Science.gov

Sample records for achieving expected benefits

  1. Exploring the Role and Influence of Expectations in Achieving VLE Benefit Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stephen; Fearon, Colm

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role and influence of expectations management in realising benefit success when adopting a virtual learning environment (VLE). Based on a discussion of findings from a further and higher education college in the UK, a conceptual expectations management model is developed that explores the factors…

  2. Computer Use, Parental Expectations, & Latino Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, traditionally underrepresented minority children have lower levels of academic achievement than their white counterparts. In the broadest perspective, this quantitative study seeks to help stakeholders and policymakers understand the factors responsible for Hispanic or Latino student achievement relative to that of comparison…

  3. Omalizumab: what benefits should we expect?

    PubMed

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Velasco, Manel; Armario Hita, Jose Carlos; Labrador-Horrillo, Moises; Silvestre Salvador, Juan Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a skin disease characterised by wheal appearance, swelling, itching, and painful skin. Omalizumab has been used for CSU treatment demonstrating good efficacy. To investigate the efficacy and safety of omalizumab treatment in CSU patients in real-life practice. A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients suffering from CSU who received 300 mg of omalizumab every four weeks. After omalizumab treatment, 68.4% of patients showed a complete response (UAS7 = 0). All the patients were able to stop treatment with corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and anti-leukotrienes, and only 39.5% of patients remained on anti-histamines. Omalizumab treatment led to a 96% and 65% decrease in emergency room and primary health care visits, respectively, as well as a reduction in the direct costs associated with the disease. No omalizumab-related adverse events were reported. Omalizumab exhibits good efficacy in alleviating the symptoms of CSU, leads to a decrease in concomitant medication use, restores patients' quality of life, and has economic benefits by reducing disease-related health care costs. PMID:27210073

  4. Expectations of Achievement: Student, Teacher and Parent Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Irving, Earl; Widdowson, Deborah; Dixon, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' expectations of students have been extensively studied for forty years. However, students' self-expectations and the expectations of parents are less well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of student, teacher and parent expectations in relation to student achievement from the perspective of each group. Focus…

  5. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  6. Teacher Expectations and Student Literacy Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding the complex and dynamic nature of teaching and learning in schools, over four decades of research findings have consistently revealed a correlation between teacher expectations and student achievement. Focusing on teacher expectations for the narrative structures created by young children, this article features a discussion of data…

  7. High-school seniors' college enrollment goals: Costs and benefits of ambitious expectations.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Brandilynn J; Heckhausen, Jutta; Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-12-01

    High school students with high long-term educational expectations attain higher levels of education than those with lower expectations. Less studied is the role of students' short-term college enrollment expectations for the year after high school graduation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the costs and benefits of ambitious short-term expectations and the impact of falling short of these expectations on mental health, motivation, and educational outcomes. Over 1000 youth with expectations to attend college were surveyed during their senior year of high school, one year later, and four years later. Participants who did not achieve their short-term expectations had lower educational attainment four years later but were not less satisfied with their educational progress. The negative consequences of falling short of one's expectations were restricted to individuals with less ambitious short-term expectations. Thus, the benefits of ambitious short-term expectations for youth may outweigh the costs.

  8. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Daellenbach, K. K.; Hughes, K. R.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps. The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a 'supply side' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a 'demand side' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research; and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  9. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE`s thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a ``supply side`` limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a ``demand side`` limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  10. Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Weinstein, Rhona S

    2008-06-01

    In two independent datasets with 1872 elementary-aged children in 83 classrooms, Studies 1 and 2 examined the role of classroom context in moderating the relationship between child ethnicity and teacher expectations. For Study 1 overall and Study 2 mixed-grade classrooms, in ethnically diverse classrooms where students reported high levels of differential teacher treatment (PDT) towards high and low achieving students, teacher expectations of European American and Asian American students were between .75 and 1.00 standard deviations higher than teacher expectations of African American and Latino students with similar records of achievement. In highly diverse low-PDT classrooms in Study 1 and highly diverse low-PDT mixed-grade classrooms in Study 2, teachers held similar expectations for all students with similar records of achievement. Study 3 estimated the contribution of teacher expectations to the year-end ethnic achievement gap in high- and low-bias classrooms. In high-bias classrooms, teacher expectancy effects accounted for an average of .29 and up to .38 standard deviations of the year-end ethnic achievement gap.

