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Sample records for achieving critical weight

  1. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  2. College Students' Motivation to Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…

  3. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  4. Adaptive significance of critical weight for metamorphosis in holometabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Ken-Ichi; Morishita, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-21

    Holometabolous insect larvae become committed to metamorphosis when they reach a critical weight. Although the physiological mechanisms involved in this process have been well-studied, the adaptive significance of the critical weight remains unclear. Here, we developed a life history model for holometabolous insects and evaluated it from the viewpoint of optimal energy allocation. We found that, without a priori assumptions about critical weight, the optimal growth schedule is always biphasic: larval tissues grow predominately until they reach a certain threshold, after which the imaginal tissues begin rapid growth, suggesting that the emergence of a critical weight as a phase-transition point is a natural consequence of optimal growth scheduling. Our model predicts the optimal timing of critical-weight attainment, in agreement with observations in phylogenetically-distinct species. Furthermore, it also predicts the scaling of growth scheduling against environmental change, i.e., the relative value and timing of the critical weight should be constant, thus providing a general interpretation of observed phenotypic plasticity. This scaling relationship allows the classification of adaptive responses in critical weight into five possible types that reflect the ecological features of focal insects. In this manner, our theory and its consistency with experimental observations demonstrate the adaptive significance of critical weight.

  5. The Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Osler, Audrey; Hill, John

    2005-01-01

    This article critically analyses the extent to which the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) has been successful in meeting its core objective of raising the achievement of minority ethnic groups who are at risk of underachieving. The article provides an historical analysis of the Grant, sets the Grant within the context of the Labour…

  6. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight

    Cancer.gov

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  7. Liraglutide for weight management: a critical review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, A.; Marso, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To review the efficacy, safety, and clinical applicability of liraglutide for weight management from phase III clinical trials. Methods A search of the English language literature was performed using PubMed search terms: “liraglutide”, “glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist”, and “randomized clinical trial”. Articles and bibliographies relevant to the subject were reviewed and additional references known to the authors were included. Results Five randomized, placebo‐controlled trials of liraglutide for weight management were identified. In addition to recommended diet and physical activity, liraglutide consistently resulted in a 4 to 6 kg weight loss, with a greater proportion of patients achieving at least 5 and 10% weight loss compared with placebo. The most common adverse effects were gastrointestinal and primarily occurred early in the treatment course. Comparative data suggest that weight loss with liraglutide is greater than that seen with orlistat or lorcaserin, but slightly less that seen with phentermine/topiramate. Liraglutide 1.8 mg was recently shown to have cardiovascular benefit in a large outcomes trial; applicability of these results for the 3.0 mg formulation in a more diverse weight loss population at high cardiovascular risk is not currently known. Barriers to real‐world clinical use as a first‐line agent include gastrointestinal side effects, high cost, and need for injection. Conclusions Liraglutide helps to induce and sustain weight loss in patients with obesity. Its efficacy is comparable to other available agents but it offers the unique benefit of improved glycemic control. Additional studies are needed to determine its long term efficacy and safety profile.

  8. Predicting maintenance or achievement of healthy weight in children: the impact of changes in physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Adela; Chomitz, Virginia R; Arsenault, Lisa N; Must, Aviva; Economos, Christina D; McGowan, Robert J; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Physical fitness is often inversely associated with adiposity in children cross-sectionally, but the effect of becoming fit or maintaining fitness over time on changes in weight status has not been well studied in children. We investigated the impact of changes in fitness over 1-4 years of follow-up on the maintenance or achievement of healthy weight among 2,793 schoolchildren who were first measured as 1st to 7th graders. Students were classified as "fit" or "underfit" according to age- and gender-specific norms in five fitness domains: endurance, agility, flexibility, upper body strength, and abdominal strength. Weight status was dichotomized by BMI percentile: "healthy weight" (<85th percentile) or "overweight/obese" (≥85th percentile). At baseline, of the 38.3% overweight/obese children, 81.9% (N = 875) were underfit. Underfit overweight students were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they achieved fitness (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-5.77; girls: OR = 4.67, 95%CI = 2.09-10.45). Initially fit overweight children (N = 194) were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR = 11.99, 95%CI = 2.18-65.89; girls: OR = 2.46, 95%CI = 1.04-5.83). Similarly, initially fit healthy-weight children (N = 717) were more likely to maintain healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR 3.70, 95%CI = 1.40-9.78; girls: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 1.95-8.78). Overweight schoolchildren who achieve or maintain physical fitness are more likely to achieve healthy weight, and healthy-weight children who maintain fitness are more likely to maintain healthy weight. School-based policies/practices that support physical fitness may contribute to obesity reduction and maintenance of healthy weight among schoolchildren.

  9. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  10. Birth-weight charts and immigrant populations: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice.

  11. A New Look at Student Achievement. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Magdalena

    To enhance activities and programs directed toward improving the teaching of reading, writing, and thinking skills in the southwest region, this document, part of a series of papers on this issue is presented. A new look at student achievement is necessary because the information age is making new demands. There has been a shift in education away…

  12. Longitudinal Relationships of Fitness, Physical Activity, and Weight Status with Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: To examine associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity (PA) and weight status with academic achievement 1 year later. In addition, the mediating role of psychological variables was tested. Methods: Longitudinal analyses included 1011 German students (M = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was…

  13. Instrumental Motivation, Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Academic Achievement of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Rahimi, Ali; Rahimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Among the factors influencing learners' learning, instrumental motivation, critical thinking and autonomy are thought to be of crucial importance. The present study, thus, set out to investigate relationships between instrumental motivation, critical thinking, autonomy and academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 100 Iranian…

  14. Paying Attention to Procedural Texts: Critically Reading School Routines as Embodied Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanden, Sarah Vander; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we look closely at the way power circulates through school routines with ordinary texts in everyday moments. We address texts that support different types of achievement and how critical literacy helps us redefine achievement and examine what we're doing with texts and students in classrooms. We interrogate the notion of…

  15. mHealth interventions for weight loss: a guide for achieving treatment fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Ryan J; Steinberg, Dori M; Zullig, Leah L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Johnson, Constance M; Davis, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    mHealth interventions have shown promise for helping people sustain healthy behaviors such as weight loss. However, few have assessed treatment fidelity, that is, the accurate delivery, receipt, and enactment of the intervention. Treatment fidelity is critical because the valid interpretation and translation of intervention studies depend on treatment fidelity assessments. We describe strategies used to assess treatment fidelity in mobile health (mHealth) interventions aimed at sustaining healthy behaviors in weight loss. We reviewed treatment fidelity recommendations for mHealth-based behavioral interventions and described how these recommendations were applied in three recent weight loss studies. We illustrate how treatment fidelity can be supported during study design, training of providers, treatment delivery, receipt of treatment, and enactment of treatment skills. Pre-planned strategies to ensure the treatment fidelity of mHealth interventions will help counter doubts concerning valid conclusions about their effectiveness and allow investigators and clinicians to implement robustly efficacious mobile health programs. Trial registration number 1F31 NR012599. PMID:24853065

  16. Predictors of Full Enteral Feeding Achievement in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Fantini, Maria Pia; Aceti, Arianna; Gibertoni, Dino; Rucci, Paola; Baronciani, Dante; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the role of prenatal, neonatal and early postnatal variables in influencing the achievement of full enteral feeding (FEF) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to determine whether neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) differ in this outcome. Methods Population-based retrospective cohort study using data on 1,864 VLBW infants drawn from the “Emilia-Romagna Perinatal Network” Registry from 2004 to 2009. The outcome of interest was time to FEF achievement. Eleven prenatal, neonatal and early postnatal variables and the study NICUs were selected as potential predictors of time to FEF. Parametric survival analysis was used to model time to FEF as a function of the predictors. Marginal effects were used to obtain adjusted estimates of median time to FEF for specific subgroups of infants. Results Lower gestational age, exclusive formula feeding, higher CRIB II score, maternal hypertension, cesarean delivery, SGA and PDA predicted delayed FEF. NICUs proved to be heterogeneous in terms of FEF achievement. Newborns with PDA had a 4.2 days longer predicted median time to FEF compared to those without PDA; newborns exclusively formula-fed had a 1.4 days longer time to FEF compared to those fed human milk. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that time to FEF is influenced by clinical variables and NICU-specific practices. Knowledge of the variables associated with delayed/earlier FEF achievement could help in improving specific aspects of routine clinical management of VLBW infants and to reduce practice variability. PMID:24647523

  17. Item-Option Weighting of Achievement Tests: Comparative Study of Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Ronald G.

    1979-01-01

    This research attempted to interrelate several methods of producing option weights (i.e., Guttman internal and external weights and judges' weights) and examined their effects on reliability and on concurrent, predictive, and face validity. It was concluded that option weighting offered limited, if any, improvement over unit weighting. (Author/CTM)

  18. An achievement-weighted constraint satisfaction approach to modeling user preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Hitoshi

    The presented study deals with the so-called soft constraint satisfaction problem (SCSP) and proposes an extension to the standard SCSP formulation to accommodate a wider class of over-constrained situations and allow for a generally higher level of flexibility in the constraint-driven problem-solving. The extended modeling approach called Achievement-Weighted Constraint Satisfaction (AWCS) assumes the definition of constraint parameters ``traditional'' for SCSPs, as well as additional parameters specified to dynamically manipulate constraint weights in the course of solution search. These latter parameters make it possible to ``relax'' over-constrained models and obtain a solution even when there are mutually contradicting rules utilized by an AWCS problem-solver. To explore the proposed modeling framework, a task of finding an optimal route in car navigation, based on user preferences - a popular are of research in SCSP studies - is considered. A case study is presented, in which an optimal route is first modeled with constraints reflecting user preferences. Problem solutions having different optimality levels are then obtained. A software system is developed to automate both the optimal route modeling (via interaction with the user) and the solution search processes. The system is applied in an experiment conducted to validate the theoretical ideas. Experimental results are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

  19. Does Sensitivity to Criticism Mediate the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year…

  20. Towards Achieving a Critical Thinking Society in Malaysia: A Challenge to School Libraries and Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaacob, Raja Abdullah; Seman, Norma Abur

    One of the challenges facing Malaysia amidst its economic development is the achievement of a critical thinking society. This would enhance and guarantee the success of research and development programs in addition to having other socioeconomic effects. This paper covers the following topics: Vision 2020, Malaysia's goal to reach developed nation…

  1. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  2. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  3. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight change--a systematic review and critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neville, C E; McKinley, M C; Holmes, V A; Spence, D; Woodside, J V

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a time of increased vulnerability for retention of excess body fat in women. Breastfeeding (BF) has been shown to have many health benefits for both mother and baby; however, its role in postpartum weight management is unclear. Our aim was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature published to date in relation to the impact of BF on postpartum weight change, weight retention and maternal body composition. Electronic literature searches were carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS, CINAHL and British Nursing Index. The search covered publications up to 12 June 2012 and included observational studies (prospective and retrospective) carried out in BF mothers (either exclusively or as a subgroup), who were ≤ 2 years postpartum and with a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg m(-2), with an outcome measure of change in weight (including weight retention) and/or body composition. Thirty-seven prospective studies and eight retrospective studies were identified that met the selection criteria; studies were stratified according to study design and outcome measure. Overall, studies were heterogeneous, particularly in relation to sample size, measurement time points and in the classification of BF and postpartum weight change. The majority of studies reported little or no association between BF and weight change (n=27, 63%) or change in body composition (n=16, 89%), although this seemed to depend on the measurement time points and BF intensity. However, of the five studies that were considered to be of high methodological quality, four studies demonstrated a positive association between BF and weight change. This systematic review highlights the difficulties of examining the association between BF and weight management in observational research. Although the available evidence challenges the widely held belief that BF promotes weight loss, more robust studies are needed to reliably assess the

  4. Does sensitivity to criticism mediate the relationship between theory of mind and academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire

    2011-11-01

    This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year of preschool (Time 1, mean age=5years 6months) and in their first year (Time 2, mean age=6years 5months) and second year (Time 3, mean age=7years 5months) of primary school. Children's theory of mind, verbal ability, and social skills were evaluated at each time point. In addition, children's sensitivity to teacher criticism was assessed at Time 2 and teachers' ratings of children's academic achievement were gathered at Time 3. Mediation analyses showed that, independent of verbal ability and social skills, sensitivity to criticism at Time 2 mediated the association between theory of mind at Time 1 and academic achievement at Time 3. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the educational consequences of individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind.

  5. Versatile low-molecular-weight hydrogelators: achieving multiresponsiveness through a modular design.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Lilia; Hunter, Christopher A; Tzokova, Nadejda; Waltho, Jonathan P; Tomas, Salvador

    2011-08-22

    Multiresponsive low-molecular-weight hydrogelators (LMWHs) are ideal candidates for the development of smart, soft, nanotechnology materials. The synthesis is however very challenging. On the one hand, de novo design is hampered by our limited ability to predict the assembly of small molecules in water. On the other hand, modification of pre-existing LMWHs is limited by the number of different stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties that can be introduced into a small molecule without seriously disrupting the ability to gelate water. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of multistimuli LMWHs, based on a modular design, composed of a hydrophobic, disulfide, aromatic moiety, a maleimide linker, and a hydrophilic section based on an amino acid, here N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). As most LMWHs, these gelators experience reversible gel-to-sol transition following temperature changes. Additionally, the NAC moiety allows reversible control of the assembly of the gel by pH changes. The reduction of the aromatic disulfide triggers a gel-to-sol transition that, depending on the design of the particular LMWH, can be reverted by reoxidation of the resulting thiol. Finally, the hydrolysis of the cyclic imide moieties provides an additional trigger for the gel-to-sol transition with a timescale that is appropriate for use in drug-delivery applications. The efficient response to the multiple external stimuli, coupled to the modular design makes these LMWHs an excellent starting point for the development of smart nanomaterials with applications that include controlled drug release. These hydrogelators, which were discovered by serendipity rather than design, suggest nonetheless a general strategy for the introduction of multiple stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties, to offset the introduction of hydrophilic moieties with additional hydrophobic ones, in order to minimize the upsetting of the critical hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the LMWH.

  6. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.

  7. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-04

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS.

  8. Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel between-Sibling, between-Families Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2009-01-01

    We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight…

  9. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  10. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  11. Critical value for the contact process with random recovery rates and edge weights on regular tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we are concerned with contact processes with random recovery rates and edge weights on rooted regular trees TN. Let ρ and ξ be two nonnegative random variables such that P(ɛ ≤ ξ < + ∞ , ρ ≤ M) = 1 for some ɛ , M > 0. For each vertex x on TN, ξ(x) is an independent copy of ξ while for each edge e on TN, ρ(e) is an independent copy of ρ. An infected vertex x becomes healthy at rate ξ(x) while an infected vertex y infects an healthy neighbor z at rate proportional to ρ(y , z) . For this model, we prove that the critical value under the annealed measure approximately equals (N E ρ E 1/ξ )-1 as N grows to infinity. Furthermore, we show that the critical value under the quenched measure equals that under the annealed measure when the cluster containing the root formed with edges with positive weights is infinite.

  12. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lone V; Nielsen, Mette S; Schmidt, Julie B; Pedersen, Sue D; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd 4·4) kg/m(2)) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan(®), 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (7·1 (sem 2·3) and 7·3 (sem 1·8) mmHg, respectively, all P < 0·01) as well as an improved metabolic profile (8·2 (sem 1·8) % decrease in fasting glucose (P < 0·01), 28·6 (sem 6·4) % decrease in fasting insulin (P < 0·01), 23·1 (sem 2·2) % decrease in LDL (P < 0·01), and 9·7 (sem 4·7) % decrease in TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS. However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation.

  13. Geographically weighted lasso (GWL) study for modeling the diarrheic to achieve open defecation free (ODF) target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumsari, Nurvita; Sutidjo, S. U.; Brodjol; Soedjono, Eddy S.

    2014-03-01

    Diarrhea has been one main cause of morbidity and mortality to children around the world, especially in the developing countries According to available data that was mentioned. It showed that sanitary and healthy lifestyle implementation by the inhabitants was not good yet. Inadequacy of environmental influence and the availability of health services were suspected factors which influenced diarrhea cases happened followed by heightened percentage of the diarrheic. This research is aimed at modelling the diarrheic by using Geographically Weighted Lasso method. With the existence of spatial heterogeneity was tested by Breusch Pagan, it was showed that diarrheic modeling with weighted regression, especially GWR and GWL, can explain the variation in each location. But, the absence of multi-collinearity cases on predictor variables, which were affecting the diarrheic, resulted in GWR and GWL modelling to be not different or identical. It is shown from the resulting MSE value. While from R2 value which usually higher on GWL model showed a significant variable predictor based on more parametric shrinkage value.

