point out its potential for the natural product scientist, and thereby to induce new applications in natural product chemistry, metabolome, and drug discovery research involving organisms from terrestrial and marine sources. PMID:26177360

  11. Gender Difference in Integrated Science Achievement among Pre Service Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afuwape, Moses O.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated science achievement of graduating pre-service teachers over a period of 3 years was examined for gender differences. Data were drawn from students' (126 male and 127 female) final year results from a college of education in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the gender gap in integrated science achievement, among the sample data, could…

  12. Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Camilla C.; Munday, Tim; Heinson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Numerous airborne electromagnetic surveys have been acquired in Australia using a variety of systems. It is not uncommon to find two or more surveys covering the same ground, but acquired using different systems and at different times. Being able to combine overlapping datasets and get a spatially coherent resistivity-depth image of the ground can assist geological interpretation, particularly when more subtle geophysical responses are important. Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data can be challenging, given differences in system configuration, geometry, flying height and preservation or monitoring of system acquisition parameters such as waveform. In this study, we define and apply an approach to overlapping AEM surveys, acquired by fixed wing and helicopter time domain electromagnetic (EM) systems flown in the vicinity of the Goulds Dam uranium deposit in the Frome Embayment, South Australia, with the aim of mapping the basement geometry and the extent of the Billeroo palaeovalley. Ground EM soundings were used to standardise the AEM data, although results indicated that only data from the REPTEM system needed to be corrected to bring the two surveys into agreement and to achieve coherent spatial resistivity-depth intervals.

  13. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  14. Achieving Seventh-Order Amplitude Accuracy in Leapfrog Integrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1, -4, 6, -4, 1) filter instead of a (1, -2, 1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models.

  15. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  16. Triangular Helical Column for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yu, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Effective column space and stationary phase retention have been improved by changing the configuration of the helical column originally used for toroidal coil countercurrent chromatography. The use of an equilateral triangular core for the helix column doubles effective column space and retains the stationary phase over 40% of the total column capacity without increasing the column pressure. The present results suggest that the stationary phase retention and the peak resolution will be further improved using new column designs fabricated by a new technology called "laser sintering for rapid prototyping." PMID:20046940

  17. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  18. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  19. Intermolecular transfer integrals for organic molecular materials: can basis set convergence be achieved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos

    2004-05-01

    Intermolecular transfer integrals, and associated band-structures of organic molecular materials can be calculated through a dimer approach. Extensive numerical studies are performed on an ethylene π-dimer to investigate the basis sets dependence of transfer integrals. Convergence of calculated transfer integrals is achieved with respect to both Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets, provided the same level of theory is used. Effects of diffuse and polarization Gaussian functions on transfer integrals are identified. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of transfer integrals of the TTF-TCNQ charge transfer salt is also presented.

  20. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  1. The impact of integrated instruction on achievement and attitudes towards science of vocational students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, Todd

    Integrated instruction provides students with instruction that is related to their experiences and previous knowledge. This research study used an integrated lesson plan protocol to design integrated science lessons for career and technical students. Students were assigned to either a traditional teaching approach or an integrated teaching approach and achievement and attitudes were then compared. In addition, both the students and the instructor were interviewed regarding their views of the lessons. No significant differences were found in student achievement and attitudes between the traditional and integrated groups but it was found that students thought that a more hands-on approach to learning science would be more effective. The instructor interview also revealed a perception that students in the integrated classroom had a deeper understanding of science content.

  2. Isolation of achyrobichalcone from Achyrocline satureioides by high- speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carini, Juliana P; Leitão, Gilda G; Schneider, Paulo H; Santos, Cristiane C; Costa, Fernanda N; Holzschuh, Maribete H; Klamt, Fábio; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2015-01-01

    Achyrobichalcone is a biflavonoid recently found in Achyrocline satureioides. This substance has unprecedented chemical structure and occurrence, but resembles other bioactive bichalcones, which have important pharmacological properties, such as anticancer activity. The major challenge for evaluation of the physicochemical and biological properties of this new molecule is the isolation step, which affects the purity and yield of the isolated product. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a semi-preparative method for achyrobichalcone isolation from Achyrocline satureioides by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. The high-speed countercurrent chromatography separation was achieved in two steps. In the first step, an enriched fraction of achyrobichalcone from the freeze-dried extract was obtained, using the solvent system hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 0.8:1:0.8:1, v/v. The purification of achyrobichalcone from the enriched fractions was achieved by further high-speed countercurrent chromatography fractionation with hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 0.9:0.9:0.8:1, v/v. The final isolated product was obtained using preparative thin layer chromatography and crystallization procedure. A yellow semi-crystalline solid with purity close to 90% was obtained as the final product. The mass recovery of achyrobichalcone isolation was near 67%. The structural identification from spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques confirmed the achyrobichalcone structure. This is the first report of achyrobichalcone isolation on a semi-preparative scale by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. This method afforded achyrobichalcone in good yield and purity for further biopharmaceutical studies. PMID:25382302

  3. Implementing vertical and horizontal engineering students' integration and assessment of consequence academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-08-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to vertical and horizontal integration. Different activities have been embedded to ensure that students integrated and worked together with their peers and colleagues at different levels. The implemented processes and practices led to improved academic achievements, which were better than those of a similar cohort of students where no effort had been made to integrate. The analysis revealed that cooperative learning and the degree of academic support provided by teachers are positively and directly correlated with academic as well as the students' own sense of personal achievement. The results are discussed in light of previous research and with reference to the cultural context of the study.

  4. WASTEWATER DEMINERALIZATION BY CONTINUOUS COUNTER-CURRENT ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater demineralization study employing a 38 lpm (10 gpm) continuous counter-current ion exchange pilot plant, manufactured by the Chemical Separations Corporation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been conducted at the County Sanitation Districts, Pomona Research Facility, Pomona...

  5. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School.

    PubMed

    Langenkamp, Amy G

    2009-11-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students' level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  6. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School

    PubMed Central

    LANGENKAMP, AMY G.

    2010-01-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students’ level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  7. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  8. Making the Cut: The Impact of an Integrated Learning System on Low Achieving Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, B.; Securro, S.; Jones, J.; Cadle, C.

    2006-01-01

    Research in integrated learning systems has demonstrated a need for rigorous studies that identify how such systems influence learning, and in particular that of low achieving students. No Child Left Behind legislation mandated evidence-based interventions as the standard for instructional approaches in American public schools. This…

  9. 77 FR 1687 - EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... solutions to multiple causes of water pollution. The Agency anticipates that the framework document will... AGENCY EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater Plans Under the Clean Water Act (CWA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  10. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  11. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  12. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  13. The effect of laboratory and lecture teaching methods on cognitive achievement in integrated science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odubunmi, Olagunju; Balogun, T. A.

    A sample of 210 class-two (grade 8) students from six randomly selected classes from six Nigerian schools was divided into two (experimental and control) groups. Using materials from some units of the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP), the experimental group was taught by a laboratory method while the control group was taught by the lecture method. Data were collected using an Achievement Test for Integrated Science Students developed by the authors and student ability was measured by tests secured from the Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan. In analyzing the data, an analysis of covariance was employed. T-test statistics were also used to determine significant difference between means of different groups.High achievers of both groups had identical achievement, but the low achievers in the experimental group performed better than their counterparts in the control group. While the study showed that males in this study prefer laboratory method to lecture method when compared with their female counterparts, the study also revealed that females in the control classes performed better than males of the same group.

  14. The effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rima

    For many years, researchers, policy makers, and the education community have explored various school variables and their impact on student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Invariably, the issue of teacher quality arises. Teacher quality is the single most influential factor under school control that affects student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Generally, students taught by highly qualified teachers perform better on standardized tests than students with less qualified teachers (Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997). Previous research indicates that teachers indeed matter for the improvement of student achievement, but getting good measures of what is meant by teacher quality is a continuing challenge (Goldhaber, 2002). The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC). In order to achieve this purpose, this study addressed the following research question: chemistry and physics teachers compare to the achievement of students taught by less-qualified IPC teachers? A causal-comparative methodology was employed to address this research question. The independent variable was teacher quality---highly-qualified or less qualified. The teacher attributes that were examined in this study are: (1) teachers' educational background; (2) content knowledge; (3) pedagogical knowledge; and (4) certification. The dependent variable was student achievement in integrated physics and chemistry, as measured by an end-of-course IPC District Assessment of Curriculum, IPC DAC. Descriptive statistics were computed for the independent variable in the study. A Chi Square was performed on the data

  15. Student science achievement and the integration of indigenous knowledge in the classroom and on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Juliann

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous students' achievement in standardized assessments (Aikenhead, 1997, 2001b; Barnhardt, 2005b). This dissertation examines the achievement gap that is present between American Indian and White students in Montana. I use data from Montana eighth-grade standardized state science tests to determine whether incorporating indigenous material into classrooms and on state standardized science tests supported these initiatives and whether expected outcomes, such as a decrease in the achievement gap and in increase in Native student test scores, are being generated. Using a quantitative methodology, this study focuses on how American Indian students in Montana perform on standardized state science assessments when knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All," has been included on the tests. Montana is the first state in the United States to use a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to create standardized test items based on this curriculum. This study compares White and American Indian students' test scores on these particular test items and overall test scores to determine the effectiveness of the culturally relevant educational initiatives implemented by Montana's Office of Public Instruction in terms of student achievement on state standardized tests. Results of this study uncover the persistence of an achievement gap, with Native students still underperforming when compared to their majority counterparts. American Indian students continue to score at the "nearing proficiency" level, which is one level lower than White students are scoring, at the proficient level. When scores are investigated for items written

  16. Developments in high-speed countercurrent chromatography and its applications in the separation of terpenoids and saponins.

    PubMed

    Song, Hua; Lin, Jianhong; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation chromatographic technique, which has the unique feature of eliminating irreversible adsorption using liquid support medium, and is widely used in research and development of traditional Chinese medicine, biochemistry, food, environment analysis, and so on. In this review, some new developments of countercurrent chromatography, for instance cross-axis countercurrent chromatography, dual countercurrent chromatography, foam countercurrent chromatography, and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in high-speed countercurrent chromatography techniques and its application in the separation and purification of terpenoids and saponins are reviewed. PMID:26914595

  17. Systematic modeling versus the learning cycle: Comparative effects on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rochelle L.; Norman, John T.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the systematic modeling teaching strategy on integrated science process skills and formal reasoning ability. Urban middle school students received a three-month process skill intervention treatment from teachers trained in either the use of systematic modeling or the learning-cycle model. A third, control group received traditional science instruction. The analysis of data revealed that (a) students receiving modeled instruction demonstrated a significant difference in their achievement of process skills when compared to either of the control groups. (b) Students taught by teachers who had received special process skill and strategy training demonstrated a significant difference in their process skill achievement when compared with the control group. (c) Students at different cognitive reasoning levels demonstrated significantly different process skill ability.

  18. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of soy skim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of carbon dioxide in a counter-current fractionation column was investigated as a means to remove residual fat from soy skim after enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. The stainless steel column was 1.2 meters long with an internal diameter of 1.75 cm and filled protruded stainles...

  19. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  20. Single-step total fractionation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Khripin, Constantine Y; Fagan, Jeffrey A; McPhie, Peter; Ito, Yoichiro; Zheng, Ming

    2014-04-15

    Development of simple processes to fractionate synthetic mixtures of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into individual species is crucial to many applications. Existing methods for single-chirality SWCNT purification are cumbersome, often requiring multiple steps and different conditions for different species. Here, we report a method to achieve total fractionation of a synthetic SWCNT mixture by countercurrent chromatography, resulting in purification of many single-chirality SWCNT species in a single run. This method is based on a tunable partition of sodium deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs in a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system. By running the mobile phase with 0.02% of sodium deoxycholate and a gradient of sodium dodecyl sulfate from 0.1% to 0.7% (w/w), we observe clear diameter-dependent elution, with ∼ 90% total recovery. Among all the fractions collected, a number of them are enriched in single-chirality (9,4), (7,5), (7,6), (8,3), (6,5) species, while most of the remaining ones contain no more than 2-3 major species. We also observe strong (n,m)-dependent elution peak width due to the enantiomer-resolved partition. These results demonstrate countercurrent chromatography (CCC) as an effective way to obtain high purity (n, m) species, and suggest the potential of CCC as an analytical tool for chirality distribution mapping of synthetic SWCNT mixtures. PMID:24673411

  1. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status.

    PubMed

    Titone, R C

    1994-05-01

    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits. PMID:10134156

  2. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz’s Human Values

    PubMed Central

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz’s universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  3. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  4. On the subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Zang, Nan; Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Dunxin

    2015-01-01

    subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea and their roles in water mass transportation have been reported in previous studies. Their existence is still controversial, and the underlying dynamics remains unclear. This study investigates the climatological structures and relationships of three subsurface countercurrents, namely the Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC), the Luzon Undercurrent (LUC), and the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC), using recently available hydrographic and satellite altimeter data. The three subsurface currents below and opposite to the surface currents are confirmed by multisections analysis. The MUC, as traced at zonal sections between 6.5°N and 10.5°N, shows two northward velocity cores, both with maximum speed larger than 10 cm s-1. The LUC exhibits an obscure core with southward velocity larger than 2 cm s-1 under the Kuroshio at 18°N and 16.25°N sections. The eastward flowing NEUC also has two separated cores at 128.2°E and 130°E sections with velocity larger than 1 cm s-1. Analyses of θ-S relationship suggest that the southern part of NEUC is fed by the MUC with the South Pacific water and South/North Pacific water mixture, while the northern NEUC is likely a destiny of the North Pacific water carried by the LUC. Tightly associated with the opposite horizontal gradients between sea surface height (SSH) and the depth of thermocline (DTC), the subsurface countercurrents exist in connected zones where the baroclinic adjustment below the thermocline overcomes the barotropic forcing at the sea surface, which indicates the dynamical linkages among the three subsurface countercurrents.

  5. Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

    2006-03-31

    The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

  6. Protein separation and enrichment by counter-current chromatography using reverse micelle solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ching-Wei; Yu, Tiing

    2007-06-01

    A protein mixture consisting of myoglobin, cytochrome c, and lysozyme was separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a two-phase aqueous/reverse micelle-containing organic solvent system. About 50% stationary phase retention ratio was obtained in most chromatographic experiments. Separations were manipulated mainly by pH gradients that controlled the electrostatic interactions between the protein molecules and reverse micelles. Separations were further improved by incorporating an ionic strength gradient along with the pH gradient. Control of ionic strength in the aqueous solution helped fine-tune protein partitioning between the stationary and mobile phases. Although non-specific protein interactions affected baseline resolution, recovery of cytochrome c and lysozyme reached 90% and 82%. Furthermore, concentration or enrichment of these two proteins was achieved from a large-volume sample load. This technique can potentially be employed in the recovery and enrichment of proteins from large-volume aqueous solutions. PMID:17289061

  7. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  8. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. PMID:25542704

  9. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants…

  10. The Effect of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on Chemistry Students' Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatokun, K. V. F.; Eniayeju, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on the achievement and retention of chemistry students. The sample comprised 162 Senior Secondary two (SS 2) students drawn from two Science Schools in Nasarawa State, Central Nigeria with equivalent mean scores of 9.68 and 9.49 in their pre-test.…

  11. Family MAASAI (Maintaining African-American Survival Achievement Integrity) Rites of Passage After-School Prevention Program. Operational Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerome, Comp.; Jackson, Anthony, Comp.; James, D'Borah, Comp.; Smith, Bryce, Comp.; Robinson, Luke, Comp.; Cherry, Jennifer, Comp.; Trotter, Jennie, Comp.; Harris, Archie, Comp.; Lenior, Sheila, Comp.; Bellinger, Mary Anne, Comp.

    Family MAASAI is a multiservice substance abuse prevention and intervention program for African American at-risk urban youth. The program commemorates the Maasai people of Africa and uses MAASAI as an acronym that stands for Maintaining African American Survival, Achievement, and Integrity. Cultural awareness, pride, and respect for self, elders,…

  12. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  13. Integration of Geospatial Technologies into K-12 Curriculum: An Investigation of Teacher and Student Perceptions and Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore outcomes of a GIS/GPS integration process: to (a) examine student responses to GIS and GPS inclusion in their curriculum, (b) determine whether a relationship exists between inclusion of GIS into existing K-12 curriculum and student achievement, (c) examine the effectiveness of GIS professional development…

  14. Explaining the relationship between number line estimation and mathematical achievement: The role of visuomotor integration and visuospatial skills.

    PubMed

    Simms, Victoria; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Johnson, Samantha

    2016-05-01

    Performance on number line tasks, typically used as a measure of numerical representations, are reliably related to children's mathematical achievement. However, recent debate has questioned what precisely performance on the number line estimation task measures. Specifically, there has been a suggestion that this task may measure not only numerical representations but also proportional judgment skills; if this is the case, then individual differences in visuospatial skills, not just the precision of numerical representations, may explain the relationship between number line estimation and mathematical achievement. The current study investigated the relationships among visuospatial skills, visuomotor integration, number line estimation, and mathematical achievement. In total, 77 children were assessed using a number line estimation task, a standardized measure of mathematical achievement, and tests of visuospatial skills and visuomotor integration. The majority of measures were significantly correlated. In addition, the relationship between one metric from the number line estimation task (R(2)LIN) and mathematical achievement was fully explained by visuomotor integration and visuospatial skill competency. These results have important implications for understanding what the number line task measures as well as the choice of number line metric for research purposes. PMID:26773209

  15. Student Reading Achievement on the Rise: Integration of Classworks Software with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the theoretical perspective that related Classworks (2008) technology to reading achievement of fourth grade students to determine if a significant difference existed in student reading achievement between the supplemental uses of Classworks software reading program to that of standard classroom instruction.…

  16. Improving Upper Grade Math Achievement via the Integration of a Culturally Responsive Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajkos, Diane; Klein-Collins, John

    This report describes an intervention program for increasing mathematical achievement of African American students. Within the targeted population, it was evident that the disparity in math achievement between African American and White students was increasing each year. The targeted population consisted of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade…

  17. The effects of integrated mathematics/science curriculum and instruction on mathematics achievement and student attitudes in grade six

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mary Denise

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating mathematics and science curriculum and teaching practices significantly improves achievement in mathematics and attitudes towards mathematics among sixth grade students in South Texas. The study was conducted during the 2001--2002 school year. A causal-comparative ex post facto research design was used to explore the effects of integrated mathematics and science classrooms compared to classrooms of traditional, isolated mathematics and science teaching practices on student achievement and student attitudes. Achievement was based on the Spring 2002 Mathematics portion of the standardized Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Texas Learning Index (TLI) scores and individual student's mathematics Grade Point Average (GPA). Measurement of student attitudes was based on the results of the Integrated Mathematics Attitudinal Survey (IMAS), created by the researcher for this study. The sample population included 349 Grade 6 mathematics students attending one middle school involved in a pilot program utilizing integrated mathematics/science curriculum and teaching practices in a South Texas urban school district. The research involved 337 of the 349 sixth grade students to study the effects of mathematics/science curriculum and teaching practices on achievement and 207 of the 349 sixth grade students to study the effects of mathematics/science curriculum on attitudes concerning mathematics. The data were analyzed using chi square analyses, independent samples t-tests, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was determined at the .05 level of significance. Significant relationships were found when analyzing the proficiency of mathematics skills and individual growth of mathematics achievement. Chi square analyses indicated that the students in the integrated mathematics/science classrooms were more likely to exhibit individual growth and proficiency of mathematics skills based on the

  18. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  19. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Integrated Learning Systems on Urban Middle School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Yamilette

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts have chosen to invest their federal funds in computer-based integrated learning systems that focus on literacy to increase high-stakes test scores and academic gains (Becker, 1994). Buly and Velencia (2002) supported the belief that a student's reading ability can improve substantially when instruction is integrated with…

  20. Learning Communities versus Traditional Courses: Which Promotes the Highest Levels of Student Persistence, Achievement, and Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sonya L.

    2010-01-01

    Past research in the area of college retention shows that social and academic integration are important elements in ensuring high retention rates. Many past studies show that learning communities are beneficial in helping raise retention rates as learning communities effectively increase the rates of social and academic integration. The purpose of…

  1. The Effects of Integration and Generation of Immigrants on Language and Numeracy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    In many Western countries the pressure exerted on immigrants to integrate has become intense in recent years. Efforts to preserve their ethnic identity through multicultural recognition has now been replaced by the requirements of active civic participation and assimilation. Of course integration is considered important not only for the immigrant…

  2. Cross-Validating Measures of Technology Integration: A First Step toward Examining Potential Relationships between Technology Integration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Robert; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The use of proper measurements of diffusion of information technology as an innovation are essential to determining if progress is being made in state, regional, and national level programs. This project provides a national level cross validation study of several instruments commonly used to assess the effectiveness of technology integration in…

  3. Finding economies of scale and coordination of care along the continuum to achieve true system integration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Is it time to reduce hospitals and replace them with digitally enabled distributed specialty service delivery channels that focus on ambulatory care, urgent care, and patient reactivation? Is delivery system integration immaterial if care is standardized and supported by integrated information systems? Maybe Lean methodology needs to be applied across the entire delivery systems, not just within its component functions and processes. Comments are offered on each of these perspectives. PMID:25671876

  4. Schinus terebinthifolius scale-up countercurrent chromatography (Part I): High performance countercurrent chromatography fractionation of triterpene acids with off-line detection using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana Neves; Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2015-04-10

    'Countercurrent chromatography' (CCC) is an ideal technique for the recovery, purification and isolation of bioactive natural products, due to the liquid nature of the stationary phase, process predictability and the possibility of scale-up from analytical to preparative scale. In this work, a method developed for the fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries dichloromethane extract was thoroughly optimized to achieve maximal throughput with minimal solvent and time consumption per gram of processed crude extract, using analytical, semi-preparative and preparative 'high performance countercurrent chromatography' (HPCCC) instruments. The method using the biphasic solvent system composed of n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was volumetrically scaled up to increase sample throughput up to 120 times, while maintaining separation efficiency and time. As a fast and specific detection alternative, the fractions collected from the CCC-separations were injected to an 'atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometer' (APCI-MS/MS) and reconstituted molecular weight MS-chromatograms of the APCI-ionizable compounds from S. terebinthifolius were obtained. This procedure led to the direct isolation of tirucallane type triterpenes such as masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids. Also oleanonic and moronic acids have been identified for the first time in the species. In summary, this approach can be used for other CCC scale-up processes, enabling MS-target-guided isolation procedures. PMID:25757818

  5. An Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Title I on School Behavior, Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…

  6. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  7. Enhancing Adolescent Literacy Achievement through Integration of Technology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Betty J.; Kaplan, Karen A.; Borck, Jennifer E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent literacy achievement across the United States is in crisis. More than eight million students in grades 4 to 12 are identified as struggling readers. These students, who perform below grade level in reading and writing, are at high risk for failure in all content subjects and ultimately for dropping out of school. Professionals in the…

  8. Dual Enrollment: An Integration Strategy for College Persistence and Achievement among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Alisha Renee

    2015-01-01

    Educational and political leaders across the nation seek to create a more educated population in order to compete in a global technology-oriented society and to increase earning potential of workers. Colleges and universities are currently seeking ways to increase persistence and achievement in order to produce more college graduates. Georgia's…

  9. Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

  10. Integrative Motivation as a Predictor of Achievement in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among five independent variables--integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, the need to fulfill a foreign language requirement, grade point average (GPA), and previous years studying Spanish--as predictors of five dependent variables: scores on a simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI), final exam…

  11. Using Literacy Integration for Communicating Scientifically: Research Results on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortino, Carol; Gerretson, Helen; Button, Linda J.; Johnson, Sharon

    The professional development program Using Literacy Integration for Communicating Scientifically (ULINCS) is a joint program of the University of Northern Colorado and Adams Twelve Five Star School District. It had been noted that the increased emphasis on literacy skills was leading educators to place less emphasis on science. The ULINCS project…

  12. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  13. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  14. Promoting Academic Achievement in the Middle School Classroom: Integrating Effective Study Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Christin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…

  15. The effect of an integrated high school science curriculum on student achievement, knowledge retention, and science attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kimberly A.

    The research study investigates the effectiveness of an integrated high school science curriculum on student achievement, knowledge retention and science attitudes using quantitative and qualitative research. Data was collected from tenth grade students, in a small urban high school in Kansas City, Missouri, who were enrolled in a traditional Biology course or an integrated Environmental Science course. Quantitative data was collected in Phase 1 of the study. Data collected for academic achievement included pretest and posttest scores on the CTBS MATN exam. Data collected for knowledge retention included post-posttest scores on the CTBS MATN exam. Data collected for science attitudes were scores on a pretest and posttest using the TOSRA. SPSS was used to analyze the data using independent samples t-tests, one-way ANCOVA's and paired samples statistics. Qualitative data was collected in Phase 2 of the study. Data included responses to open-ended interview questions using three focus groups. Data was analyzed for common themes. Data analysis revealed the integrated Environmental Science course had a statistically significant impact on academic achievement, knowledge retention and positive science attitudes. Gender and socioeconomic status did not influence results. The study also determined that the CTBS MATN exam was not an accurate predictor of scores on state testing as was previously thought.

  16. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

  17. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  18. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  19. Novel Design for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography: I. Zigzag Toroidal Column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    The toroidal coil using an equilateral triangular core has improved both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution of the conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal countercurrent chromatography. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a novel zigzag toroidal coil was designed and the performance of the system was evaluated at various flow rates. The results indicated that both retention of stationary phase and peak resolution were improved as the flow rate was decreased. Modification of the tubing by pressing at given intervals with a pair of pliers improved the peak resolution without increasing the column pressure. All these separations were performed under low column pressure indicating the separation can be further improved by increasing the column length and/or revolution speed without damaging the separation column. PMID:20046954

  20. Hydrodynamics of a packed countercurrent column for the gas extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stockfleth, R.; Brunner, G.

    1999-10-01

    The hydraulic capacity of a countercurrent column with gauze packing was examined at pressures between 8 and 30 MPa and temperatures between 313 and 373 K. The systems used were water + carbon dioxide, aqueous surfactant solution + carbon dioxide, and Toco, a substance whose physical properties are roughly similar to those of {alpha}-Tocopherol + carbon dioxide. A distinctive change in the flooding mechanisms from liquid layer flooding to bubble column flooding was observed. The different liquids, water and Toco, showed the same flooding behavior, indicating that the influence of the density on the flooding behavior prevails over the influence of any other physical property of the liquid. The foamability of the surfactant solution decreased significantly with increasing pressure--its influence on the flooding behavior could not be proved. The liquid holdup ranged between 2% and 6%. The dry pressure drop adhered to the Ergun equation.

  1. Countercurrent direct contact heat exchange process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources by direct contact heat exchange with a working fluid, such as a hydrocarbon working fluid, e.g. isobutane. The process and system consists of a plurality of stages, each stage including mixing and settling units. In the first stage, hot brine and arm working fluid are intimately mixed and passed into a settler wherein the brine settles to the bottom of the settler and the hot working fluid rises to the top. The hot working fluid is passed to a heat engine or turbine to produce work and the working fluid is then recycled back into the system. The system is comprised of a series of stages each containing a settler and mixer, and wherein the working fluid and the brine flow in a countercurrent manner through the stages to recover the heat from the brine in increments and raise the temperature of the working fluid in increments.

  2. Integrating Systems Science and Community-Based Participatory Research to Achieve Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-02-01

    Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity. PMID:26691110

  3. Automated solvent system screening for the preparative countercurrent chromatography of pharmaceutical discovery compounds.