  11. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  12. Parents' Expectations and Students' Achievement in Two Western Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Markus P.; Vida, Mina; Garrett, Jessica L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the relations of family SES and parents' educational expectations during early adolescence with students' self-concept of ability and academic achievement in mathematics and language in two western countries, Switzerland and USA Participants were drawn from two US longitudinal samples, The Michigan Study of Adolescent…

  13. Young Adult Occupational Achievement. Early Expectations versus Behavioral Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Sutterlin, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of young adults' occupational aspirations during the first seven years after high school with occupations held at age 30 showed that, no matter when expectations were measured, fewer than half achieved their aspirations. Among those who do not, men tend to move to higher occupations/positions, whereas women move down or leave the labor…

  14. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  15. Achievement domain and life expectancies in Japanese civilization.

    PubMed

    Simonton, D K

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the expected life span of eminent personalities may vary systematically according to the domain of achievement. The current investigation examines this phenomenon more closely by 1) introducing methodological controls for potential gender and cohort artifacts, 2) adding substantive predictors (e.g., suicide and homicide) that provide clues regarding the substantive basis for the differences, 3) scrutinizing a greater variety of achievement domains in both creativity and leadership, and 4) using a non-Western sample of historical figures (1,632 Japanese born between 450 and 1883 A.D.). Multiple regression analyses revealed domain contrasts in life expectancy (e.g., the shorter life spans of fiction authors and political figures, but the longer life spans of religious leaders and sword makers). In addition, the analyses helped decipher the extent to which these domain differences were due to violent death or to the stress of occupying high positions of power.

  16. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  17. Geostationary satellite imaging spectrometry for GEOSS: importance and expected benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W., Sr.; Mango, S.

    2008-12-01

    Satellite infrared hyperspectral instruments provide atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution. Already implemented aboard polar orbiting satellites, these instruments have provided data that are proving to improve greatly global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). When implemented aboard geostationary satellites as imaging spectrometers, even greater impacts on global NWP are expected from their capability to observe vertically resolved cloud and water vapor tracer winds. Possibly most important, geostationary imaging spectrometry will enable much improved mesoscale severe weather prediction because of the ability to observe atmospheric dynamics through nearcontinuous observation of the three dimensional water vapor and temperature distribution of the atmosphere. Furthermore, hyperspectral measurements of greenhouse and pollutant gas fluxes from geostationary orbit are expected to be an important ingredient for understanding climate change and producing timely air quality forecasts. In this paper, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), recent improvements in the satellite observing system, and the importance and expected benefits of geostationary satellite imaging spectrometry for the GEOSS are discussed. Demonstration of a few of the expected measurement capabilities of these systems is provided from experimental aircraft and satellite measurements. Finally, the status of the development of the geostationary satellite imaging spectrometer is provided.

  18. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  19. A Case Study on the Failure of Management Controls around Expected Benefit Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Earl H.

    2013-01-01

    Organization leaders manage change through projects to realize specific expected benefits. Under Expectation-Confirmation theory, expected benefits can be used to judge the ongoing viability and final success of the project. Organization leaders often develop management controls to ensure that the expected benefits are defined to allow their use…

  20. Survey Finds Mismatch in Student Achievement and Parents' College Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Education Department released a report last week, "Parent Expectations and Planning for College," that offers new insights into the factors influencing whether parents expect their children to enroll at four-year colleges. It suggests that many young people who could succeed at such institutions are not being encouraged by their families or…

  1. Catalytic applications of amorphous alloys: Expectations, achievements, and disappointments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Árpád

    2011-07-01

    This review intends to summarize the major achievements in the application of amorphous alloys as precursors of catalyst materials. This non-traditional catalyst preparation method may provide supported catalysts with novel chemical and structural properties. Selected examples for both glassy alloy precursors and those fabricated by mechanochemistry include CO oxidation over binary and ternary alloys, dehydrogenation over Cu-M (M = Ti, Zr or Hf), one-step synthesis of methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective hydrogenation of unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Ni alloys for methanation developed for the project to solve global warming by recycling carbon dioxide are also discussed.