  14. African American Students in Urban Schools: Critical Issues and Solutions for Achievement. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…

  15. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  16. A Path Analysis of the Relationship among Critical Motivational Variables and Achievement in Reform-Oriented Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, James A.; Leavy, Aisling; Leader, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among critical motivational variables and mathematics achievement as middle grades students engaged in a reform-oriented curriculum, "Mathematics in Context." We tested 327 students in fifth, sixth, and seventh grade before and after two years of implementation. We performed a path analysis with…

  17. Digital Storytelling for Enhancing Student Academic Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Learning Motivation: A Year-Long Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…

  18. Why Pre-K Is Critical to Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Ellen; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The recently released results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) comparison of educational achievement across 65 countries has brought renewed attention to the achievement gap and recommended changes to improve U.S. performance. The U.S. was well down in the middle of the pack for reading, math, and science while…

  19. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Bertz, Fredrik C.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency. PMID:27127719

  20. Teaching Critical Perspectives on Body Weight: The Obesity "Epidemic" and Pro-Ana Movement in Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    While most sociology students are well prepared to think critically about inequalities involving race, gender, social class, and sexuality, the topics of body weight and health present some challenges for classroom discussion. Primarily, this is due to the body's status in contemporary society as simultaneously malleable (able to be changed) and…

  1. Critical Media Pedagogy: Teaching for Achievement in City Schools. Language & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest; Duenas, Rudy; Garcia, Veronica; Lopez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This practical book examines how teaching media in high school English and social studies classrooms can address major challenges in our educational system. The authors argue that, in addition to providing underserved youth with access to 21st century learning technologies, critical media education will help improve academic literacy achievement…

  2. Making Critical Connections between Social Studies Teaching and Student Achievement Using NAEP Data Explorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of promising practice, we demonstrate how social studies methods instructors can incorporate data analysis of the 2010 United States History National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP-USH) to facilitate pedagogical aims, engage teacher candidates in critical discourse, and investigate the contexts of teaching and learning.…

  3. The contribution of visual processing to academic achievement in adolescents born extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Carly S; Di Battista, Ashley M; Anderson, Vicki A; Burnett, Alice; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-04-01

    Children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) have more academic deficiencies than their term-born peers, which may be due to problems with visual processing. The aim of this study is to determine (1) if visual processing is related to poor academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents, and (2) how much of the variance in academic achievement in EP/ELBW adolescents is explained by visual processing ability after controlling for perinatal risk factors and other known contributors to academic performance, particularly attention and working memory. A geographically determined cohort of 228 surviving EP/ELBW adolescents (mean age 17 years) was studied. The relationships between measures of visual processing (visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, eye convergence, and visual perception) and academic achievement were explored within the EP/ELBW group. Analyses were repeated controlling for perinatal and social risk, and measures of attention and working memory. It was found that visual acuity, convergence and visual perception are related to scores for academic achievement on univariable regression analyses. After controlling for potential confounds (perinatal and social risk, working memory and attention), visual acuity, convergence and visual perception remained associated with reading and math computation, but only convergence and visual perception are related to spelling. The additional variance explained by visual processing is up to 6.6% for reading, 2.7% for spelling, and 2.2% for math computation. None of the visual processing variables or visual motor integration are associated with handwriting on multivariable analysis. Working memory is generally a stronger predictor of reading, spelling, and math computation than visual processing. It was concluded that visual processing difficulties are significantly related to academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents; therefore, specific attention should be paid to academic

  4. Spinal cord stimulation to achieve wound healing in a primary lower limb critical ischaemia referral centre.

    PubMed

    De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; David, Antonio; Giardina, Massimiliano; La Spada, Michele; Stilo, Francesco; Spinelli, Francesco; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Critical lower limb ischaemia is a diffuse pathology that could cause claudication, severe ischaemic pain and tissue loss. The common treatment includes modification of risk factors, pharmacological therapy and endovascular or surgical revascularisation of the lower limb to restore a pulsatile flow distally. Spinal cord stimulator is seen as a valid alternative in patients unsuitable for revascularisation after endovascular or surgical revascularisation failure and as adjuvant therapy in the presence of a functioning bypass in patients with extensive tissue loss and gangrene presenting a slow and difficult wound healing. We report our experience on spinal cord stimulation (SCS) indication and implantation in patients with critical lower limb ischaemia, at a high-volume centre for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.

  5. Long-term metabolic effects of high birth weight: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Palatianou, M E; Simos, Y V; Andronikou, S K; Kiortsis, D N

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in USA, Europe, and across the world have revealed a continuous increase of mean birth weight in the last 2 decades. Strong evidence exists from several studies indicating that individuals born with a low birth weight are more likely to present cardiometabolic complications in later life. So far, the long-term consequences of high birth weight have not been clearly defined. This review examines the role of high birth weight on the development of cardiometabolic consequences (obesity, body composition, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease) in childhood and adulthood. The majority of the studies show that high BW is associated with an increased risk for obesity. To a certain extent high birth weight affects diseases of the heart and circulatory, but does not constitutes a risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population. Maternal glycemia and the subsequent fetus hyperinsulinemia appear to be the key component for increased fetal growth. With the increase in incidence of diabetes mellitus and obesity over the years, the number of high birth weight infants is likely to increase. The elucidation of the relationship between high birth weight and the cardiometabolic disorders will be particularly important.

  6. Weight loss and achievement of minimal disease activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis starting treatment with tumour necrosis factor α blockers

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Peluso, Rosario; Iervolino, Salvatore; Russolillo, Anna; Lupoli, Roberta; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate prospectively the effect of weight loss on the achievement of minimal disease activity (MDA) in overweight/obese patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) starting treatment with tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) blockers. Methods Among subjects with PsA starting treatment with TNFα blockers, 138 overweight/obese patients received a concomitant dietary intervention (69 a hypocaloric diet (HD) and 69 a free-managed diet (FD)). Changes in metabolic variables were measured and a complete clinical rheumatological evaluation was made in all patients at baseline and after a 6-month follow-up to define the achievement of MDA. Results 126 subjects completed the study. MDA was more often achieved by HD than by FD subjects (HR=1.85, 95% CI 1.019 to 3.345, p=0.043). A diet was successful (≥5% weight loss) in 74 (58.7%) patients. Regardless of the type of diet, after 6 months of treatment with TNFα blockers, ≥5% of weight loss was a predictor of the achievement of MDA (OR=4.20, 95% CI 1.82 to 9.66, p<0.001). For increasing weight-loss categories (<5%, 5–10%, >10%), MDA was achieved by 23.1%, 44.8% and 59.5%, respectively. A higher rate of MDA achievement was found in subjects with 5–10% (OR=3.75, 95% CI 1.36 to 10.36, p=0.011) and in those with >10% (OR=6.67, 95% CI 2.41 to 18.41, p<0.001) weight loss in comparison with those with <5% weight loss. Conclusions Regardless of the type of diet, a successful weight loss (≥5% from baseline values) is associated with a higher rate of achievement of MDA in overweight/obese patients with PsA who start treatment with TNFα blockers. PMID:23771989

  7. Achieving glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a critical comparison of current options

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ye-Fong; Ou, Horng-Yih; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Ching-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in the elderly. Because of the unique characteristics of elderly people with T2DM, therapeutic strategy and focus should be tailored to suit this population. This article reviews the guidelines and studies related to older people with T2DM worldwide. A few important themes are generalized: 1) the functional and cognitive status is critical for older people with T2DM considering their life expectancy compared to younger counterparts; 2) both severe hypoglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia are deleterious to older adults with T2DM, and both conditions should be avoided when determining therapeutic goals; 3) recently developed guidelines emphasize the avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes in older people, even in the absence of symptoms. In addition, we raise the concern of glycemic variability, and discuss the rationale for the selection of current options in managing this patient population. PMID:25429208

  8. Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim

    2010-07-01

    We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work [1], where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-4.3{sub -0.7}{sup +0.9})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-7.2{sub -5.3}{sup +4.2})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}.

  9. Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Rachel L; Heffron, Helen; Kapoor, Saloni; Chivers, Joanna E; Chandarana, Keval; Herzog, Herbert; Le Roux, Carel W; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Withers, Dominic J

    2006-09-01

    Dietary protein enhances satiety and promotes weight loss, but the mechanisms by which appetite is affected remain unclear. We investigated the role of gut hormones, key regulators of ingestive behavior, in mediating the satiating effects of different macronutrients. In normal-weight and obese human subjects, high-protein intake induced the greatest release of the anorectic hormone peptide YY (PYY) and the most pronounced satiety. Long-term augmentation of dietary protein in mice increased plasma PYY levels, decreased food intake, and reduced adiposity. To directly determine the role of PYY in mediating the satiating effects of protein, we generated Pyy null mice, which were selectively resistant to the satiating and weight-reducing effects of protein and developed marked obesity that was reversed by exogenous PYY treatment. Our findings suggest that modulating the release of endogenous satiety factors, such as PYY, through alteration of specific diet constituents could provide a rational therapy for obesity.

  10. Sample weight and digestion temperature as critical factors in mercury determination in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.; Al-Mohana, H. )

    1991-09-01

    The concern about mercury (Hg) pollution of the marine environment started with the well publicized case of Minimata (Japan) where in the 1950s several persons died or became seriously ill after consuming fish or shellfish containing high levels of methylmercury. It is now accepted that Hg contaminated seafoods constitute a hazard to human health. To safeguard humans, accurate determination of Hg in marine biota is, therefore, very important. Two steps are involved in the determination of total Hg in biological materials: (a) decomposition of organic matrix (sample preparation), and (b) determination of Hg in aliquot samples. Although the procedures for determining Hg using the cold vapor technique are well established, sample preparation procedures have not been standardized. In general, samples of marine biota have been prepared by digesting different weights at different temperatures, by using mixtures of different chemicals and of varying quantities, and by digesting for variable durations. The objectives of the present paper were to evaluate the effects of sample weights and digestion temperatures on Hg determination in fish.

  11. Selecting an Architecture for a Safety-Critical Distributed Computer System with Power, Weight and Cost Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an example of the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to the selection of an architecture for a safety-critical distributed computer system. The design problem includes constraints on minimum system availability and integrity, and the decision is based on the optimal balance of power, weight and cost. The analysis process includes the generation of alternative architectures, evaluation of individual decision criteria, and the selection of an alternative based on overall value. In this example presented here, iterative application of the quantitative evaluation process made it possible to deliberately generate an alternative architecture that is superior to all others regardless of the relative importance of cost.

  12. Critical weight statistics of the random energy model and of the directed polymer on the Cayley tree.

    PubMed

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    We consider the critical point of two mean-field disordered models: (i) the random energy model (REM), introduced by Derrida as a mean-field spin-glass model of N spins and (ii) the directed polymer of length N on a Cayley Tree (DPCT) with random bond energies. Both models are known to exhibit a freezing transition between a high-temperature phase where the entropy is extensive and a low-temperature phase of finite entropy, where the weight statistics coincides with the weight statistics of Lévy sums with index mu=TT{c}<1 . In this paper, we study the weight statistics at criticality via the entropy S=Sigma w{i}lnw{i} and the generalized moments Y{k}= Sigma w{i}{k} , where the w{i} are the Boltzmann weights of the 2{N} configurations. In the REM, we find that the critical weight statistics is governed by the finite-size exponent nu=2 : the entropy scales as S[over]{N}(T{c}) approximately N{12} , the typical values e{lnY{k}[over]} decay as N{-k2} , and the disorder-averaged values Y{k}[over] are governed by rare events and decay as N{-12} for any k>1 . For the DPCT, we find that the entropy scales similarly as S[over]{N}(T{c}) approximately N{12} , whereas another exponent nu'=1 governs the Y{k} statistics: the typical values e{lnY{k}[over]} decay as N{-k} , and the disorder-averaged values Y{k}[over] decay as N{-1} for any k>1 . As a consequence, the asymptotic probability distribution pi[over]{N=infinity}(q) of the overlap q , in addition to the delta function delta(q) , which bears the whole normalization, contains an isolated point at q=1 , as a memory of the delta peak (1-TT{c})delta(q-1) of the low-temperature phase T

  13. Critical weight statistics of the random energy model and of the directed polymer on the Cayley tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    We consider the critical point of two mean-field disordered models: (i) the random energy model (REM), introduced by Derrida as a mean-field spin-glass model of N spins and (ii) the directed polymer of length N on a Cayley Tree (DPCT) with random bond energies. Both models are known to exhibit a freezing transition between a high-temperature phase where the entropy is extensive and a low-temperature phase of finite entropy, where the weight statistics coincides with the weight statistics of Lévy sums with index μ=T/Tc<1 . In this paper, we study the weight statistics at criticality via the entropy S=-∑wilnwi and the generalized moments Yk=∑wik , where the wi are the Boltzmann weights of the 2N configurations. In the REM, we find that the critical weight statistics is governed by the finite-size exponent ν=2 : the entropy scales as Smacr N(Tc)˜N1/2 , the typical values elnYk¯ decay as N-k/2 , and the disorder-averaged values Yk¯ are governed by rare events and decay as N-1/2 for any k>1 . For the DPCT, we find that the entropy scales similarly as Smacr N(Tc)˜N1/2 , whereas another exponent ν'=1 governs the Yk statistics: the typical values elnYk¯ decay as N-k , and the disorder-averaged values Yk¯ decay as N-1 for any k>1 . As a consequence, the asymptotic probability distribution π¯N=∞(q) of the overlap q , in addition to the delta function δ(q) , which bears the whole normalization, contains an isolated point at q=1 , as a memory of the delta peak (1-T/Tc)δ(q-1) of the low-temperature phase T

  14. Nuclear criticality safety bounding analysis for the in-tank-precipitation (ITP) process, impacted by fissile isotopic weight fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, C.E.

    1994-04-22

    The In-Tank Precipitation process (ITP) receives High Level Waste (HLW) supernatant liquid containing radionuclides in waste processing tank 48H. Sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, and monosodium titanate (MST), NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}H, are added for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr, respectively. In addition to removal of radio-strontium, MST will also remove plutonium and uranium. The majority of the feed solutions to ITP will come from the dissolution of supernate that had been concentrated by evaporation to a crystallized salt form, commonly referred to as saltcake. The concern for criticality safety arises from the adsorption of U and Pt onto MST. If sufficient mass and optimum conditions are achieved then criticality is credible. The concentration of u and Pt from solution into the smaller volume of precipitate represents a concern for criticality. This report supplements WSRC-TR-93-171, Nuclear Criticality Safety Bounding Analysis For The In-Tank-Precipitation (ITP) Process. Criticality safety in ITP can be analyzed by two bounding conditions: (1) the minimum safe ratio of MST to fissionable material and (2) the maximum fissionable material adsorption capacity of the MST. Calculations have provided the first bounding condition and experimental analysis has established the second. This report combines these conditions with canyon facility data to evaluate the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to the adsorption of the fissionable material from solution. In addition, this report analyzes the potential impact of increased U loading onto MST. Results of this analysis demonstrate a greater safety margin for ITP operations than the previous analysis. This report further demonstrates that the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to adsorption of fissionable material by MST is not credible.

  15. Effects of Maternal Sensitivity on Low Birth Weight Children's Academic Achievement: A Test of Differential Susceptibility versus Diathesis Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Julia; Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) postulates that some children are more affected--for better and for worse--by developmental experiences, including parenting, than others. Low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g) may not only be a predictor for neurodevelopmental impairment but also a marker for prenatally programmed…

  16. Achieving long-term weight maintenance in Mexican-American adolescents with a school-based intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated 24-month outcomes of a school-based intensive lifestyle weight management program targeting overweight Mexican American adolescents. A total of 71 adolescents (32 males, 45.1%) between the ages of 10 and 14 at or above the 85th percentile for body mass index (BMI) were recruited...

  17. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  18. A review of mouse critical size defect models in weight bearing bones.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jonathan S; Bemenderfer, Thomas B; Wessel, Alexander R; Kacena, Melissa A

    2013-07-01

    Current and future advances in orthopedic treatment are aimed at altering biological interactions to enhance bone healing. Currently, several clinical scenarios exist for which there is no definitive treatment, specifically segmental bone loss from high-energy trauma or surgical resection - and it is here that many are aiming to find effective solutions. To test experimental interventions and better understand bone healing, researchers employ critical size defect (CSD) models in animal studies. Here, an overview of CSDs is given that includes the specifications of varying models, a discussion of current scaffold and bone graft designs, and current outcome measures used to determine the extent of bone healing. Many promising graft designs have been discovered along with promising adjunctive treatments, yet a graft that offers biomechanical support while allowing for neovascularization with eventual complete resorption and remodeling remains to be developed. An overview of this important topic is needed to highlight current advances and provide a clear understanding of the ultimate goal in CSD research--develop a graft for clinical use that effectively treats the orthopedic conundrum of segmental bone loss.

  19. Goals for Human Milk Feeding in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: How Do Goals Change and Are They Achieved During the NICU Hospitalization?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold; Patel, Aloka L.; Rossman, Beverly; Fogg, Louis F.; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding goals for mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g birth weight) infants, especially for black mothers, for whom rates of VLBW birth are higher and lactation rates lower. This study examined the establishment, modification, and achievement of HM feeding goals during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for mothers of VLBW infants and the influence of maternal race and income. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study measured maternal HM feeding goals (exclusive [EHM], partial, none) predelivery and during three time intervals: day of life (DOL) 1–14, 15–28, and 29–72. Goal achievement compared the goal for the time interval with the proportion of HM feedings received by the infant. Goal establishment, modification, and achievement were examined using chi-squared and contingency tables. Results: Three hundred fifty-two mother–infant dyads (53% black; 70% low-income; mean birth weight, 1,048 g) were studied. Predelivery, 55% of mothers planned to provide EHM; fewer black and low-income mothers chose EHM. During DOL 1–14, 63% of mothers chose EHM, and predelivery racial differences disappeared. Only 10% of mothers chose exclusive at-breast EHM feedings. EHM feeding goals decreased during NICU hospitalization, especially for black mothers. Whereas most mothers met their HM feeding goals initially, achievement rates declined during hospitalization. Mothers' EHM goal achievement was not influenced by race or income. Conclusions: Mothers changed their predelivery HM feeding goals after birth of a VLBW infant. Longitudinally, HM feeding goals and achievement reflected less HM use, highlighting the need to target lactation maintenance in this population. PMID:26110439

  20. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R. James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight. PMID:28107449

  1. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight.

  2. Self-criticism, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and over-evaluation of shape and weight in binge eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that negative self-evaluations are widely considered to be prominent in eating disorders, the role of self-criticism has received little empirical attention. The vast majority of research on the construct of self-criticism has focused on its role as a specific personality vulnerability factor in depression-related phenomena. In this study of 236 patients with binge eating disorder, confirmatory factor analysis supported self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and over-evaluation of shape and weight as distinct, albeit related, constructs. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the relation between self-criticism and over-evaluation of shape and weight was partly mediated or explained by low self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Continued efforts to understand the role of self-criticism in eating disorders appear warranted.