    PubMed

    Bradow, James; Riley, Frank; Philippe, Laurence; Yan, Qi; Schuff, Brandon; Harris, Guy H

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated countercurrent chromatography system has been constructed to rapidly screen the commonly used heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system series and translate the results to preparative scale separations. The system utilizes "on-demand" preparation of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system upper and lower phases. Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography was combined with non-dynamic equilibrium injection reducing the screening time for each heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system to 17 min. The result enabled solvent system development to be reduced to under 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography system was interfaced with a mass spectrometer to allow selective detection of target components in crude medicinal chemistry reaction mixtures. Mass-directed preparative countercurrent chromatography purification was demonstrated for the first time using a synthetic tetrazole epoxide derived from a routine medicinal chemistry support workflow. PMID:26428946

  4. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches. PMID:22427982

  5. Integrated Operating Scenario to Achieve 100-Second, High Electron Temperature Discharge on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu; Wan, Baonian; Liu, Fukun; Wang, Mao; Xu, Handong; Hu, Chundong; Wang, Liang; Li, Erzhong; Zeng, Long; Ti, Ang; Shen, Biao; Lin, Shiyao; Shao, Linming; Zang, Qing; Liu, Haiqing; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Youwen; Xu, Guosheng; Liang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Bingjia; Hu, Liqun; Li, Jiangang; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Stationary long pulse plasma of high electron temperature was produced on EAST for the first time through an integrated control of plasma shape, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, wall conditioning, impurity management, and the coupling of multiple heating and current drive power. A discharge with a lower single null divertor configuration was maintained for 103 s at a plasma current of 0.4 MA, q95 ≈7.0, a peak electron temperature of >4.5 keV, and a central density ne(0)∼2.5×1019 m‑3. The plasma current was nearly non-inductive (Vloop <0.05 V, poloidal beta ∼ 0.9) driven by a combination of 0.6 MW lower hybrid wave at 2.45 GHz, 1.4 MW lower hybrid wave at 4.6 GHz, 0.5 MW electron cyclotron heating at 140 GHz, and 0.4 MW modulated neutral deuterium beam injected at 60 kV. This progress demonstrated strong synergy of electron cyclotron and lower hybrid electron heating, current drive, and energy confinement of stationary plasma on EAST. It further introduced an example of integrated “hybrid” operating scenario of interest to ITER and CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Foundation of China (Nos. 2015GB102000 and 2014GB103000)

  6. Achieving integrated urban water management: planning top-down or bottom-up?

    PubMed

    Gabe, J; Trowsdale, S; Vale, R

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) acknowledges a broad range of environmental and socio-economic outcomes but the link between design intentions and operational performance is not always clear. This may be due in part to a lack of shared principles that remove bias and inconsistency in assessing the operational performance of IUWM. This paper investigates the possibility of developing shared principles through examination of shared objectives and shared indicators within two logical and integrated frameworks for urban residential developments that aspire for IUWM and sustainable development. The framework method was applied using very different approaches-one a top-down urban planning process, the other a bottom-up community consultation process. Both frameworks highlight the extent to which IUWM is part of a broad social and environmental system. Core environmental performance objectives and indicators were very similar, highlighting the potential to develop shared principles in reporting and benchmarking the environmental performance of neighbourhood developments. Socio-economic indicators were highly variable due to process and likely contextual differences, thus it is unclear if the influence of IUWM on these variables can transcend the social context unless the practice of urban water management can expand its core responsibility beyond "hard" physical infrastructure. PMID:19474495

  7. Come on in, the Water is Fine: Achieving Mainstream Relevance through Integration with Primary Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C

    2010-01-01

    Behavior analysis is a generic science, and Skinner's vision for it was that it would become a mainstream force, relevant for most if not all human concerns, major and minor. Clearly his vision has not been realized. Determining why this is the case would require a complex multifactorial analysis. One likely factor is that the majority of its basic science findings have been obtained from the study of rats and pigeons. Another likely factor, one directly addressed by this paper, is that the majority of its applied science findings have been obtained from the study of people in only one tail of the normal distribution. Regardless, those outside the field see the relevance of behavior analysis to general human affairs as very limited. Whether the path behavior analysis is on will lead to widespread perception of mainstream relevance anytime soon seems doubtful. An alternative route would involve integrating it with a field that has already made the trip successfully. A premier example involves primary medical care. This paper argues for the integration of behavior analysis with pediatric primary care, sketches a method for its accomplishment, and uses diurnal enuresis to illustrate the requirements of the method. PMID:22479124

  8. Scaling of Counter-Current Imbibition Process in Low-Permeability Porous Media, TR-121

    SciTech Connect

    Kvoscek, A.R.; Zhou, D.; Jia, L.; Kamath, J.

    2001-01-17

    This project presents the recent work on imaging imbibition in low permeability porous media (diatomite) with X-ray completed tomography. The viscosity ratio between nonwetting and wetting fluids is varied over several orders of magnitude yielding different levels of imbibition performance. Also performed is mathematical analysis of counter-current imbibition processes and development of a modified scaling group incorporating the mobility ratio. This modified group is physically based and appears to improve scaling accuracy of countercurrent imbibition significantly.

  9. Student science achievement and the integration of Indigenous knowledge on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Juliann; Abrams, Eleanor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we examine how American Indian students in Montana performed on standardized state science assessments when a small number of test items based upon traditional science knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All", were included. Montana is the first state in the US to mandate the use of a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to incorporate this curriculum into a portion of the standardized assessment items. This study compares White and American Indian student test scores on these particular test items to determine how White and American Indian students perform on culturally relevant test items compared to traditional standard science test items. The connections between student achievement on adapted culturally relevant science test items versus traditional items brings valuable insights to the fields of science education, research on student assessments, and Indigenous studies.

  10. An Integrated Framework to Achieve Interoperability in Person-Centric Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Vergari, Fabio; Salmon Cinotti, Tullio; D'Elia, Alfredo; Roffia, Luca; Zamagni, Guido; Lamberti, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The need for high-quality out-of-hospital healthcare is a known socioeconomic problem. Exploiting ICT's evolution, ad-hoc telemedicine solutions have been proposed in the past. Integrating such ad-hoc solutions in order to cost-effectively support the entire healthcare cycle is still a research challenge. In order to handle the heterogeneity of relevant information and to overcome the fragmentation of out-of-hospital instrumentation in person-centric healthcare systems, a shared and open source interoperability component can be adopted, which is ontology driven and based on the semantic web data model. The feasibility and the advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by presenting the use case of real-time monitoring of patients' health and their environmental context. PMID:21811499

  11. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  12. Policy actions to achieve integrated community-based mental health services.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Mary; Samele, Chiara; Saxena, Shekhar; Patel, Vikram; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    Globally, the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive evidence-based interventions that can transform their lives. We describe six mental health policy actions adopted at the World Innovation Summit for Health in 2013. For each policy action, we offer real-world examples of mental health innovations that governments and health care providers can implement to move toward universal health coverage for mental health. The six policy actions are empowering people with mental health problems and their families, building a diverse mental health workforce, developing collaborative and multidisciplinary mental health teams, using technology to increase access to mental health care, identifying and treating mental health problems early, and reducing premature mortality in people with mental health problems. Challenges to implementing these policy actions include the lack of recognition of mental health as a global health priority and the resulting lack of investment in mental health, the difficulties of integrating mental health into primary care health services because of a scarcity of human and financial resources, and the lack of evidence on the effectiveness and costs of taking innovations to a national scale. PMID:25201664

  13. Rapid separation of polysaccharides using a novel spiral coil column by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Wu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The separation of polysaccharides is time consuming. We developed and optimized a type-J counter-current chromatography system with a novel tri-rotor spiral coil column for the rapid separation of polysaccharides. The optimal composition of an aqueous PEG1000/K2 HPO4 /KH2 PO4 system was found to be 14:16:14 w/w/w where the lower phase was the mobile phase. Optimal performance was achieved at a column rotational speed, temperature, and flow rate of 1200 rpm, 45°C, and 3.0 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase was pumped from the inner terminal in a ''head-to-tail'' elution mode. Polysaccharide LCP-1 (10.7 mg) was successfully obtained in high purity in one step from 50.0 mg of a crude polysaccharide extracted from the lychee fruit (Litchi chinensis) within 100 min. LCP-1 possess a number-average molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight of 1.05 × 10(5) and 1.59 × 10(5) kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition consists of the molar ratio of glucose, galactose, and arabinose of 1.3:3.5:1. PMID:26857207

  14. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable. PMID:25693995

  15. Reduced order modelling of counter-current two-layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalle, Gianluca; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of two-layer flows has a great impact on absorption units of carbon-capture retrofits, since the wavy interface plays a crucial role on the transfer between the two fluids. Studying those flows by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) strategy results in a high computational cost requiring parallel computation. As an alternative approach, we present a reduced order model: the liquid film is computed with depth-integrated equations, and the coupling with the top phase is obtained by means of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique, according to which the grid follows the interface position. We study counter-current two-layer channel flows with a moderate density ratio, focusing on loading and flooding regimes, whose complete description is a central issue for many chemical applications. Also, we investigate the influence of flow rate and pressure gradient on the interface dynamics. Speed and growth rate of linear waves match with the Orr-Sommerfeld theory and our Level-Set DNS, and non-linear wave profiles agree with DNS. Finally, our model is tested with complex gas velocity profiles of cross-flow absorbers. EPSRC grant No. EP/M001482/1.

  16. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, Mark E.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.

  17. Combustion of pulverized coal in counter-current flow. [Final report], December 7, 1988--April 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Timnat, Y.M.; Goldman, Y.

    1991-12-31

    In this report we describe the results obtained with two prototypes of pulverized coal combustors operating in counter-current flow, one at atmospheric pressure, the other at higher pressure and compare them to the predictions of a theoretical-numerical model, we have developed. The first prototype treats a vertical configuration, eight times larger than the one treated before (Hazanov et al. 1985), while in the second a horizontal arrangement with a smaller volume is studied. Attention was focused on particle trajectories, burnout, angle of injection, ash separation by rotational motion, effects of initial particle size and temperature, impingement velocity and the effect of gravity. Main development activity was directed to achieving stable and reliable coal burning in the combustors.

  18. Enantioselective Recognition in Solution: The Case of Countercurrent Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Núria; Minguillón, Cristina

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a preparative separation technique that works with a liquid stationary phase. Biphasic liquid systems are needed to perform a separation. Since a chiral selector is required to perform enantiomer separations, special requirements are imposed in CCC. The chiral selector (CS) must be located in the stationary phase since partitioning with the mobile phase would cause losses of the valuable chiral selector in the mobile phase. Sulfated cyclodextrins and proteins were used as polar CS located in the polar stationary phase (reversed phase mode). Apolar CSs such as N-dodecyl-L-proline 3,5-dimethylanilide or Whelk-O selectors, quinine and quinidine derivatives, cellulose or amylose apolar derivatives were used located in the apolar stationary phase (normal phase mode). The special CCC displacement method called pH-zone refining was found useful in the increase of the loading capacity for cellulose, quinine, quinidine, and proline-derived selectors. Dual and multidual mode uses of CCC could produce an increase in peak separation thereby broadening the applicability of moderately enantioselective CSs.

  19. Annual and longitudinal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolk, Nina K.

    1992-01-01

    The climatological annual cycle of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) simulated by an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was studied. The longitudinal variation of transports, degree of geostrophy, and the relationship between Ekman pumping and vertical displacement of the thermocline were emphasized. The longitudinal variation was explored using six sections along 150 deg E, 180 deg, 160 deg W, 140 deg W, 125 deg W, and 110 deg W. A primitive equation OGCM of the Pacific Ocean was run for three years and the fields used were from the third year. The fields consisted of zonal, meridional, and vertical current components and temperature and salinity averaged every three days. The model was forced with the Hellerman and Rosenstein climatological wind stress. The mean annual eastward transport (19.9 Sv) was largest at 160 deg W. The maximum-current boundaries along 160 deg W were 9.2 deg N (1.0 deg), 5.1 deg N (1.1 deg), and 187 m (90.6 m). The annual-cycle amplitude of the NECC was greatest between 160 deg W and 140 deg W. Although the NECC is geostrophic to the first order, deviations from geostrophy were found in the boreal spring and summer near the southern boundary and near the surface. Meridional local acceleration played a role between 3 deg N-5 deg N.

  20. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  1. Revisiting resolution in hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography: tubing bore effect.

    PubMed

    Berthod, A; Faure, K

    2015-04-17

    A major challenge in countercurrent chromatography (CCC), the technique that works with a support-free biphasic liquid system, is to retain the liquid stationary phase inside the CCC column (Sf parameter). Two solutions are commercially available: the hydrostatic CCC columns, also called centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC), with disks of interconnected channels and rotary seals, and the hydrodynamic CCC columns with bobbins of coiled open tube and no rotary seals. It was demonstrated that the amount of liquid stationary phase retained by a coiled tube was higher with larger bore tubing than with small bore tubes. At constant column volume, small bore tubing will be longer producing more efficiency than larger bore tube that will better retain the liquid stationary phase. Since the resolution equation in CCC is depending on both column efficiency and stationary phase retention ratio, the influence of the tubing bore should be studied. This theoretical work showed that there is an optimum tubing bore size depending on solute partition coefficient and mobile phase flow rate. The interesting result of the theoretical study is that larger tubing bores allow for dramatically reduced experiment durations for all solutes: in reversed phase CCC (polar mobile phase), hydrophobic solutes are usually highly retained. These apolar solutes can be separated by the same coil at high flow rates and reduced Sf with similar retention times as polar solutes separated at smaller flow rates and much higher Sf. PMID:25747666

  2. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  3. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  4. Rapid detection of enteric fever by coagglutination and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M; Thakar, Y S; Chande, C; Tankhiwale, N S; Saoji, A M

    1998-10-01

    A total of 463 patients clinically suspected of enteric fever and 100 healthy individuals were investigated by coagglutination (COAG) and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) for rapid diagnosis of enteric fever. The S. typhi was grown in blood culture in 32 (6.91%) and Widal test was positive in 126 (27.21%) cases. The serum COAG with local antiserum was positive in 165 (35.64%), serum COAG with standard antiserum in 163 (35.21%), Blood culture supernatant (BCS) COAG in 153 (33.05%), serum CIEP for antigen (Ag) in 118 (25.09%), BCS CIEP in 99 (21.39%) while serum CIEP for antibody (Ab) was positive in 34 (7.34%) cases. Only two healthy controls revealed positive COAG result with local antiserum. The sensitivity of all antigen detection tests was 100% except BCS CIEP (98.25%) in the first week of fever and declined rapidly to 75.79% for serum COAG tests, 69.47% for BCS COAG and dramatically to 37.89% for serum CIEP for Ag and 22.11% for BCS CIEP tests during the second week whereas the sensitivity of serum CIEP for Ab detection rose from 17.54% to 23.16% from first to second week of illness. In view of the resulting data, it is suggested that both COAG and CIEP may be employed for the rapid diagnosis of enteric fever in the routine clinical setup. PMID:9866897

  5. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services over Differentiated Service Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  6. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services Over Differentiated Service Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  7. Examining the Impact of an Integrative Method of Using Technology on Students' Achievement and Efficiency of Computer Usage and on Pedagogical Procedure in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurevich, Irina; Gurev, Dvora

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we follow the development of the pedagogical procedure for the course "Constructions in Geometry" that resulted from using dynamic geometry software (DGS), where the computer became an integral part of the educational process. Furthermore, we examine the influence of integrating DGS into the course on students' achievement and…

  8. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2008-09-26

    This project is investigating countercurrent flow and “flooding” phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the “surge line” and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008.

  9. Performance optimization of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for antibody capture.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit K; Tan, Jasmine; Napadensky, Boris; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) can effectively purify monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid. CCTC has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional packed bed protein A chromatography. This paper explores the optimization of CCTC in terms of product yield, impurity removal, overall productivity, and buffer usage. Modeling was based on data from bench-scale process development and CCTC experiments for protein A capture of two clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary cell culture feedstocks containing monoclonal antibodies provided by industrial partners. The impact of resin binding capacity and kinetics, as well as staging strategy and buffer recycling, was assessed. It was found that optimal staging in the binding step provides better yield and increases overall system productivity by 8-16%. Utilization of higher number of stages in the wash and elution steps can lead to significant decreases in buffer usage (∼40% reduction) as well as increased removal of impurities (∼2 log greater removal). Further reductions in buffer usage can be obtained by recycling of buffer in the wash and regeneration steps (∼35%). Preliminary results with smaller particle size resins show that the productivity of the CCTC system can be increased by 2.5-fold up to 190 g of mAb/L of resin/hr due to the reduction in mass transfer limitations in the binding step. These results provide a solid framework for designing and optimizing CCTC technology for capture applications. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:430-439, 2016. PMID:26914276

  10. A new apparatus for continuous countercurrent flow of solids and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, P. A.

    A contactor was developed to provide true countercurrent, continuous flow of gel spheres and liquid in a moving bed. To provide smooth and controlled movement of solids, the key features consisted of a common cross section for the moving bed and a small fluidized bed, a jet to give a slurry at the bottom of the moving bed, and a controlled flow of part of this slurry to the fluidized bed. A completely continuous pilot plant for preparation of nuclear fuel by a gel-sphere process was operated with three of these moving-bed fluidized-bed contactors. Different control procedures and good countercurrent washing results were demonstrated.

  11. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages. PMID:24303571

  12. Model for analysis of counter-current gas transfer in fish gills.

    PubMed

    Scheid, P; Hook, C; Piiper, J

    1986-06-01

    The validity of previously used simplified models for the analysis of gas transfer in fish gills was tested using an integrated model which includes water flow and blood flow in counter-current arrangement. The model accounts for the resistance to diffusion of O2 both in the water-blood barrier and in the interlamellar water, which is assumed to flow with a parabolic velocity profile between the secondary lamellae. The O2 diffusing capacity (transfer factor) for this model (Dint) was compared to that (Dm + w) calculated from the diffusing capacity of the water-blood barrier (Dm), and from the effective diffusive conductance of the parabolically streaming interlamellar water (Dw) as 1/Dm + w = 1/Dm + 1/Dw. These diffusing capacities were compared with that (Dadd) calculated from Dm and diffusing capacity of a water layer of 1/4 thickness of the interlamellar space (Dw) as 1/Dadd = 1/Dm + 1/Dw. Calculations with morphometric and gas exchange parameters in the elasmobranch Scyliorhinus stellaris reveal the following features: (1) In physiological conditions, Dm + w and Dint are similar to within 10%, but Dint is always higher. (2) Dint and Dm + w increase with increasing ventilation; Dint increases with decreasing perfusion, while Dm + w remains constant. (3) Both Dint and Dm + w agree reasonably well with Dadd. In other anatomical and physiological conditions, particularly for relatively high Dm, Dw, and Dw and high ventilation, greater discrepancies between Dint and Dm + w may occur but Dm + w appears to represent a reasonable approximation of the effective O2 diffusing capacity, which is best modelled as Dint. PMID:3738259

  13. The effectiveness of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum on improving the academic achievement in chemistry for high school students in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupanduki, Blessing T.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating chemistry and mathematics curricula and teaching practices significantly improves academic achievement in chemistry among high school students in Southern California. The study was conducted during the 2008--2009 academic year. A quasi-experimental research design was used to explore the effects of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum (Integrated CHEMAT) and teaching practices on student academic achievement when compared to a traditional standards-based chemistry curriculum (Regular CHEM) and teaching practices. Academic achievement was based on a researcher-created Chemistry Achievement Assessment (CHAAS). The sample population involved in the research included 136 high school chemistry students attending high school in a Southern California rural school district. The research involved 2 groups of 68 students each: the experimental group and the control group. The data were analyzed using SPSS independent samples t-test, one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and profile analysis. Statistical significance was determined at the .05 and .001 levels. Significant differences were found when analyzing the effects of the standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum and teaching practices. All 3 statistical analysis procedures (the independent samples t-test, MANCOVA, and profile analysis) indicated that students in the integrated CHEMAT program scored significantly higher than the students in the regular CHEM program in achievement scores based on the results of the CHAAS.

  14. The Countercurrent Extraction of Ink: A Demonstration of the Chromatographic Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment (carried out in less than two hours) in which the merits of countercurrent extraction are immediately evident by visible colors. The experiment requires eight 125-ml separatory funnels, 250ml of 1-butanol, 250ml of 0.1-0.5 molar hydrochloric acid, and a small amount of Sheaffer's Skrip blue-black soluble ink. (JN)

  15. Counter-current CO2 purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  16. Purification of SoyScreen using critical carbon dioxide in a counter-current fractionation column

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research evaluated the use of critical carbon dioxide (CO2) in a counter-current fractionation column for purifying SoyScreen, a mixture of feruloylated glycerides. The process concept was tested using a mixture consisting of triacylglycerides (TAGs), ethyl ferulate and fatty acid ethyl esters...

  17. How-to-Do-It: Countercurrent Heat Exchange in Vertebrate Limbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, George B.; Plakke, Ronald K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes principals of physics that are manifested in simple biological systems of heat conservation structures. Outlines materials needed, data collection, analysis, and discussion questions for construction and operation of two models, one that is a countercurrent heat exchange model and one that is not. (RT)

  18. Controlling the Integration of Polyvinylpyrrolidone onto Substrate by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation To Achieve Excellent Protein Resistance and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Xiangze; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Sa; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Huang, Xuhui; Ren, Li

    2016-07-27

    Blood purification systems, in which the adsorbent removes exogenous and endogenous toxins from the blood, are widely used in clinical practice. To improve the protein resistance of and detoxification by the adsorbent, researchers can modify the adsorbent with functional molecules, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). However, achieving precise control of the functional molecular density, which is crucial to the activity of the adsorbent, remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we prepared a model system for blood purification adsorbents in which we controlled the integration density of PVP molecules of different molecular weights on an Au substrate by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We characterized the samples with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and QCM-D and found that the molecular density and the chain length of the PVP molecules played important roles in determining the properties of the sample. At the optimal condition, the modified sample demonstrated strong resistance to plasma proteins, decreasing the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) by 92.5% and 79.2%, respectively. In addition, the modified sample exhibited excellent detoxification, and the adsorption of bilirubin increased 2.6-fold. Interestingly, subsequent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the favorable interactions between PVP and bilirubin were dominated by hydrophobic interactions. An in vitro platelet adhesion assay showed that the adhesion of platelets on the sample decreased and that the platelets were maintained in an inactivated state. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the modified sample exhibited negligible cytotoxicity to L929 cells. These results demonstrated that our method holds great potential for the modification of adsorbents in blood purification systems. PMID:27363467

  19. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; Klein, Larry L; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2015-12-24

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin), and 5'-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat+2 (chloroform-methanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent separation. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent separation. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative (1)H NMR. PMID:26680272

  20. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  1. A Study Investigating the Effect of Treatment Developed by Integrating the 5E and Simulation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Achievement in Photoelectric Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The Current study investigated the effect of the 5E learning cycle in which the simulations were integrated on pre-service science teachers' achievement in photoelectric subject. Four sophomore level classes with their 140 students participated in the research and a quasi-experimental design was used. The classes were randomly assigned into one of…

  2. Understanding the Relationships among Racial Identity, Self-Efficacy, Institutional Integration and Academic Achievement of Black Males Attending Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Karl W.

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts that African American males with higher grade point averages (GPAs) in college are also academically and socially integrated into campus and hold racial identity attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs that facilitate their level of institutional integration. The statistical study of 190 African American males attending five…

  3. pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography: Origin, mechanism, procedure and applications✩

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been used for separation and purification of natural and synthetic products in a standard elution mode. In 1991, a novel elution mode called pH-zone refining CCC was introduced from an incidental discovery that an organic acid in the sample solution formed the sharp peak of an acid analyte. The cause of this sharp peak formation was found to be bromoacetic acid present in the sample solution which formed a sharp trailing border to trap the acidic analyte. Further studies on the separation of DNP-amino acids with three spacer acids in the stationary phase revealed that increased sample size resulted in the formation of fused rectangular peaks, each preserving high purity and zone pH with sharp boundaries. The mechanism of this phenomenon was found to be the formation of a sharp trailing border of an acid (retainer) in the column which moves at a lower rate than that of the mobile phase. In order to facilitate the application of the method, a new method was devised using a set of retainer and eluter to form a sharp retainer rear border which moves through the column at a desired rate regardless of the composition of the two-phase solvent system. This was achieved by adding the retainer in the stationary phase and the eluter in the mobile phase at a given molar ratio. Using this new method the hydrodynamics of pH-zone-refining CCC was diagrammatically illustrated by three acidic samples. In this review paper, typical pH-zone-refining CCC separations were presented, including affinity separations with a ligand and a separation of a racemic mixture using a chiral selector in the stationary phase. Major characteristics of pH-zone-refining CCC over conventional HSCCC are as follows: the sample loading capacity is increased over 10 times; fractions are highly concentrated near saturation level; yield is improved by increasing the sample size; minute charged compounds are concentrated and detected at the peak

  4. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Ma, Haile; Dai, Chunhua; Zhang, Henan; Li, Kexin; Li, Yunliang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 °C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%. PMID:25199445

  5. Chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography: Equilibrium model study on enantioseparation of mandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Xiaoping; Lu, Mengxia; Yan, Jizhong

    2016-05-20

    The equilibrium model in enantioseparation of mandelic acid by chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography was investigated using N-n-dodecyl-l-proline as chiral ligand and cupric ion as central metal. Important parameters, including physical partition coefficient and formation constants of binary and ternary coordination complexes in the two-phase solvent system, were determined. This equilibrium model could give an excellent prediction of distribution ratio and enantioseparation factor of the analyte in the biphasic solvent system, which was further verified by experiments. All the average relative deviations were less than 12%, indicating that the established model could provide a simple computational approach for optimization of enantioseparation conditions in chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography. PMID:27102304

  6. Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns: Application to supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction of terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, P.C.; Matos, H.A.; Carmelo, P.J.; Gomes de Azevedo, E.; Nunes da Ponte, M. . Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia)

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an alternative separation method to more conventional processes such as liquid extraction and distillation. However, up to now, few works have been devoted to the investigation of the efficiency of countercurrent packed columns under supercritical conditions from a mass transfer point of view. Mass transfer in a countercurrent column, filled with structured gauze packing, was measured for the separation of a mixture of terpenes (d-limonene/1,8-cineole) by supercritical carbon dioxide, at 313 and 318 K and pressures up to 9 MPa. The extraction efficiency was determined in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient. Operating lines for this process had an appreciable curvature due to a high miscibility of the two contacting phases. The real slope of these lines had to be estimated. Available mass transfer models for packed columns predicted efficiencies diverging to a great extent from the experimental results.

  7. An assessment of TRAC-PD2 refill calculations based on Creare countercurrent flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1982-04-01

    An important step in computer code development is the assessment of code capabilities through comparison of calculated results with experimental data A number of Creare countercurrent flow tests were simulated with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PD2 code to assess the emergency core coolant (ECC) lower plenum penetration and refill predictive capabilities. The tests examined in this study indicate a prediction of complete bypass and delivery at countercurrent steam flows where these phenomena occurred experimentally. Steam flows leading to partial delivery experimentally did not always lead to partial delivery in the calculations, however. A number of parameters can potentially effect TRAC refill calculations. Sensitivity studies indicate the TRAC results are most sensitive to droplet Weber number variations that affect interfacial shear and heat transfer rates. The condensation model also affects calculations with subcooled ECC liquid.

  8. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of fat from soy skim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research aims to investigate the use of counter-current carbon dioxide extraction method as a means to reduce residual fat in soy skim after the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. Extractions with liquid CO2 at 25°C and 10.34 MPa and supercritical CO2 at 50°C and 25.16 MPa are comp...

  9. Steady state preparative multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography: Productivity and selectivity. Theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A

    2015-08-01

    In the steady state (SS) multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography (CCC), at the beginning of the first step of every cycle the sample dissolved in one of the phases is continuously fed into a CCC device over a constant time, not exceeding the run time of the first step. After a certain number of cycles, the steady state regime is achieved, where concentrations vary over time during each cycle, however, the concentration profiles of solutes eluted with both phases remain constant in all subsequent cycles. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the SS MDM CCC separation processes, which can be helpful to simulate and design these processes and select a suitable compromise between the productivity and the selectivity in the preparative and production CCC separations. Experiments carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water demonstrated a reasonable agreement between the predictions of the theory and the experimental results. PMID:26087966

  10. Selective isolation of components from natural volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrins as selective reagent.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Lu, Mengxia; Chu, Chu; Yan, Jizhong; Huang, Juan; Ying, Yongfei

    2016-04-29

    Selective separation of chemical components from seven kinds of volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with three types of cyclodextrins as selective reagent was investigated in this work. Preparative separation of chemical components from volatile oil is generally quite challenging due to their extremely complexity of the composition. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-0.10molL(-1) cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of components from volatile oil and three types of cyclodextrins were investigated, including β-cyclodexrin, methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin. All kinds of volatile oils are from seven kinds of traditional Chinese herb. Results showed that some chemical components could be well separated with high purity from each kind of volatile oil using different type of cyclodextrin as selective reagent. For example, germacrone and curcumenone could be selectively separated from volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma with methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin as selector respectively, and other five components were selectively separated from volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Myristicae Semen, Aucklandiae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by countercurrent chromatography with different cyclodexrin as selective reagent. Separation mechanism for separation of components from volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrin as selective reagent was proposed. Peak resolution of the present separation method could be greatly influenced by the chemical compositions of volatile oil. PMID:27036211

  11. An Integrative Cultural View of Achievement Motivation: Parental and Classroom Predictors of Children's Goal Orientations when Learning Mathematics in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Schallert, Diane L.; Kim, Myoungsook

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to identify how students' perceptions of their parents shape the kind and degree of motivational goal orientations that they adopt in their mathematics classroom, broadening the application of achievement goal orientation theory and self-determination theory to students in Korea. Two groups of students participated, one from a middle…

  12. The Effects of Meiosis/Genetics Integration and Instructional Sequence on College Biology Student Achievement in Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Mark

    The purpose of the research was to manipulate two aspects of genetics instruction in order to measure their effects on college, introductory biology students' achievement in genetics. One instructional sequence that was used dealt first with monohybrid autosomal inheritance patterns, then sex-linkage. The alternate sequence was the reverse.…

  13. Impact of Learned Resourcefulness and Theories of Intelligence on Academic Achievement of University Students: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Keefer, Kateryna

    2006-01-01

    This was the first study to integrate Rosenbaum's concept of learned resourcefulness with Dweck's implicit theories of intelligence in predicting university students' academic self-control behaviour and year-end grades. Rosenbaum highlights the prominent role that learned resourcefulness skills play in promoting mastery responses and goal…

  14. Interdependence and Integration Learning in Student Project Teams: Do Team Project Assignments Achieve What We Want Them to?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilton, Paul F.; Forsyth, David; White, Otis J.