  2. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  3. Accountability for Community Benefit: A Reasonable Expectation for Canadian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Graham, J Ross

    2016-05-01

    North American hospitals have historically struggled to engage in prevention and health promotion activities because they have not been incentivized or held accountable for doing so. However, in order to be exempt from federal taxes, 3,000 non-profit hospitals in the US must now regularly assess the health status of the communities they serve, and take action to address identified health needs. This is called "accountability for community benefit," and it is required under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as Obamacare). A modified version of accountability for community benefit warrants exploration in the Canadian context, as it may support Canadian hospitals to direct resources towards prevention and health promotion activities - something many Canadian hospitals want to do, but struggle with in the current accountability environment. This is an important health policy topic because even a small shift in focus by hospitals towards prevention and health promotion has the potential to improve population health and reduce healthcare demand. PMID:27232233

  4. Accountability for Community Benefit: A Reasonable Expectation for Canadian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Graham, J Ross

    2016-05-01

    North American hospitals have historically struggled to engage in prevention and health promotion activities because they have not been incentivized or held accountable for doing so. However, in order to be exempt from federal taxes, 3,000 non-profit hospitals in the US must now regularly assess the health status of the communities they serve, and take action to address identified health needs. This is called "accountability for community benefit," and it is required under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as Obamacare). A modified version of accountability for community benefit warrants exploration in the Canadian context, as it may support Canadian hospitals to direct resources towards prevention and health promotion activities - something many Canadian hospitals want to do, but struggle with in the current accountability environment. This is an important health policy topic because even a small shift in focus by hospitals towards prevention and health promotion has the potential to improve population health and reduce healthcare demand.

  5. Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Teacher Expectations for Pupil Achievement in Secondary Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornbleth, Catherine; And Others

    Identification of behavioral correlates of differential teacher expectations for pupil performance is made through a system of dyadic interaction analysis. Observable differences in secondary teachers' behavior with pupils from whom they expect high achievement and pupils from whom they expect low achievement are measured in seven social studies…

  6. Cost Perception and the Expectancy-Value Model of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia N.

    The expectancy-value model of achievement motivation, first described by J. Atkinson (1957) and refined by J. Eccles and her colleagues (1983, 1992, 1994) predicts achievement motivation based on expectancy for success and perceived task value. Cost has been explored very little. To explore the possibility that cost is different from expectancy…

  7. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  8. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  9. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  10. The Longitudinal Relations of Teacher Expectations to Achievement in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion; Ghazarian, Sharon R.

    2009-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the role of teacher expectations in the early school years or the importance of teacher expectations as a predictor of future academic achievement. The current study investigated these issues in the reading and mathematic domains for young children. Data from nearly 1,000 children and families at 1st, 3rd,…

  11. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  12. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  13. The World Already Avoided: Quantifying the Ozone Benefits Achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; McKenzie, Richard; Velders, Guus; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic Ozone Hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2014 the Montreal Protocol has already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using an off-line 3-D atmospheric chemistry model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with benefits for surface UV and climate. A deep Arctic Ozone Hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given the meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic Ozone Hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The ozone decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  14. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  15. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  16. Parental Involvement and Expectations of Children's Academic Achievement Goals in Botswana: Parent's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kgosidialwa, Keinyatse T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the school related activities that parents in Botswana engage in with their children. The study also examined how parents in Botswana perceive their involvement and expectations of their children's academic achievement goals. Sixteen parents (15 females and 1 male) who had children in standards five, six, or seven participated…

  17. Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

  18. Culturally Responsive Caring and Expectations for Academic Achievement in a Catholic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallavis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article draws from a larger dissertation study that applied ethnographic and historical research methods to explore the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and Catholic schooling in immigrant communities. In particular, this article presents qualitative data analysis to describe student achievement expectations at a contemporary…

  19. Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Sandra S.

    2006-01-01

    Why is it so important to keep the arts strong in schools? How does study of the arts contribute to student achievement and success? This paper is designed to answer these and other questions. It describes in nontechnical terms what the research says about how study of the arts contributes to academic achievement and student success. It offers…

  20. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females.

  1. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females. PMID:26053150

  2. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA), a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%), insurance (24%), pension (14%), and other (27%) companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least) offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available. PMID:25653568

  3. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA), a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%), insurance (24%), pension (14%), and other (27%) companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least) offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available.

  4. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  5. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G. J. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  6. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-05-26

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013.