  3. Critical Material Attributes of Strip Films Loaded With Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Nanoparticles: II. Impact of Polymer Molecular Weight.

    PubMed

    Krull, Scott M; Ammirata, Jennifer; Bawa, Sonia; Li, Meng; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

    2017-02-01

    Recent work established polymer strip films as a robust platform for delivery of poorly water-soluble drug particles. However, a simple means of manipulating rate of drug release from films with minimal impact on film mechanical properties has yet to be demonstrated. This study explores the impact of film-forming polymer molecular weight (MW) and concentration on properties of polymer films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of griseofulvin, a model Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug, were prepared in aqueous suspension via wet stirred media milling. Aqueous solutions of 3 viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (14, 21, and 88 kDa) at 3 viscosity levels (∼9500, ∼12,000, and ∼22,000 cP) were mixed with drug suspension, cast, and dried to produce films containing griseofulvin nanoparticles. Few differences in film tensile strength or elongation at break were observed between films within each viscosity level regardless of polymer MW despite requiring up to double the time to achieve 100% drug release. This suggests film-forming polymer MW can be used to manipulate drug release with little impact on film mechanical properties by matching polymer solution viscosity. In addition, changing polymer MW and concentration had no negative impact on drug content uniformity or nanoparticle redispersibility.

  4. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  5. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  6. Interdisciplinary collaboration: the slogan that must be achieved for models of delivering critical care to be successful.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Richard S; Flaherty, Helen M; French, Cynthia T; Cody, Shawn; Chandler, M Willis; Connolly, Ann; Lilly, Craig M

    2012-12-01

    There is wide acceptance of the concept that interdisciplinary collaboration is an essential building block for successful health-care teams. This belief is grounded in our understanding of how teams function to address complex care needs that change with acute illness or injury. This general agreement has been validated in studies that have reported favorable outcomes associated with successfully implementing interdisciplinary models of health-care delivery in non-critical care settings. The very short time frames over which the care needs of critically ill or injured adults change and the team approach taken by nearly all ICUs strongly suggest that interdisciplinary collaboration is also beneficial in this setting. In this commentary, we define interdisciplinary collaboration and share the story of how we successfully redesigned and transformed our system-wide, interdisciplinary collaborative model for delivering critical care in order to share the lessons we learned as the process evolved with those who are about to embark on a similar challenge. We anticipate that those health-care systems that successfully implement interdisciplinary collaboration will be ahead of the curve in providing high-quality care at as low a cost as possible. Such institutions will also potentially be better positioned for improving teaching and providing a better foundation for critical care research in their institutions.

  7. Human Diversity, Program Evaluation and Pupil Assessment; And, A Critical Review of Black Consciousness, Identity and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Grannis, Joseph C.

    The first of two papers included in this document addresses two related problems: Problem one: The appropriateness of existing standardized tests of achievement for the assessment of academic function in minority and disadvantaged group member students. Problem two: The appropriateness of such instruments for the assessment of the impact of…

  8. Reallocating Human Resources to Maximize Student Achievement: A Critical Case Study of a Southern California School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazener, Adrianna Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study applied the Evidence-Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) as a framework for determining how district leadership could potentially reallocate human resources to maximize the opportunity for student achievement, relying heavily on the ten strategies for doubling student performance (Odden, 2009; Odden & Archibald, 2009) and the…

  9. Study on critical-sized ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles loaded with alendronate sodium: in vitro release and cell response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Shi, Feng; Gong, Kemeng; Liu, Yang; Zhi, Wei; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro release and the effect of RAW 264.7 macrophages of critical-sized wear particles of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), one of the most effective drugs to treat osteoporosis in clinic. The critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.% wear particles were prepared by vacuum gradient filtration combined with Pluronic F-68. In vitro release of ALN from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C with a shaker. Cell morphology, proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and secretions of cytokines were evaluated after co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles in vitro. Results showed that ALN released from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles included burst release and slow release in vitro. Macrophages would be chemotaxis and aggregated around the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN or UHMWPE wear particle, which was phagocytosed with time. The proliferation of macrophages co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was significantly decreased compared with that of critical-sized UHMWPE group. Meanwhile, the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles significantly induced the LDH leakage of macrophages, which indicated the cell death. The death of macrophages induced by ALN was one of pathways to inhibit their proliferation. The secretions of cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN group were significantly lower than those in critical-sized UHMWPE group due to the released ALN. The present results suggested that UHMWPE-ALN had the potential application in clinic to treat osteolysis induced by wear particles.

  10. SU-F-BRD-14: Dose Weighted Linear Energy Transfer Analysis of Critical Structures in Proton Therapy of Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pirlepesov, F.; Shin, J.; Moskvin, V. P.; Gray, J.; Hua, C.; Gajjar, A.; Krasin, M. J.; Merchant, T. E.; Farr, J. B.; Li, Z.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose weighted Linear Energy Transfer (LETd) analysis of critical structures may be useful in understanding the side effects of the proton therapy. The objective is to analyze the differences between LETd and dose distributions in brain tumor patients receiving double scattering proton therapy, to quantify LETd variation in critical organs, and to identify beam arrangements contributing to high LETd in critical organs. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 9 pediatric brain tumor patients were performed. The treatment plans were reconstructed with the TOPAS Monte Carlo code to calculate LETd and dose. The beam data were reconstructed proximal to the aperture of the double scattering nozzle. The dose and LETd to target and critical organs including brain stem, optic chiasm, lens, optic nerve, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus were computed for each beam. Results: Greater variability in LETd compared to dose was observed in the brainstem for patients with a variety of tumor types including 5 patients with tumors located in the posterior fossa. Approximately 20%–44% brainstem volume received LETd of 5kev/µm or greater from beams within gantry angles 180°±30° for 5 patients treated with a 3 beam arrangement. Critical organs received higher LETd when located in the vicinity of the beam distal edge. Conclusion: This study presents a novel strategy in the evaluation of the proton treatment impact on critical organs. While the dose to critical organs is confined below the required limits, the LETd may have significant variation. Critical organs in the vicinity of beam distal edge receive higher LETd and depended on beam arrangement, e.g. in posterior fossa tumor treatment, brainstem receive higher LETd from posterior-anterior beams. This study shows importance of the LETd analysis of the radiation impact on the critical organs in proton therapy and may be used to explain clinical imaging observations after therapy.

  11. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  12. Operating Characteristics of the Multiple Critical Venturi System and Secondary Calibration Nozzles Used for Weight-Flow Measurements in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.; Bangert, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the weight flow measurement characteristics of a multiple critical Venturi system and the nozzle discharge coefficient characteristics of a series of convergent calibration nozzles. The effects on model discharge coefficient of nozzle throat area, model choke plate open area, nozzle pressure ratio, jet total temperature, and number and combination of operating Venturis were investigated. Tests were conducted at static conditions (tunnel wind off) at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.3 to 7.0.

  13. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  14. Variability in protein binding of teicoplanin and achievement of therapeutic drug monitoring targets in critically ill patients: lessons from the DALI Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Stove, V; De Waele, J J; Sipinkoski, B; McWhinney, B; Ungerer, J P J; Akova, M; Bassetti, M; Dimopoulos, G; Kaukonen, K-M; Koulenti, D; Martin, C; Montravers, P; Rello, J; Rhodes, A; Starr, T; Wallis, S C; Lipman, J

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the variability in protein binding of teicoplanin in critically ill patients as well as the number of patients achieving therapeutic target concentrations. This report is part of the multinational pharmacokinetic DALI Study. Patients were sampled on a single day, with blood samples taken both at the midpoint and the end of the dosing interval. Total and unbound teicoplanin concentrations were assayed using validated chromatographic methods. The lower therapeutic range of teicoplanin was defined as total trough concentrations from 10 to 20 mg/L and the higher range as 10-30 mg/L. Thirteen critically ill patients were available for analysis. The following are the median (interquartile range) total and free concentrations (mg/L): midpoint, total 13.6 (11.2-26.0) and free 1.5 (0.7-2.5); trough, total 11.9 (10.2-22.7) and free 1.8 (0.6-2.6). The percentage free teicoplanin for the mid-dose and trough time points was 6.9% (4.5-15.6%) and 8.2% (5.5-16.4%), respectively. The correlation between total and free antibiotic concentrations was moderate for both the midpoint (ρ = 0.79, P = 0.0021) and trough (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.027). Only 42% and 58% of patients were in the lower and higher therapeutic ranges, respectively. In conclusion, use of standard dosing for teicoplanin leads to inappropriate concentrations in a high proportion of critically ill patients. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding is very high, placing significant doubt on the validity of total concentrations for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients.

  15. Can a weight loss of one pound a week be achieved with a 3500-kcal deficit? Commentary on a commonly accepted rule.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Martin, C K; Lettieri, S; Bredlau, C; Kaiser, K; Church, T; Bouchard, C; Heymsfield, S B

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical evidence that the model commonly referred to as the 3500-kcal rule grossly overestimates actual weight loss, widespread application of the 3500-kcal formula continues to appear in textbooks, on respected government- and health-related websites, and scientific research publications. Here we demonstrate the risk of applying the 3500-kcal rule even as a convenient estimate by comparing predicted against actual weight loss in seven weight loss experiments conducted in confinement under total supervision or objectively measured energy intake. We offer three newly developed, downloadable applications housed in Microsoft Excel and Java, which simulates a rigorously validated, dynamic model of weight change. The first two tools available at http://www.pbrc.edu/sswcp, provide a convenient alternative method for providing patients with projected weight loss/gain estimates in response to changes in dietary intake. The second tool, which can be downloaded from the URL http://www.pbrc.edu/mswcp, projects estimated weight loss simultaneously for multiple subjects. This tool was developed to inform weight change experimental design and analysis. While complex dynamic models may not be directly tractable, the newly developed tools offer the opportunity to deliver dynamic model predictions as a convenient and significantly more accurate alternative to the 3500-kcal rule.

  16. Low-temperature synthesis to achieve high critical current density and avoid a reaction layer in SmFeAsO1-x F x superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianjun; Lin, He; Yuan, Pusheng; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Wang, Dongliang; Dong, Chiheng; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    A low-temperature (300-500 °C) heat treatment process under ambient pressure or uniaxial pressure was performed on Sn-added SmFeAsO1-x F x superconducting tapes fabricated by the ex situ powder-in-tube method. A highest transport critical current density (J c) of 3.95 × 104 A cm-2 (at 4.2 K and self-field) was achieved by this process. The low-temperature process allows tapes to endure much longer heat treatment without J c degradation than the high-temperature method. Microscopic analysis also revealed that this method could obtain a clear boundary without a reaction layer or interdiffusion between a superconducting core and sheath metal.

  17. A critical review of clinical trials for low-molecular-weight heparin therapy in unstable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Husted, S; Becker, R; Kher, A

    2001-07-01

    Unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) are collectively referred to as unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD). They are conditions that share a common pathophysiology and represent frequently encountered, potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of advanced atherosclerosis. Therefore, treatment of UCAD is a major focus for practicing clinicians, and although pharmacologic agents have been developed that impact on patient outcome, recent data suggest that a further reduction in ischemic complications is possible. Acute-phase treatment with aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in death and nonfatal MI in patients with UCAD. This benefit is enhanced by the addition of unfractionated heparin (UFH) to the treatment strategy; however, UFH requires careful monitoring and titration. In contrast, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), produced by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of UFH, yield a predictable and consistent pharmacokinetic profile and anticoagulant response, making them an attractive treatment alternative to UFH in patients with UCAD. The optimal duration of treatment with LMWH is an important question influenced by the observation that reactivation of coagulation occurs following the early and abrupt discontinuation of heparin treatment. Early trials, such as FRISC and FRIC, demonstrated the benefit of acute therapy with dalteparin sodium; however, the results of extended treatment with dalteparin were inconclusive. The extended phase of these studies included relatively low-risk patients, and a once-daily, relatively low-dose strategy was employed. The findings derived from the FRISC II trial, which used a twice-daily dose of dalteparin, suggest a benefit for at least 60 days with extended treatment in high-risk patients with UCAD. Although an early-invasive treatment strategy is particularly beneficial, patients in whom early revascularization is not possible should be considered for extended

  18. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  19. SU-E-P-33: Critical Role of T2-Weighted Imaging Combined with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of MRI in Diagnosis of Loco-Regional Recurrent Esophageal Cancer After Radical Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, G; Qiao, L; Liang, N; Xie, J; Zhang, J; Luo, H; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We perform this study to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in confirming local relapses of esophageal cancer in patients highly suspected of recurrence after eradicating surgery. Methods: Forty-two postoperative esophageal cancer patients with clinical suspicions of cancer recurrence underwent 3.0T MRI applying axial, coronal, sagittal T2WI and axial DWI sequences. Two experienced radiologists (R1 and R2) both used two methods (T2WI, T2WI+DWI) to observe the images, and graded the patients ranging from 1 to 5 to represent severity of the disease based on visual signal intensity (patients equal to or more than grade 3 was confirmed as recurrent disease) Results: 27/42patients were verified of recurrent disease by pathologic findings and/or imaging findings during follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of R1 applying T2WI+DWI are 96%, 87% and 93% versus 81%, 80% and 77% on T2WI, these figures by R2 were 96%, 93% and 95% versus 89%, 93% and 90%. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses suggest that both of the two readers can obtain better accuracy when adding DWI to T2WI compared with T2WI alone. Kappa test between R1 and R2 indicates excellent inter-observer agreement on T2WI+DWI. Conclusion: Standard T2WI in combination DWI can achieve better accuracy than T2WI alone in diagnosing local recurrence of esophageal cancer, and improve consistency between different readers.

  20. Impact of diabetes duration on achieved reductions in glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and body weight with liraglutide treatment for up to 28 weeks: a meta‐analysis of seven phase III trials

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T.; Barkholt Christensen, S.; Nauck, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This meta‐analysis of seven randomized, placebo‐controlled studies (total 3222 patients) evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) duration affects the changes in blood glucose control and body weight that can be achieved with liraglutide and placebo. With liraglutide 1.2 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a significantly greater, but clinically non‐relevant, difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.18% (1.96 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. With liraglutide 1.8 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a small but statistically significant trend for greater fasting plasma glucose (FPG) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.38 mmol/l reduction in FPG per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. Neither the liraglutide 1.8 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between HbA1c and diabetes duration and neither the liraglutide 1.2 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between FPG and diabetes duration. Likewise, neither liraglutide nor placebo showed a significant association between change in weight and diabetes duration. These results suggest diabetes duration has a clinically negligible effect on achievable blood glucose control and weight outcomes with liraglutide and placebo in patients with T2D. PMID:26679282

  1. Achieving therapeutic goals in insulin-using diabetic patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A weight reduction-exercise-oral agent approach.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C P; Patton, S; Stepke, T; Kinhal, V; Darga, L L; Carroll-Michals, L; Spafford, T R; Kasim, S

    1987-09-18

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is the most common form of diabetes in the civilized world. Its consequences include microvascular and macrovascular disease, both of which appear to evolve from a common background of obesity and physical inactivity. The current study was undertaken in obese patients with NIDDM to see whether improvements could be made in glycemic control as well as in many cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, and physical inactivity) that are typical of this condition. Fifteen obese insulin-using patients with NIDDM (average body mass index, 34.0) were treated with a 500-calorie formula diet for eight to 12 weeks. Administration of insulin and diuretics was discontinued at the onset of the study. A eucaloric diet was begun at eight to 12 weeks and maintained until Week 24. A behaviorally oriented nutrition-exercise program was instituted at the beginning of the study. Glipizide or placebo was added (randomized) at Week 15 if the fasting plasma glucose level in patients exceeded 115 mg/dl. Patients lost an average of 22 pounds over the course of 24 weeks. Frequency and duration of physical activity increased significantly from baseline, as did the maximal oxygen consumption rate. Glycemic control by 15 weeks (without insulin) was similar to baseline (with insulin). With the addition of glipizide at Week 15, both fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance improved significantly. This improvement was not observed with placebo. In addition, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by about 10 mm Hg. There were no significant changes in the levels of serum lipids or glycosylated hemoglobin. In conclusion, a multifaceted intervention program, employing weight reduction, exercise, diet, and glipizide therapy, can be instituted in insulin-using patients with NIDDM, with improvement in glycemic control and in certain risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity) for cardiovascular

  2. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  3. Critical Care Needs in Patients with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Negative MRI after tPA - Does One Size Fit All?

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients who receive intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischemic stroke are currently monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a comparable stroke unit for at least 24 hours due to the high frequency of neurological exams and vital sign checks. The present study evaluates ICU needs in patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) negative MRI after IV tPA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 209 patients who received IV tPA for acute stroke. Data on stroke risk factors, physiologic parameters, stroke severity, MRI characteristics, and final diagnosis were collected. The timing and nature of ICU interventions, if needed, was recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with subsequent ICU needs. Results Patients with cerebral infarct on MRI after tPA had over 9 times higher odds of requiring ICU care compared to patients with DWI negative MRI (OR 9.2, 95% CI 2.49–34.15). All DWI negative patients requiring ICU care did so by the end of tPA infusion (p = 0.006). Among patients with DWI negative MRI, need for ICU interventions was associated with higher NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (p<0.001), seizure at onset (p = 0.002), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.010). Conclusions Only a small number of DWI negative patients required ICU care. In patients without critical care needs by the end of thrombolysis, post-tPA MRI may be considered for triaging DWI negative patients to a less resource intense monitoring environment. PMID:26517543

  4. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  5. [Re]Conceptualizing Inclusion: Can Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence Be Utilized to Achieve Inclusion and Equity for African American Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Shelley D.; Blanchett, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Even though not fully realized, in legislation and theory, the requirements of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act have created pressure to address the historical inequity in educational opportunity, achievement, and outcomes, as well as disparities in achievement between…

  6. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  7. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  8. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  9. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  10. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  11. "Male Delivery": A Critical Investigation of What Boys Have to Say about the Influence of Male Teachers on Literacy Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This article, by drawing on data collected from qualitative case-study research, raises questions about discourses that claim male teachers are better equipped to improve boys' literacy achievement on the basis of gender affiliation. It reports on interview and observational data collected from a number of boys attending five different…

  12. Predicting the toxicity of sediment-associated trace metals with simultaneously extracted trace metal: Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations and dry weight-normalized concentrations: A critical comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.R.; MacDonald, D.D.; Cubbage, J.C.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The relative abilities of sediment concentrations of simultaneously extracted trace metal: acid-volatile sulfide (SEM:AVS) and dry weight- normalized trace metals to correctly predict both toxicity and nontoxicity were compared by analysis of 77 field-collected samples. Relative to the SEM:AVS concentrations, sediment guidelines based upon dry weight-normalized concentrations were equally or slightly more accurate in predicting both nontoxic and toxic results in laboratory tests.