    2008-01-01

    Building from research on learning in workplace project teams, the authors work forward from the idea that the principal condition enabling integration learning in student team projects is project complexity. Recognizing the challenges of developing and running complex student projects, the authors extend theory to propose that the experience of…

  15. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography/preparative high-performance liquid chromatography mode in rapid separation of saponins.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shun; Luo, Jianguang; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2008-03-15

    Combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, high-speed counter-current chromatography was employed for isolation and purification of saponins from Gypsophila paniculata L. n-Hexane-n-butanol-methanol-0.02% TFA (1:9:1:9, v/v) was employed as solvent system and 210 nm was chosen as the wavelength of ultraviolet detection for the first time. The research tried to compare HSCCC with prep-HPLC, and further integrated their advantages to improve separation efficiency. Five known triterpene saponins were identified by 13C NMR and ESI-MS and their purities were all above 96%. The results demonstrated that adopted method was a feasible, economical and efficient technique for rapid preparative isolation of saponins. PMID:18308647

  16. Target-guided separation of Bougainvillea glabra betacyanins by direct coupling of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Wybraniec, Sławomir; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-01

    In this study, preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography was directly coupled to an electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry device (IP-HSCCC/ESI-MS-MS) for target-guided fractionation of high molecular weight acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae). The direct identification of six principal acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins in the mass range between m/z 859 and m/z 1359 was achieved by positive ESI-MS ionization and gave access to the genuine pigment profile already during the proceeding of the preparative separation. Inclusively, all MS/MS-fragmentation data were provided during the chromatographic run for a complete analysis of substitution pattern. On-line purity evaluation of the recovered fractions is of high value in target-guided screening procedures and for immediate decisions about suitable fractions used for further structural analysis. The applied preparative hyphenation was shown to be a versatile screening method for on-line monitoring of countercurrent chromatographic separations of polar crude pigment extracts and also traced some minor concentrated compounds. For the separation of 760mg crude pigment extract the biphasic solvent system tert.-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 2:2:1:5 (v/v/v/v) was used with addition of ion-pair forming reagent trifluoroacetic acid. The preparative HSCCC-eluate had to be modified by post-column addition of a make-up solvent stream containing formic acid to reduce ion-suppression caused by trifluoroacetic acid and later significantly maximized response of ESI-MS/MS detection of target substances. A variable low-pressure split-unit guided a micro-eluate to the ESI-MS-interface for sensitive and direct on-line detection, and the major volume of the effluent stream was directed to the fraction collector for preparative sample recovery. The applied make-up solvent mixture significantly improved smoothness of the continuously

  17. Achieving Sustainability in a Semi-Arid Basin in Northwest Mexico through an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic-Institutional Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Mayer, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic systems in Northwest Mexico are at risk of over exploitation due to poor management of the water resources and adverse climatic conditions. The purpose of this work is to create and Integrated Hydrologic-Economic-Institutional Model to support future development in the Yaqui River basin, well known by its agricultural productivity, by directing the water management practices toward sustainability. The Yaqui River basin is a semi-arid basin with an area of 72,000 square kilometers and an average precipitation of 527 mm per year. The primary user of water is agriculture followed by domestic use and industry. The water to meet user demands comes from three reservoirs constructed, in series, along the river. The main objective of the integrated simulation-optimization model is to maximize the economic benefit within the basin, subject to physical and environmental constraints. Decision variables include the water allocation to major users and reservoirs as well as aquifer releases. Economic and hydrologic (including the interaction of the surface water and groundwater) simulation models were both included in the integrated model. The surface water model refers to a rainfall-runoff model created, calibrated, and incorporated into a MATLAB code that estimates the monthly storage in the main reservoirs by solving a water balance. The rainfall-runoff model was coupled with a groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley which was previously developed (Addams, 2004). This model includes flow in the main canals and infiltration to the aquifer. The economic benefit of water for some activities such as agricultural use, domestic use, hydropower generation, and environmental value was determined. Sensitivity analysis was explored for those parameters that are not certain such as price elasticities or population growth. Different water allocation schemes were created based on climate change, climate variability, and socio-economic scenarios. Addams L. 2004. Water resource

  18. The relationships between integration strategies and student achievement scores in science among the non-college bound in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John Curtis

    1997-09-01

    To assume that students, or anyone for that matter, can recall bits of information when they have never been shown any practical application for that information is ludicrous. This study focuses on a variety of integration strategies that exist between vocational and academic subjects in Pennsylvania through an initiative called High Schools That Work. The data utilized was collected by the Educational Testing Service in 1994 and included information from 385 graduating seniors. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the perceived level of integration between science and vocational subject areas and scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study utilized frequency distributions, descriptive statistics, correlation techniques, and regression analysis. Differences in the type of vocational program that students were enrolled in were examined as well as their gender. It is evident from this study that the use of vocational methodologies, particularly those involving student assignments on workplace problems in their classrooms, helps students consistently score higher on the NAEP. Findings also indicated that females performed better in areas which required higher level thinking skills when these methods were utilized. The usefulness of this study is broad and it has implications for those teaching, those designing curricula, those determining policy, as well as those in higher education.

  19. Online-storage recycling counter-current chromatography for preparative isolation of naphthaquinones from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Mu, Qing

    2016-09-16

    Counter-current Chromatography (CCC) has gradually become a popular method for preparative separation, especially in natural product isolation. As an effective separation method, one-dimensional (1D) CCC often results in insufficiently resolved peaks, due to limitations in the separation efficiency and peak capacity in an equipment. Therefore, two dimensional (2D)/multi-dimensional (multi-D) CCC strategies with recycling elution mode were developed to achieve successful separation of target compounds. However, the reported 2D or multi-D CCC approaches lead to experimental costs, complicated procedures, higher requirements for equipment, and increased time consumption. In this study, an online-storage recycling (OSR) CCC strategy was designed to achieve sequential recycling elution for multi-fractions of effluent in non-stop separation with single instrument using three 6-port valves and two storage loops, which would be realized by introducing 2D or multi-D CCC method before. In this non-stop separation system, the fraction C of effluent was subjected to recycling separation while the other fractions (A and B) were storing online, following which these two fractions were subjected to subsequent recycling separations in order, after the completion of the previous recycling elution. Then, six natural occurring naphthaquinone analogues, namely, shikonin (1), propionylshikonin (2), deoxyshikonin (3), isobutyrylshikonin (4), β, β-dimethylacrylshikonin (5) and isovalerylshikonin (6), were isolated from the crude extract of Arnebia euchroma in single run. The purities of all compounds were > 95.0% as determined by HPLC, and their structures were determined by means of UV, MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD). PMID:27554028

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research Integrates Behavioral and Biological Research to Achieve Health Equity for Native Hawaiians

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Claire K. M.; Dillard, Adrienne; Hosoda, Kelsea K.; Maskarinec, Gregory G.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku

    2015-01-01

    Native Hawaiians bear a disproportionate burden of type-2 diabetes and related complications compared to all other groups in Hawai‘i (e.g., Whites, Japanese, Korean). Distrust in these communities is a significant barrier to participation in epigenetic research studies seeking to better understand disease processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and research process we employed to integrate behavior and biological sciences with community health priorities. A CBPR approach was used to test a 3-month evidence-based, diabetes self-management intervention (N = 65). To investigate the molecular mechanisms linking inflammation with glucose homeostasis, a subset of participants (n = 16) provided peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Community and academic researchers collaborated on research design, assessment protocols, and participant recruitment, prioritizing participants’ convenience and education and strictly limiting the use of the data collected. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in DNA methylation at gene regions associated with inflammation and diabetes signaling pathways and significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c, self-care activities, and diabetes distress and understanding. This study integrates community, behavioral, and epigenomic expertise to better understand the outcomes of a diabetes self-management intervention. Key lessons learned suggest the studies requiring biospecimen collection in indigenous populations require community trust of the researchers, mutual benefits for the community and researchers, and for the researchers to prioritize the community’s needs. CBPR may be an important tool in providing communities the voice and protections to participate in studies requiring biospecimens. PMID:26703660

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research Integrates Behavioral and Biological Research to Achieve Health Equity for Native Hawaiians.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Claire K M; Dillard, Adrienne; Hosoda, Kelsea K; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Maunakea, Alika K; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians bear a disproportionate burden of type-2 diabetes and related complications compared to all other groups in Hawai'i (e.g., Whites, Japanese, Korean). Distrust in these communities is a significant barrier to participation in epigenetic research studies seeking to better understand disease processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and research process we employed to integrate behavior and biological sciences with community health priorities. A CBPR approach was used to test a 3-month evidence-based, diabetes self-management intervention (N = 65). To investigate the molecular mechanisms linking inflammation with glucose homeostasis, a subset of participants (n = 16) provided peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Community and academic researchers collaborated on research design, assessment protocols, and participant recruitment, prioritizing participants' convenience and education and strictly limiting the use of the data collected. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in DNA methylation at gene regions associated with inflammation and diabetes signaling pathways and significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c, self-care activities, and diabetes distress and understanding. This study integrates community, behavioral, and epigenomic expertise to better understand the outcomes of a diabetes self-management intervention. Key lessons learned suggest the studies requiring biospecimen collection in indigenous populations require community trust of the researchers, mutual benefits for the community and researchers, and for the researchers to prioritize the community's needs. CBPR may be an important tool in providing communities the voice and protections to participate in studies requiring biospecimens. PMID:26703660

  2. Organic vertical field effect transistors: Achieving high on-off ratio and vertical integration with OLEDs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukyun; Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Hyunsu; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2015-10-01

    Organic vertical field effect transistors (VFETs) have been explored to enhance the output current level and device operation speed due to the inherent low carrier mobility of organic semiconductors. However, most of VFETs reported to date involve a complex source electrode patterning process owing to their operation mechanism. Here, we investigate on VFETs based on C60 that do not require complex source electrode patterning process by insulting the top surface of a source electrode embedded in C60 layer [1]. In a VFET structure studied in this work, current flow is controlled by the electric field between a gate and a source electrode embedded within an active layer which is called bottom active layer. Based on its operation mechanism, several geometrical parameters such as (i) bottom active layer thickness; (ii) presence of a charge blocking layer and its thickness ensuring insulating properties; and (iii) the width of electrodes are identified as key factors influencing device performance. Through the device optimization with these parameters, the proposed organic VFETs exhibit a large on/off ratio of 6×10^5 and output current that is greater than that of a conventional C60 based OTFT with a similar device dimension. In order to show the benefit of VFETs, a single-pixel organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is integrated vertically with the VFETs under study.

  3. Modeling and separation of rare earth elements by countercurrent electromigration: A new separation column

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, S.M. |; Arbilla, G.; Carvalho, M.S.

    1998-07-01

    The separation of a samarium (90%) and europium (10%) mixture in {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid was performed in a new countercurrent electromigration system. The mobilities of these elements were estimated, and samarium of better than 99.9% purity was obtained. The equilibrium of multicoordinate complexes of these elements with {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA) plays an important role in the separation process. The equilibrium concentrations of the involved species were calculated by a computational procedure, and a kinetic study of the complexation reaction was also performed.

  4. Countercurrent flow-limiting characteristics of a Savannah River Plant control rod septifoil

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    Experiments were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate the counter-current flow limiting characteristics of a Savannah River Plant control rod septifoil assembly. These experiments were unheated, using air and water as the working fluids. Results are presented in terms of the Wallis flooding correlation for several different control rod configurations. Flooding was observed to occur in the vicinity of the inlet slots/holes of the septifoil, rather than within the rod bundle at the location of the minimum flow area. Nearly identical flooding characteristics of the septifoil were observed for configurations with zero, three, and four rods inserted, but significantly different results occurred with 5 rods inserted.

  5. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. Methods We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. Findings The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. Conclusions The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:26438349

  6. Integrating Intrusive and Non-intrusive Characterization Methods To Achieve A Conceptual Site Model For The SLDA FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Frothingham, D.G.; Frederick, W.T.; Lenart, W.

    2008-07-01

    trenches. The data and information from these sources were used to refine the conceptual site model, complete the RI/FS, and support the ongoing remedial design and action, which will achieve site closure acceptable to all stakeholders. (authors)

  7. Integrating intrusive and nonintrusive characterization methods to achieve a conceptual site model for the SLDA FUSRAP site - 8265.

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L. A.; Peterson, J. M.; Frothingham, D. G.; Frederick, W. T.; Lenart, W.; Environmental Science Division; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburg District; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District

    2008-01-01

    data and information from these sources were used to refine the conceptual site model, complete the RI/FS, and support the ongoing remedial design and action, which will achieve site closure acceptable to all stakeholders.

  8. Separation of betalains from berries of Phytolacca americana by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Skotzki, Tanja; Fiege, Kathrin; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2008-05-01

    The first preparative fractionation of betalain pigments by means of ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from berry extracts of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae) is presented. A novel HSCCC solvent system consisting of 1-butanol-acetonitrile-water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming trifluoroacetic acid at low concentration (0.7%, v/v). Affinity of polar betacyanins and betaxanthins to the organic stationary phase of the biphasic HSCCC solvent mixture was considerably improved. Partitioning coefficient values and influence of increasing trifluoroacetic acid additions to the biphasic solvent mixture were measured for all identified betacyanins and betaxanthins. Gentle separation by IP-HSCCC of the injected pigment extract (900 mg) yielded sufficient amounts of the principal pigments 15S-betanin/15R-isobetanin. The pure epimers separated by C18-HPLC were immediately studied by one- and two-dimensional NMR. In the recovered fractions, minor concentrated betacyanins and betaxanthins were significantly enriched by IP-HSCCC and were detected for the first time in the extracts of P. americana. IP-HSCCC and C18-HPLC were shown to be complementary techniques in the isolation procedure of recovering minor concentrated, highly polar and chemically instable betacyanins and betaxanthin from complex plant matrices. Altogether, identification of 17 betalains was achieved by HPLC-diode array detection-electrospray ionization MS/MS in the HSCCC fractions with their respective isomers, also resulting in the tentative elucidation of betacyanins with novel salicylic acid substitution pattern in the berry extracts of P. americana. PMID:18374932

  9. Counter-current chromatography for the separation of terpenoids: a comprehensive review with respect to the solvent systems employed.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Garrard, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Natural products extracts are commonly highly complex mixtures of active compounds and consequently their purification becomes a particularly challenging task. The development of a purification protocol to extract a single active component from the many hundreds that are often present in the mixture is something that can take months or even years to achieve, thus it is important for the natural product chemist to have, at their disposal, a broad range of diverse purification techniques. Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is one such separation technique utilising two immiscible phases, one as the stationary phase (retained in a spinning coil by centrifugal forces) and the second as the mobile phase. The method benefits from a number of advantages when compared with the more traditional liquid-solid separation methods, such as no irreversible adsorption, total recovery of the injected sample, minimal tailing of peaks, low risk of sample denaturation, the ability to accept particulates, and a low solvent consumption. The selection of an appropriate two-phase solvent system is critical to the running of CCC since this is both the mobile and the stationary phase of the system. However, this is also by far the most time consuming aspect of the technique and the one that most inhibits its general take-up. In recent years, numerous natural product purifications have been published using CCC from almost every country across the globe. Many of these papers are devoted to terpenoids-one of the most diverse groups. Naturally occurring terpenoids provide opportunities to discover new drugs but many of them are available at very low levels in nature and a huge number of them still remain unexplored. The collective knowledge on performing successful CCC separations of terpenoids has been gathered and reviewed by the authors, in order to create a comprehensive document that will be of great assistance in performing future purifications. PMID:24899873

  10. Simultaneous separation of three isomeric sennosides from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sait Byul; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-10-01

    Senna leaf is widely consumed as tea to treat constipation or to aid in weight loss. Sennoside A, A1 , and B are dirheinanthrone glucosides that are abundant and the bioactive constituents in the plant. They are isomers that refer to the (R*R*), (S*S*), and (R*S*) forms of protons on C-10 and C-10' centers and it is difficult to refine them individually due to their structural similarities. The new separation method using counter-current chromatography successfully purified sennoside A, A1 , and B from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) while reversed-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography yielded sennoside A only. n-Butanol/isopropanol/water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was selected as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography operation, and the partition coefficients were carefully determined by adding different concentrations of formic acid. High-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were performed to verify the chemical properties of the compounds. PMID:26255810

  11. Estimation of shear stress in counter-current gas-liquid annular two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Akimoto, Hajime; Murao, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the correlations of the friction factor is important for the counter-current flow (CCF) analysis with two-fluid model. However, existing two fluid model codes use the correlations of friction factors for co-current flow or correlation developed based on the assumption of no wall shear stress. The assessment calculation for two fluid model code with those existing correlations of friction factors shows the falling water flow rate is overestimated. Analytical model is developed to calculate the shear stress distribution in water film at CCF in order to get the information on the shear stress at the interface and the wall. The analytical results with the analysis model and Bharathan's CCF data shows that the wall shear stress acting on the falling water film is almost the same order as the interfacial shear stress and the correlations for co-current flow cannot be applied to the counter-current flow. Tentative correlations of the interfacial and the wall friction factors are developed based on the results of the present study.

  12. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons.

  13. Counter-current thermocapilllary migration of bubbles in microchannels using self-rewetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazareth, Robson; Saenz, Pedro; Valluri, Prashant; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-11-01

    The study of bubble transport in microchannels is of great interest in evaporative cooling of microdevices technologies. This is because bubble transport under heat-transfer or phase-change causes several flow instabilities that are less understood and hinder informed design of microcooling devices. Bubble motion in microchannels under temperature gradients is highly influenced by thermocapillary forces due surface tension gradients. Most studies until now so far are mainly based on pure liquids which present a linear temperature (inverse) dependence of surface tension. In this work, we consider motion of a bubble (formed of inert gas) in the so-called self-rewetting fluid that presents a parabolic (quadratic) dependence of surface tension on temperature, in a temperature range that includes a surface tension minimum. We particularly investigate the counter-current thermocapillary migration of bubbles in these liquids, as experimentally depicted by Shanahan and Sefiane (2014), by means of direct numerical simulations. We present a model that solves the 3D governing equations of mass, momentum, interface and energy for the two-phase system composed by incompressible, Newtonian and immiscible fluids. We resolve the deformable interface by means of a Volume-of-Fluid method. Our results indicate that there exists a pressure drop limit beyond which there would be no counter-current migration of bubbles.

  14. Measurement of countercurrent phase separation and distribution in a two-dimensional test section

    SciTech Connect

    Bukhari, K M; Lahey, Jr, R T

    1984-01-01

    The degree of phase separation that occurs in the core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during various postulated accidents is an important consideration for studying the course of events during such accidents. The dependence of countercurrent phase separation and distribution phenomena on flow quality, mass flux and system geometry was studied experimentally in a two-dimensional (2-D) test section. A two-phase (air/water) mixture flowed upwards and single-phase water flowed downward along one side of the test section. This countercurrent flow configuration was intended to simulate the so-called chimney effect in the diabatic JAERI 2-D experiments in Japan. A large air/water loop used with a 91.44 cm x 91.44 cm x 1.27 cm test section to study phase separation and distribution effects. A traversing single beam gamma-densitometer was used to measure the chordal average void fractions at several elevations along the test section. Cross-plots between various flow conditions and geometries were made. An error analysis giving the total error in the void fraction measurements was also performed. High speed photographs were also made of the flow structure, to provide information on flow regimes. The photographic records and the void fraction and hydraulic inflow/outflow data are presented in a form suitable for the assessment of advanced generation computer codes (e.g., TRAC).

  15. Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment via a PAC-MF accumulative countercurrent adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunxia; Gu, Ping; Cui, Hangyu; Zhang, Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    Organic pollutants in reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates from wastewater reclamation are mainly comprised of low molecular weight biorefractory compounds. Generally, advanced oxidation methods for oxidizing these organics require a relatively high level of energy consumption. In addition, conventional adsorption removal methods require a large dose of activated carbon. However, the dose can be reduced if its full adsorption capacity can be used. Therefore, the combined technology of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and microfiltration (MF) membrane filtration was studied to develop a countercurrent two-stage adsorption process. A PAC accumulative adsorption prediction method was proposed based on the verification of a PAC multi-stage adsorption capacity equation. Moreover, the prediction method was amended for a more accurate prediction of the effluent quality because adsorption isotherm constants were affected by the initial adsorbate concentration. The required PAC dose for the accumulative countercurrent two-stage adsorption system was 0.6 g/L, whereas that of the conventional adsorption process was 1.05 g/L when the dilution factor(F) was 0.1 and the COD and DOC removal rates were set to 70% and 68.1%, respectively. Organic pollutants were satisfactorily removed with less consumption of PAC. Effluent from this combined technology can be further reclaimed by an RO process to improve the overall recovery rate to between 91.0% and 93.8% with both economic and environmental benefits. PMID:22082527

  16. Low sensitivity of counter-current immuno-electrophoresis for serodiagnosis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Datta, U; Roy, P; Verma, S; Sehgal, S

    1997-12-01

    Counter-current immuno-electrophoresis was evaluated as a diagnostic test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever with somatic (O), flagellar (H) and capsular polysaccharide (Vi) antigens of Salmonella typhi on the sera of patients who were blood culture positive (confirmed typhoid cases) or had high Widal agglutination titres, > or = 320, (presumptive typhoid cases). Of the 37 sera from confirmed cases, 30% showed positivity with O antigen, 24% with H antigens and 51% with Vi antigen. In patients with a presumptive diagnosis, 45% were positive for O antibody, 27% for flagellar antibody and 52% for Vi antibody. When all three antigens were combined the reactivity to any of the antigens was found to be 59% in confirmed typhoid cases, 79% in presumptive typhoid cases and 93% in patients who were simultaneously positive by blood culture and Widal agglutination. However, none of the sera from 45 controls gave a positive precipitation reaction with any of the antigens. It is concluded that counter-current immuno-electrophoresis is a rapid test with low sensitivity and high specificity with Vi antigen, a panel of antigens being most effective, and is, therefore, recommended for rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:9402926

  17. The effect of surfactant on counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes are often accompanied by flow reversal. This so-called ``flooding'' phenomenon could occur for at least a part of the liquid phase from a counter-current to a co-current state, against the action of gravity. This phenomenon is of central importance to the oil-and-gas and nuclear industries, and has received considerable attention experimentally. The large majority of the previous work in this area, however, has considered the case of pure fluids, in the absence of additives; the latter are used frequently in industry in an attempt to control the onset of various flow regimes with little understanding of the mechanisms underlying their influence on the interfacial dynamics. In this study, we address this issue by investigating the dynamics of flooding in the presence of surfactants in a 4 m long, 32.4 mm nominal bore polymethyl methacrylate test section using high-speed shadowgraphy, and axial-view imaging. The system parameters include the superficial gas and liquid velocities, and surfactant concentration. We show that the presence of surfactant can have a dramatic effect on the flow structures and the onset of flooding. The mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are analysed. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  18. Enrichment and separation of antitumor triterpene acids from the epidermis of Poria cocos by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjing; Wu, Panpan; Yan, Renyi; Xu, Qihua; Li, Hua; Zhang, Fangbo; Li, Jianrong; Yang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Triterpene acids were extracted from the epidermis of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. These acids were found to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. An efficient method for the preparative separation of antitumor triterpene acids was established that involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography. We used pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography to concentrate the triterpene acids using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:7:5:5, v/v/v/v), trifluoroacetic acid (10 mM) was added to the upper phase as a retainer, and ammonia (10 mM) was added to the lower phase as an eluter. As a result, 200 mg concentrate of triterpene acids was obtained from 1.0 g of crude extract. The concentrate was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography using a solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (0.8:1.2:1.2:0.9, v/v), yielding 50 mg of poricoic acid A and 5 mg of poricoic acid B from 120 mg concentrate, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the major compound on lung A549 cells was examined and poricoic acid A was found to significantly inhibit the growth of A 549 cells. PMID:25821060

  19. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  20. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. PMID:26114881

  1. Countercurrent washing of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal after leaching with molten mixtures of sodium and potassium hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chriswell, C.D.; Shah, N.D.; Markuszewski, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Molten caustic leaching is an advanced chemical coal-cleaning process which results in the removal of over 90% of the sulfur and ash from coal. One of the steps in this process is the water washing of caustic-leached coals to remove unreacted caustic and impurities released by reactions with the molten caustic. A countercurrent procedure, designed for efficient washing with minimal water consumption, has been evaluated in the present work. A Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was leached with a one-to-one mixture of molten sodium and potassium hydroxides, and the resulting coal-caustic cake was washed using this countercurrent procedure. The countercurrent washing did result in recovery of caustic at predicted concentrations, and a relatively ash-free and sulfur-free coal was the final product. However, significant problems occurred during the countercurrent washing, all of which could be linked with the formation of a massive precipitate of carbonates from the alkaline process streams. The mass of the precipitate retained fluids and thus led to far lower than predicted recoveries of caustic solutions. the precipitate also caused a significant decrease in filtration rates.

  2. Achieving the integrated and smart health and wellbeing paradigm: a call for policy research and action on governance and business models.

    PubMed

    Stroetmann, Karl A

    2013-04-01

    To assure sustainability of our health systems and improve quality, implementing integrated wellness, health and social care service models have been proposed. They will need the enabling power of Health ICT facilitated systems and applications. Such solutions support the efficient coordination of service provision across provider and jurisdictional boundaries, the sharing of data, information and knowledge, and the streamlining as well as individualisation of care. Achieving such change in health systems with limited resources requires refocusing the trend of medico-technical progress. Health ICT innovations must be scrutinised for their potential to indeed contribute not only to decreasing costs, but - at the same time - improving the quality of life and ability to cope with challenges like the increasing prevalence of certain chronic diseases or new expectations from healthy people and patients alike. This paper argues that decision-oriented governance models leading to focused policy interventions are needed at several levels: Governments should provide for comprehensive Health ICT infrastructures to enable provider market success. At the individual actor level, sustainable business models reflecting in their value propositions the expectations of their clients (patients and funders) need to be developed. Health policy should design intelligent reimbursement systems providing incentives to indeed optimise services. Smart health innovations should only be implemented where they help achieve the goal of increasing the productivity of health value chains and the quality of overall service delivery value systems. To assure allocational efficiency, regulatory impact analyses (RIA) can support evidence based policy making. PMID:22727880

  3. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  4. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  5. ``New`` countercurrent demineralization techniques are carving a place in water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes how supplementing older treatment methods with modern advancements creates water treatment technology greater than the sum of its parts. Water treatment technology has rapidly advanced in recent years to where a myriad of options are now available for producing makeup water for utility boilers. Some of the newer methods include two-pass reverse osmosis (RO), RO followed by mixed-bed demineralization and triple-membrane treatment consisting of ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and RO. All of these techniques have performed well in various applications. A technique that is gaining attention is packed-bed, counter-currently regenerated demineralization. This process combines ion exchange with advanced regeneration methods in a system that produces water of significantly better quality than that of conventional cation/anion units.

  6. Counter-current flow in a vertical to horizontal tube with obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, P.; Matuszkiewicz, A.; Teyssedou, A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents experimental results on counter-current flow and flooding in an elbow between a vertical and a horizontal run. The experimental technique used allowed not only the flooding limit to be determined, but also the entire partial delivery region to be studied as well. The influence that various size orifices placed in the horizontal run have on both the delivered liquid flow rates and on the flooding limits is also examined. It is observed that both the flooding limits and the delivered liquid flow rates decrease with decreasing orifice size. Further, it is also observed that the mechanisms that govern the partial delivery of the liquid are significantly different when an orifice is present in the horizontal leg as compared to the case when no orifice is present.

  7. Novel Design for Centrifugal Counter-Current Chromatography: III. Saw Tooth Column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal coil using an equilateral triangular core and zigzag pattern column have improved both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution of the conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal counter-current chromatography. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a novel saw tooth column was designed and the performance of the system was evaluated at various flow rates. The results indicated that both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution were improved as the flow rate was decreased and at a flow rate of 0.005 ml/min the resolution is remarkably increased. Modification of the tubing called flat-twisted tubing further improved the peak resolution without increasing the column pressure. With a decreased column length at a capacity of about 0.2 ml, resolution of the saw tooth column was 1.02. PMID:20543965

  8. Novel Designs for Centrifugal Countercurrent chromatography: V. Comparative Studies on Performance of Various Column Configurations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal countercurrent chromatography has a low level of stationary phase retention, since a half of each helical turn is entirely occupied by the mobile phase. In order to cope with this problem, several new column designs including zigzag, saw-tooth and figure-8 patterns have been introduced and their performance was compared in terms of retention of the stationary phase (Sf), peak resolution (Rs), theoretical plate number (N) and column pressures. Overall results of experiments indicate that the figure-8 column yields the highest Rs when the lower phase is used as the mobile phase. Since the column pressure of all these new columns are much lower than that in the traditional toroidal coil column, the separation efficiency can be improved using a long separation column without a risk of column damage by high back pressure. PMID:21057664

  9. Separation of two major chalcones from Angelica keiskei by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Jun; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    Angelica keiskei (Shin-sun cho) is an edible higher plant with the beneficial preventive effects on cancer, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Two bioactive chalcones of Shin-sun cho, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2), were separated simultaneously by using high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-EtOAc-MeOH-H2O (9:5:9:4). Only nonconsuming processes, solvent fractionations and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, were conducted as presteps. Xanthoangelol (1, 35.9 mg, 99.9 % purity at 254 and 365 nm) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2, 4.4 mg, 98.7 % purity at 254 nm and 98.8 % purity at 365 nm) were successfully purified from 70 mg of the processed extract from A. keiskei. The structures of two compounds were confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis. PMID:25502980

  10. Preparative separation of punicalagin from pomegranate husk by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingjing; Wei, Yun; Yuan, Qipeng

    2007-09-15

    Punicalagin, the main ingredient of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk, is a high molecular weight polyphenolic compound. It has shown remarkable pharmacological activities attributed in the presence of dissociable OH groups. To isolate punicalagin, previous methods included labor intensive and expensive solid phase extractions by column chromatography (C-18, polyamides, dellulose, Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20, Diaion HP20). High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for isolation and purification of punicalagin from pomegranate husk. Using preparative HSCCC about a 350 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 105 mg of punicalagin at a high-purity of over 92%. Eighty milligrams of gallic acid was simultaneously separated as another product, at a purity of 75%. PMID:17689301

  11. Real-Time Volumetric Phase Monitoring: Advancing Chemical Analysis by Countercurrent Separation.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Guido F; Pro, Samuel M; Chadwick, Lucas R; Burdick, Thomas; Pro, Luke; Friedl, Warren; Novak, Nick; Maltby, John; Qiu, Feng; Friesen, J Brent

    2015-07-21

    Countercurrent separation (CCS) utilizes the differential partitioning behavior of analytes between two immiscible liquid phases. We introduce the first platform ("CherryOne") capable of real-time monitoring, metering, and control of the dynamic liquid-liquid CCS process. Automated phase monitoring and volumetrics are made possible with an array of sensors, including the new permittivity-based phase metering apparatus (PMA). Volumetric data for each liquid phase are converted into a dynamic real-time display of stationary phase retention (Sf) and eluent partition coefficients (K), which represent critical parameters of CCS reproducibility. When coupled with the elution-extrusion operational mode (EECCC), automated Sf and K determination empowers untargeted and targeted applications ranging from metabolomic analysis to preparative purifications. PMID:26152934

  12. Evaluation of the performance of protein separation in figure-8 centrifugal counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    The performance of protein separation using the figure-8 column configuration in centrifugal counter-current chromatography was investigated under various flow rates and revolution speeds. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of polyethylene glycol 1000/potassium phosphate each at 12.5% (w/w) in water and with lysozyme and myoglobin as test samples. In order to improve tracing of the elution curve, a hollow fiber membrane dialyzer was inserted at the inlet of the UV detector. The results showed that the retention of stationary phase (Sf) and resolution (Rs) increased with decreased flow rate and increased revolution speed. The highest Rs of approximately 1 was obtained at a flow rate of 0.01 mL/min under a revolution speed of 1200 rpm with a 3.4 ml capacity column. PMID:22100551

  13. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.