  7. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G.J.M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  8. Realising the Real Benefits of Outsourcing: Measurement Excellence and Its Importance in Achieving Long Term Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    These days firms are, more than ever, pressed to demonstrate returns on their investment in outsourcing. While the initial returns can always be associated with one-off cost cutting, outsourcing arrangements are complex, often involving inter-related high-value activities, which makes the realisation of long-term benefits from outsourcing ever more challenging. Executives in client firms are no longer satisfied with the same level of service delivery through the outsourcing lifecycle. They seek to achieve business transformation and innovation in their present and future services, beyond satisfying service level agreements (SLAs). Clearly the business world is facing a new challenge: an outsourcing delivery system of high-value activities that demonstrates value over time and across business functions. However, despite such expectations, many client firms are in the dark when trying to measure and quantify the return on outsourcing investments: results of this research show that less than half of all CIOs and CFOs (43%) have attempted to calculate the financial impact of outsourcing to their bottom line, indicating that the financial benefits are difficult to quantify (51%).

  9. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  10. Expectations of benefit and tolerance to risk of individuals with spinal cord injury regarding potential participation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Ghag, Arvindera; Dvorak, Marcel F; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Illes, Judy

    2012-12-10

    We conducted a survey of individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) to determine their receptivity to participating in clinical trials of drug therapies or stem cell therapies, their anticipation of therapeutic benefits, and their tolerance to risk. A 46-item questionnaire was administered to individuals with cervical or thoracic SCI identified through a provincial database. The average age was 42 years and the individuals were, on average, 5.5 years post-injury. Receptivity to neuroprotective drug trials in the acute setting was very high, but somewhat less so for stem cell trials in the subacute or chronic (current) setting. With respect to expectation of functional benefit, approximately one third of the respondents indicated that they would want a 5-25% chance of achieving some functional recovery if enrolling in a stem cell therapy clinical trial in the current, chronic injury state. Whereas the majority typically would require the risk of spinal cord damage, cancer, infection, and nerve pain from invasive cell transplantation trials to be ≤1%, 15-30% would participate regardless of the risk of these complications. The factors associated with this high risk tolerance were gender (males>females), age (elderly>young), and self-reported knowledge of SCI research (greater knowledge>less knowledge). Injury severity or chronicity did not have a significant correlation with risk tolerance. Whereas previous studies have shown that the understanding of stem cell science is limited among individuals with SCI, here we show that many still have high hopes for the possibility of neurological benefit, are anxious to participate in invasive stem cell trials, and, in many cases, have high tolerance for risk in such trials. Taken together, the data underscore the need for careful communication with individuals with SCI to avoid unrealistic expectations and therapeutic misconception in experimental trials.

  11. 76 FR 74699 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... table is needed in order to compute the value of early retirement benefits and, thus, the total value of... plan and the unreduced retirement age. This expected retirement age is used to compute the value of...

  12. 75 FR 74622 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... table is needed in order to compute the value of early retirement benefits and, thus, the total value of... plan and the unreduced retirement age. This expected retirement age is used to compute the value of...

  13. Shifting the Bell Curve: The Benefits and Costs of Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total…

  14. Locus of Control and Achievement Motivation as Moderators of the Expectancy-Academic Performance Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batlis, Nick C.; Waters, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy theory predictions of course performance were tested for a sample of 195 undergraduates; significant prediction was attained for the total sample using a log linear expectancy model. (Author)

  15. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  16. A Model of Student Engagement and Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Aja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of academic achievement among minority students and investigate teacher-student relationships, teachers' classroom and future educational expectations for students, and students' levels of classroom engagement in order to better understand their patterns of academic achievement.…

  17. Independence Training and School Achievement: A Study of Parental Attitudes and Expectations as Related to Children's Elementary School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, W. C.; And Others

    In this study of the relationship between factors in the home and school achievement, teachers' ratings and student scores on a standard achievement test were examined in light of parental expectations for the child's independence behavior, the child's personal qualities, and his future work values. Mothers of 441 fifth graders were interviewed…

  18. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  19. A Case Study of the "Pygmalion Effect": Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    The "Pygmalion effect" usually refers to the fact that people, often children, students or employees, turn to live up to what's expected of them and they tend to do better when treated as if they are capable of success (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). However, the positive teaching expectations do not necessarily lead to high student…

  20. Achievement, Motivation, and Educational Choices: A Longitudinal Study of Expectancy and Value Using a Multiplicative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes…

  1. The Key to Successful Achievement as an Undergraduate Student: Confidence and Realistic Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Laura; Putwain, David; Connors, Liz; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how expectations of independent study and academic behavioural confidence predicted end-of-semester marks in a sample of undergraduate students. Students' expectations and academic behavioural confidence were measured near the beginning of the semester, and academic performance was taken from aggregated end-of-semester…

  2. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated [CO2] for soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising [CO2] is widely expected to counteract crop losses to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulations and year-to-ye...