  13. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  14. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  15. Weight in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenshole, Anne B.

    1972-01-01

    Diabetes is being increasingly detected among the overweight. The author discusses the links between diabetes and obesity, and outlines methods by which satisfactory weight reduction may be achieved. PMID:20468726

  16. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  17. Critical role of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of neuronal SH2B1 in the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Morris, David L; Cho, Kae Won; Rui, Liangyou

    2010-08-01

    SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism in both rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 in mice results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SH2B1 loci and chromosomal deletions of the SH2B1 loci associate with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. In cultured cells, SH2B1 promotes leptin and insulin signaling by binding via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines in Janus kinase 2 and the insulin receptor, respectively. Here we generated three lines of mice to analyze the role of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 in the central nervous system. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type, SH2 domain-defective (R555E), or SH2 domain-alone (DeltaN503) forms of SH2B1 specifically in neurons were crossed with SH2B1 knockout mice to generate KO/SH2B1, KO/R555E, or KO/DeltaN503 compound mutant mice. R555E had a replacement of Arg(555) with Glu within the SH2 domain. DeltaN503 contained an intact SH2 domain but lacked amino acids 1-503. Neuron-specific expression of recombinant SH2B1, but not R555E or DeltaN503, corrected hyperphagia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in SH2B1 null mice. Neuron-specific expression of R555E in wild-type mice promoted obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that in addition to the SH2 domain, N-terminal regions of neuronal SH2B1 are also required for the maintenance of normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Additionally, mutations in the SH2 domain of SH2B1 may increase the susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes in a dominant-negative manner.

  18. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  19. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity More Weight Management Topics Healthy ... Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Being Healthy is a Big ...

  20. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  1. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  2. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  4. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  5. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  6. Productive criticism. Part 1: Criticism that works.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, H D

    1995-01-01

    Criticism affects almost all aspects of your job: the quality of work you do, how you feel about your performance, and your relationships with your boss, coworkers, and subordinates. Used productively, criticism is a powerful tool that helps you improve your work, enhance your working relationships, increase your job satisfaction, and achieve better overall results. Improperly used, it impedes performance, demoralizes you, discourages you from wanting to try again, and creates friction in the workplace. In short, the ability to give and take criticism significantly determines how well you do on the job. In Part I, we will examine the traditional negative approach to criticism and develop new management tools to turn criticism into an opportunity for growth and education. By explaining new evaluation and communication techniques, we will show the reader how to use productive criticism to increase job performance and satisfaction.

  7. A primer on criticality safety

    DOE PAGES

    Costa, David A.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Criticality is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical). Criticality is dependent on nine interrelated parameters. Moreover, we design criticality safety controls in order to constrain these parameters to minimize fissions and maximize neutron leakage and absorption in other materials, which makes criticality more difficult or impossible to achieve. We present the consequences of criticality accidents are discussed, the nine interrelated parameters that combine to affect criticality are described, and criticality safety controls used to minimize the likelihood of a criticality accident are presented.

  8. A primer on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, David Alan; Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Garcia, Vincent Elmer; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Merhege, James Fidel Jr.

    2016-12-24

    Criticality is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical). Criticality is dependent on nine interrelated parameters. Moreover, we design criticality safety controls in order to constrain these parameters to minimize fissions and maximize neutron leakage and absorption in other materials, which makes criticality more difficult or impossible to achieve. We present the consequences of criticality accidents are discussed, the nine interrelated parameters that combine to affect criticality are described, and criticality safety controls used to minimize the likelihood of a criticality accident are presented.

  9. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  10. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Growth Charts ... Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) Managing Your Weight Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Who ...

  11. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  12. The Efficacy of Psychological Therapies in Reducing Weight and Binge Eating in People with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Who Are Overweight or Obese-A Critical Synthesis and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Filho, Celso Alves Dos Santos; Claudino, Angélica

    2017-03-17

    Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT) shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials with adult samples who had BN or BED was conducted considering articles in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese with no restrictions for the timeline publication ending in March 2016. A quality appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses comparing BWLT to CBT were done. This review identified 2248 articles for screening and 19 published articles were selected. No trials of BN were identified. This review found CBT was favoured compared to BWLT with regard to short-term binge eating reduction. However, insufficient evidence was found for superiority for BWLT efficacy compared to CBT considering binge eating remission, reduction of binge eating frequency and weight loss. More research is needed to test the efficacy of psychological treatments for BED or BN with co-morbid overweight or obesity, including trials evaluating binge eating remission and weight loss in the long-term.

  13. The Efficacy of Psychological Therapies in Reducing Weight and Binge Eating in People with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Who Are Overweight or Obese—A Critical Synthesis and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; dos Santos Filho, Celso Alves; Claudino, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT) shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials with adult samples who had BN or BED was conducted considering articles in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese with no restrictions for the timeline publication ending in March 2016. A quality appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses comparing BWLT to CBT were done. This review identified 2248 articles for screening and 19 published articles were selected. No trials of BN were identified. This review found CBT was favoured compared to BWLT with regard to short-term binge eating reduction. However, insufficient evidence was found for superiority for BWLT efficacy compared to CBT considering binge eating remission, reduction of binge eating frequency and weight loss. More research is needed to test the efficacy of psychological treatments for BED or BN with co-morbid overweight or obesity, including trials evaluating binge eating remission and weight loss in the long-term. PMID:28304341

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  15. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  16. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Klempel, Monica C; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined what characteristics predict weight loss success with alternate day fasting (ADF). Four 8-week trials of ADF (n=121) were included in the analysis. Subjects aged 50-59 y achieved greater (P=0.01) weight loss than other age groups. Males and females achieved similar weight loss. Caucasian subjects achieved greater (P=0.03) weight loss than other races. Baseline body weight and baseline BMI did not predict degree of weight loss achieved with the diet. These findings may help clinicians to decide which population groups may benefit most from an ADF approach.

  17. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control.

  18. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  19. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems.

  20. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  1. Archetypal Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  2. Obesity in primary care: evidence for advising weight constancy rather than weight loss in unsuccessful dieters.

    PubMed

    Pryke, Rachel; Docherty, Andrea

    2008-02-01

    In view of the limited success rates of all weight-loss strategies to date, this article hypothesises that in situations where previous dieting attempts have failed, better outcomes and health improvements will arise from advocating weight-stability goals. This means the promotion of weight maintenance (to ensure any reduction in weight is maintained) and weight constancy (where steps are taken to maintain existing weight without attempting weight loss), rather than advocating existing 5-10% weight-loss targets for these patients. The majority of approaches to obesity focus on weight reduction despite poor evidence of effectiveness. Primary care remains reluctant to engage in ineffective approaches, yet is well placed to give advice, and would undoubtedly adopt effective obesity-management approaches if they were developed. Despite guidance for overweight or obese people to aim for a 5-10% weight reduction, current trends demonstrate escalation of average weights and obesity. A literature review found little information about evaluation of weight-stability approaches (either weight maintenance or weight constancy), despite theoretical support for them. Yet taking steps to protect weight reduction where it is achieved, and to promote weight constancy (without weight loss) where further dieting is predicted to fail, would have a beneficial effect on preventing further growth of obesity-related morbidity in the population. Some evidence exists to support simple behavioural approaches to improve weight stability, but these measures do not feature in current advice and hence are not widely advocated.

  3. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  4. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  5. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  6. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  7. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  8. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  9. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  10. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  12. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  13. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  14. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  15. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  16. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  17. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  18. Achieving Zero Stress in Iridium, Chromium, and Nickle Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David M.; Weimer, Jeffrey; Gurgew, Danielle; Lis, Tomasz; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ames, A.; Bruni, R.

    2015-01-01

    We examine a method for achieving zero intrinsic stress in thin films of iridium, chromium, and nickel deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The examination of the stress in these materials is motivated by efforts to advance the optical performance of light-weight x-ray space telescopes into the regime of sub-arc second resolution that rely on control of the film stress to values within 10-100 MPa. A characteristic feature of the intrinsic stress behavior in chromium and nickel is their sensitivity to the magnitude and sign of the intrinsic stress with argon gas pressure, including the existence of a critical pressure that results in zero film stress. This critical pressure scales linearly with the film's density. While the effect of stress reversal with argon pressure has been previously reported by Hoffman and others for nickel and chromium, we have discovered a similar behavior for iridium. Additionally, we have identified zero stress in iridium shortly after island coalescence. This feature of film growth is used for achieving a total internal stress of -2.89 MPa for a 15.8 nm thick iridium film. The surface roughness of this low-stress film was examined using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) at CuKa and these results presented and discussed.

  19. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  20. The critics return to flight.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas D

    2005-08-01

    A former astronaut justifies human space exploration and provides a rebuttal to criticism of continued exploration. The discussion includes examples of skeptics' arguments and examples of NASA achievements that have had direct economic and social impacts on the United States.

  1. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  2. Weight Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Batsis, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality is lost), the increase risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults, the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population, and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  3. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  4. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  5. SUMMARY: ACHIEVEMENTS, CRITICAL ISSUES, AND THOUGHTS ON THE FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathryn D.

    2012-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to particle radiations in cancer treatment worldwide is increasing rapidly, and space agencies are developing plans for long-duration, deep-space missions in which humans could be exposed to significant levels of radiation from charged particles. Hence, the NCRP 47th Annual Meeting on “Scientific and Policy Challenges of Particle Radiations in Medical Therapy and Space Missions” was a timely opportunity to showcase the current scientific knowledge regarding charged particles, enhance cross-fertilization between the oncology and space scientific communities, and identify common needs and challenges to both communities, as well as ways to address those challenges. This issue of Health Physics contains papers from talks presented at that meeting and highlights provocative questions and the ample opportunities for synergism between space and particle-therapy research to further understanding of the biological impacts of particle radiations. PMID:23032899

  6. Summary: achievements, critical issues, and thoughts on the future.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D

    2012-11-01

    The number of individuals exposed to particle radiations in cancer treatment worldwide is increasing rapidly, and space agencies are developing plans for long duration, deep space missions in which humans could be exposed to significant levels of radiation from charged particles. Hence, the NCRP 47 th Annual Meeting on "Scientific and Policy Challenges of Particle Radiations in Medical Therapy and Space Missions" was a timely opportunity to showcase the current scientific knowledge regarding charged particles, enhance cross-fertilization between the oncology and space scientific communities, and identify common needs and challenges to both communities as well as ways to address those challenges. This issue of Health Physics contains papers from talks presented at that meeting and highlights provocative questions and the ample opportunities for synergism between space and particle-therapy research to further understanding of the biological impacts of particle radiations.

  7. Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Because effective use of technology must be supported by significant investments in hardware, software, infrastructure, professional development, and support services, over the last decade, this nation has invested more than $66 billion investment in school technology (QED, 2004). This unprecedented level of investment in educational technology…

  8. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  9. Critical Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Roger A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the critical shortage of qualified equipment technicians, especially in biomedical equipment. Cites the importance of encouraging careers in this field and describes a source of occupational information. (SK)

  10. Critical Pedagogy for Transformative Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This essay critically highlights the main features of a study that attaches importance to the concepts of time and optimism and their effects on the achievement and goals of high and low achievers in a North American and a Brazilian context. The focus on the time factor that serves as a leitmotif throughout the study gives this work its…

  11. Patterns and Composition of Weight Change in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Ryan J.; Morgan, Amy L.; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2015-01-01

    While it is well documented that college freshmen gain weight, there is a dearth of studies examining critical time periods for this weight change. Freshmen living on campus (n = 103; 21M, 82F) visited the laboratory in August/September, November, January, February/March, and April/May. Measurements at each visit included: weight, waist…

  12. Weight management using the internet: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most weight-loss research targets obese individuals who desire large weight reductions. However, evaluation of weight-gain prevention in overweight individuals is also critical as most Americans become obese as a result of a gradual gain of 1-2 pounds per year over many years. This study evaluated t...

  13. Predictors of early school age outcomes in very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C; Hack, M

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of outcome in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) children. The very low birth weight sample consisted of 68 children weighing less than 750 g at birth and 65 children weighing 750 to 1499 g at birth who had been matched to the less than 750 g birth weight children in terms of hospital of birth, age, sex, and race. Mean ages for these two groups were 6.7 and 6.9 years, respectively. Outcomes were measured in terms of tests of cognitive function, neuropsychological abilities, and academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of child behavior and school performance. A weighted sum of the number of major neonatal medical complications (Neonatal Risk Index) provided a composite measure of biological risk. Social risks were also assessed. Results indicated that the Neonatal Risk Index was the most consistent predictor of outcomes. Even after taking social risks into account, neonatal risk predicted overall cognitive ability and other achievement, neuropsychological, and behavior outcomes. Individual neonatal complications that predicted outcomes included severe cerebral ultrasonographic abnormality, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and apnea of prematurity. Research and therapy to prevent or reduce neonatal complications and amelioration of social risks are of critical importance in improving outcomes of very low birth weight.

  14. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  15. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  16. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  17. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  18. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  19. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  20. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  1. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  2. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  3. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and prevent weight gain. The Possible Health Effects from Having Obesity Having obesity can increase your chances of developing ...

  4. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  5. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  6. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  7. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  8. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  9. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  10. A Summer Day Camp Approach to Adolescent Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Mary A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stanford Adolescent Weight Loss Camp, which taught eating and exercise skills to 25 overweight adolescents. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, with improved habits and weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp was very positive. (JAC)

  11. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  12. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  13. Triceps tendon rupture in weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Sollender, J L; Rayan, G M; Barden, G A

    1998-01-01

    Triceps tendon avulsion injuries are rare. We report four weight lifters with triceps tendon raptures, two of whom had received local steroid injections for pain in the triceps. All four patients had taken oral anabolic steroids before injury. All patients had closed avulsion of the triceps tendon from its insertion into the olecranon. Three patients were injured while bench pressing heavy weights, and one patient was injured while swinging a baseball bat. Satisfactory results were achieved after surgical reinsertion of the tendon.

  14. Review of "Our Immense Achievement Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This report misrepresents and then criticizes recommendations from the Minnesota Department of Education, a think tank and two independent study groups, each of which recently encouraged particular voluntary efforts to reduce concentrated poverty and achieve racial and socioeconomic integration in schools and housing in Minnesota. In building its…

  15. Effects of Efficacy on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracz, Susan M.; Gibson, Sherri

    Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of…

  16. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  17. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  18. Effects of chronic weight perturbation on energy homeostasis and brain structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Ravussin, Y; Gutman, R; Diano, S; Shanabrough, M; Borok, E; Sarman, B; Lehmann, A; LeDuc, C A; Rosenbaum, M; Horvath, T L; Leibel, R L

    2011-06-01

    Maintenance of reduced body weight in lean and obese human subjects results in the persistent decrease in energy expenditure below what can be accounted for by changes in body mass and composition. Genetic and developmental factors may determine a central nervous system (CNS)-mediated minimum threshold of somatic energy stores below which behavioral and metabolic compensations for weight loss are invoked. A critical question is whether this threshold can be altered by environmental influences and by what mechanisms such alterations might be achieved. We examined the bioenergetic, behavioral, and CNS structural responses to weight reduction of diet-induced obese (DIO) and never-obese (CON) C57BL/6J male mice. We found that weight-reduced (WR) DIO-WR and CON-WR animals showed reductions in energy expenditure, adjusted for body mass and composition, comparable (-10-15%) to those seen in human subjects. The proportion of excitatory synapses on arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons was decreased by ∼50% in both DIO-WR and CON-WR mice. These data suggest that prolonged maintenance of an elevated body weight (fat) alters energy homeostatic systems to defend a higher level of body fat. The synaptic changes could provide a neural substrate for the disproportionate decline in energy expenditure in weight-reduced individuals. This response to chronic weight elevation may also occur in humans. The mouse model described here could help to identify the molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying both the defense mechanisms against sustained weight loss and the upward resetting of those mechanisms following sustained weight gain.