  14. A macroscopic model for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in packed columns

    SciTech Connect

    Dankworth, D.C.; Sundaresan, S. )

    1989-08-01

    A macroscopic model based on the volume-averaged equations of motion is presented for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in a packed bed. The model yields a column-limited flooding point as the loss of existence of uniform states. It correctly predicts the existence of two uniform states below the flooding point. The lower branch corresponds to the trends commonly observed experimentally. It is shown that the upper branch is made unattainable by the gas distributor/support plate at the bottom of the column. The occurrence of premature flooding induced by the support plate is also explained. It is suggested that the occurrence of spontaneous liquid segregation, necessitating frequent liquid redistribution in columns with large dumped packings and porosities, is a consequence of the loss of stability of the uniform state in the lower branch.

  15. Integrated continuous production of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Veena; Godawat, Rahul; Brower, Kevin; Jain, Sujit; Cummings, Daniel; Simons, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy; Walther, Jason; Yu, Marcella; Wright, Benjamin; McLarty, Jean; Karey, Kenneth P; Hwang, Chris; Zhou, Weichang; Riske, Frank; Konstantinov, Konstantin

    2012-12-01

    In the current environment of diverse product pipelines, rapidly fluctuating market demands and growing competition from biosimilars, biotechnology companies are increasingly driven to develop innovative solutions for highly flexible and cost-effective manufacturing. To address these challenging demands, integrated continuous processing, comprised of high-density perfusion cell culture and a directly coupled continuous capture step, can be used as a universal biomanufacturing platform. This study reports the first successful demonstration of the integration of a perfusion bioreactor and a four-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) system for the continuous capture of candidate protein therapeutics. Two examples are presented: (1) a monoclonal antibody (model of a stable protein) and (2) a recombinant human enzyme (model of a highly complex, less stable protein). In both cases, high-density perfusion CHO cell cultures were operated at a quasi-steady state of 50-60 × 10(6) cells/mL for more than 60 days, achieving volumetric productivities much higher than current perfusion or fed-batch processes. The directly integrated and automated PCC system ran uninterrupted for 30 days without indications of time-based performance decline. The product quality observed for the continuous capture process was comparable to that for a batch-column operation. Furthermore, the integration of perfusion cell culture and PCC led to a dramatic decrease in the equipment footprint and elimination of several non-value-added unit operations, such as clarification and intermediate hold steps. These findings demonstrate the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing as a universal platform for the manufacture of various kinds of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22729761

  16. The impact of a science-based integrated instructional protocol on the motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth and fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kathy E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing an integrated instructional protocol of science-based informational texts as teacher read alouds, student independent reading, and written journal responses on motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth- and fifth-grade students with attention to specific student groups, including gender and ethnicities. A mixed methods research design included a 12-week intervention conducted with 68 fourth and fifth graders and 30 nonintervention fourth and fifth graders. Participating fourth and fifth graders completed the comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ([GMRT] MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000) and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills ([TAKS] Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2005a). The Reading Survey of the Motivation to Read Profile ([MRP], Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) served as another quantitative data source. Qualitative data sources included classroom observations, key informant interviews, and student journal entries. The GMRT results indicated that the intervention fourth graders demonstrated the largest growth in reading comprehension achievement. Significant differences were noted by GMRT results between the intervention and nonintervention fourth graders. A significant difference was found between fourth-grade males and females on the GMRT, with a larger gain posted by the females. No significant differences were found on the GMRT in fifth grade Reading TAKS results indicated a significant difference between intervention fourth-grade Hispanic and African American students, while fifth-grade Science TAKS results indicated no significant differences. The MRP Reading Survey results indicated no significant differences; however, fourth-grade Hispanic and fifth-grade male students demonstrated significant growth. Classroom observations documented the progress of the 12-week intervention; 9 primary instructional and

  17. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  18. Preparative separation and purification of four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from safflower by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Cong; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Na; Zhang, Qiu-Long; Suo, You-Rui; Ding, Chen-Xu

    2013-11-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the first time to isolate and purify four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from Safflower. HSCCC separation was achieved with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:1, v/v/v) with the upper phase as the mobile phase. In a single run, a total of 1.3mg of N(1), N(5), N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EEE), 4.4mg of N(1)(E)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EZE), 7.2mg of N(1)(Z)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZE), and 11.5mg of N(1),N(5),N(10)-(Z)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZZ) were obtained from 100mg of crude sample. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the purities of these four components are 95.5%, 98.1%, 97.5% and 96.2%, respectively. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. PMID:24055753

  19. Calcium isotope enrichment by means of multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis for the study of particle and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Fukumoto, T.; Umehara, S.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new method for enrichment of large amounts of calcium isotopes for the future study of ^{48}Ca double beta decay. The method is called multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis (MCCCE). We present the concept of MCCCE, in which the power density in the migration path is the key to efficient enrichment of a large amount of materials. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate, allowing a substantial increase in the power density to be achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument and obtained an enrichment factor of 3 for the ratio of the abundance of ^{48}Ca to ^{43}Ca over that of natural abundance. This corresponds to an enrichment factor of 6 for ^{48}Ca to ^{40}Ca. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amounts of ions. It can be applied to many other elements and compounds.

  20. [Isolation and preparation of an imidazole alkaloid from radix radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch by semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongling; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Zou, Denglang; Li, Yulin

    2014-05-01

    Aconitum pendulum Busch is rich C19 diterpenoid alkaloids, but there is no report of imidazole alkaloid in Aconitum pendulum Busch. In this study, an imidazole alkaloid named 1H-imidazole-2-carboxylic acid, butyl ester (ICABE) was successfully separated from Aconitum pendulum Busch with semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The partition coefficient was measured by HPLC to select the solvent systems for ICABE separation by HSCCC. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-ethanol-water (10:1 : 13:2, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. It was operated at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was rotated at 850 r/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. Under the selected conditions, a high efficiency separation of HSCCC was achieved, and 7.5 mg of ICABE was obtained from 100 mg of the crude sample of Aconitum pendulum in one-step separation within 350 min. The HPLC analysis showed that the purity of the compound was over 98%. The chemical structure was confirmed by UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The established method is simple, highly efficient and suitable for large scale separation of ICABE from radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch. PMID:25185318

  1. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24352009

  2. Effect of various phenomena in the organic phase on metal extraction with chelating reagents in countercurrent and crosscurrent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of the association phenomena (extractant association, modifier association, and extractant-modifier co-association) on the recovery of metal species in extraction-stripping multistage countercurrent and cross current processes is discussed. The association phenomena change the optimum strength of extractant extraction ability needed to obtain the maximal metal transfer. The extraction-stripping isotherms depend mainly on the extraction constant, the extractant association constant, the ratio of extractant to modifier, and the acidity of the aqueous phase. The effect of modifier extractant co-association on extraction-stripping isotherms is observed for modifier/extractant mole ratios above 1.5. The countercurrent extraction-stripping process depends mainly on the extraction constant and the extractant association constant. Extractant association decreases the extraction ability and facilitates the stripping. Co-association of extractant with a modifier may play the same role as the extractant association. As a result, a maximum transfer of metal from the feed to the loaded electrolyte is observed for appropriate combinations of the equilibrium constants of extraction, association, and co-association. Extraction association and co-association have a negative effect for weak extractants and a positive one for strong extractants. Similar effects are observed for crosscurrent reagent flows. The association of a modifier and especially its co-association with extractant change the optimum strength of extractant (extraction equilibrium constant) for both the multistage countercurrent and crosscurrent processes.

  3. Countercurrent assisted quantitative recovery of metabolites from plant-associated natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Garzon, Jahir; Friesen, J Brent; Zhang, Yu; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-07-01

    NAtural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are chemically simple but physiologically important plant constituents that exhibit unique solubilizing properties of other metabolites, including bioactive constituents. The high polarity of NADES introduces a challenge in the ability of conventional solid-support based chromatography to recover potential bioactive metabolites. This complicates the systematic explanation of the NADES' functions in botanical extracts. The present study utilizes countercurrent separation (CCS) methodology to overcome the recovery challenge. To demonstrate its feasibility, Glucose-Choline chloride-Water (GCWat, 2:5:5, mole/mole) served as a model NADES, and four widely used marker flavonoids with different polarities (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein) were chosen as model target analytes. In order to prepare GCWat with high consistency, a water drying study was performed. The unique capabilities of the recently introduced CherryOne system, offering volumetric phase metering, were used to monitor the CCS operations. The collected fractions were analyzed using UHPLC and NMR/quantitative NMR. CCS was able to recover the analytes from the NADES matrix with quantitative recoveries of 95.7%, 94.6%, 97.0%, and 96.7% for rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein respectively. The CCS strategy enables recovery of target metabolites from NADES-containing crude extracts as well as from other chemical mixtures, and moreover offers a means of using NADES as environmentally friendly extraction solvents. PMID:27118320

  4. Growth of gravity-capillary waves in countercurrent air/water turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Alfredo; Zonta, Francesco; Onorato, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    We use Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier Stokes equations to analyze the dynamics of the interface between air and water when both phases are driven by opposite pressure gradients (countercurrent configuration). The Reynolds number (Reτ), the Weber number (We) and the Froude number (Fr) fully describe the physical problem. We examine the problem of the transient growth of interface waves for different combinations of physical parameters. Keeping Reτ constant and varying We and Fr , we show that, in the initial stages of the wave generation process, the amplitude of the interface elevation η grows in time as η ~t 2 / 5 . Wavenumber spectra, E (kx) , of the surface elevation in the capillary range are in good agreement with the prediction of the Wave Turbulence Theory. Finally, the wave-induced modification of the average wind and current velocity profiles will be addressed. Support from Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia under grant PAR FSC 2007/2013 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Szot, Dominika; Szaleniec, Maciej; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Slawomir

    2014-05-30

    Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae. An HSCCC solvent system consisting of TBME-1-BuOH-ACN-H2O (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Significantly different elution profiles of betacyanin diastereomeric pairs (derivatives based on betanidin and isobetanidin) observed in the HSCCC in comparison to HPLC systems indicate a complementarity of both techniques' fractionation capabilities. The numerous diastereomeric pairs can be selectively separated from each other using the HSCCC system simplifying the pigment purification process. Apart from the three well known highly abundant pigments (amaranthine, betanin and iresinin I) together with their isoforms, three new acylated (feruloylated and sinapoylated) betacyanins as well as known pigment hylocerenin (previously isolated from cacti fruits) were characterized in the plant for the first time and they are new for the whole Amaranthaceae family. PMID:24767836

  6. Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Walasek, Magdalena; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-08-01

    High-performance counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of terpenoid compounds from the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane/methanol/ethyl acetate/water (5:2:5:2, v/v/v/v) was suitable for the purification of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, p-anisaldehyde, while n-heptane/methanol (1:1, v/v) was used for the isolation of anethole and foeniculin. A scale-up process from analytical to preparative was developed. Additionally, a stepwise gradient elution was applied and instead of two different runs, 40 min each, one 80 min separation was performed; although the time of separation remains the same, it was possible to repeat the efficiency even if the water-containing mobile phase was changed to a nonaqueous system. The obtained essential oil, as well as purified compounds, was analyzed by GC. A total of 0.64 mg of linalool, 0.52 mg of terpinen-4-ol, 0.10 mg of α-terpineol, 0.62 mg of p-anisaldehyde, 15 mg of anethole, and 2.12 mg of foeniculin were obtained from 210 mg of the essential oil of P. anisum L. in a short time with purities of 99, 98, 94, 93.54, 93, and 93.6%, respectively. PMID:23749680

  7. Powerful leverages and counter-currents in the unborn child spiritual care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Tooba; Ziaei, Saeideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    In different cultures, pregnancy, birth and motherhood are perceived as spiritual events through their miraculous processes and create an ideal context for spiritual enrichment. However, studies on spirituality and birth are at very early stages. The purpose of this study was to understand the facilitators and barriers of the unborn child spiritual care in Iranian women. Twenty-two mothers with live pregnancy experience who were willing and able to share their life stories were selected purposefully in Tehran (Iran) from May 2012 to April 2013. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 27 interviews. Active and passive acquisition of information, inner inspirational messages, receiving effective support from the people around as well as modeling of self and significant others created "powerful leverages" to accelerate mother for caring her unborn child. "Counter-currents" in the form of unsuitable physical conditions during pregnancy, poor economic and social conditions, unsuitable psychological and cognitive conditions and finally understanding unsuitable ideological conditions of the self and care giver were identified as barriers. Iranian cultural and religious perspective on the unborn child physical and mental influence from mother has an important role in mother's self-care behaviors during pregnancy. It seems that using interdisciplinary professionals' skills based on understanding facilitators and barriers of mother care of the unborn child can lead to providing comprehensive prenatal care according to mothers' cultural, religious and social context. PMID:25560343

  8. Preparative separation of five flavones from flowers of Polygonum cuspidatum by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Gu, Shubo; Guo, Linlin; Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    A preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography method was successfully used for the isolation of five minor flavones from Polygonum cuspidatum flowers. Among them, three compounds were obtained from P. cuspidatum for the first time. A twin two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:6:3:6, v/v/v/v) and petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:4:3:3, v/v/v/v) was developed. Compounds were obtained from the fraction B and fraction C prepurified by silica gel column chromatography. Five minor compositions, 6.8 mg of hesperidin, 11.2 mg of phloridzin, 4.9 mg of luteolin, 5.3 mg of hyperin, and 3.7 mg of luteoloside were obtained from 140 mg of the fraction B and 110 mg of fraction C with a purity of 95.3, 96.4, 98.0, 96.8, and 95.3%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24753452

  9. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. PMID:24299786

  10. Rapid isolation and purification of phorbol esters from Jatropha curcas by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wan; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin; Peng, Tong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-03-18

    In this work, a high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparation of phorbol esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1.5:1.2:0.5, v/v) was selected as the optimum two-phase solvent system to separate and purify jatropha factor C1 (JC1) with a purity of 85.2%, as determined by HPLC, and to obtain a mixture containing four or five PEs. Subsequently, continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify JC1 (99.8% as determined by HPLC). In addition, UPLC-PDA and UPLC-MS were established and successfully used to evaluate the isolated JC1 and PE-rich crude extract. The purity of JC1 was only 87.8% by UPLC-UV. A peak (a compound highly similar to JC1) was indentified as the isomer of JC1 by comparing the characteristic UV absorption and MS spectra. Meanwhile, this strategy was also applied to analyze the PE-rich crude extract from J. curcas. It is interesting that there may be more than 15 PEs according to the same quasi-molecular ion peaks, highly similar sequence-specific fragment ions, and similar UV absorption spectrum. PMID:25686848

  11. Compact type-I coil planet centrifuge for counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Liu, Yongqiang; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    A compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has been developed for performing counter-current chromatography. It has a revolution radius of 10 cm and a column holder height of 5 cm compared with 37 cm and 50 cm in the original prototype, respectively. The reduction in the revolution radius and column length permits application of higher revolution speed and more stable balancing of the rotor which leads us to learn more about its performance and the future potential of type-I coil planet centrifuge. The chromatographic performance of this apparatus was evaluated in terms of retention of the stationary phase (Sf), peak resolution (Rs), theoretical plate (N) and peak retention time (tR). The results of the experiment indicated that increasing the revolution speed slightly improved both the retention of the stationary phase and the peak resolution while the separation time is remarkably shortened to yield an excellent peak resolution at a revolution speed of 800 rpm. With a 12 ml capacity coiled column, DNP-glu, DNP-β-ala and DNP-ala were resolved at Rs of 2.75 and 2.16 within 90 min at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. We believe that the compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has a high analytical potential. PMID:20060979

  12. Estimates of the zonal slope and seasonal transport of the Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Katz, Eli J.

    1990-01-01

    Data from six inverted echo sounder moorings and the Geosat satellite altimeter are used to examine the seasonal variability of sea surface elevation. Monthly sea level maps are constructed using a contemporaneous subsurface temperature survey to provide a reference sea level field. The maps are then used to describe the origin and structure of the western tropical Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) during a two-year period beginning in November 1987. The data reveal a zonal current which is confined between 3 deg N and 9 deg N with a typical width of 300 km. The NECC flows strongly eastward during November and December 1986 and May 1987 through January 1988. The reappearance of the current is then delayed until August, but the current flows strongly from August until the end of the record in October 1988. Volume transport is estimated for the two-year period from surface elevation by approximating the vertical structure of the ocean as a two-layer fluid. It is found that the NECC has a maximum transport of 40 x 10 to the 6th cu m/s at 38 deg W.

  13. Elution-Extrusion Countercurrent Chromatography: Theory and Concepts in Metabolic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berthod, Alain; Friesen, J. Brent; Inui, Taichi; Pauli, Guido F.

    2008-01-01

    Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography (EECCC) takes full advantage of the liquid nature of the stationary phase in CCC by combining regular chromatographic elution with stationary phase extrusion. EECCC is shown to be a three-stage process consisting of classical elution (I), sweeping elution (II), and extrusion (III). After only two column volumes of solvent, it rapidly yields a high-resolution chromatogram that covers an extended polarity range of solutes. As hydrophilicity/lipophilicity balance is a crucial discriminatory property of analytes in highly complex mixtures such as metabolomic samples, the precise determination of CCC distribution constants (KD) is vital to the analysis of metabolomes and other complex biological matrices. This work builds the EECCC concept by performing a full theoretical treatment and providing equations for retention volumes, peak widths, resolution factors, and distribution constants. Experimental validation utilizes natural products standards that resemble the zero to infinity range of the polarity continuum. EECCC extends the “sweet spot” of high-resolution in CCC, and provides access to the otherwise practically unapproachable high-KD portion of the high-resolution chromatograms in CCC. Its improved capabilities of KD-targeting make EECCC a promising tool for the specific analysis of “small” molecules in complex samples such as in metabolomic fingerprinting and footprinting. PMID:17408244

  14. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  15. Preparative separation of grape skin polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-12-01

    To develop an efficient method for large preparation of various individual polyphenols from white grape skins (Fernão Pires; Vitis vinifera) by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative-HPLC, an optimized preparative HSCCC condition with two-phase solvent system composed of Hex-EtOAc-H2O (1:50:50, v/v) was used to separate grape skin polyphenols into various fractions. Both the tail-head and head-tail elution modes were used with a flow rate of 3.0ml/min and a rotary speed of 950rpm. Afterwards, a preparative-HPLC separation was applied to isolate individual polyphenols in each of the fractions from HSCCC. Total of 7 fractions (Fraction A to G) were obtained from grape skin extract by HSCCC. After preparative-HPLC isolation, fifteen individual compounds were obtained, most of which presented high yields and purity (all over 90%). The HSCCC method followed with preparative-HPLC appeared to be convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of grape skin polyphenols. PMID:27374588

  16. The South Indian Ocean Countercurrent: a return pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Erwin; leBars, Dewi; de Ruijter, Will

    2014-05-01

    The South Indian Ocean Counter Current (SICC) is associated with a thermal front embedded in a broad eastward flow across the subtropical Indian Ocean and feeds into the poleward Leeuwin Current (LC). Previous studies have shown that the LC and SICC are sensitive to variations of the inflow of Pacific water through the Indonesian Passages (ITF). These subtropical countercurrents, of which the SICC is an example, are characterized by high eddy activity and theoretical work has shown the non-linear nature of their dynamics. That has motivated us to investigate the inertial response to the ITF of the IO circulaion. Analysis of two global eddy resolving model runs with the Indonesian Passages open and closed showed that the full 15 Sv of the ITF flows through the Mozambique Channel but only 10 Sv ends up in the Agulhas Current. This suggests that the SICC-LC system forms part of the return pathway of the ITF to the Pacific. Using the Hallberg Isopycnal Model we have investigated the combined effect of ITF, wind- and buoyancy forcing on the Indian Ocean circulation in the inertial boundary layer regime.

  17. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. PMID:27376629

  18. Topsy-turvy: turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John; Jones, T Todd; Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H

    2015-10-01

    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting. PMID:26445982

  19. Preparative separation of minor saponins from Platycodi Radix by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, In J; Kang, Minseok; Na, Yun C; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong S

    2011-10-01

    Platycosides (PSs), the saponins found in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Platycodi Radix), are typically composed of oleanene backbones with two side chains; one is a 3-O-glucose linked by a glycosidic bond, and the other is a 28-O-arabinose-rhamnose-xylose-apiose linked by an ester bond. Minor saponins, acetylated isomers of the major saponin on either the 2'' or 3'' position of rhamnose, were isolated from Platycodi Radix using a multi-step process including high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). After the separation of the major components, the enriched minor saponin fraction was used for this study. A two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform-methanol-isopropanol-water (3:2:2:3, v/v) was used for HSCCC. HSCCC separation of the enriched minor saponin fraction yielded 2''-O-acetylplatycodin D, 3''-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 2''-O-acetylpolygalacin and a mixture of 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D. The mixture fraction from HSCCC separation was further purified by preparative RP-HPLC, giving 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D at a purity of over 98.9%. The developed method provides the preparative and rapid separation of minor saponins in the crude extract of Platycodi Radix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first on the separation of acetylated PSs by HSCCC. PMID:21812112

  20. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    SciTech Connect

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  1. Topsy-turvy: Turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting.

  2. SEPARATION OF THE MINOR FLAVONOLS FROM FLOS GOSSYPII BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Yongxin; Gu, Dongyu; Ayupbek, Amatjan; Huang, Yun; Dou, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Tianyou; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2010-01-01

    An effective high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for further separation and purification of four minor flavonols in addition to five major flavonols which were reported by our previous study from extracts of Flos Gossypii. HSCCC was performed with three two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (7.5:15:6:7, v/v), (2.5:15:2:7, v/v) and (0:1:0:1, v/v). The separation was repeated 3 times, and 3.8 mg of 8-methoxyl-kaempferol-7-O-β-D-rhamnoside (HPLC purity 98.27%), 6.7 mg of astragalin (HPLC purity 94.18%), 3.3 mg of 4′-methoxyl-quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (HPLC purity 94.30%) and 8.2 mg of hyperoside (HPLC purity 93.48%) were separated from 150 mg of the crude sample. The chemical structures of the flavonols were confirmed by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the target compound with smaller K value (<0.5) can be separated by increasing column length of HSCCC. And four separation rules of flavonols according to the present study and references were summarized, which can be used as a useful guide for separation of flavonols by HSCCC. PMID:21494318

  3. Application and comparison of high-speed countercurrent chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in preparative enantioseparation of α-substitution mandelic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang; Ito, Yoichiro; Yan, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Preparative enantioseparations of α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were compared using hydroxypropy-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as the chiral mobile phase additives. In preparative HPLC the enantioseparation was achieved on the ODS C18 reverse phase column with the mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L−1 phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and 20 mmol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid. The maximum sample size for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid was only about 10 mg and 5 mg, respectively. In preparative HSCCC the enantioseparations of these two racemates were performed with the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert.-butyl ether-0.1 molL−1 phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.67 containing 0.1 mol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid (8.5:1.5:10, v/v/v) and 0.1 mol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid (3:7:10, v/v/v). Under the optimum separation conditions, total 250 mg of racemic α-cyclopentylmandelic acid could be completely enantioseparated by HSCCC with HP-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive in a single run, yielding 105-110 mg of enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-90% recovery. But, no complete enantioseparation of α-methylmandelic acid was achieved by preparative HSCCC with either of the chiral selectors due to their limited enantioselectivity. In this paper preparative enantioseparation by HSCCC and HPLC was compared from various aspects. PMID:25983356

  4. The Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Integration of Models of Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.