  3. Disruption, Achievement and the Heterogeneous Benefits of Smaller Classes. NBER Working Paper No. 15812

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Graham J.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, empirical research investigating the possibility of heterogeneous benefits of class size reduction lacks a conceptual framework about specific dimensions of potential heterogeneity. In this paper we develop a model of education production that incorporates disruption and student achievement and illustrates how these underlying…

  4. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  5. Course Syllabi: High Expectations...High Achievement. Social Studies (and) History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    The document describes social studies and history courses offered in the junior high and senior high schools of Henry County, Tennessee. The syllabi were developed as part of a Teacher's Corps Demonstration Project. The overall objectives of the syllabi are to inform students and parents of the minimum competencies expected in social studies and…

  6. Achieving and Sustaining New Knowledge Development in High-Expectation Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In markets characterized by strong competition, new knowledge and new knowledge development are generally recognized as the key means for an enterprise to gain competitive advantage. This knowledge-based competitive advantage is critical for all commercial ventures, but is especially so for high-expectation start-ups (technology-based ventures…

  7. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  8. Giving the Spoon Back: Higher Teacher Expectations of Achievement for Students Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This single case study examined a Deaf teacher's behaviors and beliefs that reflect her expectations of her deaf students. Primary modes of communication used were American Sign Language and written English. Data were collected via videotaped observations and interviews. Analysis was done by coding utterances of the participants using a deductive…

  9. Estimation of radiation risk from screening mammography: Recent trends and comparison with expected benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Feig, S.A.; Ehrlich, S.M. )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of recent epidemiologic studies, the National Institutes of Health in 1985 provided a new estimate for radiation risk to the breast that employed a relative risk model and acknowledged greater dependence on age at exposure. Lifetime risks from a single mammogram may be calculated from this estimate and are lower than those based on the previous 1977 National Cancer Institute estimate. Possible years of life expectancy lost from annual mammography beginning at age 40 years may also be calculated and are negligible compared with estimates for years of life expectancy gained from such screening.

  10. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  11. The Influence of Perceived Parental Expectations and Pressures on Women's Academic Achievement during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furry, Allyson N.; Sy, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has examined the relationship between parental expectations and student academic performance. However, less attention has been given to the role of different parental pressures in students' achievement during their first semester of college. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of perceived parental expectations…

  12. An Examination of the Interrelationships between Self-Esteem, Others' Expectations, Family Support, Learning Approaches and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Sergio; Cuestas, Pedro J.; Fenollar, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The current research represents an initial step into the analysis of the effect of self-esteem, others' (peers and teachers) expectations and family support on academic achievement through learning approaches (deep processing, surface processing and effort). Data were gathered from 553 university students from different faculties of a Spanish…

  13. Using the Expectancy Value Model of Motivation to Understand the Relationship between Student Attitudes and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We tested a model of the relationship between attitudes toward statistics and achievement based on Eccles' Expectancy Value Model (1983). Participants (n = 149; 83% female) were second-year Australian university students in a psychology statistics course (mean age = 23.36 years, SD = 7.94 years). We obtained demographic details, past performance,…

  14. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  15. Family Benefits--What Are Students' Attitudes and Expectations by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waner, Karen K.; Winter, Janet K.; Mansfield, Joan C.

    2007-01-01

    Benefits and leave policies are important aspects of employment when employees attempt to balance career and family. These policies include salary, promotion, vacation, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, medical insurance, life insurance, maternity or paternity leave, elder-care leave, discriminatory leave, and company support and counseling. The…

  16. Determining Teacher Expectations in an Urban School Environment Its Implications for Affecting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Tanya H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method, Case Study research was to explore the teacher's perceptions, efficacy, and belief systems. The researcher using a primary survey and a collection of secondary extant data endeavored to uncover the teachers' responses for efficacy, beliefs and perceptions of student achievement. The Effective Schools (Edmonds,…