  19. Effects of chronic weight perturbation on energy homeostasis and brain structure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, Y.; Gutman, R.; Diano, S.; Shanabrough, M.; Borok, E.; Sarman, B.; Lehmann, A.; LeDuc, C. A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Horvath, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of reduced body weight in lean and obese human subjects results in the persistent decrease in energy expenditure below what can be accounted for by changes in body mass and composition. Genetic and developmental factors may determine a central nervous system (CNS)-mediated minimum threshold of somatic energy stores below which behavioral and metabolic compensations for weight loss are invoked. A critical question is whether this threshold can be altered by environmental influences and by what mechanisms such alterations might be achieved. We examined the bioenergetic, behavioral, and CNS structural responses to weight reduction of diet-induced obese (DIO) and never-obese (CON) C57BL/6J male mice. We found that weight-reduced (WR) DIO-WR and CON-WR animals showed reductions in energy expenditure, adjusted for body mass and composition, comparable (−10–15%) to those seen in human subjects. The proportion of excitatory synapses on arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons was decreased by ∼50% in both DIO-WR and CON-WR mice. These data suggest that prolonged maintenance of an elevated body weight (fat) alters energy homeostatic systems to defend a higher level of body fat. The synaptic changes could provide a neural substrate for the disproportionate decline in energy expenditure in weight-reduced individuals. This response to chronic weight elevation may also occur in humans. The mouse model described here could help to identify the molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying both the defense mechanisms against sustained weight loss and the upward resetting of those mechanisms following sustained weight gain. PMID:21411766

  20. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  1. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Results Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. Conclusions The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active. PMID:20013143

  2. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  3. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  4. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  5. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  6. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  7. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  8. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  9. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  10. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  11. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  14. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  15. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  16. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  17. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  18. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  19. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-09-15

    SWMI registration with a Gaussian weight function (SWMI-GW) was tested between two different imaging modalities: CT and MRI image sets. Results: SWMI-GW converges 10% faster than registration using mutual information with an ROI. SWMI-GW as well as SWMI with SOI-based weight function (SWMI-SOI) shows better compensation of the target organ's deformation and neighboring critical organs' deformation. SWMI-GW was also used to successfully fuse MRI and CT images. Conclusions: Rigid-body image registration using our SWMI-GW and SWMI-SOI as cost functions can achieve better registration results in (a) designated image region(s) as well as faster convergence. With the theoretical foundation established, we believe SWMI could be extended to larger clinical testing.

  20. Biological Mechanisms that Promote Weight Regain Following Weight Loss in Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ochner, Christopher N.; Barrios, Dulce M.; Lee, Clement D.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that so called “anti-starvation” mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Though they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and work to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. PMID:23911805

  1. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  2. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  3. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  4. Keep Weight Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... proved to be the most useful by the end of the 2 ½-year study. Researchers say overall the effects of the counseling and support were modest, and most people in the study did regain some weight. But they note that even modest weight loss can have health ...

  5. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  6. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  7. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  8. Common Weight Loss Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... to lose that we’ve been talking about weight-loss surgery. Is that something we should consider?” Although the ... have the operation should not be made hastily. Weight-loss surgery is only advisable for extremely overweight adolescents for ...

  9. Entropy-based link prediction in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Ramiz Sharafat, Rajput; Li, Lunbo; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Information entropy has been proved to be an effective tool to quantify the structural importance of complex networks. In the previous work (Xu et al, 2016 \\cite{xu2016}), we measure the contribution of a path in link prediction with information entropy. In this paper, we further quantify the contribution of a path with both path entropy and path weight, and propose a weighted prediction index based on the contributions of paths, namely Weighted Path Entropy (WPE), to improve the prediction accuracy in weighted networks. Empirical experiments on six weighted real-world networks show that WPE achieves higher prediction accuracy than three typical weighted indices.

  10. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  11. Weight loss goals among African-American women with type 2 diabetes in a behavioral weight control program.

    PubMed

    White, Della B; Bursac, Zoran; Dilillo, Vicki; West, Delia S

    2011-11-01

    African-American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests that overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African-American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African-American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African-American women (N = 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7-10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests that African-American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population.

  12. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  13. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  14. AVLIS Criticality risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    Evaluation of criticality safety has become an important task in preparing for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) uranium enrichment runs that will take place during the Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This integrated operation of AVLIS systems under plant-like conditions will be used to verify the performance of process equipment and to demonstrate the sustained integrated enrichment performance of these systems using operating parameters that are similar to production plant specifications. Because of the potential criticality concerns associated with enriched uranium, substantial effort has been aimed towards understanding the potential system failures of interest from a criticality standpoint, and evaluating them in detail. The AVLIS process is based on selective photoionization of uranium atoms of atomic weight 235 (U-235) in a vapor stream, followed by electrostatic extraction. The process is illustrated in Figure 1. Two major subsystems are involved: the uranium separator and the laser system. In the separator, metallic uranium is fed into a crucible where it is heated and vaporized by an electron beam. The atomic U-235/U-238 vapor stream moves away from the molten uranium and is illuminated by precisely tuned beams of dye laser light. Upon absorption of the tuned dye laser light, the U-235 atoms become excited and eject electrons (become photoionized), giving them a net positive charge. The ions of U-235 are moved preferentially by an electrostatic field to condense on the product collector, forming the enriched uranium product. The remaining vapor, which is depleted in U-235 (tails), passes unaffected through the photoionization/extractor zone and accumulates on collectors in the top of the separator. Tails and product collector surfaces operate at elevated temperatures so that deposited materials flow as segregated liquid streams. The separated uranium condensates (uranium enriched in

  15. Biocompatibility of low molecular weight polymers for two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jesse; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Two phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) improve the efficiency of fermentative processes by limiting the exposure of microorganisms to toxic solutes by sequestering them into a non-aqueous phase (NAP). A potential limitation of this technology, when using immiscible organic solvents as the NAP, is the cytoxicity that these materials may exert on the microbes. An improved TPPB configuration is one in which polymeric NAPs are used to replace organic solvents in order to take advantage of their low cost, improved handling qualities, and biocompatibility. A recent study has shown that low molecular weight polymers may confer improved solute uptake relative to high molecular weight polymers (i.e., have higher partition coefficients), but it is unknown whether sufficiently low molecular weight polymers may inhibit cell growth. This study has investigated the biocompatibility of a range of low molecular weight polymers, and compared trends in biocompatibility to the well-established "critical log P" concept. This was achieved by determining the biocompatibility of polypropylene glycol polymers over a molecular weight (MW) range of 425-4,000 to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas putida, two organisms which have been previously used in TPPB systems. The lower MW polymers were shown to have lower average log P values, and showed more cytotoxicity than polymers of the same structure but with higher molecular weight. Since polymers are generally polydisperse (i.e., polymer samples contain a distribution of MWs), removal of the lower MW fractions via water washing was found to result in improved polymer biocompatibility. These results suggest that the critical log P concept remains useful for describing the toxicity of polymeric substances of different MWs, although it is complicated by the presence of the low MW fractions in the polymers arising from polydispersity.

  16. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  17. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  18. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  19. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  20. Fortification of human milk in very low birth weight infants (VLBW <1500 g birth weight).

    PubMed

    Adamkin, David H; Radmacher, Paula G

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the feeding of human milk for all infants. Very-low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants especially can benefit from the immune and neurodevelopmental effects of human milk. However, human milk alone is nutritionally inadequate for the rapid growth of the very-low-birth-weight infant during a critical window for brain development and requires fortification to meet current recommendations. There are a variety of products, devices, and strategies that can be used to fine tune nutritional support of these very vulnerable infants.

  1. Behavioral transitions and weight change patterns within the PREMIER trial.

    PubMed

    Bartfield, Jessica K; Stevens, Victor J; Jerome, Gerald J; Batch, Bryan C; Kennedy, Betty M; Vollmer, William M; Harsha, David; Appel, Lawrence J; Desmond, Renee; Ard, Jamy D

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the transition in behaviors from short-term weight loss to maintenance of weight loss. We wanted to determine how short-term and long-term weight loss and patterns of weight change were associated with intervention behavioral targets. This analysis includes overweight/obese participants in active treatment (n = 507) from the previously published PREMIER trial, an 18-month, multicomponent lifestyle intervention for blood pressure reduction, including 33 intervention sessions and recommendations to self-monitor food intake and physical activity daily. Associations between behaviors (attendance, recorded days/week of physical activity, food records/week) and weight loss of ≥5% at 6 and 18 months were examined using logistic regression. We characterized the sample using 5 weight change categories (weight gained, weight stable, weight loss then relapse, late weight loss, and weight loss then maintenance) and analyzed adherence to the behaviors for each category, comparing means with ANOVA. Participants lost an average of 5.3 ± 5.6 kg at 6 months and 4.0 ± 6.7 kg (4.96% of body weight) by 18 months. Higher levels of attendance, food record completion, and recorded days/week of physical activity were associated with increasing odds of achieving 5% weight loss. All weight change groups had declines in the behaviors over time; however, compared to the other four groups, the weight loss/maintenance group (n = 154) had statistically less significant decline in number of food records/week (48%), recorded days/week of physical activity (41.7%), and intervention sessions attended (12.8%) through 18 months. Behaviors associated with short-term weight loss continue to be associated with long-term weight loss, albeit at lower frequencies. Minimizing the decline in these behaviors may be important in achieving long-term weight loss.

  2. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  3. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  4. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  5. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  6. Achieving Accountability in Cyberspace: Revolution or Evolution?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving... types of controls and the rigid enforcement of compliance with those controls offer insights into the critical elements of a cyberspace accountability...result in a 100 mph collision. Why is it we do not drive in perpetual fear of collision with our hands clutching the wheel in a death grip and our

  7. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  8. Reciprocity of weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation. PMID:24056721

  9. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  10. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  11. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  12. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  13. Global Cost and Weight Evaluation of Fuselage Side Panel Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polland, D. R.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hafenrichter, J. L.; Hanson, C. T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Metschan, S. L.; Scholz, D. B.; Smith, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents preliminary design trades conducted under NASA contracts NAS1 18889 (Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, ATCAS) and NAS1-19349 (Task 3, Pathfinder Shell Design) for a subsonic wide body commercial aircraft fuselage side panel section utilizing composite materials. Included in this effort were (1) development of two complete design concepts, (2) generation of cost and weight estimates, (3) identification of technical issues and potential design enhancements, and (4) selection of a single design to be further developed. The first design concept featured an open-section stringer stiffened skin configuration while the second was based on honeycomb core sandwich construction. The trade study cost and weight results were generated from comprehensive assessment of each structural component comprising the fuselage side panel section from detail fabrication through airplane final assembly. Results were obtained in three phases: (1) for the baseline designs, (2) after global optimization of the designs, and (3) the results anticipated after detailed design optimization. A critical assessment of both designs was performed to determine the risk associated with each concept, that is the relative probability of achieving the cost and weight projections. Seven critical technical issues were identified as the first step towards side panel detailed design optimization.

  14. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  15. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  16. Are we getting the critical view? A prospective study of photographic documentation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tracey; Usatoff, Val; Chan, Steven T F

    2014-01-01

    Background At laparoscopic cholecystectomy, most surgeons have adopted the operative approach where the ‘critical view of safety’ (CVS) is achieved prior to dividing the cystic duct and artery. This prospective study evaluated whether an adequate critical view was achieved by scoring standardized intra-operative photographic views and whether there were other factors that might impact on the ability to obtain an adequate critical view. Methods One hundred consecutive patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied. At each operation, two photographs were taken. Two independent experienced hepatobiliary surgeons scored the photographs on whether a critical view of safety was achieved. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using the weighted kappa coefficient. The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used to analyse the scores with potential confounding clinical factors. Results The kappa coefficient for adequate display of the cystic duct and artery was 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.64; P = 0.001. No bias was detected in the overall scorings between the two observers (χ2 1.33; P = 0.312). Other clinical factors including surgeon seniority did not alter the outcome [odds ratio (OR) 0.902; 95% confidence interval 0.622 to 1.264]. Conclusion Heightened awareness of the CVS through mandatory documentation may improve both trainee and surgeon technique. PMID:24635851

  17. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  18. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  19. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ... overweight, talk to your doctor about beginning a weight management program so you can set a good example. ...

  20. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  1. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Gamberg, Leonard; Rossi, Patrizia; Prokudin, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  2. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  3. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  4. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  5. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  6. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  7. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  8. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach.

    PubMed

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E

    2003-01-01

    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality.

  9. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  10. Aligning Items and Achievement Levels: A Study Comparing Expert Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Huff, Kristen; Barry, Carol

    2011-01-01

    For educational achievement tests that employ multiple-choice (MC) items and aim to reliably classify students into performance categories, it is critical to design MC items that are capable of discriminating student performance according to the stated achievement levels. This is accomplished, in part, by clearly understanding how item design…

  11. Weight Perception and Dieting Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Ha, Yeongmi; Vann, Julie Jacobson; Choi, Eunsook

    2009-01-01

    This study examines relationships among weight status, weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors in South Korean adolescents. As perceptions of an ideal body for teens in Korea have changed over time, it is important for school nurses to understand these relationships to help students achieve health. A cross-sectional survey of 3,191 8th and 2,252…

  12. Longitudinal weight loss patterns and their behavioral and demographic associations

    PubMed Central

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Lee, Jaehoon; Ptomey, Lauren; Willis, Erik; Schubert, Matt; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identification of weight change patterns may allow tailored interventions to improve long-term weight loss. Purpose To identify patterns of weight change over 18 mos., and assess participant characteristics and intervention adherence factors associated with weight change patterns in a sample of 359 overweight/obese adults. Methods Weight loss (0–6 mos.) was achieved with reduced energy intake and increased physical activity (PA). Maintenance (7–18 mos.) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued PA. Results Latent profile analysis identified 3 weight change profiles. During weight loss/maintenance, participants in profiles 2 and 3 (18 mos. weight loss ~14%) attended more behavioral sessions, and performed more PA, compared with profile 1 (18 mo. weight loss <1%). Self-efficacy for both weight management and exercise barriers were higher in profiles 2 and 3 compared with profile 1 following weight loss and during maintenance. Conclusion Weight change patterns can be identified and are associated with both participant characteristics and intervention adherence. PMID:26423446

  13. Term weighting schemes for question categorization.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite

    2011-05-01

    Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.

  14. Randomized trial of achieving healthy lifestyles in psychiatric rehabilitation: the ACHIEVE trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among persons with serious mental illness. These conditions likely contribute to premature cardiovascular disease and a 20 to 30 percent shortened life expectancy in this vulnerable population. Persons with serious mental illness need effective, appropriately tailored behavioral interventions to achieve and maintain weight loss. Psychiatric rehabilitation day programs provide logical intervention settings because mental health consumers often attend regularly and exercise can take place on-site. This paper describes the Randomized Trial of Achieving Healthy Lifestyles in Psychiatric Rehabilitation (ACHIEVE). The goal of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a behavioral weight loss intervention among persons with serious mental illness that attend psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Participants randomized to the intervention arm of the study are hypothesized to have greater weight loss than the control group. Methods/Design A targeted 320 men and women with serious mental illness and overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) will be recruited from 10 psychiatric rehabilitation programs across Maryland. The core design is a randomized, two-arm, parallel, multi-site clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of an 18-month behavioral weight loss intervention to usual care. Active intervention participants receive weight management sessions and physical activity classes on-site led by study interventionists. The intervention incorporates cognitive adaptations for persons with serious mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. The initial intensive intervention period is six months, followed by a twelve-month maintenance period in which trained rehabilitation program staff assume responsibility for delivering parts of the intervention. Primary outcomes are weight loss at six and 18 months. Discussion Evidence-based approaches to the high burden of obesity and

  15. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  16. Bounds for weighted Lebesgue functions for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubayi, D. G.

    2001-08-01

    The weighted Lebesgue functions for even weights W=e-Q on the real line have been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, we discuss the corresponding results for a class of weights that includes non-even weights.

  17. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  18. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  19. Metacognitive Strategies that Enhance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.

    2010-01-01

    The need to cultivate students' use of metacognitive strategies in critical thinking has been emphasized in the related literature. The present study aimed at examining the role of metacognitive strategies in critical thinking. Ten university students with comparable cognitive ability, thinking disposition and academic achievement but with…

  20. Losing weight to save lives: A review of the role of automobile weight and size in traffic fatalities

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc; Wenzel, Tom

    2001-07-01

    Critics of higher fuel economy standards for vehicles have long argued that improving vehicle fuel economy will require reducing vehicle weight, and that would result in an increase in the number of fatalities from vehicle crashes. Several researchers have estimated that an across-the-board reduction of vehicle weight would reduce passenger safety (Evans 1991; Kahane 1997; U.S. GAO 1994). However, little research has been done on the relationship of vehicle size and fatality rates, independent of weight (see, however, Joksch, Massie, and Pichler 1998). In this report we review previous analyses of the relationship of vehicle weight and safety. We do this to study the opportunities to improve fuel economy in a more sophisticated way than across-the-board mass reduction. The aim is to explore improvements in traffic safety by making selected vehicle groups lighter, and retaining or enlarging selected vehicle dimensions. Unfortunately, the effects of size and mass have not been accurately separated in the crash fatality data, so some of our claims are only supported by general arguments from physics. In a follow-up report we will attempt to analyze crash fatality data to determine crash worthiness if the weight of certain vehicle groups would be decreased while maintaining or increasing vehicle size. The first section of this report provides an introduction to fatal vehicle crashes in the United States. We summarize several trends in automotive crash statistics over the last 20 years. Then we discuss approaches analysts have taken in studying factors that affect ''exposure'', the likelihood of being involved in a serious crash. In Section 2 we discuss standardized crash tests and the basic physics of crashes. We review previous research on the effect of vehicle mass in two-vehicle crashes in Section 3. We also present new research on reductions in risk achieved by recent light vehicles. Section 4 presents previous estimates of the effect of reductions in vehicle mass

  1. Birth weight is forever.

    PubMed

    Basso, Olga

    2008-03-01

    Birth weight is associated not just with infant morbidity and mortality, but with outcomes occurring much later in life, including adult mortality, as reported by a paper by Baker and colleagues in this issue of Epidemiology. While these associations are tantalizing per se, the truly interesting question concerns the mechanisms that underlie these links. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a "fetal origin" of diseases resulting from alterations in fetal nutrition that permanently program organ function. The most commonly proposed alternative is that factors, mainly genetic, that affect both fetal growth and disease risk are responsible for the observed associations. Although both mechanisms are intellectually attractive-and may well coexist-we should be cautious to not focus excessively on fetal growth. Doing this may lead us in the wrong direction, as has likely happened in the case of birth weight in relation to infant survival.

  2. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  3. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  4. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  5. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  6. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  7. Plant critical concept

    SciTech Connect

    O`Regan, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O&M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant.

  8. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior.