    2011-01-01

    The reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…

  5. Embracing the Burden of Proof: New Strategies for Determining Predictive Links between Arts Integration Teacher Professional Development, Student Arts Learning, and Student Academic Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Paradis, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a window into Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education's (CAPE) Partnerships in Arts Integration Research (PAIR) project conducted in Chicago public schools (CPS) (pairresults.org), which statistically demonstrates how a three-year arts integration project can impact treatment versus control students in both academic and…

  6. Mathematical model of computer-programmed intermittent dual countercurrent chromatography applied to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic equilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-08-28

    Dual high-speed countercurrent chromatography (dual CCC) literally permits countercurrent flow of two immiscible solvent phases continuously through the coiled column for separation of solutes according to their partition coefficients. Application of this technique has been successfully demonstrated by separation of analytes by gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase systems. However, the method cannot be directly applied to the system with a set of coiled columns connected in series, since the countercurrent process is interrupted at the junction between the columns. However, this problem can be solved by intermittent dual CCC by eluting each phase alternately through the opposite ends of the separation column. This mode of application has an advantage over the conventional dual CCC in that the method can be applied to all types of CCC systems including hydrostatic equilibrium systems such as toroidal coil CCC and centrifugal partition chromatography. Recently, the application of this method to high-speed CCC (hydrodynamic system) has been demonstrated for separation of natural products by Hewitson et al. using a set of conventional multilayer coil separation columns connected in series. Here, we have developed a mathematical model for this intermittent dual CCC system to predict retention time of the analytes, and using a simplified model system the validity of the model is justified by a series of basic studies on both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic CCC systems with a computer-programmed single sliding valve. The present method has been successfully applied to spiral tube assembly high-speed CCC (hydrodynamic system) and toroidal coil CCC (hydrostatic system) for separation of DNP-amino acid samples with two biphasic solvent systems composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1M hydrochloric acid (1:1:1:1 and 4:5:4:5, v/v). PMID:19640542

  7. Counter-current chromatography for oil analysis: retention features and kinetic effects.

    PubMed

    Maryutina, Tatyana A; Soin, Alexander V; Katasonova, Olesya N

    2009-05-01

    Application of counter-current chromatography (CCC) for oil analysis has been suggested for the first time. CCC looks very promising as a tool for pre-concentration and isolation of trace elements from oil. Features of stationary phase retention of two-phase liquid systems (oil or oil products-aqueous nitric acid solutions) in CCC have been investigated. The influence of physicochemical properties of crude oil and oil products used as a mobile phase on the volume of stationary phase (acidic aqueous solutions) retained in CCC was studied. Chromatographic behavior of several oil samples was studied. It has been shown that physicochemical properties of test oil influence its chromatographic behavior. Optimal values of density and viscosity (rho<0.85g/cm(3), n<7cSt) of crude oil and oil products that could be analyzed using CCC were estimated. The influence of the column rotational speed and flow rate of mobile phase on the stationary phase retention was also investigated. It is known that kinetic aspects (mass transfer of elements between phases) can play a very important role in selecting an optimal composition of stationary phase for the pre-concentration of elements from oil. The influence of nitric acid concentration in the stationary phase on mass transfer was studied. Kinetic characteristic for trace element recovery has been investigated for the optimization of pre-concentration conditions of trace elements from crude oil and oil products. The extraction recoveries of Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ba by CCC in dynamic mode are in the range of 75-95% while they are lower than 35% under batch conditions. PMID:19232415

  8. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-03-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  9. Novel design for centrifugal counter-current chromatography: VI. Ellipsoid column.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongyu; Yang, Yi; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A novel ellipsoid column was designed for centrifugal counter-current chromatography. Performance of the ellipsoid column with a capacity of 3.4 mL was examined with three different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW), hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMH), and 12.5% (w/w) PEG1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate in water (PEG-DPP) each with suitable test samples. In dipeptide separation with BAW system, both stationary phase retention (Sf) and peak resolution (Rs) of the ellipsoid column were much higher at 0° column angle (column axis parallel to the centrifugal force) than at 90° column angle (column axis perpendicular to the centrifugal force), where elution with the lower phase at a low flow rate produced the best separation yielding Rs at 2.02 with 27.8% Sf at a flow rate of 0.07 ml/min. In the DNP-amino acid separation with HEMW system, the best results were obtained at a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min with 31.6% Sf yielding high Rs values at 2.16 between DNP-DL-glu and DNP-β-ala peaks and 1.81 between DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala peaks. In protein separation with PEG-DPP system, lysozyme and myolobin were resolved at Rs of 1.08 at a flow rate of 0.03 ml/min with 38.9% Sf. Most of those Rs values exceed those obtained from the figure-8 column under similar experimental conditions previously reported. PMID:25309116

  10. Modeling pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography: a dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Autret, Jean-Marie; Diard, Catherine; Marchal, Luc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-04-24

    A model based on mass transfer resistances and acid-base equilibriums at the liquid-liquid interface was developed for the pH-zone refining mode when it is used in countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The binary separation of catharanthine and vindoline, two alkaloids used as starting material for the semi-synthesis of chemotherapy drugs, was chosen for the model validation. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system. First, hydrodynamics and mass transfer were studied by using chemical tracers. Trypan blue only present in the aqueous phase allowed the determination of the parameters τextra and Pe for hydrodynamic characterization whereas acetone, which partitioned between the two phases, allowed the determination of the transfer parameter k0a. It was shown that mass transfer was improved by increasing both flow rate and rotational speed, which is consistent with the observed mobile phase dispersion. Then, the different transfer parameters of the model (i.e. the local transfer coefficient for the different species involved in the process) were determined by fitting experimental concentration profiles. The model accurately predicted both equilibrium and dynamics factors (i.e. local mass transfer coefficients and acid-base equilibrium constant) variation with the CCC operating conditions (cell number, flow rate, rotational speed and thus stationary phase retention). The initial hypotheses (the acid-base reactions occurs instantaneously at the interface and the process is mainly governed by mass transfer) are thus validated. Finally, the model was used as a tool for catharanthine and vindoline separation prediction in the whole experimental domain that corresponded to a flow rate between 20 and 60 mL/min and rotational speeds from 900 and 2100 rotation per minutes. PMID:25795399

  11. Seasonal eddy kinetic energy modulations along the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Qiu, Bo; Chen, Shuiming; Qi, Yiquan; Du, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal eddy kinetic energy (EKE) variability and its associated eddy energy conversion processes in the western tropical Pacific are investigated using satellite altimeter observations and a global, eddy-resolving, ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Both the altimeter-observed sea surface height anomalies and the OGCM simulation show an area with enhanced EKE east of the Mindanao Island centered around 133°E and 5°N. This enhanced EKE area corresponds to the location of the quasi-stationary meander of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) and is bordered to the south by the Halmahera Eddy. The mesoscale EKE in this area exhibits a clear seasonality, strong in summer (July-August) and weak in winter (November-January), and much of this seasonality is confined to the upper 200 m layer. An investigation into the upper ocean eddy energetics based on the OGCM simulation reveals that the areal barotropic eddy energy conversion rate has an annual cycle similar to the EKE variations, while the areal baroclinic eddy energy conversion is found to be much smaller that the barotropic conversion rate and exhibits no clear seasonal changes. This indicates that the EKE variations are largely controlled by barotropic conversion of the seasonally varying regional circulation. By examining the seasonal background circulation changes, we find that the amplification of the barotropic eddy energy conversion rate in July-August is related to the seasonal evolution of the Mindanao Current and the New Guinea Coastal Current that amplifies the curvature and amplitude of the quasi-stationary meander of the NECC and results in an elevated EKE level through increased regional barotropic conversion.

  12. Sequential determination system for anionic detergents by complexation with methylene blue by dual high-speed counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kitazume, Eiich; Koikawa, Saki; Hui, Lu; Sannohe, Syou; Yang, Yanjun; Yonosuke, Maki; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    A new dual high-speed counter-current chromatographic system using organic extraction phase and aqueous mobile phase containing methylene blue was applied to the analysis of anionic-type detergents. After selecting appropriate conditions such as flow rate of each mobile phase, sample volume, etc., the new system was successfully applied to the analysis of anionic detergent in river water. As all the analytical procedure can be made in a closed system, the method has no health hazard. The present method is simple, safe, and highly sensitive, and can be applied for sequential determination of multiple samples in a short analysis time. PMID:22443889

  13. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  14. Folding fan mode counter-current chromatography offers fast blind screening for drug discovery. Case study: finding anti-enterovirus 71 agents from Anemarrhena asphodeloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengshun; Tao, Ling; Chau, Siu Leung; Wu, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yifu; Yang, Dajian; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping; Han, Quanbin; Xu, Hongxi

    2014-11-14

    A new application of counter-current chromatography (CCC) in drug discovery, called folding fan mode (FFM), is designed to eliminate the extensive and time-consuming calculation of the partition coefficients of some preset compounds in conventional CCC separation. Careful reading of reports in the literature reveals that, when two-phase solvent systems are listed in a polarity-increasing sequence, the isolates also show a similar trend in polarity. The relationship between the two-phase solvent system and the isolates is like that between the folds and the picture of a folding fan. We can directly select a two-phase solvent system to separate fractions having similar polarity, just as opening a fan reveals a picture. The solvent ratio of two-phase solvent systems can be adjusted according to the polarity and weight ratio of active fractions rather than the partition coefficients. Without preset compounds, FFM-CCC not only requires no measurement of partition coefficients, but also achieves true blind screening. This paper reports the method's first success in drug discovery: six anti-EV71 saponins were found from the mixture (9.13 g) of ethanol extract and water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides after a total of four CCC separations, using hexan/ethyl acetate/methanol/butanol/water as the model solvent system. Among these saponins, timosaponin B-II displayed a comparable IC50 (4.3 ± 2.1 μM) and a 40-fold higher selective index (SI=92.9) than the positive control (IC50=361.7 ± 104.6 μM, SI=2.4), ribavirin. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these compounds was also studied. PMID:25441347

  15. Spatially Referenced Educational Achievement Data Exploration: A Web-Based Interactive System Integration of GIS, PHP, and MySQL Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Wang, Kening; Mckenzie, Sarah; Anderson, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Effective exploration of spatially referenced educational achievement data can help educational researchers and policy analysts speed up gaining valuable insight into datasets. This article illustrates a demo system developed in the National Office for Research on Measurement and Evaluation Systems (NORMES) for supporting Web-based interactive…

  16. A Parent Involvement Program Including Communication to Parents Integrated with a Parent-Education Program and Its Effects on Academic Achievement, Classroom Conduct, Study Habits and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennies, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    To validate the Parent Communication Plus Program at Boca Raton (FL) Christian School, three groups of problem students were selected. Each group's parents received a different level of communication from the school. Results indicate that increased communication between school and parents results in higher student academic achievement. (CH)

  17. Integrating Mobile Phones into the EFL Foundation Year Classroom in King Abdulaziz University/KSA: Effects on Achievement in General English and Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khrisat, Abdulhafeth A.; Mahmoud, Salameh Saleem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ten teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) oriented features of mobile phones in the English language classroom on the achievement of foundation-year students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in General English. The study also explores students' attitudes towards this new method of teaching. The study…

  18. An Integrated Interdisciplinary Model for Accelerating Student Achievement in Science and Reading Comprehension across Grades 3-8: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romance, Nancy R.; Vitale, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effects of a multi-year implementation of the Science IDEAS model on (a) the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement growth in Reading Comprehension and Science of grade 3-5 students receiving the model, and (b) the transfer effects of the model as measured by ITBS Reading…

  19. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. PMID:25747172

  20. Isolation and purification of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by enzymatic hydrolysis combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xi, Xingjun; Wang, Mei; Fan, Li; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography for the transformation and isolation of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii was successfully developed. In the first step, the extract solution of Fructus Arctii was enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 40°C, pH 5.0, 24 h of hydrolysis time, and 1.25 mg/mL β-glucosidase concentration. Under these conditions, the content of arctigenin was transformed from 2.60 to 12.59 mg/g. In the second step, arctigenin in the hydrolysis products was separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (10:25:15:20, v/v), and the fraction was analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, 102 mg of arctigenin with a purity of 98.9% was obtained in a one-step separation from 200 mg of hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24311558

  1. Enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein with single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound-assisted processing.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ye; Ding, Yangyang; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wu, Huiyu; Wang, Xintong; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigated the enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein (PCP) which was pretreated by single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound. The kinetic constants for ultrasonic pretreated and traditional enzymolysis have been determined. Results showed that the value of KM in ultrasonic PCP (UPCP) enzymolysis decreased by 9% over that in the traditional enzymolysis. The values of reaction rate constant (k) for UPCP enzymolysis increased by 207%, 121%, 62%, and 45% at 293, 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively. For the thermodynamic parameters, ultrasound decreased activation energy (Ea), change in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) by 76%, 82% and 31% in PCP, respectively. However, ultrasound had little change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) value in the temperature range of 293-323 K. Therefore, a general kinetic equation for the enzymolysis model of UPCP by a simple empirical equation was suggested. The experimental values fits with the enzymolysis kinetic model with a low average relative error (4%) confirmed that the kinetic model was accurate to reflect the enzymolysis process. The positive effect of single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound in this study and application of the kinetic model may be useful for the release of bioactive peptides from meat processing by-products. PMID:26384911

  2. Isolation and purification of two antioxidant isomers of resveratrol dimer from the wine grape by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingjun; Ren, Xueyan; Hu, Ruilin; Yin, Xuefeng; Jiang, Guoshan; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Resveratrol dimers belong to a group of compounds called stilbenes, which along with proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols are natural phenolic compounds found in grapes and red wine. Stilbenes have a variety of structural isomers, all of which exhibit various biological properties. Counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:5:4:5, v/v/v/v) was applied to isolate and purify stilbene from the stems of wine grape. Two isomers of resveratrol dimers trans-ε-viniferin and trans-δ-viniferin were obtained from the crude sample in a one-step separation, with purities of 93.2 and 97.5%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these two compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their antioxidant activities were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant activities of trans-δ-viniferin were higher than that of trans-ε-viniferin in this model. This work demonstrated that counter-current chromatography is a powerful and effective method for the isolation and purification of polyphenols from wine grape. Additionally, the DPPH radical assay showed that the isolated component trans-δ-viniferin exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than trans-ε-viniferin and a little bit weaker than vitamin E at the same concentration. PMID:27130423

  3. Scaling up of high-speed countercurrent chromatographic apparatus with three columns connected in series for rapid preparation of (-)-epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingbao; Jiang, Heyuan; Yin, Junfeng; Xu, Yongquan; Du, Wenkai; Li, Bo; Du, Qizhen

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, compact high-speed countercurrent chromatographic apparatus was constructed with three columns connected in series. Two sets of columns were prepared from 10 mm and 12 mm I.D. tubing to form 12 L and 15 L capacities, respectively. Performance of these columns was compared for the separation of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) from a tea extract by flash countercurrent chromatography (FCCC). In each separation, 200 g of the tea extract in 1600 mL of mobile phase was loaded onto the column. The 12 L column gave 7.5 L (35 g of ECG) and the 15 L column gave 9 L (40 g of ECG) of ECG solution without impurities. The ECG solution was directly hydrolyzed by tannase into (-)-epicatechin. The hydrolysate was purified by flash chromatography on AB-8 macroporous resin to give 52 g of EC (purity 99.1%). This scaled up apparatus could be used for the industrial separation of natural products. PMID:23219478

  4. An automatic countercurrent liquid-liquid micro-extraction system coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry for metal determination.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Constantina; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile automatic sequential injection countercurrent liquid-liquid microextraction (SI-CC-LLME) system coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is presented for metal determination. The extraction procedure was based on the countercurrent flow of aqueous and organic phases which takes place into a newly designed lab made microextraction chamber. A noteworthy feature of the extraction chamber is that it can be utilized for organic solvents heavier or lighter than water. The proposed method was successfully demonstrated for on-line lead determination and applied in environmental water samples using an amount of 120 μL of chloroform as extractant and ammonium diethyldithiophosphate as chelating reagent. The effect of the major experimental parameters including the volume of extractant, as well as the flow rate of aqueous and organic phases were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions for 6 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 130 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.5 μg L(-1) and the precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% at 40.0 μg L(-1) Pb(II) concentration level. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and spiked environmental water samples. PMID:25435230

  5. Separation and purification of ergosterol and stigmasterol in Anoectochilus roxburghii (wall) Lindl by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liying; Cao, Yangyuan; Xu, Hui; Chen, Guonan

    2011-02-01

    Ergosterol and stigmasterol are the most common phytosterols in the traditional Chinese medicine. They are two major sterol compounds in Anoectochilus roxburghii (wall) Lindl (A. roxburghii) and have been proved to have many important biological activities. A method by using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been successfully developed for separation and purification of ergosterol and stigmasterol in A. roxburghii simultaneously in this paper. The optimum conditions used in this method were as follows: The two-phase solvent system consisted of n-hexane-ethylacetate-butanol-methanol-water (3.5:0.3:0.5:2.5:0.3, v/v); the rotation speed was 900 rpm; the flow rate of the lower phase was 1.5 mL/min. About 36.5 mg of ergosterol and 43.6 mg of stigmasterol were obtained from 100 g of A. roxburghii. The purity of ergosterol and stigmasterol was examined to be 92.0 and 95.5%, respectively, by using HPLC. The chemical structures of these components were identified by UV spectra, FT-IR, MS, (1) H-NMR and (13) C-NMR. The results demonstrated that high-speed counter-current chromatography was a feasible method to separate and purify ergosterol and stigmasterol from the herb. This separation and purification method was more effective than many other conventional techniques. PMID:21259433

  6. Studies on the Performance of Different Coiled Column Configurations for Compact Type-I Counter-current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Three types of novel coiled column configurations, i.e., a triangular coiled column and elliptical coiled columns I and II, were designed for type-I countercurrent chromatography and their performances were evaluated with two solvent systems each with suitable test samples. Three DNP-amino acids (DNP-DL-glu, DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala) were separated with a moderately hydrophobic two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-metanol-0.1M hydrochloric acid (1:1:1:1, v/v), while two dipeptides (tryptophyl tyrosine and valyl-tyrosine) were separated with a polar solvent system composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4.75:0.25:5, v/v). The overall results indicated that the performance of compact type-I counter-current chromatography was improved by elliptical coiled column II which was mounted with its maximum coil diameter perpendicular to the surface of the column holder. Hydrodynamic effects involved in these separations were discussed. PMID:21491597

  7. Purification of α-glucosidase from mouse intestine by countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Zou, Zongyao; Hu, Yinran; Yang, Yong; Xiao, Yubo; Gao, Pincao; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent was applied to separate α-glucosidase, which is stable at pH 6.0-8.8, 15-50°C. The separation conditions are as follows: stationary phase: pH 4.0 Tris-HCl buffer phase containing 50 mM Tris-HCl and 50 mM KCl; mobile phase A: isooctane containing 50 mM anionic surfactant sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate; mobile phase B: 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 500 mM KCl (pH 8.0); In total, 25 mL (23.9 mg) crude enzyme was injected through the injection valve, the enzymatic reaction and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results imply that the activity of purified α-glucosidase is 6.63-fold higher than that of the crude enzyme. Therefore, countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent is capable for protein separation and enrichment. PMID:26663433

  8. Content and Language Integrated Learning Next in Asia: Evidence of Learners' Achievement in CLIL Education from a Taiwan Tertiary Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wenhsien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates learners' performance in a Taiwanese tertiary content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme. Learners' English proficiency was measured immediately after entering the programme and before their industrial placement, i.e. after two years. As in previously reported cases, the learners showed a significant…

  9. Students Achieve More in New York Integrated Math AB with TI Graphing Calculators and the TI-Navigator[TM] System. Case Study 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Dana F.

    2007-01-01

    This study took place at Skaneateles High School in Skaneateles, New York in a grade 10 Integrated Math AB course with 52 students in 3 sections using the TI-84 Plus family graphing calculators and the TI-Navigator classroom learning system with a projector and interactive whiteboard. New York State is phasing in a new curriculum that integrates…

  10. Progress Made on a Plan To Integrate Planning, Budgeting, Assessment and Quality Principles To Achieve Institutional Improvement. First Year Report. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Susan R.; And Others

    This paper describes first year implementation efforts of Southwest Texas (SWT) State University to develop a system to integrate planning, budgeting, assessment, and quality to improve the delivery of education and other services to all the institution's customers. The document addresses the common situation when an organization already has…

  11. College Success: First Year Seminar's Effectiveness on Freshmen Academic and Social Integration, Impact on Academic Achievement and Retention at a Southern Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    Increasing student retention and improving graduation rates continues to remain a critical issue for undergraduate institutions. Previous research suggests that student attrition is predominantly voluntary, and is influenced by institutional characteristics. The importance of academic and social integration as a strategy to reduce attrition is…

  12. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  13. Observations of the southern East Madagascar Current and undercurrent and countercurrent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauw, J. J.; van Aken, H. M.; Webb, A.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    In April 2001 four hydrographic sections perpendicular to the southern East Madagascar Current were surveyed as part of the Agulhas Current Sources Experiment. Observations with a vessel mounted and a lowered ADCP produced information on the current field while temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient data obtained with a CTD-Rosette system, gave information on the water mass structure of the currents southeast of Madagascar. The peak velocity in the pole-ward East Madagascar Current through these four sections had a typical magnitude of ˜110 cm/s, while the width of this current was of the order of 120 km. The mean pole-ward volume transport rate of this current during the survey above the 5°C isotherm was estimated to be 37 ± 10 Sv. On all four sections an undercurrent was observed at intermediate depths below the East Madagascar Current. Its equator-ward transport rate amounted to 2.8 ± 1.4 Sv. Offshore of the East Madagascar Current the shallow South Indian Ocean Countercurrent was observed. This eastward frontal jet coincided with the barotropic and thermohaline front that separates the saline Subtropical Surface Water from the fresher Tropical Surface Water in the East Madagascar Current. The near-surface geostrophic flow of the East Madagascar Current, derived from satellite altimetry data from 1992 to 2005, suggests a strong variability of this transport due to eddy variability and interannual changes. The long-term pole-ward mean transport of the East Madagascar Current, roughly estimated from those altimetry data amounts to 32 Sv. The upper-ocean water mass of the East Madagascar Current was very saline in 2001, compared to WOCE surveys from 1995. Comparison of our undercurrent data with those of the WOCE surveys in 1995 confirms that the undercurrent is a recurrent feature. Its water mass properties are relatively saline, due to the presence of water originating from the Red Sea outflow at intermediate levels. The saline water was advected from the

  14. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the

  15. SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

  16. Separation and purification of four compounds from Desmodium styracifolium using off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Qing; Yu, Jingang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-10-01

    An off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography technique in preparative scale has been successfully applied to separate and purify the main compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium styracifolium. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water at an optimized volume ratio of 1:2:1:2 v/v/v/v was used. Conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography was used as the first dimension, and the upper phase of the solvent system was used as the stationary phase in the head-to-tail elution mode at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min and a rotation speed of 900 rpm. Recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography served as the second dimension to separate an impure fraction of the first dimension. A total of four well-separated substances including vanillic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), formononetin (3), and aromadendrin (4) were obtained, and their purities and structures were identified by HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. The results illustrated that off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography is an effective way to isolate compounds in complex samples. PMID:23939907

  17. Separation of nine compounds from Salvia plebeia R.Br. using two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2014-08-01

    Nine compounds were successfully separated from Salvia plebeia R.Br. using two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with three elution modes. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography was applied in the first step, while classical counter-current chromatography and recycling counter-current chromatography were used in the second step. Three solvent systems, n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (4:6.5:3:7, v/v), methyl tert-butyl ether/ethyl acetate/n-butanol/methanol/water (6:4:1:2:8, v/v) and n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5.5:5:5, v/v) were screened and optimized for the two-step separation. The separation yielded nine compounds, including caffeic acid (1), 6-hydroxyluteuolin-7-glucoside (2), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone-7-glucoside (3), nepitrin (4), rosmarinic acid (5), homoplantaginin (6), nepetin (7), hispidulin (8), and 5,6,7,4'-tertrahydroxyflavone (9). To the best of our knowledge, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone-7-glucoside and 5,6,7,4'-tertrahydroxyflavone have been separated from Salvia plebeia R.Br. for the first time. The purities and structures of these compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. This study demonstrates that high-speed counter-current chromatography is a useful and flexible tool for the separation of components from a complex sample. PMID:24854200

  18. A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eardley, Julie Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p < .05. Examining research factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from

  19. Multipoint-likelihood maximization mapping on 4 segregating populations to achieve an integrated framework map for QTL analysis in pot azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) is the most important flowering pot plant produced in Belgium, being exported world-wide. In the breeding program, flower color is the main feature for selection, only in later stages cultivation related plant quality traits are evaluated. As a result, plants with attractive flowering are kept too long in the breeding cycle. The inheritance of flower color has been well studied; information on the heritability of cultivation related quality traits is lacking. For this purpose, QTL mapping in diverse genetic backgrounds appeared to be a must and therefore 4 mapping populations were made and analyzed. Results An integrated framework map on four individual linkage maps in Rhododendron simsii hybrids was constructed. For genotyping, mainly dominant scored AFLP (on average 364 per population) and MYB-based markers (15) were combined with co-dominant SSR (23) and EST markers (12). Linkage groups were estimated in JoinMap. A consensus grouping for the 4 mapping populations was made and applied in each individual mapping population. Finally, 16 stable linkage groups were set for the 4 populations; the azalea chromosome number being 13. A combination of regression mapping (JoinMap) and multipoint-likelihood maximization (Carthagène) enabled the construction of 4 maps and their alignment. A large portion of loci (43%) was common to at least two populations and could therefore serve as bridging markers. The different steps taken for map optimization and integration into a reference framework map for QTL mapping are discussed. Conclusions This is the first map of azalea up to our knowledge. AFLP and SSR markers are used as a reference backbone and functional markers (EST and MYB) were added as candidate genes for QTL analysis. The alignment of the 4 maps on the basis of framework markers will facilitate in turn the alignment of QTL regions detected in each of the populations. The approach we took is thoroughly different than the

  20. A General Theoretical Integrative Model of Individual Differences in Interests, Abilities, Personality Traits, and Academic and Occupational Achievement: A Commentary on Four Recent Articles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    This commentary integrates the contents of four recent articles on individual differences (Nye, Su, Rounds, & Drasgow, 2012; Schmidt, 2011; Valla & Ceci, 2011; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011) in a causal theoretical model. In this model, introversion and fluid intelligence cause interest in general learning (intellectual curiosity), which in turn is a major cause of crystallized intelligence. Certain specific interests and fluid intelligence also contribute to crystallized intelligence. Prenatal testosterone hormone conditioning is postulated to cause sex differences in certain specific interests but not in others. Crystallized intelligence, specific interests, and the personality trait of conscientiousness cause adult academic and occupational performance, whereas crystallized intelligence is the main cause of good mental functioning at older ages. Research is presented supporting each link in the model. PMID:26173255

  1. Integration of X-SAR observations with data of other remote sensing techniques: preliminary results achieved with Cosmo/SkyMed announcement of opportunity projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespe, Francesco; Baldini, Luca; Notarnicola, Claudia; Prati, Claudio; Zerbini, Susanna; Celidonio, G.

    2011-11-01

    The Italian Space Agency is funding 27 scientific projects in the framework of Cosmo/Skymed program (hereafter CSK) . A subset of them are focusing on the improvements of the quality and quantity of information which can be extracted from X-SAR data if integrated with other independent techniques like GPS or SAR imagery in L and C bands. The GPS observations, namely zenith total delays estimated by means of GPS ground stations, could be helpful to estimate the troposphere bias to remove from IN-SAR imagery. Another contribution of GPS could be the improvements of the orbits of Cosmo/SkyMed satellites. In particular the GPS navigation data of the CSK satellites could serve to improve the atmospheric drag models acting on them. The integration of SAR data in L and C bands on the other hand are helpful to investigate land hydrogeology parameters as well as to improve global precipitation observations. The combined use of L, C and X SAR data with different penetration depth could give profiles of land surface properties, especially in forest and snow/ice-packs. For what concern the use of X-SAR imagery for rain precipitation monitoring, particular attention will be paid to its polarimetric properties that we plan to determine aligning the CSK observations with those obtained with ground L and C radars. Anyway the study goals, the approaches proposed, the test sites identified and the external data selected for the development and validation will be described for each project. Particular attention will be paid to single the advantages that the research activities can benefit from the added potentials of CSK system: the more frequent revisiting time and the higher resolution capabilities.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of catechins from Cratoxylum prunifolium dyer and subsequent purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Tian, Y; Zhang, T Y; Ito, Y

    2000-11-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction of tea catechins including epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) from Cratoxylum prunifolium Dyer was performed. The optimization of parameters was carried out using an analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system designed in our laboratory. Then the extraction was scaled up by 100 times using a preparative SFE system under a set of optimized conditions of 40 degrees C, 25 MPa and modified CO2 with 80% ethanol aqueous solution. The combined yield of EGCG and ECG reached about 1 mg per 1 g of tea leaves where the solubility was near 1.4 x 10(-4) mass fraction of CO2 fluid. EGCG and ECG of high purity (>98%) were obtained from the crude preparative extract by high-speed counter-current chromatography. PMID:11185625

  3. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (IV, 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside (V, 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25132792

  4. Isolation of cyanidin 3-glucoside from blue honeysuckle fruits by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Xin, Xiulan; Lan, Rong; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Blue honeysuckle fruits are rich in anthocyanins with many beneficial effects such as reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of anthocyanin on a preparative scale from blue honeysuckle fruit crude extract with a biphasic solvent system composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (2:2:1:5:0.01, v/v) for the first time in this paper. Each injection of 100 mg crude extract yielded 22.8 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) at 98.1% purity. The compound was identified by means of electro-spray ionisation mass (ESI/MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. PMID:24444952

  5. A comprehensive classification of solvent systems used for natural product purifications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Garrard, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Using both library paper copies and modern electronic copies, every known, published, English-language journal paper that employs either countercurrent or centrifugal partition chromatography solvent systems for natural product purifications has been studied and the solvent systems classified in a comprehensive database. Papers were studied from the earliest found examples containing natural product separations in 1984 until the end of 2014. In total, 2594 solvent systems have been classified, of which 272 are gradient systems. To observe any trends or patterns in the data, the natural product solutes were divided into 21 classes and the solvent systems into 7 different types. The complete database, sorted according to natural product class, is available for download to assist separation scientists in future liquid-liquid chromatography purifications. PMID:26219437

  6. Separation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiping; Dong, Congcong; Wang, Kai; Jiang, Zedong; Chen, Yanhong; Yang, Yuanfan; Chen, Feng; Ni, Hui

    2016-09-01

    An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparative isolation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. With a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-acetone-ethanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v/v/v), 100mg crude extract of P. rhodozyma was separated to yield 20.6mg of astaxanthin at 92.0% purity. By further one step silica gel column chromatography, the purity reached 99.0%. The chemical structure of astaxanthin was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), UV spectroscopy scanning, high performance liquid chromatography with a ZORBAX SB-C18 column and a Waters Nova-pak C18 column, and ESI/MS/MS. PMID:27433984

  7. Water injection in fractured/layered porous media. Co-current and counter-current imbibition in a water-wet matrix block. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Firoozabadi, A.

    1996-05-01

    Review of the literature indicates that imbibition in water-wet matrix blocks is commonly considered to be counter-current. Despite this general belief, our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that co-current imbibition may be the dominant mechanism. Using numerical simulation of the imbibition process it is found that oil is predominantly recovered by co-current imbibition, and the time for this recovery is only a fraction of that required for counter-current imbibition. This is because in counter-current imbibition, oil is forced to flow in the two-phase region. In co-current imbibition, however, oil is free to flow in the single phase region. This study reveals that co-current imbibition is much more efficient than counter-current imbibition.

  8. Air separation by integrally asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Ivory, J.; Rajan, V.S.V.

    1999-10-01

    Integrally asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes each with an outer skin layer and a porous substrate were studied for air separation to produce nitrogen and oxygen enriched air. The test on both bore-side feed and shell-side feed with concurrent and countercurrent flow arrangements for a wide range of stage cuts shows that the bore-side feed countercurrent flow was the most advantageous configuration in the permeator design. When operated in the bore-side feed countercurrent configuration, the permeator performance compared favorably with the commercial systems available for nitrogen production. A mathematical model was developed for this configuration. Since the concentration polarization in the substrate was a major concern for the bore-side feed configuration, especially for high stage-cut operations, a theoretical approach was pursued to formulate the concentration polarization. This allows for the diagnosis of the significance of concentration polarization in a specific permeation process, although it is difficult to predict concentration polarization accurately due to limited knowledge of the detailed membrance structure.