  17. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  18. Keeping Expectations High While Helping Lower-Achieving Students Meet Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa; Morrill, Laura; Adler, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, the Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) began a new initiative called the Partnership for Literacy. In this implementation study, teachers from a range of middle schools in Wisconsin and New York worked in partnership with each other and with an instructional facilitator to adopt and adapt strategies that have…

  19. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  20. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  1. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sharon B; Dermody, Orla; Klein, Stephanie P; Locke, Anna M; McGrath, Justin M; Paul, Rachel E; Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Strellner, Reid; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R; Leakey, Andrew D B

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is widely expected to counteract crop losses that are due to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulation and year-to-year variation in weather conditions at a unique open-air field facility to show that the stimulation of soybean yield by elevated [CO2] diminished to zero as drought intensified. Contrary to the prevalent expectation in the literature, rising [CO2] did not counteract the effect of strong drought on photosynthesis and yield because elevated [CO2] interacted with drought to modify stomatal function and canopy energy balance. This new insight from field experimentation under hot and dry conditions, which will become increasingly prevalent in the coming decades, highlights the likelihood of negative impacts from interacting global change factors on a key global commodity crop in its primary region of production.

  2. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  3. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sharon B; Dermody, Orla; Klein, Stephanie P; Locke, Anna M; McGrath, Justin M; Paul, Rachel E; Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Strellner, Reid; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R; Leakey, Andrew D B

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is widely expected to counteract crop losses that are due to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulation and year-to-year variation in weather conditions at a unique open-air field facility to show that the stimulation of soybean yield by elevated [CO2] diminished to zero as drought intensified. Contrary to the prevalent expectation in the literature, rising [CO2] did not counteract the effect of strong drought on photosynthesis and yield because elevated [CO2] interacted with drought to modify stomatal function and canopy energy balance. This new insight from field experimentation under hot and dry conditions, which will become increasingly prevalent in the coming decades, highlights the likelihood of negative impacts from interacting global change factors on a key global commodity crop in its primary region of production. PMID:27595230

  4. Component Prioritization Schema for Achieving Maximum Time and Cost Benefits from Software Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Praveen Ranjan; Pareek, Deepak

    Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Defining the end of software testing represents crucial features of any software development project. A premature release will involve risks like undetected bugs, cost of fixing faults later, and discontented customers. Any software organization would want to achieve maximum possible benefits from software testing with minimum resources. Testing time and cost need to be optimized for achieving a competitive edge in the market. In this paper, we propose a schema, called the Component Prioritization Schema (CPS), to achieve an effective and uniform prioritization of the software components. This schema serves as an extension to the Non Homogenous Poisson Process based Cumulative Priority Model. We also introduce an approach for handling time-intensive versus cost-intensive projects.

  5. Environmental benefits of different types of heat pumps, available and expected

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1993-11-01

    A brief overview of integrated resource planning (IRP) is provided, with emphasis on how stakeholders interact within the process and where the opportunities may lie for heat pump advocates in cold climates. Five heat pump options that represent various approaches for improving heat pump cold weather performance are included here in a comparative analysis: 2-speed electric air source heat pumps, variable-speed electric air source heat pumps, electric ground-source heat pumps, natural gas engine-driven heat pumps, and natural gas absorption heat pumps. The comparative analysis addresses seasonal performance, seasonal peak demand, air pollutant emissions, customer energy costs, and recognition of environmental externalities in IRP, all in the context of a residential application in the Great Lakes region of the US. Several actions that may be in the interest of heat pump stakeholders in cold climates were identified, including: development of improved software for utility planners, advocacy of a practical form of the Societal Test for use in IRP that credits heat pumps for the residential air pollutant emissions that they avoid, and development of practical methods to credit heat pumps with other environmental benefits for which they may be responsible.

  6. Informed consent for whole genome sequencing: a qualitative analysis of participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Holly K; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg, Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J; Dent, Karin M; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the Supplementary Materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework.