  9. An Examination of How People Who Have Lost Weight Communicatively Negotiate Interpersonal Challenges to Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey K

    2017-02-02

    The vast majority of Americans are overweight, and those who are able to lose weight typically regain at least the amount they lost. Some people are confronted with sabotage, criticism, and declines in social support during and following weight loss. However, how individuals negotiate these interpersonal barriers is not very well understood. Such an understanding could help individuals maintain their weight loss while minimizing the risk of adverse health or relational consequences. Thus, through a thematic analysis of 40 interviews of people who were identified as previously overweight or obese and a facework lens (Cupach & Metts, 1994; Goffman, 1967), this study examined how people were communicatively able to sustain their weight loss in the face of challenges from friends, family, and colleagues. The investigation found that altered weight management behaviors (particularly healthy eating) can threaten others' face and uncovered several communication strategies people used to prevent and mitigate face threat. To avoid face threat, participants proactively issued cognitive disclaimers about weight management or designated cheat days, accepted but did not consume food, avoided social situations involving food, or ate unhealthy food in smaller portions to assimilate with the in-group. To remediate face threat, participants provided personal choice and health excuses to save face and accomplish their dual goals of maintaining their weight management practices without compromising their relationships.

  10. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    This document is intended to improve the critical viewing skills and increase the understanding and appreciation of what is viewed. Included are the chapters: (1) "Critical Thinking: The Parts of an Argument," intended to develop a process to help a person judge arguments in what is read, seen, and heard; (2) "Critical Viewing:…

  11. Education on fluid management and encouraging critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Dale, Willette

    2012-01-01

    The unit is currently utilizing hematocrit-based blood volume monitoring on each patient, resulting in improved monitoring in patients achieving their target weight. The nurses expressed confidence in their understanding of the use of hematocrit-based blood volume monitoring. This learning experience provided a vivid look at the importance of fluid management in nephrology nursing. This area should always be included in nephrology nurse competencies and represented in a way that it ignites critical thinking within the nursing professional. It is the responsibility of a professional nurse to stay current in evidence-based practice and continuing education. Professional pride stimulates nephrology nurses to seek new learning experiences to enhance their practice.

  12. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  13. Accuracy of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory conservative finite difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Wai-Sun; Borges, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    In the reconstruction step of (2r-1) order weighted essentially non-oscillatory conservative finite difference schemes (WENO) for solving hyperbolic conservation laws, nonlinear weights αk and ωk, such as the WENO-JS weights by Jiang et al. and the WENO-Z weights by Borges et al., are designed to recover the formal (2r-1) order (optimal order) of the upwinded central finite difference scheme when the solution is sufficiently smooth. The smoothness of the solution is determined by the lower order local smoothness indicators βk in each substencil. These nonlinear weight formulations share two important free parameters in common: the power p, which controls the amount of numerical dissipation, and the sensitivity ε, which is added to βk to avoid a division by zero in the denominator of αk. However, ε also plays a role affecting the order of accuracy of WENO schemes, especially in the presence of critical points. It was recently shown that, for any design order (2r-1), ε should be of Ω(Δx2) (Ω(Δxm) means that ε⩾CΔxm for some C independent of Δx, as Δx→0) for the WENO-JS scheme to achieve the optimal order, regardless of critical points. In this paper, we derive an alternative proof of the sufficient condition using special properties of βk. Moreover, it is unknown if the WENO-Z scheme should obey the same condition on ε. Here, using same special properties of βk, we prove that in fact the optimal order of the WENO-Z scheme can be guaranteed with a much weaker condition ε=Ω(Δxm), where m(r,p)⩾2 is the optimal sensitivity order, regardless of critical points. Both theoretical results are confirmed numerically on smooth functions with arbitrary order of critical points. This is a highly desirable feature, as illustrated with the Lax problem and the Mach 3 shock-density wave interaction of one dimensional Euler equations, for a smaller ε allows a better essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing as it does not over-dominate over the size of

  14. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; Byan, W. R. E.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  15. Use of the Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory in critical care orientation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Blair, N; Neighbors, M

    2000-01-01

    In the current health care environment it is imperative that orientation programs be effective and efficient in the preparation of nurses entering critical care nursing. Institutions strive to develop orientation programs that use the least amount of resources necessary to achieve the desired outcome. The desired outcome of the critical care orientation process is for nurses to use critical thinking skills to make sound clinical judgments based on scientific knowledge of critical care nursing. Identifying areas of strengths and deficits in critical thinking could prove beneficial in assisting educators to individualize nursing orientation programs using critical thinking skills in practice. The purpose of this article is to describe a method used to measure nurses' dispositions toward critical thinking and the application of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) in critical care orientation programs.

  16. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss.

  17. Redefining critical in critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askary, Farid; Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-08-01

    Critical dimension (CD) metrology as practiced in semiconductor industry displays characteristics not observed in other metrology disciplines. This paper will present some of the unusual aspects of CD metrology and attempt to elucidate the causes for the observed behavior. Through an examination of the characteristics of measurement accuracy, it is possible to observe these situations where CD metrology departs from the ideal. The typical process for achieving accuracy involves the use of certified standards in a well-defined calibration procedure. However, calibrating CD instruments with linewidth standards will not necessarily guarantee sufficient accuracy of subsequent measurements of production samples. This well-known result follows from lack of physical models to relate the detected signal to sample shape in combination with the many-to-one nature of the mathematical mapping that describes the process of obtaining CD from feature shape. Despite this limitation, monitoring tools such as CD-SEM systems have demonstrated to be useful for process control and are extensively used in semiconductor manufacturing. The requisites for a well-behaved measurement process will be described in detail. The unusual characteristics of CD metrology will be identified, as will the underlying reasons for the behavior. These results will be examined in the light of common process control techniques to explain how CD-SEM measurements still add value despite the flaws. In conclusion the role and value of certified standards in feature shape determination will be placed in the context of CD metrology. Reference Measurement Systems in conjunction with calibration standards are recommended to characterize process variations and determine feature shapes across a variety of samples. In order to ensure that the high throughput monitoring metrology tools flag process excursions for not meeting specifications, feature shapes must be quantified with additional metrics besides a single

  18. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  19. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  20. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months.

  1. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.

  2. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  3. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  4. Dynamical Signatures of Structural Connectivity Damage to a Model of the Brain Posed at Criticality.

    PubMed

    Haimovici, Ariel; Balenzuela, Pablo; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These interareal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and subcortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome." Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (subcritical) and disordered (supercritical) phases. Here, we explore the hypothesis that pathologies resulting from brain injury of different etiologies are related to this model of a critical brain. For this purpose, we investigate how damage to the integrity of the structural connectome impacts on the signatures of critical dynamics. Adopting a hybrid modeling approach combining an empirical weighted network of human structural connections with a conceptual model of critical dynamics, we show that lesions located at highly transited connections progressively displace the model toward the subcritical regime. The topological properties of the nodes and links are of less importance when considered independently of their weight in the network. We observe that damage to midline hubs such as the middle and posterior cingulate cortex is most crucial for the disruption of criticality in the model. However, a similar effect can be achieved by targeting less transited nodes and links whose connection weights add up to an equivalent amount. This implies that brain pathology does not necessarily arise due to insult targeted at well-connected areas and that intersubject variability could obscure lesions located at nonhub regions. Finally, we discuss the predictions of our model in the context of clinical studies of traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  6. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

  7. Critical Machine Based Scheduling -A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to identify the natural occurrence of the critical machines in scheduling. The exciting scheduling in the real time manufacturing environment is focused on considering equal weight-age of all the machines, but very few researchers were considered the real time constraint(s) like processor/ machine/ workstation availability, etc.,. This article explores the gap between the theory and practices by identifying the critical machine in scheduling and helps the researcher to find the suitable problem in their case study environment. Through the literature survey, it is evident that, in scheduling the occurrence of the critical machine is in nature. The critical machine is found in various names and gives a various range of weight-age based on the particular manufacturing environment and it plays a vital role in scheduling which includes one or more circumstances of occurrence in the production environment. Very few researchers were reported that in manufacturing environment, the critical machine occurrence is in nature, but most of the researchers were focused to optimize the manufacturing environment by only reducing the cycle time. In real-time manufacturing environment, the scheduling of critical machine(s) was keenly monitored and some weight-age was considered.

  8. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  9. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  10. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  11. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  12. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  13. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  14. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. 14 CFR 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be...) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits...

  16. 14 CFR 23.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Structure Water Loads § 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water... water taxi and takeoff run) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers...

  17. 14 CFR 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be...) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits...

  18. 14 CFR 23.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Structure Water Loads § 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water... water taxi and takeoff run) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers...

  19. 14 CFR 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be...) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits...

  20. 14 CFR 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be...) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits...

  1. 14 CFR 23.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Structure Water Loads § 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water... water taxi and takeoff run) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers...

  2. 14 CFR 25.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be...) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits...

  3. 14 CFR 23.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Structure Water Loads § 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water... water taxi and takeoff run) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers...

  4. 14 CFR 23.523 - Design weights and center of gravity positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design weights and center of gravity... Structure Water Loads § 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. (a) Design weights. The water... water taxi and takeoff run) must be used. (b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers...

  5. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  6. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  7. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  8. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ...

  9. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  10. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your BMI. What Factors Contribute To a Healthy Weight? Many factors can contribute to a person’s weight. These factors include environment, family history and genetics, metabolism (the way your ...

  11. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  12. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  13. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  14. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and…

  15. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  16. The Critical Point Facility (CPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Critical Point Facility (CPF) is an ESA multiuser facility designed for microgravity research onboard Spacelab. It has been conceived and built to offer investigators opportunities to conduct research on critical point phenomena in microgravity. This facility provides the high precision and stability temperature standards required in this field of research. It has been primarily designed for the purpose of optical investigations of transparent fluids. During a Spacelab mission, the CPF automatically processes several thermostats sequentially, each thermostat corresponding to an experiment. The CPF is now integrated in Spacelab at Kennedy Space Center, in preparation for the International Microgravity Lab. mission. The CPF was designed to submit transparent fluids to an adequate, user defined thermal scenario, and to monitor their behavior by using thermal and optical means. Because they are strongly affected by gravity, a good understanding of critical phenomena in fluids can only be gained in low gravity conditions. Fluids at the critical point become compressed under their own weight. The role played by gravity in the formation of interfaces between distinct phases is not clearly understood.

  17. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  18. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  19. Successful habits of weight losers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

  20. Revalorizing the Critical Attitude for Critical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that at a moment of crisis in education, the defence of critical pedagogy is vitally important. However, it also suggests that such a defence should be more than a "cri de coeur" that asserts principles and methods of criticality against those of neoliberal or conservative education policy. Narratives of a totalising "crisis of…

  1. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  2. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  3. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  4. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  5. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  6. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  7. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  8. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  9. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  10. Being Critical of Criticality in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, John M.; Timme, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Relatively recent work has reported that networks of neurons can produce avalanches of activity whose sizes follow a power law distribution. This suggests that these networks may be operating near a critical point, poised between a phase where activity rapidly dies out and a phase where activity is amplified over time. The hypothesis that the electrical activity of neural networks in the brain is critical is potentially important, as many simulations suggest that information processing functions would be optimized at the critical point. This hypothesis, however, is still controversial. Here we will explain the concept of criticality and review the substantial objections to the criticality hypothesis raised by skeptics. Points and counter points are presented in dialog form. PMID:22701101

  11. Molecular weight determination of block copolymers by pulsed gradient spin echo NMR.

    PubMed

    Barrère, Caroline; Mazarin, Michaël; Giordanengo, Rémi; Phan, Trang N T; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane; Charles, Laurence

    2009-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is the technique of choice to achieve molecular weight data for synthetic polymers. Because the success of a MALDI-MS analysis critically depends on a proper matrix and cation selection, which in turn relates closely to the polymer chemical nature and size, prior estimation of the polymer size range strongly helps in rationalizing MALDI sample preparation. We recently showed how pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance could be used as an advantageous alternative to size exclusion chromatography, to rationalize MALDI sample preparation and confidently interpret MALDI mass spectra for homopolymers. Our aim here is to extend this methodology to the demanding case of amphiphilic block copolymers, for which obtaining prior estimates on the Mw values appears as an even more stringent prerequisite. Specifically, by studying poly(ethylene oxide) polystyrene block copolymers of distinct molecular weights and relative block weight fractions, we show how PGSE data can be used to derive the block Mw values. In contrast to homopolymers, such determination requires not only properly recorded calibration curves for each of the polymers constituting the block copolymers but also an appropriate hydrodynamic model to correctly interpret the diffusion data.

  12. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  13. The decision to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Brink, P J; Ferguson, K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the reasons people give for deciding to lose weight compared by weight history and gender. The sample consisted of 162 Caucasian community volunteers. Data were obtained from an extensive open-ended interview that was analyzed using content analysis. Respondents were categorized into five groups, according to their success at weight loss: Successful, Always Normal Weight, Underweight, Clinically Successful, and Always Obese. The Clinically Successful and Always Obese were included in the category Unsuccessful Dieter. Reasons given for entering a weight-loss regime included attractiveness or appearance, health, fear, self-esteem issues, age, and competition. For the Successful Dieter, attractiveness and health were the two major motivations. Men and women were similar in their reasons for entering a weight-loss program. The issue of what makes a decision of sufficient importance to maintain weight loss remains unexplained. "Centrality" is offered as a possible explanation.

  14. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-08

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  15. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  16. Osteoarthritis: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kentaro; Utturkar, Amol; Chang, Eric; Panush, Richard; Hata, Justin; Perret-Karimi, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are faced with a barrage of treatment options, from recommendations from friends and social media to medications prescribed by the primary care physician. The purpose of this article is to critically review current approaches to generalized or monoarticular OA based on available evidence and to illustrate multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies for the management of OA. Treatment options assessed for efficacy include patient education; oral and topical pharmacological agents; complementary and alternative medicine; surgery; manual medicine; acupuncture; interventional procedures (corticosteroid injection, viscosupplementation, and pulsed radiofrequency); bracing; assistive devices; physical therapy; and physical modalities. Multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies combined with early detection and prevention strategies provide the best benefit to patients. This review also illustrates that traditional and alternative modalities of treatment can be both synergistic and beneficial. Physicians should be aware of the variety of tools available for the management of OA and the associated symptoms. Those healthcare providers who can best individualize treatment plans for specific patients and inspire their patients to embrace healthy lifestyle modifications will achieve the best results. PMID:25750483

  17. Maternity Care in Russia: Issues, Achievements, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Shuvalova, Marina P; Yarotskaya, Ekaterina L; Pismenskaya, Tatiana V; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Baibarina, Elena N; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide basic facts about maternity care services within the health care system in Russia. We give a short overview of such key aspects as the demographic situation, reproductive behaviour, regulatory framework for providing health care for women and children, maternal and perinatal mortality, and the availability of medical personnel. In 2012, Russia began registration of births in accordance with the WHO recommendations (births with weight ≥ 500 g at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation). Introduction of this new registration system increased the completeness and quality of the collected information and expanded possibilities for future international comparative assessments. A three-level system of specialized medical care has been introduced in Russia for women and newborns during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In 2014, the system included 1942 state (public) maternity hospitals providing 20 obstetric beds per 10 000 women aged 15 to 49 years. More than 100 perinatal centres (level III) are currently functioning in the country, with 32 new perinatal centres planned to open by 2016. The total number of obstetrician-gynaecologists in Russia is approximately 44 000, providing a ratio of 5.7 specialists per 10 000 women. The total number of midwives is 62 000, providing a ratio of 8.1 midwives per 10 000 women. In recent years we have succeeded in optimizing the maternity care system by increasing its accessibility and quality. This was achieved through qualitative and quantitative progress in the training of neonatologists, the development of intensive care technologies and neonatal critical care, capacity building of medical-genetic services and counselling, prenatal diagnosis, and the standardization of health care with data collection.

  18. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  19. Weighted patterns as a tool for improving the Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandashev, Iakov; Kryzhanovsky, Boris; Litinskii, Leonid

    2012-04-01

    We generalize the standard Hopfield model to the case when a weight is assigned to each input pattern. The weight can be interpreted as the frequency of the pattern occurrence at the input of the network. In the framework of the statistical physics approach we obtain the saddle-point equation allowing us to examine the memory of the network. In the case of unequal weights our model does not lead to the catastrophic destruction of the memory due to its overfilling (that is typical for the standard Hopfield model). The real memory consists only of the patterns with weights exceeding a critical value that is determined by the weights distribution. We obtain the algorithm allowing us to find this critical value for an arbitrary distribution of the weights, and analyze in detail some particular weights distributions. It is shown that the memory decreases as compared to the case of the standard Hopfield model. However, in our model the network can learn online without the catastrophic destruction of the memory.

  20. Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

  1. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  2. Bio-Based Bisfuran: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Low Molecular Weight Amorphous Polyester.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, Vishwanath; Lee, Kyunghee; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Sucheck, Steven J

    2014-07-23

    Discovery of renewable monomer feedstocks for fabrication of polymeric demand is critical in achieving sustainable materials. In the present work we have synthesized bisfuran diol (BFD) monomer from furfural, over four steps. BFD was examined via X-ray crystallography to understand the molecular arrangement in space, hydrogen bonding and packing of the molecules. This data was further used to compare BFD with structurally related Bisphenol A (BPA), and its known derivatives to predict the potential estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in BFD. Further, BFD was reacted with succinic acid to generate polyester material, bisfuran polyester (BFPE-1). MALDI characterization of BFPE-1 indicates low molecular weight polyester and thermal analysis reveals amorphous nature of the material.

  3. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  4. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  5. Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Linda; Aphramor, Lucy

    2011-01-24

    Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES) challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids), health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality), and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image), and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.

  6. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  7. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  8. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    standards, nutrition , physical fitness,health, weight, body fat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...designed to aid military personnel in achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition , physical fitness, and combat readiness. The...their diet/ nutrition and exercise/fitness goals. Further, with the use 9 of portable computers and the Soldier’s Smartphones, Field Managers are

  9. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success.