  9. Enantioseparation of (DL)-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography and evaluation of mass transfer rate for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Ma, Ying

    2014-12-29

    Spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography was successfully applied in enantioseparation of dl-tryptophan using bovine serum albumin as chiral selector. An improved biphasic aqueous-aqueous solvent system 12.0% (w/w) polyethyleneglycol 8000-9.0% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate-0.1% ammonia-78.9% water was used as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography, in which bovine serum albumin was predominantly distributed in the lower phase of the two-phase aqueous system. The aqueous-aqueous solvent system gave a very high enantioselectivity for d- and l-tryptophan at α=2.605 along with distribution ratio DD=1.200 and DL=0.461. High peak resolution was obtained for enantioseparation of 2.0mg of dl-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography under room temperature. It was found that 0.1% ammonia added in the aqueous-aqueous solvent system greatly improved the enantioseparations. An unusual extremely broad peak for l-tryptophan was observed during enantioseparations. In order to give an explanation, mass transfer rates of d- and l-enantiomers through the interface between the two phases were measured. It was found that l-tryptophan showed lower mass transfer rate than d-tryptophan. Further discussions were proposed for possible reasons for mass transfer rate difference between the enantiomers. PMID:25476690

  10. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute <0.1% to the fatty acid content of food samples. Their biological role still remains unclear as authentic furan fatty acid standards are not readily available and thorough experimental studies verifying the relevance of furan fatty acids are thus virtually impossible. An efficient protocol for the isolation of the furan fatty acid 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from hydrolyzed and centrifuged latex of Hevea brasiliensis was developed using countercurrent chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26611161

  11. Enantioseparation of DL-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography and evaluation of mass transfer rate for enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Ma, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography was successfully applied in enantioseparation of DL-tryptophan using bovine serum albumin as chiral selector. An improved biphasic aqueous-aqueous solvent system 12.0% (w/w) polyethyleneglycol 8000–9.0% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate-0.1% ammonia-78.9% water was used as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography, in which bovine serum albumin was predominantly distributed in the lower phase of the two-phase aqueous system. The aqueous-aqueous solvent system gave a very high enantioselectivity for D- and L-tryptophan at α=2.605 along with distribution ratio DD=1.200 and DL=0.461. High peak resolution was obtained for enantioseparation of 2.0 mg of DL-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography under room temperature. It was found that 0.1% ammonia added in the aqueous-aqueous solvent system greatly improved the enantioseparations. An unusual extremely broad peak for L-tryptophan was observed during enantioseparations. In order to give an explanation, mass transfer rates of D- and L-enantiomers through the interface between the two phases were measured. It was found that L-tryptophan showed lower mass transfer rate than D-tryptophan. Further discussions were proposed for possible reasons for mass transfer rate difference between the enantiomers. PMID:25476690

  12. Validation of a Mechanistic Model for Non-Invasive Study of Ecological Energetics in an Endangered Wading Bird with Counter-Current Heat Exchange in its Legs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Megan J.; Mathewson, Paul D.; Porter, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic models provide a powerful, minimally invasive tool for gaining a deeper understanding of the ecology of animals across geographic space and time. In this paper, we modified and validated the accuracy of the mechanistic model Niche Mapper for simulating heat exchanges of animals with counter-current heat exchange mechanisms in their legs and animals that wade in water. We then used Niche Mapper to explore the effects of wading and counter-current heat exchange on the energy expenditures of Whooping Cranes, a long-legged wading bird. We validated model accuracy against the energy expenditure of two captive Whooping Cranes measured using the doubly-labeled water method and time energy budgets. Energy expenditure values modeled by Niche Mapper were similar to values measured by the doubly-labeled water method and values estimated from time-energy budgets. Future studies will be able to use Niche Mapper as a non-invasive tool to explore energy-based limits to the fundamental niche of Whooping Cranes and apply this knowledge to management decisions. Basic questions about the importance of counter-current exchange and wading to animal physiological tolerances can also now be explored with the model. PMID:26308207

  13. Validation of a Mechanistic Model for Non-Invasive Study of Ecological Energetics in an Endangered Wading Bird with Counter-Current Heat Exchange in its Legs.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Megan J; Mathewson, Paul D; Porter, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic models provide a powerful, minimally invasive tool for gaining a deeper understanding of the ecology of animals across geographic space and time. In this paper, we modified and validated the accuracy of the mechanistic model Niche Mapper for simulating heat exchanges of animals with counter-current heat exchange mechanisms in their legs and animals that wade in water. We then used Niche Mapper to explore the effects of wading and counter-current heat exchange on the energy expenditures of Whooping Cranes, a long-legged wading bird. We validated model accuracy against the energy expenditure of two captive Whooping Cranes measured using the doubly-labeled water method and time energy budgets. Energy expenditure values modeled by Niche Mapper were similar to values measured by the doubly-labeled water method and values estimated from time-energy budgets. Future studies will be able to use Niche Mapper as a non-invasive tool to explore energy-based limits to the fundamental niche of Whooping Cranes and apply this knowledge to management decisions. Basic questions about the importance of counter-current exchange and wading to animal physiological tolerances can also now be explored with the model. PMID:26308207

  14. Achieving Racial Integration Through Movement Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffers, John T.F.; And Others

    This study evaluated the city of Boston's Magnet Movement Athletics Program, which brought together inner city children with suburban children in a movement oriented program designed to facilitate racial harmony and the growth of positive interracial attitudes. Four hundred seventh and eighth grade black, white, and oriental children underwent a…

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of organometallic reaction dynamics, and, Enhancing achievement in chemistry for African American students through innovations in pedagogy aligned with supporting assessment and curriculum and integrated under an alternative research paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Sheryl Dee

    Part I. Molecular dynamics simulation of organometallic reaction dynamics. To study the interplay of solute and solvent dynamics, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were employed. Lennard-Jones and electrostatic models of potential energies from solvent-only studies were combined with solute potentials generated from ab-initio calculations. Radial distribution functions and other measures revealed the polar solvent's response to solute dynamics following CO dissociation. In future studies, the time-scale for solvent coordination will be confirmed with ultrafast spectroscopy data. Part II. Enhancing achievement in chemistry for African American students through innovations in pedagogy aligned with supporting assessment and curriculum and integrated under an alternative research paradigm. Much progress has been made in the area of research in education that focuses on teaching and learning in science. Much effort has also centered on documenting and exploring the disparity in academic achievement between underrepresented minority students and students comprising a majority in academic circles. However, few research projects have probed educational inequities in the context of mainstream science education. In order to enrich this research area and to better reach underserved learning communities, the educational experience of African American students in an ethnically and academically diverse high school science class has been examined throughout one, largely successful, academic year. The bulk of data gathered during the study was obtained through several qualitative research methods and was interpreted using research literature that offered fresh theoretical perspectives on equity that may better support effective action.

  16. Separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanhua; Liang, Yizeng; Ren, Dabing; Qiu, Ximin; Li, Xi

    2015-09-15

    In this work, eleven compounds were successfully separated from Trollius chinensis Bunge by using a two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method. NRTL-SAC (nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient) method, a newly developed solvent system selection strategy, was applied to screening the suitable biphasic liquid systems. Hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:7:3:7, v/v) solvent system was used in the first step, while the hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:2:1:2, 1:4:1:4, 1:9:1:9, v/v) systems were employed in the second step. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were identified by UV, high resolution ESI-MS and MS/MS data. The separated compounds are 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (1), vanillic acid (2), orientin (3), vitexin (4), veratric acid (5), 2″-O-(3‴, 4‴-dimethoxybenzoyl) orientin (6), 2″-O-feruloylorientin (7), 2″-O-feruloylvitexin (8), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) vitexin (9), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertiajaponin (10), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertisin (11). The results demonstrate that HSCCC is a powerful tool for the separation of compounds from extremely complex samples. PMID:26262599

  17. Solvent systems for countercurrent chromatography: an aqueous two phase liquid system based on a room temperature ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Angel, Maria Jose; Pino, Veronica; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Berthod, Alain

    2007-06-01

    A new aqueous two phase liquid system (ATPS) based on the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), potassium dibasic phosphate (K(2)HPO(4)) and water was recently proposed in the literature. The full phase diagram of this ATPS was prepared and some tie lines were fully determined. It was compared to classical ATPSs based on polyethylene glycol with an average molecular mass of 1000 (PEG 1000) and 10,000 (PEG 10000) and K(2)HPO(4). Two countercurrent chromatography (CCC) columns, a hydrostatic Sanki and a J type hydrodynamic CCC columns were used to test the liquid phase retention of these ATPSs in all possible configurations. It was found that the BMIM Cl ATPS liquid phases were much easier to retain in the two CCC columns than the PEG 1000 ATPS phases. Using protein and alcohol solutes, it was established that the BMIM Cl ATPS has a polarity completely different from that of the PEG 1000 ATPS. For example, ovalbumin partitions equally between the two phases of the PEG 1000 ATPS (K(D)=1.4) when it is completely located in the BMIM Cl upper phase of the ionic liquid ATPS (K(D)=180). The discrimination factor of the ionic liquid system and its intrinsic hydrophobicity were respectively found three times higher and ten times lower than the respective values of the PEG 1000 ATPS. PMID:17166506

  18. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Purification of Arctiin and Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lü, Haitao; Sun, Zhaoyun; Shan, Hu; Song, Jiying

    2016-03-01

    An efficient method for the rapid extraction, separation and purification of bioactive lignans, arctiin and arctigenin, from Fructus arctii by microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed. The optimal extraction conditions of arctiin and arctigenin were evaluated by orthogonal array. Arctigenin could be converted from arctiin by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. The separations were performed at a preparative scale with two-phase solvents composed of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (5 : 1 : 5, v/v/v) for arctiin, and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4 : 4 : 3 : 4, v/v/v/v) for arctigenin. From 500 mg of crude extract sample, 122.3 mg of arctiin and 45.7 mg of arctigenin were obtained with the purity of 98.46 and 96.57%, and the recovery of 94.3 and 81.6%, respectively. Their structures were determined by comparison with the high-performance liquid chromatography retention time of standard substance as well as UV, FT-IR, electrospray ion source (ESI)-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectrum. According to the antioxidant activity assay, arctigenin had stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. PMID:26590235

  19. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  20. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of arctiin from Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Fuwei; Sun, Qinglei; Yuan, Jingpeng; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Chengchao

    2005-01-21

    Following an initial clean-up step on the AB-8 resin (polystyrene resin, 0.3-1.25 mm: NanKai Chemical Factory, Tianjin, China), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to purify an arctiin from an extract of the fruits of the Arctium lappa L. Arctiin is a major lignan compound in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb A. lappa L. The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-ethanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 5:0.5:1:5 (v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the mobile phase in the head to tail elution mode. A total amount of 159 mg of arctiin at 98% purity was obtained from 350 mg of the crude extract (containing 49% arctiin) with 91% recovery. The preparative isolation and purification of arctiin by HSCCC was completed in 5 h in a separation. Identification of the target compound was performed by LC-electrospray ionization MS and 13C-NMR. The structure of the product was further confirmed by comparison with authentic sample (National Institute of the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing, China). PMID:15700478

  1. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials. PMID:23246760

  2. Application of pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the separation of indole alkaloids from Aspidosperma rigidum Rusby.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana N; Leitão, Suzana G; Porto, Paula C C; Oliveira, Danilo R; Pinto, Shaft Corrêa; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Leitão, Gilda G

    2013-12-01

    Species of Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) are characterized by the occurrence of indole alkaloids, but few recent reports on Aspidosperma rigidum Rusby chemical constituents were found. The present work shows the application of pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography on the separation of alkaloids from the barks of A. rigidum. In this study, the dichloromethane extract was fractionated with the solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl ether and water with different concentrations of the retainer triethylamine in the organic stationary phase and formic or hydrochloric acids as eluters in the aqueous mobile phase, in order to evaluate the most suitable condition. In each experiment, from circa 200mg of the dichloromethane extract of A. rigidum, three major alkaloids were isolated and identified as 3α-aricine (circa 17mg), isoreserpiline (ca. 22mg) and 3β-reserpiline (ca. 40mg), with relative purity of 79%, 89% and 82% respectively, in a one-step separation of 2h. Two of them - 3α-aricine and isoreserpiline - were isolated and identified for the first time in this species. PMID:24192149

  3. Modeling of the simulated countercurrent moving-bed chromatographic reactor used for the oxidative coupling of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Carr, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    The oxidative coupling reaction of methane (OCM) is a potential industrial reaction for the efficient production of ethylene. Replacement of current technologies requires significant product yield improvements. An experimental novel reactor design, the modified simulated countercurrent moving-bed chromatographic reactor (SCMCR), has reported improved ethane and ethylene product yields over other reported values. An understanding of the reactor operation is aided by concurrent mathematical modeling. The model mimics the exact experimental reactor configuration. Four sections are used; each section contains a reaction column and two separation columns connected in series. The feed is switched from section to section at discrete intervals. Reaction occurs in the first column and is followed by product and reactant separation in the ensuing section columns. Langmuir adsorption isotherms are used. The model does not incorporate the realistic and complex kinetics rising, from the OCM, rather a simplified reaction term is used to qualitatively gain insight into the operation of the modified SCMCR. A unimolecular reaction network is used in the model. The rate constants are set to permit a small fractional conversion, 5% per pass, at the concentrations during the first cycle. Similarly to the experimental reactor, the model adds a make-up feed (defined as percentage of the original feed, where excess methane is fed during the first cycle of the experimental reactor) to augment lost reactants.

  4. The effects of surface tension on flooding in counter-current two-phase flow in an inclined tube

    SciTech Connect

    Deendarlianto; Ousaka, Akiharu; Indarto; Kariyasaki, Akira; Lucas, Dirk; Vallee, Christophe; Vierow, Karen; Hogan, Kevin

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of surface tension on flooding phenomena in counter-current two-phase flow in an inclined tube. Previous studies by other researchers have shown that surface tension has a stabilizing effect on the falling liquid film under certain conditions and a destabilizing or unclear trend under other conditions. Experimental results are reported herein for air-water systems in which a surfactant has been added to vary the liquid surface tension without altering other liquid properties. The flooding section is a tube of 16 mm in inner diameter and 1.1 m length, inclined at 30-60 from horizontal. The flooding mechanisms were observed by using two high-speed video cameras and by measuring the time variation of liquid hold-up along the test tube. The results show that effects of surface tension are significant. The gas velocity needed to induce flooding is lower for a lower surface tension. There was no upward motion of the air-water interfacial waves upon flooding occurrence, even for lower a surface tension. Observations on the liquid film behavior after flooding occurred suggest that the entrainment of liquid droplets plays an important role in the upward transport of liquid. Finally, an empirical correlation for flooding velocities is proposed that includes functional dependencies on surface tension and tube inclination. (author)

  5. Preparative separation of alkaloids from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghai; Shu, Xikai; Jing, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Lin, Changhu; Luo, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    Two high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) modes were compared by separation of major alkaloids from crude extract of Picrasma quassioides. The conventional HSCCC separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:4.5:5.5, v/v/v/v) with 200 mg loading. pH-Zone-refining CCC was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (3:2:7:9, v/v/v/v) where triethylamine (10 mM) was added to the upper organic stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (5 mM) was added to the lower aqueous phase with 2 g loading. From 2 g of crude extract, 87 mg of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one (a), 38 mg of 1-methoxy-β-carboline (b), 134 mg of 1-ethyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (c), 74 mg of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (d), 56 mg of 1-vinyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (e) and 26 mg of 1-vinyl-4-dimethoxy-β-carboline (f) were obtained with purities of over 97.0%. The results indicated that pH-zone-refining CCC is an excellent separations tool at the multigram level. PMID:24968331

  6. One-step separation of antioxidant compounds from Erythrina variegata by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Peisen; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for separation and purification of antioxidant compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of Erythrina variegata. The optimal two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:1:4, v/v/v/v). After one-step HSCCC separation, 75 mg of protocatechuic acid ( 1: ), 32 mg of chlorogenic acid ( 2: ) and 44 mg of caffeic acid ( 3: ) were purified from 420 mg of the ethyl acetate fraction. The purity of isolated compounds was determined up to 99.7% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, HPLC-MS/MS and (1)H NMR. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH free radical for the three compounds were 22.5, 41.9 and 20.9 μg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid were obtained from the stem bark of E. variegata for the first time. PMID:25209680

  7. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements. PMID:20731350

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Do periodic consolidations of Pacific countercurrents trigger global cooling by equatorially symmetric La Niña?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, J. H.

    2010-05-01

    A sporadic phenomenon of internal tide resonance (ITR) in the western equatorial Pacific thermocline is shown to precede 11 of 12 major upturns in the Niño 3.4 index between 1992 and 2008. Observed ITR has up to 9 °C semidiurnal temperature excursions indicating thermocline heave, but is invisible in time resolution longer than one day. It is independent of westerly wind bursts (WWB). A hypothesis is advanced that (1) ITR dissipates vorticity, leading to Pacific countercurrent consolidation (PCC) by reducing the vortex stretching term in Sverdrup balance. The consequence of lost vorticity survives ephemeral ITR events; (2) The specific surface area of countercurrents is reduced by PCC, which reduces frictional opposition to zonal gradient pressure, which triggers eastward advection at El Niño onset; (3) PCC also accelerates transfer of potential energy to the "pycnostad" below the Equatorial Undercurrent. This shoals the equatorial thermocline, leading to a distinct mode of equatorially symmetric La Niña (ESLN) characterized by a winter monsoon cell above a "cold eye" that is separated from the South American continent, as in 1998; (4) Precessional southward intertropical convergence zone migration (ITCZ) is an alternate PCC trigger, but its effect is modulated by obliquity; and (5) ESLN causes global cooling in all timescales by (a) reduced Hadley cell water vapor production when its rising branch is above the cold eye, (b) equatorward shift in southern circumpolar westerlies due to Hadley cell constriction, (c) possible CO2 sequestration by increased EUC iron fertilized export production on the equator, and (d) possible adjacent cloud seeding by biogenic dimethyl sulphide. Surprising coincidences of WWB with perigean eclipses suggest a parallel atmospheric tide influence. Proposed PCC-ESLN forcing operates in multiple timescales, beginning where the annual cycle of strong equinoctial tides coincides with the minimum perigee cycle. This forcing corresponds

  10. Visualisation of J-type counter-current chromatography: A route to understand hydrodynamic phase distribution and retention

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue Hugh; van den Heuvel, Remco N.A.M.; Zhuang, Ying-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper has addressed decade sought-after questions on phase bilateral distribution and stationary phase retention in any J-type high-speed counter-current chromatographic (CCC) centrifuge. Using a 2-D spiral column operated on such a CCC device and an aqueous two-phase system, this work systematically observed the phase interaction during transitional period and at dynamic equilibration under stroboscopic illumination. The experimental results thus obtained were used to examine the effects of the liquid–solid friction force, tangential centrifugal force, and physical properties of the two-phase system on hydrodynamic phase behaviour. We identified that (a) density difference between lower and upper phases is the critical factor to cause unusual phase bilateral distribution in the 2-D spiral column and (b) interfacial tension (manifested primarily as phase settling time) of any two-phase system is the critical factor in explaining inability to retain stationary phase in 3-D helical column and, for certain flow modes, in the 2-D spiral column. This work thus has extended or modified the well-established rule-of-thumb for operating J-type CCC devices and our conclusions can accommodate virtually all the anomalies concerning both hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase systems. To this end, this work has not only documented valuable experimental evidences for directly observing phase behaviour in a CCC column, but also finally resolved fundamentally vital issues on bilateral phase distribution orientation and stationary phase retention in 2-D spiral and 3-D helical CCC columns. Revised recommendations to end users of this technology could thus be derived out of the essence of the present work presumably following further experimental validation and a consensus in the CCC R&D and manufacturing circle. PMID:22513130

  11. State-of-the-art separation of ginsenosides from Korean white and red ginseng by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-05-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been one of the most popular herbs used for nutritional and medicinal purposes by the people of eastern Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the mostly widely studied chemical components of ginseng, are quite different depending on the processing method used. A number of studies demonstrate the countercurrent chromatography (CCC) separation of ginsenosides from several sources; however, there is no single report demonstrating a one-step separation of all of these ginsenosides from different sources. In the present study, we have successfully developed an efficient CCC separation methodology in which the flow-rate gradient technique was coupled with a new solvent gradient dilution strategy for the isolation of ginsenosides from Korean white (peeled off dried P. ginseng) and red ginseng (steam-treated P. ginseng). The crude samples were initially prepared by extraction with butanol and were further purified with CCC using solvent gradients composed of methylene chloride-methanol-isopropanol-water (different ratios, v/v). Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector was used to analyze the components of the two-phase solvent mixture. Each phase solvent mixture was prepared without presaturation, which saves time and reduces the solvent consumption. Finally, 13 ginsenosides have been purified from red ginseng with the new technique, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, Rg6, and F4. Meanwhile, eight ginsenosides have been purified from white ginseng, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd by using a single-solvent system. Thus, the present technique could be used for the purification of ginsenosides from all types' ginseng sources. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving the separation of ginsenoside Rg2 and Rg6 and the one-step separation of thirteen ginsenosides from red ginseng by CCC. PMID:23263512

  12. Conical coils counter-current chromatography for preparative isolation and purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junling; Meng, Jie; Guo, Mengzhe; Yang, Zhi; Wu, Shihua

    2013-05-01

    Modern counter-current chromatography (CCC) originated from the helical coil planet centrifuge. Recently, spiral coils were found to possess higher separation efficiency in both the retention of stationary phase and solutes resolution than other CCC coils like the helical and toroidal coils used on type-J CCC and cross-axis CCC. In this work, we built a novel conical coil CCC for the preparative isolation and purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The conical coils were wound on three identical upright tapered holders in head-to-tail and left-handed direction and connected in series. Compared with helical and spiral coil CCC, conical coil CCC not only placed CCC column in a two-dimensional centrifugal field, but also provided a potential centrifugal force gradient both in axial and radial directions. The extra centrifugal gradient made mobile phase move faster and enabled CCC much higher retention of stationary phase and better resolution. As a result, higher efficiency has been obtained with the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) with the volume ratio of 5:5:7:3 by using conical coil CCC apparatus. Four tanshinones, including cryptotanshinone (1), tanshinone I (2), 1,2-dihydrotanshinquinone (3) and tanshinone IIA (4), were well resolved from 500mg to 1g crude samples with high purity. Furthermore, the conical coil CCC can make a much higher solid phase retention, which makes it to be a powerful separation tool with high throughput. This is the first report about conical coil CCC for separation of tanshinones and it may also be an important advancement for natural products isolation. PMID:23541654

  13. Separation of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaoyang; Hu, Liming; Fu, Qianyun; Gu, Xiaohong; Tao, Guanjun; Wang, Hongxin

    2013-09-01

    Purification of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea was developed by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography (CCC). Flavonoid sample was prepared by dynamic ultrasonic-assisted and solid-phase extraction using ion liquids as extractant. The preparation conditions were optimized by D-optimal design as follows: 2mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentration, 360W of ultrasonic power, 1.5mL/min of flow rate, 35min of extraction time and 0.5mL (absorbent) per g (material) of absorbent amount. The prepared sample solution (20mL) was loaded and injected directly into CCC column for final separation. As a result, four flavonoids, herbacetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 1 (40.1mg), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamn-opyranoside 2 (4.6mg), kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2→1)-β-d-xylopyranoside 3 (20.2mg) and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 4 (22.5mg), were obtained from 20g of R. rosea material using ethyl acetate-n-butanol-H2O as solvent system at a ratio of 4:1:5 by CCC. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS, NMR methods. Their purities determined by UPLC were 98.5%, 95.4%, 98.1% and 97.5%, respectively. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 2 and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyrano-side 4 were isolated for first time from R. rosea. The purification method was simple, efficient and evaded tedious sample preparation process. PMID:23890556

  14. Use of countercurrent chromatography during isolation of 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, a major antioxidant of Athrixia phylicoides.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Jacobus Brand, D

    2011-09-01

    Athrixia phylicoides, an indigenous South African herbal tea, has potential as a source of nutraceutical antioxidant extracts. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was employed as part of a multi-step process to isolate one of the major antioxidant compounds in A. phylicoides extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was comparable to commercial nutraceutical extracts from Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. in a range of assays. The extracts were tested for radical scavenging (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) di-ammonium radical cation (ABTS·⁺) scavenging, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and iron chelating activity, as well as inhibition of microsomal lipid and linoleic acid emulsion oxidation. After extraction optimisation, the antioxidant activity of the major phenolic compounds in an A. phylicoides extract was determined using the on-line HPLC-diode-array-DPPH and -ABTS·⁺ radical scavenging assays. Major compounds reported for the first time included chlorogenic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, including dicaffeoyl quinic acids, and an unidentified flavone-hexose. Finally, CCC was used in conjunction with liquid-liquid partitioning and semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC to isolate 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (a major antioxidant) and quercetagetin-7-O-β-glucoside (a minor compound present in CCC fraction containing 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside) from an A. phylicoides extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by LC high-resolution electrospray ionisation MS, as well as ¹H, ¹³C and 2D NMR spectroscopy. This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from A. phylicoides. PMID:21236437

  15. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  16. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  17. A three-fluid model for the simulation of counter-current stratified flows in the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hadj Ali, A.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    A three-fluid model of counter-current air-water flow is suggested. The accurate prediction of droplet entrainment in two-phase flows is relevant to calculate interfacial exchange between the fluids. The present study delivers a model based on the constitutive physics for droplet separation considering re-entrainment of the dispersed water droplets into the continuous water film. A monodisperse distribution of the droplets is taken into account by means of a transport equation for the droplet number density in order to determine the droplet size. (authors)

  18. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  19. Three-phase solvent systems for the comprehensive separation of a wide variety of compounds from Dicranostigma leptopodum by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjuan; Chen, Xiaofen; Liu, JunXi; Di, Duolong

    2015-06-01

    A three-phase solvent system was efficiently applied for high-speed counter-current chromatography to separate secondary metabolites with a wide range of hydrophobicity in Dicranostigma leptopodum. The three-phase solvent system of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/0.5% triethylamine (2:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) was selected for high-speed counter-current chromatography separation. The separation was initiated by filling the column with a mixture of intermediate phase and lower phase as a stationary phase followed by elution with upper phase to separate the hydrophobic compounds. Then the mobile phase was switched to the intermediate phase to elute the moderately hydrophobic compounds, and finally the polar compounds still retained in the column were fractionated by eluting the column with the lower phase. In this research, 12 peaks were eluted out in one-step operation within 110 min, among them, eight compounds with acceptable purity were obtained and identified. The purities of β-sitosterol, protopine, allocryptopine, isocorydione, isocorydine, coptisine, berberrubine, and berberine were 94.7, 96.5, 97.9, 86.6, 98.9, 97.6, 95.7, and 92.8%, respectively. PMID:25864484

  20. Metabolite profiling of polyphenols in peels of Citrus limetta Risso by combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rivera, M Paulina; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2014-09-01

    The polar constituents of peels from Citrus limetta variety Risso (Rutaceae) were investigated by a combination of two complementary chromatographic techniques consisting of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and off-line LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to design a two-dimensional metabolite profile. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) using solely immiscible solvent systems allowed the fractionation of principal components and an enrichment of minor concentrated metabolites from a crude polar solvent partition of C. limetta peels for subsequent structural identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The combination of two very different chromatographic techniques resulted in lower detection limits for electrospray mass-spectrometry and revealed eighty-five compounds, including three abscisic acid derivatives, five limonoid glycosides, twenty-six dihydro-cinnamic and cinnamic acid glycosides, eleven flavanone glycosides, seven flavone glycosides, seventeen flavonol glycosides, including limocitrol and limocitrin derivatives. As a chemocharacteristic for C. limetta metabolites, many of the detected structures were linked to single and multiple 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) substitutions. C. limetta peels are a by-product of juice production, and not only the antioxidant fractions but also some of the fortified compounds could be used for food and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24731325

  1. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

  2. Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xi-Kai; Li, Jia; Liu, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao; Song, Chun-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23784883

  3. Achievements and new directions in continuous renal replacement therapies.

    PubMed

    Ronco, C; Barbacini, S; Digito, A; Zoccali, G

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of renal replacement therapy has permitted the treatment of critically ill patients with acute renal failure. In intensive care settings, continuous renal replacement therapies have been shown to be better tolerated and clinically useful. Continuous hemofiltration is now performed with blood pumps and double-lumen venous catheters, thus avoiding the complications found in previous arteriovenous treatments. The use of countercurrent dialysate flow has overcome problems related to low treatment efficiency. High clearances can now be obtained during continuous hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration, and adequate blood purification can be achieved even in severely catabolic patients. New replacement solutions allow for a more effective correction of acidosis and electrolyte imbalances. Finally, newly designed machines permit continuous therapies while minimizing staff workload. Continuous therapies are today moving toward newer indications and applications. The ability to remove proinflammatory substances by filtration and/or adsorption has opened a series of potential indications. The concept that renal support and protection take place during hemofiltration suggests that very early use of this technique is desirable, even before the onset of oliguria or azotemia. PMID:8574601

  4. Bubble snap-off and capillary-back pressure during counter-current spontaneous imbibition into model pores.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Evren; Mason, Geoffrey; Morrow, Norman R; Ruth, Douglas W

    2009-04-01

    A previous paper (Unsal, E.; Mason, G.; Ruth, D. W.; Morrow, N. R. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 315, 200-209) reported experiments involving counter-current spontaneous imbibition into a model pore system consisting of a rod in an angled slot covered by a glass plate. Such an arrangement gives two tubes with different cross-sections (both size and shape) with an interconnection through the gap between the rod and the plate. In the previous experiments, the wetting phase advanced in the small tube and nonwetting phase retreated in the large tube. No bubbles were formed. In this paper, we study experimentally and theoretically the formation of bubbles at the open end of the large tube and their subsequent snap-off. Such bubbles reduce the capillary back pressure produced by the larger tube and can thus have an effect on the local rate of imbibition. In the model pore system, the rod was either in contact with the glass, forming two independent tubes, or the rod was spaced from the glass to allow cross-flow between the tubes. For small gaps, there were three distinct menisci. The one with the highest curvature was between the rod and the plate. The next most highly curved was in the smaller tube, and the least highly curved meniscus was in the large tube and this was the tube from which the bubbles developed. The pressure in the dead end of the system was recorded during imbibition. Once the bubble starts to form outside of the tube, the pressure drops rapidly and then steadies. After the bubble snaps off, the pressure rises to almost the initial value and stays essentially constant until the next bubble starts to form. After snap-off, the meniscus in the large tube appears to invade the large tube for some distance. The snap-off is the result of capillary instability; it takes place significantly inside the large tube with flow of wetting phase moving in the angular corners. As imbibition into the small tube progresses, the rate of imbibition decreases and the

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  7. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  8. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  9. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  10. Razalas' Grouping Method and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to raise the achievement level of students in Integral Calculus using Direct Instruction with Razalas' Method of Grouping. The study employed qualitative and quantitative analysis relative to data generated by the Achievement Test and Math journal with follow-up interview. Within the framework of the limitations of the study, the…

  11. Optimism versus Pessimism and Academic Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates three central theories of optimism-pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories--outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention--may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a…

  12. Countercurrent flow afterburner

    DOEpatents

    Leggett, Ronald L.; Presse, Donald E.; Smith, Carl J.; Teter, Alton R.