  7. Informed Consent for Whole Genome Sequencing: A Qualitative Analysis of Participant Expectations and Perceptions of Risks, Benefits, and Harms

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Holly K.; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg., Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J.; Dent., Karin M.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the supplementary materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework. PMID:22532433

  8. Polyandrous females benefit by producing sons that achieve high reproductive success in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C

    2011-09-22

    Females of many taxa often copulate with multiple males and incite sperm competition. On the premise that males of high genetic quality are more successful in sperm competition, it has been suggested that females may benefit from polyandry by accruing 'good genes' for their offspring. Laboratory studies have shown that multiple mating can increase female fitness through enhanced embryo viability, and have exposed how polyandry influences the evolution of the ejaculate. However, such studies often do not allow for both female mate choice and male-male competition to operate simultaneously. Here, I took house mice (Mus domesticus) from selection lines that had been evolving with (polygamous) and without (monogamous) sperm competition for 16 generations and, by placing them in free-ranging enclosures for 11 weeks, forced them to compete for access to resources and mates. Parentage analyses revealed that female reproductive success was not influenced by selection history, but there was a significant paternity bias towards males from the polygamous selection lines. Therefore, I show that female house mice benefit from polyandry by producing sons that achieve increased fitness in a semi-natural environment.

  9. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring.

  10. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. PMID:26649453

  11. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  12. Universal patterns or the tale of two systems? Mathematics achievement and educational expectations in post-socialist Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labor market capitalist relationships, de facto during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational inequality. This study examines the relationships among parental education, gender, educational expectations, and mathematics achievement of youths in five post-socialist Eastern European countries, comparing them with three Western countries. We employed the 8th-grade data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 and 2007. The findings point to the universal associations between parental education and student outcomes, whereas gender comparisons present interesting East-West differences. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25346564

  13. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  14. 78 FR 72018 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... table is needed in order to compute the value of early retirement benefits and, thus, the total value of... retirement age is used to compute the value of the early retirement benefit and, thus, the total value...

  15. 77 FR 71321 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... table is needed in order to compute the value of early retirement benefits and, thus, the total value of... retirement age is used to compute the value of the early retirement benefit and, thus, the total value...

  16. School Expectations for Parental Involvement and Student Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study of Middle Schools in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hui; Akiba, Motoko

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental…

  17. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E.; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = −0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001). These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  18. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = -0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001).These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  19. Exploring and Understanding the Benefits of Tutoring Software on Urban Students' Science Achievement: What Are Baltimore City Practitioners' Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2008-01-01

    Historically, very little research that meets the scientifically based standards as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act has been conducted on the effectiveness of educational technology on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand urban city teachers' perspectives on the benefits or effects of…

  20. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  1. Pathways to Achievement: Career and Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Latina/o Immigrant Parents and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavira, Gabriela; Cooper, Catherine R.; Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural and related theories, 4 questions examined career and educational aspirations and expectations among 24 immigrant Latina/o early adolescents and their parents as predictors of students' grades. First, adolescents' career aspirations and expectations were correlated, and both parents and adolescents held educational…

  2. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Per-Student Expenditures and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Roberts, Kerry; Bell, C. David; Womack, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Cost-benefit correlations have been subject to "selective sampling" in the media. Usually extremes of data from a very few high-funding and low-funding states are cited in the media to construct the case that there is no relationship between economic inputs and academic outputs. This study, using average per-pupil expenditures and ACT…

  3. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  4. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role.

  5. Students' Expectations of, and Experiences in E-Learning: Their Relation to Learning Achievements and Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Manuela; Maier, Brigitte; Macher, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Within only a few years, the use of e-learning has increased rapidly in Austria. In certain subjects, up to 60% of university students report using e-learning platforms at least "sometimes" or "frequently" (Unger & Wroblewski, 2006). Yet, which aspects of e-learning do students consider important for their learning achievements and course…

  6. Predicting High School Graduation for Latino Males Using Expectancy Value Theory of Motivation and Tenth Grade Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Erin Oakley

    2010-01-01

    National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…

  7. Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. Shattering Expectations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Typically, achievement gaps between groups of students are measured as either differences in average scores or differences in proficiency rates. But, practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have long recognized that these approaches don't tell the whole story. Average scores, for example, are good at summarizing trends but can mask real…

  8. Achieving the Benefits of a High-Potassium, Paleolithic Diet, Without the Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-04-01

    The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis. For this comprehensive review, we scanned the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE using the following search terms: potassium intake, renal potassium excretion, and prevention of hyperkalemia. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or review articles published between 1980 and 2015 in high-impact journals. The normal kidney has the capacity to tightly regulate K(+) homoeostasis. We discuss new findings with respect to sensing mechanisms by which the kidney maintains K(+) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and distal tubule. There are widely prescribed hypertensive medications that cause hyperkalemia and thus require dietary K(+) restriction. We conclude by discussing newly approved drugs capable of binding K(+) in the gastrointestinal tract and speculate that this new pharmacology might allow diet liberalization in patients at risk for hyperkalemia, affording them the numerous benefits of a K(+)-rich diet. PMID:26948054