    PubMed

    Wadden, Thomas A; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Wing, Rena R; Clark, Jeanne M; Delahanty, Linda M; Hill, James O; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2011-10-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5,145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2-4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (P < 0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥ 5% (46% vs. 25%, P < 0.0001) and ≥ 10% (23% vs. 10%, P < 0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, achievement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥ 10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥ 5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years.

  10. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  11. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  12. Bridging the Gap between Business and Education: Reconciling Expectations for Student Achievement. Critical Issues in Student Achievement Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasworthy, Carol; Rood, Magdalena

    Schools are forging linkages with noneducational organizations and agencies to address the needs of all students, particularly those who are most vulnerable to the southwest region's economic and social upheaval. This paper attempts to present an overview of the interrelationship between two elements of the community at large--business and…

  13. Recent development of fabrication of extreme light-weighted ceramic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias; Wächter, Daniel; Stahr, Frank; Soose, Claus P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper will present the recent development achievements of a German SME supply chain to manufacture super light-weighted HB-Cesic® mirrors for IR to visible applications. We will present recent design developments for achieving extreme light-weighted mirror substrates with extremely high stiffness and performance and in the second part the newly established German supply chain for the manufacturing of such extreme light-weighted mirror substrates.

  14. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Putzke, C.; Walmsley, P.; Fletcher, J. D.; Malone, L.; Vignolles, D.; Proust, C.; Badoux, S.; See, P.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kasahara, S.; Mizukami, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Carrington, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  15. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  16. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  17. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  18. Poetry: Sources for Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of poetry. The guide enables the reader to find sources of criticism on poetry, including critical articles and essays about single poems, or writings on the work of a single author. The guide's sections…

  19. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  20. Creating a Critical Thinker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…

  1. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  2. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  3. Reimagining Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  4. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  5. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  7. Weight Gain in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome After Acid Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Riff, Brian P.; Leiman, David A.; Bennett, Bonita; Fraker, Douglas L.; Metz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is characterized by hypergastrinemia and gastric acid hypersecretion resulting in peptic ulcer disease, diarrhea and weight loss. Acid secretion can be controlled with medication and biochemical cure is possible with surgery. Data on how these interventions affect patients’ weight are lacking. We aimed to determine how medical and surgical acid control affects weight over time. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study on 60 ZES patients. Acid control was achieved with appropriate dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Surgery was performed for curative intent when appropriate. Weight change was assessed versus pre-acid control or immediate pre-operative weights and expressed as absolute and percent change from baseline at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results A total of 30 PPI-controlled patients and 20 surgery-controlled patients were analyzed. Weight gain was noted at all-time points while on appropriate dose PPI therapy (p<0.005). Of patients who had surgery with curative intent, weight gain was noted at 12 months (7.9%, p=0.013) and 18 months (7.1%, p=0.007). There was a trend toward weight gain seen at all-time points in the patients who were surgically cured. Conclusion These data represent a novel description of weight gain after acid suppression in ZES. PMID:26164604

  8. [Enteral and/or parenteral nutrition in the critically ill : An algorithm as a possible basis for decision-making].

    PubMed

    Weimann, A

    2016-09-01

    Taking into account new data and recent clinical controversies regarding nutritional support within the first 7 days of critical illness, early enteral nutrition is recommended. A normocaloric goal of 25 kcal/kg body weight/day should be achieved. In case of inadequate enteral tolerance, parenteral supplementation starting between day 3 and 5 should be selectively restricted to primarily malnourished patients and those with high risk for complications and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. This can be summarized in a clinical algorithm.

  9. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments for Individuals with Migraine and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, Cynthia; Bond, Dale S; Seng, Elizabeth K

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and obesity are each prevalent disorders involving significant personal and societal burden. Epidemiologic research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity that is further substantiated by putative behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological mechanisms. As obesity is considered a modifiable risk factor for exacerbation of migraine, weight loss may be a particularly useful treatment option for people with comorbid migraine and obesity. Behavioral weight loss interventions complement existing behavioral treatments for migraine and offer patients evidence-based effective strategies for achieving weight loss that could help reduce frequency, severity, and impact of migraine attacks.

  10. Development of low weight self-levelling mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, A.; Panama, I.; Toledo, A.; Flores, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the development of self levelling mortars, using micro bubbles based on aluminium silicate with a density of 0.25 g/cm3. Mortars formulations are composed by 8 different components in order to achieve properties balance between fresh and solid state. The mean objective is development light weight mortars with high fluidity and compression strength using micro bubbles and some additives. Formulations were designed employing Taguchi DOE of 8 variables and 3 states. Result analysis according to Taguchi method lets indentify the preponderant effect of each variable on the cited properties. Several formulations reached fluidity higher than 250%, with compression strength around 100 kg/cm2 and a low volumetric weigh. Obtained volumetric weights are 20% less than commercial self levelling mortars weight. Finally some relations are presented such: as relation water/cement with fluidity, and micro bubble content versus mortars volumetric weight, and finally compression strength versus the volumetric weight of mortars.

  11. Weighted Feature Gaussian Kernel SVM for Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Emotion recognition with weighted feature based on facial expression is a challenging research topic and has attracted great attention in the past few years. This paper presents a novel method, utilizing subregion recognition rate to weight kernel function. First, we divide the facial expression image into some uniform subregions and calculate corresponding recognition rate and weight. Then, we get a weighted feature Gaussian kernel function and construct a classifier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). At last, the experimental results suggest that the approach based on weighted feature Gaussian kernel function has good performance on the correct rate in emotion recognition. The experiments on the extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) dataset show that our method has achieved encouraging recognition results compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27807443

  12. A mechanism for sensory re-weighting in postural control

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobin, Arash; Loughlin, Patrick; Atkeson, Chris; Redfern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A key finding of human balance experiments has been that the integration of sensory information utilized for postural control appears to be dynamically regulated to adapt to changing environmental conditions and the available sensory information, a process referred to as “sensory re-weighting.” We propose a postural control model that includes automatic sensory re-weighting. This model is an adaptation of a previously reported model of sensory feedback that included manual sensory re-weighting. The new model achieves sensory re-weighting that is physiologically plausible and readily implemented. Model simulations are compared to previously reported experimental results to demonstrate the automated sensory reweighting strategy of the modified model. On the whole, the postural sway time series generated by the model with automatic sensory re-weighting show good agreement with experimental data, and are capable of producing patterns similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:19326162

  13. Weighted Feature Gaussian Kernel SVM for Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Jia, Qingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Emotion recognition with weighted feature based on facial expression is a challenging research topic and has attracted great attention in the past few years. This paper presents a novel method, utilizing subregion recognition rate to weight kernel function. First, we divide the facial expression image into some uniform subregions and calculate corresponding recognition rate and weight. Then, we get a weighted feature Gaussian kernel function and construct a classifier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). At last, the experimental results suggest that the approach based on weighted feature Gaussian kernel function has good performance on the correct rate in emotion recognition. The experiments on the extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) dataset show that our method has achieved encouraging recognition results compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Time-Critical Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Arie

    1998-01-01

    For the past twelve months, we have conducted and completed a joint research entitled "Time- Critical Volume Rendering" with NASA Ames. As expected, High performance volume rendering algorithms have been developed by exploring some new faster rendering techniques, including object presence acceleration, parallel processing, and hierarchical level-of-detail representation. Using our new techniques, initial experiments have achieved real-time rendering rates of more than 10 frames per second of various 3D data sets with highest resolution. A couple of joint papers and technique reports as well as an interactive real-time demo have been compiled as the result of this project.

  15. Achieving healthy weight in African-American communities: research perspectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Gary, Tiffany L; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Karanja, Njeri; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Prewitt, T Elaine; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C

    2005-12-01

    The longstanding high burden of obesity in African-American women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity research agenda by investigators who have both social and cultural grounding in African-American life experiences and obesity-related scientific expertise. AACORN's examination of obesity research agenda issues began in 2003 in conjunction with the Think Tank on Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The assessment was subsequently expanded to take into account the overall NIH strategic plan for obesity research, literature reviews, and descriptions of ongoing studies. In identifying priorities, AACORN members considered the quality, quantity, focus, and contextual relevance of published research relevant to obesity prevention and treatment in African-American adults or children. Fifteen recommended research priorities are presented in five categories adapted from the NHLBI Think Tank proceedings: health effects, social and environmental context, prevention and treatment, research methods, and research training and funding. These recommendations from an African-American perspective build on and reinforce certain aspects of the NHLBI and overall NIH research agendas by providing more specific rationale and directions on areas for enhancement in the type of research being done or in the conceptualization and implementation of that research.

  16. Implications of Student Health Problems on Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy students are better learners. Establishing positive school climates where students are healthy, engaged, and prepared to learn is a critical component in increasing student engagement and closing the achievement gap. As such, educators need to be aware of the impact of education-related outcomes on student outcomes and schools' ability to…

  17. Empower, Inspire, Achieve: (Dis)Empowerment and the Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue, David E. J.; Howe, P. David

    2012-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critical examination of the International Paralympic Committee's desire to use the Paralympic Games as a vehicle to empower individuals with a disability. We achieve this by applying Pierre Bourdieu's sociological concepts of habitus and capital to semi-structured interviews conducted with Paralympic stakeholders.…

  18. Comparison of Achievement of Students in High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Verne A.

    1970-01-01

    Compares student achievements on common objectives of CHEMS, CBA, and "Modern Chemistry high school chemistry courses. Results indicate the three couses are not equally effective in meeting their objectives. CHEMS and CBA develop a better understanding of chemistry and science, as well as develop greater ability for critical thinking. CBA…

  19. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  20. Betweenness centrality in a weighted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijuan; Hernandez, Javier Martin; van Mieghem, Piet

    2008-04-01

    When transport in networks follows the shortest paths, the union of all shortest path trees G∪SPT can be regarded as the “transport overlay network.” Overlay networks such as peer-to-peer networks or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of G∪SPT . The traffic through the network is examined by the betweenness Bl of links in the overlay G∪SPT . The strength of disorder can be controlled by, e.g., tuning the extreme value index α of the independent and identically distributed polynomial link weights. In the strong disorder limit (α→0) , all transport flows over a critical backbone, the minimum spanning tree (MST). We investigate the betweenness distributions of wide classes of trees, such as the MST of those well-known network models and of various real-world complex networks. All these trees with different degree distributions (e.g., uniform, exponential, or power law) are found to possess a power law betweenness distribution Pr[Bl=j]˜j-c . The exponent c seems to be positively correlated with the degree variance of the tree and to be insensitive of the size N of a network. In the weak disorder regime, transport in the network traverses many links. We show that a link with smaller link weight tends to carry more traffic. This negative correlation between link weight and betweenness depends on α and the structure of the underlying topology.

  1. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge.

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management.

    PubMed

    Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S

    2009-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.

  3. Year in review 2009: Critical Care - metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Novel insights into the metabolic alterations of critical illness were published in Critical Care in 2009. The association between early hypoglycaemia/high glycemic variability and poor outcome was confirmed. Improvements in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of stress hyperglycemia and potential progress in the bedside management of glucose control were presented. With regard to enteral nutrition, some alterations of gastrointestinal physiology were better delineated. The relationship between the achievement of nutritional goals and outcomes was further investigated. Finally, understanding of some critical-illness-related endocrine and neuromuscular disorders improved through new experimental and clinical findings. PMID:21122170

  4. Criticality in epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    For a long time criticality has been considered in epidemiological models. We review the body of theory developed over the last twenty five years for the simplest models. It is at first glance difficult to imagine that an epidemiological system operates at a very fine tuned critical state as opposed to any other parameter region. However, the advent of self-organized criticality has given hints in how to interpret large fluctuations observed in many natural systems including epidemiological systems. We show some scenarios where criticality has been observed (e.g., measles under vaccination) and where evolution towards a critical state can explain fluctuations (e.g., meningococcal disease.)

  5. A device for automatically measuring and supervising the critical care patient's urine output.

    PubMed

    Otero, Abraham; Palacios, Francisco; Akinfiev, Teodor; Fernández, Roemi

    2010-01-01

    Critical care units are equipped with commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing patients' physiological parameters and supervising the achievement of the established therapeutic goals. This avoids human errors in this task and considerably decreases the workload of the healthcare staff. However, at present there still is a very relevant physiological parameter that is measured and supervised manually by the critical care units' healthcare staff: urine output. This paper presents a patent-pending device capable of automatically recording and supervising the urine output of a critical care patient. A high precision scale is used to measure the weight of a commercial urine meter. On the scale's pan there is a support frame made up of Bosch profiles that isolates the scale from force transmission from the patient's bed, and guarantees that the urine flows properly through the urine meter input tube. The scale's readings are sent to a PC via Bluetooth where an application supervises the achievement of the therapeutic goals. The device is currently undergoing tests at a research unit associated with the University Hospital of Getafe in Spain.

  6. The neural basis of academic achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-08-01

    We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.

  7. Criticality of a {sup 237}Np Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.

    2003-07-22

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg {sup 237}Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of {sup 237}Np. To attain criticality, the {sup 237}Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt % {sup 235}U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k{sub eff} of 0.99089 {+-} 0.0003 compared with a k{sub eff} 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of {sup 237}Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties.

  8. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  9. The effects of two workplace weight management programs and weight loss on health care utilization and costs

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Dement, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Compare the impact of two worksite weight management programs, WM (education) and WM+ (education plus counseling), on health care utilization and costs. Secondarily, compare the intervention groups to an observational control group of obese workers. Finally, evaluate the impact of actual weight loss on these outcomes. Methods Estimate the change in the WM and WM+ intervention groups. Using propensity score adjustment compare the two intervention groups with the observational control group; and compare those who lost weight with those who did not. Results No significant differences between the two intervention groups, or between these intervention groups and the observational control group. Those who lost weight reduced their overall health care costs. Conclusion To achieve weight loss and associated morbidity reductions, more extensive and intensive interventions, with more attention to motivation and compliance, are required. PMID:26849260

  10. Optimal weighting scheme and the role of coupling strength against load failures in degree-based weighted interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuzhuo

    2013-04-01

    The optimal weighting scheme and the role of coupling strength against load failures on symmetrically and asymmetrically coupled interdependent networks were investigated. The degree-based weighting scheme was extended to interdependent networks, with the flow dynamics dominated by global redistribution based on weighted betweenness centrality. Through contingency analysis of one-node removal, we demonstrated that there still exists an optimal weighting parameter on interdependent networks, but it might shift as compared to the case in isolated networks because of the break of symmetry. And it will be easier for the symmetrically and asymmetrically coupled interdependent networks to achieve robustness and better cost configuration against the one-node-removal-induced cascade of load failures when coupling strength was weaker. Our findings might have great generality for characterizing load-failure-induced cascading dynamics in real-world degree-based weighted interdependent networks.

  11. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  12. Weight gain in pregnancy: is less truly more for mother and infant?

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although more than 50% of women gain weight above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy and excessive weight gain is an independent risk factor for significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and offspring obesity, there is little consensus over the ideal weight gain during pregnancy. Surprisingly, the 2009 IOM guidelines varied minimally from the 1990 IOM guidelines, and many critics advocate lower weight gain recommendations. This review explores the energy costs of pregnancy, the relationship between gestational weight gain and birth weight, and considers what gestational weight gain minimizes both large-for-gestational age as well as small-for-gestational age infants. An extensive examination of the current data leads this author to question whether the current weight gain recommendations are too liberal, especially for obese pregnant women. PMID:27579137

  13. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  14. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  15. Reconstructing Weighted Networks from Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, P. Y.; Leung, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of how the different nodes of a network interact or link with one another is crucial for the understanding of the collective behavior and the functionality of the network. We have recently developed a method that can reconstruct both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input and is based on a relation between the pseudo-inverse of the matrix of the correlation of the node dynamics and the Laplacian matrix of the weighted network. Using several examples of different dynamics, we demonstrate that our method can accurately reconstruct the connectivity as well as the weights of the links for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics. The work of ESCC and CYL has been supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.

  16. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  17. Nutrition and educational achievement of urban primary schoolchildren in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Z M; Bond, J T; Johnson, N E

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between nutrition, health and educational achievement of school-age population in less developed countries has been of interest to many researchers due to the frequent observation that many children did not complete primary school and those who completed, did not do as well as children in the developed countries. Nevertheless, nutritional and health status by itself is not the only variable affecting educational achievement, since biological, psychological, socioeconomic and cultural factors could directly or indirectly affect both nutrition, health status and educational achievement. The mechanism by which health and nutrition influence educational achievement is not well established, but poor health and malnutrition in early childhood may affect cognitive abilities, necessary for learning process and consequently educational achievement. A study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and educational achievement among primary schoolchildren from low income households (n = 399). A high percentage of them were mild-significantly underweight (52%), stunted (47%) and wasted (36%) and increasingly overweight (6%). In general, more boys than girls were found to experience some form of malnutrition. While weight-for-height did not differ significantly according to family, child and school factors, weight-for-age and height-for-age differed significantly by gender. Also, height-for-age was significantly related to household income. This indicates that stunting may be a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic deprivation. Educational achievement was measured based on test scores for Malay language (ML), English language (EL) and mathematics (MT). While a majority of the schoolchildren obtained optimum scores (>75) for ML and MT, the majority of them had insufficient scores (<50) for EL. Children's total score (TS) for the three subjects was significantly associated with household socioeconomic

  18. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  19. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  20. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  1. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  2. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  3. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  4. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  5. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  6. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  7. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  8. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  9. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  10. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  11. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  12. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  13. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  14. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  15. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  16. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  17. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  18. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  19. Achieving Integrated FEA Model and Loads Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Dominick; Huf, Brian; Hagstrom, Dustin

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in enterprise level simulation tools now enable CAE engineers and managers to keep up with today’s accelerating rate in the number and complexity of simulation models. All simulation related activities including Finite Element Models (FEM) variants and their respective results datasets can now be captured and managed. This provides valuable model pedigree from the source geometry referenced in the PDM system, spacecraft design and FEM configurations, external loads, simulation results and internal loads down to key results with the final critical design review and test correlation reports. The process presented in this paper demonstrates how simulation data capture and relationships can be achieved. Moreover, process management from conceptual design to spacecraft final proto-flight tests can now be achieved systematically and efficiently while performing and ensuring model quality, all the way from assembly level down to component level. MSC Software’s SimXpert and SimManager, two commercial off-the-shelf software codes, are used to highlight the benefits of this approach. In addition, an automation process that performs model validation per aerospace engineering best practice standards is also presented.