    1976-01-01

    Afterburner apparatus for receiving from an incinerator products of combustion and distributing them through a domed distributor in counterflow manner throughout a housing, in opposition to a stream of combustible gas.

  13. Extraction of uranium(VI) by N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (DEHIBA): from the batch experimental data to the countercurrent process

    SciTech Connect

    Miguirditchian, M.; Sorel, C.; Cames, B.; Bisel, I.; Baron, P.

    2008-07-01

    The selective separation of uranium(VI) in the first cycle of the GANEX process is operated by a hydrometallurgical process using a monoamide extractant DEHiBA (N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide). Distribution ratios of uranium(VI) and nitric acid in 1 M DEHiBA/HTP were determined with macro-concentrations of uranium, and the experimental data were modelled by taking into account the activity coefficients of the constituents in aqueous phases. A flowsheet was designed and tested in a countercurrent process in laboratory-scale mixer-settlers on a surrogate U(VI)/HNO 3 feed. More than 99.999% of the uranium was recovered. (authors)

  14. Preparative Separation of N-Feruloyl Serotonin and N-(p-Coumaroyl) Serotonin from Safflower Seed Meal Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulong; Hu, Na; Li, Wencong; Ding, Chenxi; Ma, Tao; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Chenxu

    2015-09-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of N-feruloyl serotonin (NF) and N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (NP) from safflower seed meal. After the measurement of partition coefficient of the two target compounds in the two-phase solvent systems, the HSCCC was performed well with a two-phase solvent system composed of CHCl3-methanol-0.1 M HCl at a volume ratio of 1 : 1 : 1, v/v. The upper phase was used as stationary phase and the lower phase was used as mobile phase. Under the optimized condition, 7.5 mg NF and 6.9 mg NP were separated from 40 mg crude sample with the purity of 98.8 and 97.3%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. PMID:25744248

  15. Separation of two constituents from purple sweet potato by combination of silica gel column and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang; Chen, Hongying; Yuan, Lujiang; Deng, Yafei; Chen, Xin; Li, Xiaoduo

    2012-01-15

    It is known that the choice of solvent system for high speed counter-current chromatography separation is of utmost importance. In this study, a simple and rapid thin layer chromatograph coupling with fluorometric (TLC-F) method has been used to determine the partition coefficient of target compounds in HSCCC solvent system. Two components, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural were successfully separated from purple sweet potato extracts by successive sample injection for the first time, using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:1, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. Additionally, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in partition coefficient obtained by the TLC-F method and by HPLC, which demonstrated the usefulness of TLC-F method. PMID:22197606

  16. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities in aging erythrocytes fractionated by counter-current distribution in aqueous polymer two-phase systems.

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno, P; Garcia-Perez, A I; Luque, J; Pinilla, M

    1991-01-01

    Human and rat erythrocytes were fractionated by counter-current distribution in charge-sensitive dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) two-phase systems. The specific activities of the key glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) declined along the distribution profiles, although the relative positions of the activity profiles were reversed in the two species. These enzymes maintained their normal response to specific regulatory effectors in all cell fractions. No variations were observed for phosphoglycerate kinase and bisphosphoglycerate mutase activities. Some correlations between enzyme activities (pyruvate kinase/hexokinase, pyruvate kinase/phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase/pyruvate kinase plus phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase ratios) were studied in whole erythrocyte populations as well as in cell fractions. These results strongly support the fractionation of human erythrocytes according to cell age, as occurs with rat erythrocytes. PMID:1656939

  17. Hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography and ultra high pressure LC: Two fast complementary separation methods for the preparative isolation and the analysis of the fragrant massoia lactones.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Aurélie; Corbeiller, Pierre; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2010-05-01

    Using a one-step preparative hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography method, the fragrant massoia lactones were purified from the crude massoia bark oil, in less than 3 h. The fractionation was performed with the biphasic solvent system c-hexane-methanol-water (10:9:1, v/v/v), leading to target compounds with purity over 96%, as determined by GC-MS and ultra high pressure LC-MS analyses. Together with C-10, C-12 and C-14 massoia lactones, two other aromatic compounds used in perfumes, benzyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate, were also obtained as pure compounds. In parallel, an easy and efficient ultra high pressure LC method was developed for the ultra-fast analysis of massoia lactones, as an alternative to long GC-MS methods. PMID:20235136

  18. Purification of the seven tetranortriterpenoids in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed by counter-current chromatography sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlio César T; Jham, Gulab N; Oliveira, Rosângela D'arc L; Brown, Leslie

    2007-06-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to isolate the seven bio-actives (azadirachtin A, azadirachtin B, azadirachtin H, desacetylnimbin, desacetylsalannin, nimbin and salannin) from the seed concentrate (NSC) of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Reproducible, narrow polarity range, high purity fractions were obtained from repeated injections of the NSC (700 mg loadings/injection), on to a relatively small volume CCC coil (116 mL). The CCC biphasic solvent system chosen was hexane:butanol:methanol:water (1:0.9:1:0.9, v/v). A mass balance of injected material showed that 95+% were recovered. PMID:17428489

  19. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  20. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  1. Simple, quantitative method for low molecular weight dissolved organic matter extracted from natural waters based upon high performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alfonso; Sandron, Sara; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-25

    A simple, high-performance counter-current chromatography method with sequential UV absorbance (254 nm) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the quantification of pre-extracted low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from natural waters. The method requires solid-phase extraction (SPE) extraction of only small volumes of water samples, here using poly(styrenedivinylbenzene)-based extraction cartridges (Varian PPL). The extracted and concentrated DOM was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), with a water/methanol (5:5) mobile phase and hexane/ethyl acetate (3:7) stationary phase. The critical chromatographic parameters were optimised, applying a revolution speed of 1900 rpm and a flow-rate of 1 mL min(-1). Under these conditions, 50 μL of extracted DOM solution could be injected and quantified using calibration against a reference natural dissolved material (Suwannee River), based upon UV absorbance at 254 nm and ELSD detection. Both detection methods provided excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.995) for DOM across the concentration ranges of interest, with limits of detection of 4 μg ml(-1) and 7 μg ml(-1) for ELSD and UV absorbance, respectively. The method was validated for peak area precision (<5%), and accuracy and recovery based upon spiking seawater samples prior to extraction, together with DOM solutions post-extraction (>95% recovery). The developed method was applied to the determination of the concentration of DOM in seawater, based upon initial sample volumes as small as 20 mL. PMID:26851093

  2. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  3. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  4. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  5. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  6. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  7. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  1. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  2. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  3. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  6. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  7. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  9. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  10. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts. PMID:25675944

  11. Separation of three phenolic high-molecular-weight compounds from the crude extract of Terminalia Chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Deng-lang; Chen, Tao; Li, Hong-mei; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Jing-yang; Li, Yu-lin

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy for separation of three phenolic compounds with high molecular weight from the crude extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography. The ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology and the results showed the target compounds could be well enriched under the optimized extraction conditions. Then the crude extract was directly separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography without any pretreatment using n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:7:0.5:3, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In 180 min, 13 mg of A, 18 mg of B, and 9 mg of C were obtained from 200 mg of crude sample. Their structures were identified as Chebulagic acid (A, 954 Da), Chebulinic acid (B, 956 Da), and Ellagic acid (C) by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26864462

  12. A REPORT TO THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROGRESS TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A RACIALLY INTEGRATED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND A PROJECTION OF A PLAN FOR FURTHER ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUMBARGER, CHESTER S.; AND OTHERS

    A PROFESSIONAL STUDY WAS CONTRACTED BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS TO ASSESS THE LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT'S PROGRESS IN MOVING FROM A DUAL TO AN INTEGRATED SCHOOL SYSTEM. AN EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND THE EXTENT OF INFLUENCE GIVEN BY CIVIC LEADERS INDICATED GENERALLY FAVORABLE SUPPORT FOR IMPROVEMENTS ALREADY…

  13. Integrating maps requires integrated data

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenbach, J.; Bentolila, S.

    1996-06-01

    The molecular genetics movement has proceeded admirably thanks to new technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing. However, the integration of mapping data has not yet been achieved. This article discussing several problem areas and serves as a reminder of the urgency of such concerns.

  14. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  15. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  16. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  17. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  18. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  19. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  20. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  1. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  2. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  3. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  4. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  5. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  6. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  7. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  8. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  9. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  10. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  11. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  12. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  13. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  14. Heat production in depth up to 2500m via in situ combustion of methane using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicks, Judith Maria; Spangenberg, Erik; Giese, Ronny; Heeschen, Katja; Priegnitz, Mike; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In situ combustion is a well-known method used for exploitation of unconventional oil deposits such as heavy oil/bitumen reservoirs where the required heat is produced directly within the oil reservoir by combustion of a small percentage of the oil. A new application of in situ combustion for the production of methane from hydrate-bearing sediments was tested at pilot plant scale within the first phase of the German national gas hydrate project SUGAR. The applied method of in situ combustion was a flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 in a counter-current heat-exchange reactor with no direct contact between the catalytic reaction zone and the reservoir. The catalyst permitted a flameless combustion of CH4 with air to CO2 and H2O below the auto-ignition temperature of CH4 in air (868 K) and outside the flammability limits. This led to a double secured application of the reactor. The relatively low reaction temperature allowed the use of cost-effective standard materials for the reactor and prevented NOx formation. Preliminary results were promising and showed that only 15% of the produced CH4 was needed to be catalytically burned to provide enough heat to dissociate the hydrates in the environment and release CH4. The location of the heat source right within the hydrate-bearing sediment is a major advantage for the gas production from natural gas hydrates as the heat is generated where it is needed without loss of energy due to transportation. As part of the second period of the SUGAR project the reactor prototype of the first project phase was developed further to a borehole tool. The dimensions of this counter-current heat-exchange reactor are about 540 cm in length and 9 cm in diameter. It is designed for applications up to depths of 2500 m. A functionality test and a pressure test of the reactor were successfully carried out in October 2013 at the continental deep drilling site (KTB) in Windischeschenbach, Germany, in 600 m depth and 2000 m depth, respectively

  15. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  16. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  17. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  18. Achieving Proficiencies in Economics Capstone Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeborg, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…

  19. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  20. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  1. Review of "Our Immense Achievement Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This report misrepresents and then criticizes recommendations from the Minnesota Department of Education, a think tank and two independent study groups, each of which recently encouraged particular voluntary efforts to reduce concentrated poverty and achieve racial and socioeconomic integration in schools and housing in Minnesota. In building its…

  2. Preparative isolation of pseudolaric acids A and B, and their glucosides from the root bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan-Bin; Wong, Lina; Lai, Fanny; Yang, Nian-Yun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide the chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines, four diterpenoids, pseudolaric acids A and B (PAA and PAB), and their glucosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the Chinese herb Pseudolarix kaempferi using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The diphase solvent system was n-hexane/EtOAc/MeOH/H(2)O which was used at two ratios (5:5:5:5 and 1:9:4:6 by volume) in the separation of pseudolaric acids and their glycosides, respectively. As a result, PAA (14 mg), PAB (129 mg), PAA-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8 mg, PAAG), and PAB-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (42 mg, PABG) were obtained from 0.5 g of the crude extract. Their purities were determined to be above 97% by HPLC analysis. Their chemical structures were confirmed by( 1)H and( 13)C NMR analysis or HPLC comparison with the reference compounds. PMID:19072902

  3. A new tropane alkaloid from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile isolated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Almeida, Henrique; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Rocha, Leandro; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães

    2016-04-01

    Tropane alkaloids are bioactive metabolites with great importance in the pharmaceutical industry and the most important class of natural products found in the Erythroxylum genus. However, these compounds are usually separated by traditional chromatographic techniques, in which the sample is progressively purified in multiple chromatographic steps, resulting in a time- and solvent-consuming procedure. In this work we present the isolation of a novel alkaloid, 6β,7β-dibenzoyloxytropan-3α-ol, together with the two known 3α-benzoyloxynortropan-6β-ol and 3α,6β-dibenzoyloxytropane alkaloids, directly from the crude alkaloid fraction from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile, by using a single run pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography method. The ethyl acetate/water (1:1, v/v) biphasic solvent system with triethylamine and HCl as retention and eluter agents, respectively, was used to isolate tropane alkaloids for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:26888377

  4. Preparative Isolation of Two Prenylated Biflavonoids from the Roots and Rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi by Sephadex LH-20 Column and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Jun; Pei, Li-Xin; Wang, Kai-Bo; Sun, Yin-Shi; Wang, Jun-Min; Zhang, Yan-Li; Gao, Mei-Ling; Ji, Bao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two prenylated biflavonoids, podoverines B-C, were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi using a Sephadex LH-20 column (SLHC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate in water. Target compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were further enriched and purified by the combined application of SLHC and HSCCC. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.5:5:3.5:5, v/v) was chosen as the two phase solvent system. The flow rate of mobile phase was optimized at 2.0 mL·min(-1). Finally, under optimized conditions, 13.8 mg of podoverine B and 16.2 mg of podoverine C were obtained from 200 mg of the enriched sample. The purities of podoverines B and C were 98.62% and 99.05%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. For the first time, podoverins B and C were found in the genus Sinopodophyllum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC). Their absolute configurations were elucidated by comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. The separation procedures proved to be practical and economical, especially for trace prenylated biflavonoids from traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26703555

  5. One-step purification of histone deacetylase from Escherichia coli cell-lysate by counter-current chromatography using aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Naoko; Tsutsumi, Kanako; Nakano, Shigeru; Yanagida, Akio; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    Aqueous-aqueous two-phase (AATP) systems composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (molecular mass, M(r):1000-8000) and dextran (M(r):40,000) were evaluated for purification of maltose binding protein tagged-histone deacetylase (MBP-HDAC) by counter-current chromatography (CCC). CCC purification of an MBP-HDAC from Escherichia coli cell-lysate was successfully demonstrated with a 7.0% PEG 3350-10% dextran T40 system containing 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 9.0. After CCC purification, both polymers in the CCC fractions were easily removed by ultrafiltration in a short period of time. The collected fractions containing target protein were analyzed by an HPLC-based in vitro assay as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. MBP tag was digested from fusion HDAC during the CCC separation and native HDAC was purified by one-step operation with well preserved deacetyl enzyme activity. PMID:17306809

  6. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R J

    1997-12-01

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  7. Systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for real-life counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Solvent system selection is the first step toward a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. This paper introduces a systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient (NRTL-SAC) model, which is efficient in predicting the solute partition coefficient. Firstly, the application of the NRTL-SAC method was extended to the ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water and chloroform/methanol/water solvent system families. Moreover, the versatility and predictive capability of the NRTL-SAC method were investigated. The results indicate that the solute molecular parameters identified from hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system family are capable of predicting a large number of partition coefficients in several other different solvent system families. The NRTL-SAC strategy was further validated by successfully separating five components from Salvia plebeian R.Br. We therefore propose that NRTL-SAC is a promising high throughput method for rapid solvent system selection and highly adaptable to screen suitable solvent system for real-life CCC separation. PMID:25818557

  8. Overcoming the equivalent-chain-length rule with pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the preparative separation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Purification of individual fatty acids from vegetable oils by preparative liquid chromatography techniques such as countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a challenging task due to the equivalent-chain-length (ECL) rule. It implies that one double bond equals two carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of a fatty acid and therefore causes co-elutions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Accordingly, existing methods for the purification of individual fatty acids are cumbersome and time-consuming as two or more steps with different conditions are required. To avoid additional purification steps, we report a method utilizing pH-zone-refining CCC which enabled the purification of all major fatty acids from sunflower oil (purities >95 %) in one step by circumventing co-elutions caused by the ECL rule. This method is based on the involvement of acid strength and hydrophobicity of fatty acids during the separation process. By exploiting the preparative character of the pH-zone-refining mode, a tenfold sample amount of free fatty acids from sunflower oil could be separated in comparison to regular CCC. PMID:25943261

  9. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. PMID:23857918

  10. Bioassay-guided preparative separation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory C-flavone glycosides from Desmodium styracifolium by recycling complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Qi; Luo, Jian-Guang; Han, Chao; Xu, Jin-Fang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy of the convergence of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and bioactive assay technique was developed for rapidly screening and separating the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude extract was first established to target the bioactive fractions based on HSCCC coupled with in vitro ACE inhibitory assay. Subsequently, the bioactive fractions were further separated by the recycling complexation HSCCC respectively, using 0.10 mol/L copper sulfate in the lower phase of two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol/water (1:1, v/v). Five C-glycosylflavones, vicenin 2 (1), carlinoside (2), vicenin 1 (3), schaftoside (4) and vicenin 3 (5), were successfully obtained. Their chemical structures were identified using ESI-MS and NMR. All the isolates showed in vitro ACE inhibitory activity with the IC50 values between 33.62 and 58.37 μM. The results demonstrated that the established method was proposed as an excellent strategy to systematically screen and purify active compounds from traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25459924

  11. Organic high ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent system series for separation of ultra-polar compounds by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Existing two-phase solvent systems for high-speed countercurrent chromatography cover the separation of hydrophobic to moderately polar compounds, but often fail to provide suitable partition coefficient values for highly polar compounds such as sulfonic acids, catecholamines and zwitter ions. The present paper introduces a new solvent series which can be applied for the separation of these polar compounds. It is composed of 1-butanol, ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate and water at various volume ratios and consists of a series of 10 steps which are arranged according to the polarity of the solvent system so that the two-phase solvent system with suitable K values for the target compound(s) can be found in a few steps. Each solvent system gives proper volume ratio and high density difference between the two phases to provide a satisfactory level of retention of the stationary phase in the spiral column assembly. The method is validated by partition coefficient measurement of four typical polar compounds including methyl green (basic dye), tartrazine (sulfonic acid), tyrosine (zwitter ion) and epinephrine (a catecholamine), all of which show low partition coefficient values in the polar 1-butanol-water system. The capability of the method is demonstrated by separation of three catecholamines. PMID:22033108

  12. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. PMID:23008527

  13. Preparative isolation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography by changing the length of the separation column.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Dong, Hongjing; Yang, Bin; Liu, Dahui; Duan, Wenjuan; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    pH-Zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied for the preparative separation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens. The two-phase solvent system was composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v), where 20 mM of triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper phase as a retainer and 5 mM of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the aqueous phase as an eluter. In this experiment, the apparatus with an adjustable length of the separation column was used for the separation of alkaloids from D. scandens and the resolution of the compounds can be remarkably improved by increasing the length of the separation column. As a result, 70 mg protopin, 30 mg (+) corydine, 120 mg (+) isocorydine and 40 mg (+) glaucine were obtained from 1.0 g of the crude extracts and each with 99.2%, 96.5%, 99.3%, 99.5% purity as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by positive ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:22056347

  14. Development of a fast and convenient method for the isolation of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa by high-speed countercurrent chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Schwaiger, Stefan; Ellmerer, Ernst Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, a fast and simple method for the separation and purification of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa was successfully established. Accelerated solvent extraction was used for defatting and extracting of the subaerial parts, giving a triterpene enriched crude extract. Size exclusion chromatography was used to separate actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein from other triterpenoids, which were collected in a third fraction. This most complex third fraction was applied to high-speed countercurrent chromatography, a well-established technique for the separation of saponins. Separation parameters were first optimized on an analytical level, using a hyphenated HSCCC-ELSD setup, before the system was scaled up to preparative size. The resulting two-phase solvent system, consisting of N-hexane-acetone-ethyl acetate-2-propanol-ethanol-water (3.5 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 0.5 : 2, v/v/v/v/v/v), enabled the isolation of 23-O-acetylshengmanol-3-O- beta-D-xylopyranoside (17.4 mg), cimiracemoside D (19.5 mg), 25-O-acetylcimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (7.1 mg) and the aglycone cimigenol (5.9 mg). Purity of the isolated substances was 96.8 %, 96.2 %, 97.9 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. The same method was suitable for the purification of actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, with purities of 97.0 % and 98.3 %. PMID:19847744

  15. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antimicrobial coumarins from Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae) fruits by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walasek, Magdalena; Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    An efficient strategy, based on bioassay-guided fractionation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), was established to purify and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the dichloromethane extract of the fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae). The quaternary solvent system n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:5:6:5 v/v) was used in the reversed phase mode. Using this method, in a single run, seven fractions were isolated, among them three were the pure furanocoumarins: pimpinellin, imperatorin, and phellopterin. In order to purify xanthotoxin a more polar system (1:1:1:1 v/v) was further applied. The antimicrobial activity of extract, chromatographic fractions, and single compounds were in the range of MIC = 0.03-1 mg mL(-1). Xanthotoxin may have priority as a compound of further interest based on its antimicrobial activity. For the first time, an extensive antimicrobial study was performed for pimpinellin and phellopterin. PMID:25976802

  16. Isolation of β-carotene, α-carotene and lutein from carrots by countercurrent chromatography with the solvent system modifier benzotrifluoride.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2015-04-01

    A carotenoid purification method with dual-mode countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for β-carotene, α-carotene and lutein from a fresh carrot extract was developed. The fluorinated liquid benzotrifluoride (IUPAC name: (trifluoromethyl)benzene) was used as a novel modifier in the non-aqueous ternary solvent system n-hexane/benzotrifluoride/acetonitrile. The ternary phase diagram of the type I solvent system was used to select two-phase solvent mixtures which enabled an efficient preparative separation of α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein from concomitant pigments in crude carrot extract. By means of the modifier, high separation factors (α ≥ 1.2) were obtained, allowing baseline resolution between α-carotene and β-carotene due to specific chemical interactions such as π-π molecular interactions. After optimizing the injection step with a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, 51 mg of β-carotene, 32 mg of α-carotene and 4 mg of lutein could be isolated from 100.2mg crude carrot extract in a short time and with high purities of 95% and 99% by using dual-mode CCC, respectively. Temperatures > 22°C had a negative impact on the separation of α-carotene and β-carotene. PMID:25728658

  17. Scale-up protein separation on stainless steel wide bore toroidal columns in the type-J counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yue Hugh; Hewitson, Peter; van den Heuvel, Remco N A M; Zhao, Yan; Siebers, Rick P G; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Sutherland, Ian

    2015-12-11

    Manufacturing high-value added biotech biopharmaceutical products (e.g. therapeutic proteins) requires quick-to-develop, GMP-compliant, easy-to-scale and cost effective preparatory chromatography technologies. In this work, we describe the construction and testing of a set of 5-mm inner diameter stainless steel toroidal columns for use on commercially available preparatory scale synchronous J-type counter-current chromatography (CCC) machinery. We used a 20.2m long column with an aqueous two-phase system containing 14% (w/w) PEG1000 and 14% (w/w) potassium phosphate at pH 7, and tested a sample loading of 5% column volume and a mobile phase flow rate of 20ml/min. We then satisfactorily demonstrated the potential for a weekly protein separation and preparation throughput of ca. 11g based on a normal weekly routine for separating a pair of model proteins by making five stacked injections on a single portion of stationary phase with no stripping. Compared to our previous 1.6mm bore PTFE toroidal column, the present columns enlarged the nominal column processing throughput by nearly 10. For an ideal model protein injection modality, we observed a scaling up factor of at least 21. The 2 scales of protein separation and purification steps were realized on the same commercial CCC device. PMID:25818556

  18. One-step separation of nine structural analogues from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. via tandem high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hualiang; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Miao; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    A novel one-step separation strategy-tandem high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed with a six-port valve serving as the switch interface. Nine structural analogues including three isomers were successfully isolated from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. by one step. Compared with conventional HSCCC, peak resolution of target compounds was effectively improved in tandem one. Purities of isolated compounds were all over 90% as determined by HPLC. Their structures were then identified via UV, MS and (1)H NMR, and eventually assigned as poricoic acid B (1), poricoic acid A (2), 3β,16α-dihydroxylanosta-7, 9(11), 24-trien-21-oic acid (3), dehydrotumulosic acid (4), polyporenic acid C (5), 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid (6), 3-o-acetyl-16α-hydroxydehydrotrametenolic acid (7), dehydropachymic acid (8) and dehydrotrametenolic acid (9) respectively. The results indicated that tandem HSCCC can effectively improve peak resolution of target compounds, and can be a good candidate for HSCCC separation of structural analogues. PMID:26435185

  19. Determination of chlorophenols in red wine using ionic liquid countercurrent chromatography as a new pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Li, Nai; Cao, Xueli

    2015-06-01

    A countercurrent chromatography method for the enrichment and cleanup of chlorophenols from food samples was successfully established by using an ionic-liquid-modified two-phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane containing 2% 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and water. The column was firstly filled with the organic stationary phase, and then a large volume of sample was pumped into the column after it was equilibrated with pure water at the rotation speed. Finally, the trace amounts of chlorophenols extracted and enriched in the stationary phase were eluted out by an alkaline mobile phase and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under optimized conditions, the enrichment and cleanup of the chlorophenols can be fulfilled online with enrichment factors (34-65) and high recoveries (84.69-95.23%). The method has been applied to the determination of chlorophenols in real red wine samples with the limits of detection in the range of 1.89-4.21 μg/L. The present method is highly suitable for the pretreatment of large volume of aqueous sample for the determination of trace amounts of contaminants in food and environmental samples. PMID:25826668

  20. A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xing; Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-12-01

    A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was presented and aesculin was obtained from Cortex fraxinus. The extraction condition of ASE was optimized with response surface methodology; some significant parameters such as the solvent system and its stability, the amount of loading sample in HSCCC were also investigated. The original sample was first extracted with methanol at 105°C and 104 bar for 7 min using ASE, then the extracts were consecutively introduced into the HSCCC system and separated and purified with the same ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (7:3:10, v/v/v) solvent system for five times without further exchange and equilibrium. About 3.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in each time and total of 15.4 mg/g aesculin with purity over 95% was isolated from Cortex fraxinus. The results demonstrated that the consecutive preparation method was time and solvent saving and high throughput, it was suitable for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus, and also has good potential on the separation and purification of effective compounds from natural product. PMID:23225725

  1. Fractionation of technical octabromodiphenyl ether by countercurrent chromatography combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and offline and online (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Conrad, Jürgen; Vetter, Walter

    2015-06-12

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a technique, which uses two immiscible liquid phases for a separation process in a long and hollow tube. The technique allows the separation of high amounts of sample (50mg to several grams) with a low consumption of solvents. In this study, we fractionated 50mg technical octabromodiphenyl ether (DE-79) and analyzed the fractions by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. CCC separations were performed with n-hexane/acetonitrile as solvent system in tail-to-head (i.e. the upper phase is mobile) mode. Twelve CCC fractions were studied for the PBDE composition. CCC elution of PBDE congeners was dependent both on the degree of bromination and substitution pattern. Higher brominated congeners eluted faster than lower brominated congeners and isomers with vicinal hydrogen atoms eluted last. In addition to several known PBDE congeners in DE-79, we were able to unequivocally identify BDE 195 in DE-79 and we could verify the presence of BDE 184. Finally, we also established the online hyphenation of CCC with (1)H NMR. The use of deuterated solvents could be avoided by using n-hexane/acetonitrile as two-phase system. By online CCC-(1)H NMR in stop-flow mode we were able to detect eight PBDE congeners in the mixture. PMID:25913330

  2. Systematic and efficient separation of 11 compounds from Rhizoma Chuanxiong via counter-current chromatography-solid phase extraction-counter-current chromatography hyphenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Jianda; Yu, Jingang; Xie, Yixi; Jiang, Xinyu; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-10-17

    A counter-current chromatography (CCC)-solid phase extraction (SPE)-CCC system with high preparative capacity was used to realize rapid one-run systematic separation of natural products, in which two six-port valves and the SPE cartridge served as the interface. In the orthogonal separation system, equal column volumes of TEB-300A and TEB-300B were employed for the first dimension (1st-D) and second dimension (2nd-D), respectively. An optimized solid-phase column (25 mm × 10 mm i.d.) packed with Oasis HLB materials acted as the trapping SPE column. The analyte-focusing effect of the trapping column associated with the considerable preparative capacities of 1st-D and 2nd-D using totally different solvent systems significantly facilitated this one-run systematic separation of natural product. Therefore, this proposed approach was successfully applied to isolate chemical compounds from the crude extract of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. As a result, 11 compounds with widely different polarities were separated by running CCC for only one time. More importantly, this hyphenated strategy could serve as a rapid and efficient systematic pathway for the separation of natural products. PMID:25204267

  3. Separation of polyphenols from leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder by off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography combined with recycling elution mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fuzhu; Chen, Xiaoqing; Yang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    In this study, off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (2D HSCCC) strategy combined with recycling elution mode was developed to isolate compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of a common green tea--leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder. In the orthogonal separation system, a conventional HSCCC was employed for the first dimension and two recycling HSCCCs were used for the second in parallel. Using a solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:0.6:4.4, v/v) in the first and second dimension, four compounds including 3-hydroxy-phlorizin (1), phloretin (2), avicularin (3) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (4) were obtained. The purities of these four compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. And their structures were all identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line 2D HSCCC with recycling elution mode is an efficient technique to isolate compounds with similar polarities in natural products. PMID:25976803

  4. Isolation of α-Amylase Inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata Using a High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Target Guided by Centrifugal Ultrafiltration with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yin; Xiao, Aiping; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method target guided by centrifugal ultrafiltration with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CU-LC-MS) was proposed. This method was used to analyze α-amylase inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata extract. According to previous screening with CU-LC-MS, two screened potential α-amylase inhibitors was successfully isolated from Kadsura longipedunculata extract using HSCCC under the optimized experimental conditions. The isolated two target compounds (with purities of 92.3% and 94.6%) were, respectively, identified as quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) based on the MS, UV, and ¹H-NMR spectrometry data. To verify the inhibition of screened compounds, the inhibitory activities of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) on α-amylase were tested, and it demonstrated that the experimental IC50 values of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) were 28.8 and 12.5 μmol/L. These results proved that the hyphenated technique using CU-LC-MS and HSCCC was a rapid, competent, and reproductive method to screen and separate potential active compounds, like enzyme inhibitors from the extract of herbal medicines. PMID:27617987

  5. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements. PMID:27240330

  6. Preparative isolation and purification of antioxidative stilbene oligomers from Vitis chunganeniss using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Lu, Yanbin; Jiang, Liyan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Feiying; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2009-07-01

    Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of three stilbene oligomers from Vitis chunganeniss using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (2:5:2:5, v/v) and (1:2:1:2, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 800 mg of crude sample yielding hopeaphenol (21.1 mg), amurensin G (37.2 mg) and vitisin A (95.6 mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these three compounds were identified by MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. In addition, their antioxidant activities were screened by DPPH assay, where vitisin A showed strong antioxidant activity. Further EPR experiments with spin-trapping technique demonstrated that vitisin A is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher, which may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent. PMID:19557810

  7. Achievement Plus: A Partnership to Transform Underachieving Schools. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder Research, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achievement Plus is a partnership between the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation and the Saint Paul Public Schools to improve the academic achievement of low-income children in Saint Paul urban schools. Developed in 1997, Achievement Plus integrates the school community, families, and the resources of public and private organizations to ensure academic…

  8. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  9. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  10. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  11. Integrating SPOT-VEGETATION 13-yr time series and land-surface modelling to forecast the terrestrial carbon dynamics in a changing climate - The VEGECLIM project: achievements and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defourny, Pierre; Verbeeck, Hans; Moreau, Inès; De Weirdt, Marjolein; Verhegghen, Astrid; Kibambe-Lubamba, Jean-Paul; Jungers, Quentin; Maignan, Fabienne; Najdovski, Nicolas; Poulter, Benjamin; MacBean, Natasha; Peylin, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation is a major carbon sink and is as such a key component of the international response to climate change caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, anthropogenic disturbances like deforestation are the primary mechanism that changes ecosystems from carbon sinks to sources, and are hardly included in the current carbon modelling approaches. Moreover, in tropical regions, the seasonal/interannual variability of carbon fluxes is still uncertain and a weak or even no seasonality is taken into account in global vegetation models. In the context of climate change and mitigation policies like "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries" (REDD), it is particularly important to be able to quantify and forecast the vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes in these regions. The overall objective of the VEGECLIM project is to increase our knowledge on the terrestrial carbon cycle in tropical regions and to improve the forecast of the vegetation dynamics and carbon stocks and fluxes under different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. Such an approach aims to determine whether the African terrestrial carbon balance will remain a net sink or could become a carbon source by the end of the century, according to different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. The research strategy is to integrate the information of the land surface characterizations obtained from 13 years of consistent SPOT-VEGETATION time series (land cover, vegetation phenology through vegetation indices such as the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) as well as in-situ carbon flux data into the process based ORCHIDEE global vegetation model, capable of simulating vegetation dynamics and carbon balance. Key challenge of this project was to bridge the gap between the land cover and the land surface model teams. Several improvements of the ORCHIDEE model have been realized such as a new seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen

  12. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  13. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  14. A rapid and convenient method for preparative separation of three indissolvable polyphenols from Euphorbia pekinensis by the flexible application of solvent extraction combined with counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiamin; Feng, Reihong; Wu, Zhiyuan; Guan, Shuguang; Guo, Jiling; Cheng, Chunru; Xu, Pingping; Zhang, Jingxian; Wang, Yang; Qu, Hua; Man, Wei; Yu, Wenbo; Cui, Yajun; Guan, Shuhong; Guo, Dean

    2013-07-01

    A rapid and convenient method was established to preparatively isolate the three ellagic acid types of compounds, which were the main polyphenols in Euphorbia pekinensis, by flexibly applying solvent extraction combined with counter-current chromatography (CCC). The total extract (extracted using 95% ethanol) of E. pekinensis was pretreated by two simple steps before CCC isolation, following the procedure: the total extract was extracted by classical solvent extraction using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, respectively, and then the ethyl acetate extract was suspended using 95% ethanol, after being allowed to stand overnight, the sediment was obtained. Partial sediment (100 mg) was then directly separated by CCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-95% ethanol-water-85% formic acid (50:50:50:5, v/v/v/v). About 22 mg of 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (1), 12 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methyl-4-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2), and 35 mg of ellagic acid (3) with purities of 96.0, 95.2, and 95.4% were obtained respectively in one step within 4 h. After being purified by washing with methanol, the purities of the three compounds obtained were all above 98%. The purities were determined by HPLC and their chemical structures were further identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The recoveries were calculated as 84.6, 85.7, and 89.5%, respectively. The result demonstrated that the present isolation method was rapid, economical and efficient for the preparative separation of polyphenols from E. pekinensis. PMID:23629875

  15. Application of supercritical fluid extraction coupled with counter-current chromatography for extraction and online isolation of unstable chemical components from Rosa damascena.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Guo, Liping; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2013-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for the extraction and online isolation of the unstable compounds from Rosa damascene in a single extraction and separation operation in two stages. The solvent systems of SFE/HSCCC were optimized with the help of multiexponential function model. At the first stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-butanol-tert-butyl methyl ether-acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous TFA (1.7:1.0:0.8:4.0, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, and the target compounds were eluted with the corresponding lower phase to separate the hydrophobic compounds. At the second stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.2:1.0:2.8:2.6, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, followed by elution with the corresponding lower phase to separate the moderate hydrophobic compounds. Six compounds including formononetin, delphinidin, cyaniding, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavone were successfully separated in one extraction-separation operation within 300 min. The targeted compounds were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. This research has opened up great prospects for industrial application of SFE/HSCCC to the extraction and separation of unstable compounds. PMID:23596155

  16. Quick identification of kuraridin, a noncytotoxic anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) agent from Sophora flavescens using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Yu, Hua; Wong, Chun-Wai; Lui, Sau-Lai; Jolivalt, Claude; Ganem-Elbaz, Carine; Paris, Jean-Marc; Morleo, Barbara; Litaudon, Marc; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ip, Margaret; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Han, Quan-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem of public health that concerns almost all currently used antibacterial agents and that manifests in all fields of their application. To find more antibacterial agents from natural resources is all the time considered as an important strategy. Sophora flavescens is a popularly used antibacterial herb in Chinese Medicine, from which prenylated flavones were reported as the antibacterial ingredients but with a major concern of toxicity. In our screening on the antibacterial activities of various chemicals of this herb, 18 fractions were obtained from 8 g of 50% ethanol extract on a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, 1000 ml). The system of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:1:1:1) was used as the two-phase separation solvent. A chalcone named kuraridin was isolated from the best anti-MRSA fraction, together with sophoraflavanone G, a known active ingredient of S. flavescens. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectra. Both compounds exhibited significant anti-MRSA effects, compared to baicalein that is a well known anti-MRSA natural product. More important, kuraridin showed no toxicity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at the concentration up to 64 μg/ml while sophoraflavanone G inhibited over 50% of cellular activity at 4 μg/ml or higher concentration. These data suggested that opening of ring A of the prenylated flavones might decrease the toxicity and remain the anti-MRSA effect, from a viewpoint of structure-activity relationship. PMID:22177235

  17. [Preparative isolation and purification of five non-volatile compounds from Fructus caryophylli and Flos caryophylli by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A high-speed counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) method was successfully developed for the isolation of three non-volatile compounds from Fructus Caryophylli and two chromone compounds from Flos Caryophylli. The optimum separation solution systems included system A (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:8:6: 13, v/v/v/v) and system B (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5: 8: 9: 10, v/v/v/v). The upper phase of the system A was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phases of the systems A and B as the mobile phases were operated at a flow of 1.2 mL/min, while the apparatus rotated at 880 r/min. The 12.3 mg of ellagic acid, 9.6 mg of rhamnetin, 17.2 mg of quercetin were successfully purified from 70 mg of the crude extract of Fructus Caryophylli by a two-step separation. In the same way, 10.2 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2-methylchromone, 8.6 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,6-dimethyl-chromone were purified from 50 mg of the crude extract of Flos Caryophylli. The purities of the compounds were all over 96% as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The five compounds were indentified by mass spectrometry (MS), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. The results indicate that HSCCC is a powerful technique for the purification of non-volatile compounds from different parts of Eugenia caryophylla Thunb. PMID:22393701

  18. An approach to on-line electrospray mass spectrometric detection of polypeptide antibiotics of enramycin for high-speed counter-current chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Hattori, Yasuko; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

    2010-04-01

    In the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis of peptides, a rapid on-line detection and identification for a methodology have been required for the discovery of new biological active products. In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry (HSCCC/ESI-MS) was developed for the on-line detection and purification of polypeptide antibiotics of enramycin-A and -B. The analytes were purified on HSCCC model CCC-1000 (multi-layer coil planet centrifuge) with a volatile solvent of two-phase system composed of n-butanol/hexane/0.05% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid solution (43/7/50, V/V/V), and detected on an LCMS-2010EV quadrupole mass spectrometer fitted with an ESI source system in positive ionization following scan mode (m/z 100-2000). The HSCCC/ESI-MS peaks indicated that enramycin-A (major m/z 786 [M+3H](3+) and minor m/z 1179 [M+2H](2+)) and enramycin-B (major m/z 791 [M+3H](3+) and minor m/z 1185 [M+2H](2+)) have the peak resolution value of 2.9 from 15mg of loaded enramycin powder. The HSCCC collected amounts of the peak fractions were additionally 4.3mg (enramycin-A), and 5.9mg (enramycin-B), respectively. These purified substances were analyzed by LC/ESI-MS with scan positive mode. Based on the LC/ESI-MS chromatograms and spectra of the fractions, enramycin-A and -B were estimated to be over 95% purity. The overall results indicate that this approach of HSCCC/ESI-MS is a powerful technique for the purification and identification of bioactive peptides. PMID:20004073

  19. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction, countercurrent chromatography, and liquid chromatography for the simultaneous extraction, isolation, and analysis of the constituents of Uncaria tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming; Qi, Yanjuan; Li, Sainan; Pan, Yan; Li, Yuchun

    2015-04-01

    A hyphenated automated technique for the online extraction, isolation, analysis, and identification of natural organic compounds was established. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction (CUAE) was coupled with countercurrent chromatography (CCC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a diode array detector (DAD). This approach was applied to the fractionation and purification of alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa. A biphasic solvent system of chloroform-methanol-water (6:4:5, v:v:v) was used for the CUAE and CCC separation of compounds from 500 g of U. tomentosa. Two CUAE/CCC/HPLC/DAD modes were established. Either the upper aqueous phase or the lower organic phase of the solvent system could be used as the extraction solvent. The target compounds were extracted by CUAE, and the extract was pumped into a sample loop before being directly injected into the CCC column, or pre-purified using a flash chromatography column before injection. The target compounds were eluted using either the organic or aqueous phase of the solvent system and the fractions were monitored using a UV detector. The target fractions were collected by a sample loop via a six-port valve, and analyzed by HPLC/DAD for purity and structural identification. This system isolated of 8.2mg, 7.4 mg, and 12.9 mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with HPLC purities of 96.15%, 95.34%, and 95.49%, respectively via the first mode; and isolated 26.6 mg, 24.6 mg, and 45.3mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with a HPLC purities of 98.22%, 97.18%, and 97.93% via the second mode. PMID:25725954

  20. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. PMID:26209189

  1. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein. PMID:16242702

  2. On-line coupling of counter-current chromatography and macroporous resin chromatography for continuous isolation of arctiin from the fruit of Arctium lappa L.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengzhe; Liang, Junling; Wu, Shihua

    2010-08-13

    In this work, we have developed a novel hybrid two-dimensional counter-current chromatography and liquid chromatography (2D CCC x LC) system for the continuous purification of arctiin from crude extract of Arctium lappa. The first dimensional CCC column has been designed to fractionalize crude complex extract into pure arctiin effluent using a one-component organic/salt-containing system, and the second dimensional LC column has been packed with macroporous resin for on-line adsorption, desalination and desorption of arctiin which was effluent purified from the first CCC dimension. Thus, the crude arctiin mixture has been purified efficiently and conveniently by on-line CCC x LC in spite of the use of a salt-containing solvent system in CCC separation. As a result, high purity (more than 97%) of arctiin has been isolated by repeated injections both using the ethyl acetate-8% sodium chloride aqueous solution and butanol-1% sodium chloride aqueous solution. By contrast with the traditional CCC processes using multi-component organic/aqueous solvent systems, the present on-line CCC x LC process only used a one-component organic solvent and thus the solvent is easier to recover and regenerate. All of used solvents such as ethyl acetate, n-butanol and NaCl aqueous solution are low toxicity and environment-friendly. Moreover, the lower phase of salt-containing aqueous solution used as mobile phase, only contained minor organic solvent, which will save much organic solvent in continuous separation. In summary, our results indicated that the on-line hybrid 2D CCC x LC system using one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous solution is very promising and powerful tool for high-throughput purification of arctiin from fruits of A. lappa. PMID:20619844

  3. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingnan; Yin, Lianhong; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Qi, Yan; Yao, Jihong; Han, Xu; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2012-05-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system was successfully developed to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia. Suitable HSCCC conditions were carefully optimized as follows: the stationary phase was a reverse micellar phase composed of isooctane and 50mM bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-1-sulfosuccinate sodium (AOT). The mobile phase contained mobile phase A (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 50mM KCl at pH 7.0) for forward-extraction and mobile phase B (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.5M KCl at pH 10.0) for back-extraction. The flow rate, detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 1.5 ml/min, 280 nm and 4 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, three fractions (I, II and III) were separated, which showed high purity when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The structures of these proteins were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and compared with the NCBInr database. Fractions I and III were identified as resistance-like protein P-B and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, respectively, which were found in M. charantia for the first time. However, fraction II, which is thought to be a new protein, was not identified, and further investigations on this fraction are required. The anticancer activities of these three proteins on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 were evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that fraction II has excellent anticancer activity (IC(50)=0.116 mg/ml for 48 h treatment). This is the first report on the use of HSCCC to isolate proteins from M. charantia. PMID:22465200

  4. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  5. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  6. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  7. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  8. Design of a novel coil satellite centrifuge and its performance on counter-current chromatographic separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl sugar derivatives with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Tokura, Koji; Kimura, Emiru; Takai, Midori; Harikai, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A new high-speed counter-current chromatograph, named coil satellite centrifuge (CSC), was designed and fabricated in our laboratory. The CSC apparatus produces the satellite motion such that the coiled column simultaneously rotates around the sun axis (the angular velocity, ω1), the planet axis (ω2) and the satellite axis (the central axis of the column) (ω3). In order to achieve this triplicate rotary motion without twisting of the flow tube, the rotation of each axis was determined by the following formula: ω1 = ω2 + ω3. This relation enabled to lay out the flow tube by two different ways, the SS type and the JS type. In the SS type, the flow tube was introduced from the upper side of the apparatus into the sun axis of the first rotary frame and connected to the planet axis of the second rotary frame like a double letter SS. In the JS type, the flow tube was introduced from the bottom of the apparatus into the sun axis reaching the upper side of the planet axis an inversed letter J, followed by distribution as in the SS type. The performance of the apparatus was examined on separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl (MU) sugar derivatives as test samples with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of ethyl acetate/1-butanol/water (3 : 2 : 5, v/v) for lower phase mobile and (1 : 4 : 5, v/v) for upper phase mobile. With lower phase mobile, five 4-MU sugar derivatives including β-D-cellobioside (Cel), β-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-mannopyranoside, β-D-fucopyranoside and α-L-fucopyranoside (α-L-Fuc) were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at counterclockwise (CCW) (ω1) – CCW (ω2) – CCW (ω3) by the JS type flow tube distribution. With upper phase mobile, three 4-MU sugar derivatives including α-L-Fuc, β-D-galactopyranoside and Cel were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at clockwise (CW) (ω1) – CW (ω2) – CW (ω3) by the JS type flow tube distribution. A series of experiments on peak resolution and

  9. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  10. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  11. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  12. Development of a method to screen and isolate potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography, and counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Tang, Ying; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2015-06-01

    A new assay based on ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for the rapid screening and identification of the ligands for α-glucosidase from the extract of Panax japonicus. Six saponins were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors. Subsequently, the specific binding ligands, namely, notoginsenoside R1 , ginsenoside Rb1 , chikusetsusaponin V, chikusetsusaponin IV, chikusetsusaponin IVa, and ginsenoside Rd (the purities were 94.18, 95.43, 96.09, 93.26, 94.50, 93.86%, respectively) were separated by counter-current chromatography using two-phase solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether, acetonitrile, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (3.8:1.0:4.4, v/v/v) and the solvent system composed of methylene chloride, isopropanol, methanol, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (5.8:1.0:6.0:2.2, v/v/v). The results demonstrate that ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography might provide not only a powerful tool for screening and isolating α-glucosidase inhibitors in complex samples but also a useful platform for discovering bioactive compounds for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25847676

  13. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  14. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  15. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  16. Focus on the Future: Achieving Balance in Career & Life Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Knowdell, Richard, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers from the 2000 International Career Development Conference. The intent is to broaden the dissemination of the ideas presented at the conference, and to provide the authors with an international platform for communicating their ideas. The presentations include the following: (1) "Retaining Knowledge Workers:…

  17. Achieving Marketing Curriculum Integration: A Live Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Elizabeth L. R.

    2004-01-01

    Movement toward more active, experiential learning pedagogies is a trend that has found increasing interest in the last decade. The reasons for this interest include creating a more involving and interesting experience for the student, creating a more memorable experience, and facilitating more effective and durable learning. This article…

  18. Achieving Integrated Performance Management with the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to deliver synoptic perspectives on the evolution taking place in corporate university management best practice. Design/methodology/approach: The insights are based on the author's co-creative client experience in the design, management and impact studies of this business and organisation development intervention. The…

  19. Integrating Health Information Technology to Achieve Seamless Care Transitions.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Leah; Kirtane, Janhavi; Lynn, Joanne; McKethan, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Improving care transitions, or "handoffs" as patients migrate from one care setting to another, is a priority across stakeholder groups and health-care settings and additionally is included in national health-care goals set forth in the National Quality Strategy. Although many demonstrations of improved care transitions have succeeded, particularly for hospital discharges, ensuring consistent, high-quality, and safe transitions of care remains challenging. This paper highlights the potential for health information technology to become an increasing part of effective transitional care interventions, with the potential to reduce the resource burden currently associated with effective care transitions, the ability to spread improved practices to larger numbers of patients and providers efficiently and at scale, and, as health technology interoperability increases, the potential to facilitate critical information flow and feedback loops to clinicians, patients, and caregivers across disparate information systems and care settings. PMID:24522208

  20. Fear of Failure, 2x2 Achievement Goal and Self-Handicapping: An Examination of the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement" (Vol. 10, pp. 143-179).…

  1. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  2. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  3. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Roque, Jose A; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-05-23

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Color Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) to separate the closely related minor components Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ∼3.5% Pk5 and ∼0.7% Pk7. The separations were performed with highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent systems that were chosen by applying the recently introduced method known as graphic optimization of partition coefficients (Zeng et al., 2013). Multiple ∼1.0g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-butanol/abs. ethanol/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched dye mixture (∼160mg) of which Pk5 represented ∼46% and Pk7, ∼21%. Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼61mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7%. Pk7 (20.7mg, ∼83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column contents. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass

  4. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Chimonanthus praecox Flowers by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using a Stepwise Elution Mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaizhi; Zhang, Yongqing; Liu, Qian; Sun, Changlei; Li, Jia; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been successfully used for the separation of eight compounds from Chimonanthus praecox flowers. Firstly, the crude extract of Chimonanthus praecox flowers was dissolved in a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-H₂O (5:5:3:7, v/v) and divided into two parts: the upper phase (part I) and the lower phase (part II). Then, HSCCC was applied to separate the phenolic acids from part I and part II, respectively. Considering the broad polarity range of target compounds in part I, a stepwise elution mode was established. Two optimal solvent systems of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-H₂O-formic acid (FA) (5:5:3:7:0.02, 5:5:4.3:5.7:0.02, v/v) were employed in this separation. Five phenylpropanoids and two flavonoids were successfully separated from 280 mg of part I, including 8.7 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 95.3% purity), 10.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 96.8% purity), 11.3 mg of p-coumaric acid (c, 98.9% purity), 12.2 mg of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (d, 95.9% purity), 24.7 mg of quercetin (e, 97.3% purity), 33.8 mg of kaempferol (f, 96.8% purity), and 24.6 mg of 4-hydroxylcinnamic aldehyde (g, 98.0% purity). From 300 mg of part II, 65.7 mg of rutin (h, 98.2% purity), 7.5 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 77.4% purity), and 4.7 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 81.6% purity) were obtained using the solvent system EtOAc-n-butanol (n-BuOH)-FA-H₂O (4:1:0.5:5, v/v). The structures of the eight pure compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. To the best of our knowledge, compounds a-d and f were the first separated and reported from the Chimonanthus praecox flower extract. PMID:27527132

  5. Isolation of cytotoxic glucoerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa using high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Guo, Shuang; Du, Lei; Wang, Yu-Ming; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi; Xue, Chang-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Total glucocerebrosides of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CFC) have been isolated from the less polar lipid fraction of the chloroform-methanol extract using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v). Three glucocerebroside molecular species (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3) were isolated from crude total cerebrosides with repeated column chromatography. The structures of these three glucocerebroside molecular species were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: fatty acids were mainly saturated (C22:0 and C18:0), monounsaturated (C24:1 and C20:1) and α-hydroxyl fatty acids (C24:1h, C23:0h, C23:1h and C22:0h), the structures of long-chain bases were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:2 and d18:1) and trihydroxy (t17:0 and t16:0), and the glycosylation was glucose. High purity long-chain bases of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CF-LCB) were prepared from total lipids by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert butyl ether-methanol-water (1:1:2:1, v/v). Compare with traditional preparative methods, the method of HSCCC is short cycle, high yield and less solvent consumption. The composition analysis of CF-LCB showed that the ratio of d18:2 and d17:1 was approximately 2:1. The four glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa were evaluated for activity in vitro assays for the cytotoxic activities against Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that both glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in four glucocerebrosides to Caco-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was much stronger than glucocerebrosides. PMID:23470440

  6. Ready, Set, Integrate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, John

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the American Embassy School (AES) in New Delhi, India achieved school-wide technology integration. Discusses development of a new network; beginning to mentor; organizing the Technology Integration Plan (TIP) by software application; implementing the plan; assessing progress; and results, which overall, were positive. (AEF)

  7. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  8. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  9. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  10. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  11. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  12. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  13. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  14. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  16. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  17. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  18. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  19. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  20. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  3. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  4. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  5. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  6. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  7. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  8. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  9. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral polymer phase system consisting of 7.5 percent dextran 40/4.5 percent PEG 6, 0.11 M Na phosphate, 5 percent fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.5, was developed which has a high phase droplet electrophoretic mobility and retains cell viability over many hours. In this and related systems, the drop mobility was a linear function of drop size, at least in the range 4-30 micron diameter. Applications of and electric field of 4.5 v/cm to a system containing 10 percent v/v bottom phase cleared the system more than two orders of magnitude faster than in the absence of the field. At higher bottom phase concentrations a secondary phenomenon intervened in the field driven separations which resulted in an increase in turbidity after clearing had commenced. The increase was associated with a dilution of the phase system in the chamber. The effect depended on the presence of the electric field. It may be due to electroosmotic flow of buffer through the Amicon membranes into the sample chamber and flow of phase system out into the rinse stream. Strategies to eliminate this problem are proposed.

  10. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed physiochemical studies of dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) two phase systems were carried out to characterize and provide understanding of the properties of the systems which determine cell partition and the electrophoretic behavior of phase drops responsible for electric field driven phase separation. A detailed study of the electrostatic and electrokinetic potentials developed in these systems was carried out. The salt partition was examined both in phase systems and with pure polymer solutions via equilibrium dialysis and mechanism of sulfate, chloride and phosphate partition shown to be exclusion by PEG rather than binding by dextran. Salt partition was shown to have a strong effect on the polymer compositions of the phases as well, an effect which produces large changes in the interfacial tension between them. These effects were characterized and the interfacial tension shown to obey a power law with respect to its dependence on the length of the tie line describing the system composition on a phase diagram. The electrostatic potential differences measured via salt bridges were shown to obey thermodynamic predictions. The electrophoretic mobilities measured were utilized to provide a partial test of Levine's incomplete theory of phase drop electrophoresis. The data were consistent with Levine's expression over a limited range of the variables tested.

  11. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the addition of phosphate buffer to two polymer aqueous phase systems has a strong effect on the partition behavior of cells and other particles in such mixtures. The addition of sodium phosphate to aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) dextran phase systems causes a concentration-dependent shift in binodial on the phase diagram, progressively lowering the critical conditions for phase separation as the phosphate concentration is increased. Sodium chloride produces no significant shift in the critical point relative to the salt-free case. Accurate determinations of the phase diagram require measurements of the density of the phases; data is presented which allows this parameter to be calculated from polarimetric measurements of the dextran concentrations of both phases. Increasing polymer concentrations in the phase systems produce increasing preference of the phosphate for the dextran-rich bottom phase. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that poly(ethylene glycol) effectively rejected phosphate, and to a lesser extent chloride, but that dextran had little effect on the distribution of either salt. Increasing ionic strength via addition of 0.15 M NaCl to phase systems containing 0.01 M phosphate produces an increased concentration of phosphate ions in the bottom dextran-rich phase, the expected effect in this type of Donnan distribution.

  12. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in

  13. Integration and Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Paul; Antol, Rayna A.

    2001-01-01

    Explains two middle school teachers' cooperation with integrating regular and gifted students with disabled students. Focuses on disabled students' collaboration with their peers and their social skill development rather than their academic development. (YDS)

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  15. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  16. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  17. Faces of integration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul; Sullivan, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Theme Two central themes permeate this paper—the interplay between structure and agency in integration processes and the extent to which this is mediated through sensemaking by individual actors. Case study The empirical base for the paper is provided by case study research from Wales which draws on examples of different types of integration in health and social care. The individual case studies highlight different interpretations of integration set against a background of the resources involved, processes employed and outcomes achieved. Discussion A wide ranging discussion exposes the complex interplay and dynamics between structural factors and the manner in which they enable or constrain integration, and individual actors realising their potential agency through leadership, professionalism and boundary spanning to influence outcomes. The importance of structure and agency complementing each other to determine effective integration is emphasised, together with the scope that is available for interpretation and meaning by individual actors within the contested discourse of integration. PMID:20087420

  18. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  19. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  20. Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

  1. Integrated Means Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operation of the Cessna Pilot Center (CPC) flight training systems. The program is based on a series of integrated activities involving stimulus, response, reinforcement and association components. Results show that the program can significantly reduce in-flight training time. (CP)

  2. Integrated infrared array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of integrated infrared (IR) array technology is presented. Although the array pixel formats are smaller, and the readout noise of IR arrays is larger, than the corresponding values achieved with optical charge-coupled-device silicon technology, substantial progress is being made in IR technology. Both existing IR arrays and those being developed are described. Examples of astronomical images are given which illustrate the potential of integrated IR arrays for scientific investigations.

  3. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  4. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  5. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  6. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  7. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  8. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  9. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  10. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  11. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  12. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  13. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  15. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  16. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  17. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  18. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  19. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  20. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…