  20. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  1. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  2. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  3. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  4. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  5. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  6. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  7. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  8. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  9. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population. PMID:27335924

  10. Weight control in university students.

    PubMed Central

    Salmons, P H

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1858 students of United Kingdom origin aged between 18 and 20 years of age completed questionnaires which investigated present weight, bingeing, vomiting and weight control. Men were significantly more likely than women to be overweight, while women were significantly more likely to be underweight. One-third of the women were actively controlling weight, with dieting as the preferred method, while over half had attempted weight control in the past three years. Daily or more frequent bingeing was reported by 1.9% of men and 1.2% of women. There was a statistically significant relationship between weight control and bingeing. Eleven percent of men and 24% of women thought they had a problem with weight control, although amongst both men and women the proportion who felt they were overweight was in excess of the proportion who actually were overweight. It is suggested that health education programmes should take account of the pressures upon young women to conform to predetermined ideals in terms of body weight. PMID:3560132

  11. Weight Reduction Techniques Adopted When Weight Standards are Enforced

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Military Nutrition Division REPORT NUMBER U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental...affecting more soldiers than those Identified by the AWCP and possibly developing during a career In the Army. Nutrition /education programs should...that appeas to be Inevitable with aging and a career in the’Army. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBIEN OF PAGES Nutrition , weight reduction, Army weight

  12. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-01-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  13. Criticality Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2003-03-12

    The purpose of the ''Criticality Model Report'' is to validate the MCNP (CRWMS M&O 1998h) code's ability to accurately predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for a range of conditions spanned by various critical configurations representative of the potential configurations commercial reactor assemblies stored in a waste package may take. Results of this work are an indication of the accuracy of MCNP for calculating eigenvalues, which will be used as input for criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. The scope of this report is to document the development and validation of the criticality model. The scope of the criticality model is only applicable to commercial pressurized water reactor fuel. Valid ranges are established as part of the validation of the criticality model. This model activity follows the description in BSC (2002a).

  14. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  15. Method of glitch reduction in DAC with weight redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, Olexiy D.; Murashchenko, Olexander G.; Chernyak, Olexander I.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2015-12-01

    The appearance of glitches in digital-to-analog converters leads to significant limitations of conversion accuracy and speed, which is critical for DAC and limits their usage. This paper researches the possibility of using the redundant positional number system in order to reduce glitches in DAC. There had been described the usage pattern of number systems with fractional digit weights of bits as well as with the whole number weights of bits. Hereafter there had been suggested the algorithm for glitches reduction in the DAC generation mode of incessant analogue signal. There had also been estimated the efficiency of weight redundancy application with further presentation of the most efficient parameters of number systems. The paper describes a block diagram of a low-glitch DAC based on Fibonacci codes. The simulation results prove the feasibility of weight redundancy application and show a significant reduction of glitches in DAC in comparison with the classical binary system.

  16. [Weight changes in hyperthyroid patients: a challenge for clinicians?].

    PubMed

    Portmann, L; Giusti, V

    2007-04-04

    After the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in patients, there is a search for a precise diagnosis as well as the prescription of a treatment according to its etiology. However a listing of symptoms and signs, present at the time of diagnosis, is seldom established. The weight history of the patient is almost always lacking in the medical records of hyperthyroid patient. By the time the patient has been treated after a few weeks or months, he often complains of weight gain. Thereafter the knowledge of the variations of the weight at the time of diagnosis will allow not only to get some insight in the psycho-social setting and the patient's habits, but also to deal with the critical time of the disappearance of hypermetabolism, linked to the hyperthyroid state, which could promote a weight gain.

  17. Massive nitrogen loss in critical surgical illness: effect on cardiac mass and function.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A A; Plank, L D; Finn, P J; Whalley, G A; Sharpe, N; Clark, M A; Hill, G L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors measured cardiac mass and function to determine whether these changed in patients who were critically ill who were losing large amounts of nitrogen from the body. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The large losses of body nitrogen that occur in patients with protein-energy malnutrition are associated with a loss of cardiac mass and function. It is not known if this also occurs in patients who were critically ill who are losing massive amounts of nitrogen. METHODS: Once hemodynamically stable, 13 patients who were critically ill underwent sequential measurements of left ventricular mass (LVM) and function, total body nitrogen (TBN), total body potassium, body weight, fat-free mass, and limb muscle mass. RESULTS: Over a 21-day study period, there was no change in LVM or function despite falls of 14% and 21% in TBN and total body potassium, respectively, a 21% fall in limb muscle mass, and a deterioration in skeletal muscle function by approximately 40%. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who were critically ill, cardiac mass does not decrease and function does not deteriorate after hemodynamic stability has been achieved despite massive losses of protein from the body. PMID:9296513

  18. Flow dichroism in critical colloidal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lenstra, T. A. J.; Dhont, J. K. G.

    2001-06-01

    Due to long-range correlations and slow dynamics of concentration fluctuations in the vicinity of the gas-liquid critical point, shear flow is very effective in distorting the microstructure of near-critical fluids. The anisotropic nature of the shear-field renders the microstructure highly anisotropic, leading to dichroism. Experiments on the dichroic behavior can thus be used to test theoretical predictions on microstructural order under shear flow conditions. We performed both static and dynamic dichroism and turbidity measurements on a colloid-polymer mixture, existing of silica spheres (radius 51 nm) and polydimethylsiloxane polymer (molar weight 204 kg/mol). Sufficiently far away from the critical point, in the mean-field region, the experimental data are in good agreement with theory. Very close to the critical point, beyond mean field, for which no theory exists yet, an unexpected decrease of dichroism on approach of the critical point is observed. Moreover, we do not observe critical slowing down of shear-induced dichroism, right up to the critical point, in contrast to the turbidity.

  19. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  20. Consideration of criticality in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Sanchez, L.C.; Stockman, C.T.; Ramsey, J.L. Jr.; Martell, M.

    1995-07-01

    The preliminary criticality analysis that was done suggests that the possibility of achieving critical conditions cannot be easily ruled out without looking at the geochemical process of assembly or the dynamics of the operation of a critical assembly. The evaluation of a critical assembly requires an integrated, consistent approach that includes evaluating the following: (1) the alteration rates of the layers of the container and spent fuel, (2) the transport of fissile material or neutron absorbers, and (3) the assembly mechanisms that can achieve critical conditions. The above is a non-trivial analysis and preliminary work suggests that with the loading assumed, enough fissile mass will leach from the HEU multi-purpose canisters to support a criticality. In addition, the consequences of an unpressurized Oklo type criticality would be insignificant to the performance of an unsaturated, tuff repository.

  1. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  2. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Martínez, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico; Argente, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after achieving weight loss (n = 44). Body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of T- and HMW-adiponectin, resistin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined. The control group consisted of 61 healthy prepubertal children. At diagnosis T-adiponectin was higher (P < 0.01; confidence interval (+0.04) - (+0.15)) and HMW-adiponectin lower (P < 0.001; confidence interval (-0.45) - (-0.21)) in OB children than in controls. A reduction in body fat increased T- and HMW-adiponectin and sOB-R (all P < 0.001) and decreased leptin (P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 levels (P < 0.05). After 6 months of sustained weight reduction a decrease in tumoral necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01) occurred, whereas weight recovery increased leptin (P < 0.001) and decreased T-adiponectin (P < 0.05). HMW-adiponectin levels negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and BMI in the whole cohort (both P < 0.001), as did T-adiponectin levels and HOMA index in OB patients (P < 0.01), but neither T- nor HMW-adiponectin correlated with body fat content (BFC) in OB children. We conclude that the impairment of T- and HMW-adiponectin levels in childhood obesity is different to that in elder OB patients, showing closer relationship with carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with BFC, but increasing their levels after weight loss and in association with metabolic improvement.

  3. Rapid weight loss in the context of Ramadan observance: recommendations for judokas.

    PubMed

    Aloui, A; Chtourou, H; Briki, W; Tabben, M; Chaouachi, A; Souissi, N; Shephard, R J; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    Judo is a weight-classified combat sport, and many athletes seek to compete at the lightest possible weight category to gain an advantage from competing against shorter/smaller, and supposedly weaker opponents. To achieve a desired weight, most judokas opt for rapid weight loss techniques. Short-duration maximal efforts are not greatly affected by "making weight", but prolonged and/or repeated exercise is significantly impaired. Negative effects on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, and cognitive function are also reported. Moreover, rapid weight loss reduces maximal cardiac output and glycogen stores, and impairs thermo-regulation. Limited empirical data suggest that Ramadan reduces judokas' performance, and this is likely to be exacerbated by attempts at rapid weight loss. Weight reduction during Ramadan tends to be counterproductive, and judokas who aim for a lower weight category are advised to attempt any desired reduction of body mass during the weeks leading up to Ramadan, rather than during the holy month.

  4. Weight trends for a fully reusable advanced single-stage shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Lemessurier, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The rate at which subsystem weights grow with vehicle gross weight is assessed and is shown to be critical to the efficiency of large Earth to orbit transports. The overall trend, however, is a reduction in the inerts as a percentage of gross weight as the vehicle size is increased. For this reason, the larger the vehicle, the greater the payload weight delivered per pound of vehicle manufactured. Other critical issues addressed include the effects of wing loading and wing size on wing weight, the effect of entry planform loading on thermal protection system weight, the impact of power demand on cooling system and prime power weight, and tank fineness ratio on insulation weight. The effects of body shape and various internal packaging arrangements on weight and balance are also discussed. The greatest impact on overall vehicle weight is body shape and internal packaging, and could account for weight savings of up to 30 percent in body structure. Other subsystems are important, but the savings are much smaller in relation to overall vehicle weight--individually less than one percent.

  5. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  6. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  7. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  8. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.

  9. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  10. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  11. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  12. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  13. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    PubMed

    Pater, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  14. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  15. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of critical infrastructure professionals across the nation. The survey included an evaluation...on the perceptions and views of the business process, program maturity and implementation, as well as the current state of outcomes. This thesis...foundational nature of this work. A formative program evaluation was conducted through an anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of

  16. How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

  17. Robust Critical Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2016-07-28

    Robust Critical Point Detection is a software to compute critical points in a 2D or 3D vector field robustly. The software was developed as a part of the author's work at the lab as a Phd student under Livermore Scholar Program (now called Livermore Graduate Scholar Program).

  18. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  19. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient, the family and the care team. A registered nurse (RN) who is certified in critical care is ... certified by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Pharmacist: An expert in ... Registered dietitian: A caregiver trained and licensed in nutrition ...

  20. Criticism and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul; Foulke, Robert D.

    1964-01-01

    A revised English curriculum, based upon different kinds of literary criticism, is counseled in this two-part paper. Part 1 identifies four kinds of criticism--formalist, synoptic, extrinsic, and stylistic. A conventional English Curriculum is briefly outlined. Curricular theories are discussed and positive and negative attempts to define…

  1. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  2. The Need for Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue of this journal about educational criticism as a form of qualitative inquiry. Argues that research in education has become a dead end. Agrees in the main with the article, but finds its view of criticism somewhat limited. Discusses the classroom itself as hypertext. (SR)

  3. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  4. Critical Pedagogy and Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Jacob W.

    2011-01-01

    Critical pedagogy has often been linked in the literature to faith traditions such as liberation theology, usually with the intent of improving or redirecting it. While recognizing and drawing from those previous linkages, Jacob Neumann goes further in this essay and develops the thesis that critical pedagogy can not just benefit from a connection…

  5. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  6. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been…

  7. Weighting interferometric data for direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    The new generation interferometric arrays such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are composed of a large number of telescopes and their configurations are optimized for Fourier plane (a.k.a. uv-plane) coverage. As a consequence, solving for the missing information in the uv-plane is becoming less critical and the imaging algorithms can be revisited. The situation is getting similar to that encountered with single filled aperture telescopes and it is becoming possible to make images in a direct way. In this article a new weighting method is introduced to obtain "pseudo-clean" images without using prior information to solve for the Fourier transform of the source. This method is similar but not equivalent to the successive application of robust weighting and tapering at different scales. The idea is to weight the data to compensate for the imperfect distribution of natural weights in the uv-plane. The price to pay for this direct imaging technique is that the final point spread function (PSF or beam) may not follow a simple analytical shape such as a Gaussian (but this is also the case in optical astronomy) and some sensitivity is lost (but this is the case with any imaging algorithm in interferometry). Two parameters are introduced to control the trade-off between imaging quality and sensitivity, namely a threshold parameter and a coupling parameter. This method is applied to simulated ALMA observations with 16, 32 and 50 antennas. As expected this method is found to be more efficient with more antennas and for more compact configurations because the uv-plane coverage is more complete. With 50 antennas in compact configuration it is possible to reduce the amplitude of the inner sidelobes (outer sidelobes) by a factor >6 (>2) compared to natural weighting for ~10 % loss in sensitivity, leading to sidelobes lower than 1.6 % of the main lobe peak value. With 16 antennas only, the method can still be used to reduce the inner sidelobes of a

  8. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  9. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods. PMID:26593930

  10. A Passage into Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Shows how a single passage might be handled by New Criticism, structuralism, deconstructionism, psychological criticism, and feminist criticism. Concludes that a plurality of critical approaches is better than a unity of approach. (RS)

  11. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  12. Benchmarking criticality safety calculations with subcritical experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    Calculation of the neutron multiplication factor at delayed criticality may be necessary for benchmarking calculations but it may not be sufficient. The use of subcritical experiments to benchmark criticality safety calculations could result in substantial savings in fuel material costs for experiments. In some cases subcritical configurations could be used to benchmark calculations where sufficient fuel to achieve delayed criticality is not available. By performing a variety of measurements with subcritical configurations, much detailed information can be obtained which can be compared directly with calculations. This paper discusses several measurements that can be performed with subcritical assemblies and presents examples that include comparisons between calculation and experiment where possible. Where not, examples from critical experiments have been used but the measurement methods could also be used for subcritical experiments.

  13. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…

  14. A Psychological and Nutritional Approach to Weight Loss: A Collaborative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Lisa; Kalodner, Cynthia

    Collaboration between a dietitian and a psychologist has been described as critical to the development and implementation of this weight control programs, and this paper describes such a program conducted through a college student health center. Nutritional components of weight loss programs should provide information which will enable…

  15. Expert Panel Consensus for and Analysis of Key Attributes on Websites Devoted to Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Land, Diane; Johnson, Chandrika; Miller, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity presents major challenges to public health in the United States. Trials of web-based interventions for weight control suggest that the Internet is a promising option for program delivery. Purpose: This study sought consensus among experts regarding critical components of successful weight control and to systematically examine…

  16. Weight Control Behavior as an Indicator of Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…

  17. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ≈4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ≈1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional

  18. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals.

  19. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  20. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  1. Peak Weight and Height Velocity to Age 36 Months and Asthma Development: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C.; Stigum, Hein; Håberg, Siri E.; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J.; Nystad, Wenche

    2015-01-01

    Background The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders. Methods We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311), recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) by 36 months (n = 47,905) and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26) per standard deviation (SD) increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19) per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis. Conclusions Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors. PMID:25635872

  2. Four-Year Weight Losses in the Look AHEAD Study: Factors Associated with Long-Term Success

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Wing, Rena R.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Hill, James O.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2–4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (p<0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥5% (46% vs 25%, p<0.0001) and ≥10% (23% vs 10%, p<0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, acheivement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years. PMID:21779086

  3. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  4. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  5. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  6. A holographic critical point

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher; Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-04-15

    We numerically construct a family of five-dimensional black holes exhibiting a line of first-order phase transitions terminating at a critical point at finite chemical potential and temperature. These black holes are constructed so that the equation of state and baryon susceptibilities approximately match QCD lattice data at vanishing chemical potential. The critical end point in the particular model we consider has temperature 143 MeV and chemical potential 783 MeV. Critical exponents are calculated, with results that are consistent with mean-field scaling relations.

  7. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  8. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, P; Paczuski, M

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpiles and biological evolution. Insights are gained not only from numerical simulations but also from rigorous mathematical analysis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607561

  9. Semiholographic Quantum Criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan

    2011-12-02

    We identify the near-critical effective theory (EFT) for a wide class of low-temperature phase transitions found via holography. The EFT is of the semiholographic type and describes both holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless and second-order transitions with nontrivial scaling. It is a simple generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson paradigm to systems with an emergent (or hidden) conformal sector. Having identified the near-critical EFT, we explore its basic phenomenology by computing critical exponents and low-frequency correlators.

  10. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  11. Nutrition in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Robert H; Dechert, Ronald E

    2011-06-01

    Critical care has evolved from a prolonged recovery room stay for cardiac surgery patients to a full medical and nursing specialty in the last 5 decades. The ability to feed patients who cannot eat has evolved from impossible to routine clinical practice in the last 4 decades. Nutrition in critically ill patients based on measurement of metabolism has evolved from a research activity to clinical practice in the last 3 decades. The authors have been involved in this evolution and this article discusses past, present, and likely future practices in nutrition in critically ill patients.

  12. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Lahmek, Pierre; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three

  13. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  14. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  15. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  16. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  17. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  18. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  19. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  20. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...