  9. Achieving the Benefits of a High-Potassium, Paleolithic Diet, Without the Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-04-01

    The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis. For this comprehensive review, we scanned the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE using the following search terms: potassium intake, renal potassium excretion, and prevention of hyperkalemia. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or review articles published between 1980 and 2015 in high-impact journals. The normal kidney has the capacity to tightly regulate K(+) homoeostasis. We discuss new findings with respect to sensing mechanisms by which the kidney maintains K(+) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and distal tubule. There are widely prescribed hypertensive medications that cause hyperkalemia and thus require dietary K(+) restriction. We conclude by discussing newly approved drugs capable of binding K(+) in the gastrointestinal tract and speculate that this new pharmacology might allow diet liberalization in patients at risk for hyperkalemia, affording them the numerous benefits of a K(+)-rich diet.

  10. Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.

  11. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  12. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  13. Impact on Life Expectancy of Withdrawing Thiopurines in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Sustained Clinical Remission: A Lifetime Risk-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Sokol, Harry; Cosnes, Jacques; Schwarzinger, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Objective Long-term treatment with thiopurines is associated with a decreased risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) flare but an increased risk of various cancers depending on gender, age, and presence of extensive colitis. We evaluated risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines in patients with CD in prolonged remission. Methods We developed a Markov model assessing risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines compared to continuing thiopurines in a lifetime horizon. The model was stratified by age (35 and 65 years old at thiopurine withdrawal), gender and presence of extensive colitis. Parameter estimates were taken from French cohorts and hospital databases, cancer and death national registries and published literature. Life expectancy, rates of relapse, serious adverse events, and causes-of-death were evaluated. Results In patients without extensive colitis, continuing thiopurines increased life expectancy up to 0.03 years for 35 year-old men and women but decreased life expectancy down to 0.07 years for 65 year-old men and women. Withdrawal strategy became the preferred strategy at 40.6 years for men, and 45.7 years for women without extensive colitis. In patients with extensive colitis, continuation strategy was the preferred strategy regardless of age. Risk-benefit analysis was not modified by duration of CD activity. Conclusions Factors determining life expectancy associated with withdrawal or continuation of thiopurines in patients with CD and in sustained clinical remission vary substantially according to gender, age and presence of extensive colitis. Individual decisions to continue or withdraw thiopurines in patients with CD in sustained remission should take into account these parameters. PMID:27271176

  14. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  15. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    development. Columbia University's teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for pre- college science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student motivation and achievement in science. The Program is premised on the beliefs that hands-on experience in the practice of science improves the quality and authenticity of science teaching, and that improved science teaching is correlated with increased student interest and achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant findings. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in a well-designed research program.

  16. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  17. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of SCILS for Early Childhood Training in Academic Achievement. Report 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, D. R.; And Others

    This report documents the long term cost benefits to society of the Self Controlled Interactive Learning Systems (SCILS), a program based on cybernetics and designed to teach early reading skills to children ages 3 to 6. SCILS required children to spend not more than 20 minutes daily using a "talking typewriter," a "talking page," and a "voice…

  19. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  20. The Influence of Parents' Beliefs and Expectations on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the United States and Japan: A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliskow, Tia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, considerable research has been done comparing the relative achievement in mathematics by students in the United States and Japan. The current study focuses on one possible factor influencing student achievement: parental influence. The researcher interviewed a small group of teachers in the two countries regarding their…

  1. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  2. Family Fortunes: Female Students' Perceptions and Expectations of Higher Education and an Examination of How They, and their Parents, See the Benefits of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a case study undertaken in 2011 which examined a small group of female students', and their parents', perceptions of the purpose of a university education. The research is underpinned by a review of the literature examining the views held by academics and politicians as to the benefits of higher education and of research in the…

  3. Do You See What I See? Understanding Filipino Elderly's Needs, Benefits, and Expectations from an Adult Continuing Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escolar Chua, Rowena L.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2014-01-01

    As the elderly population increases, encouraging older adults to participate in lifelong learning has become a priority for many countries. Properly structured lifelong learning programs have consistently yielded numerous benefits to older adults; therefore, careful attention and effort should be exerted to ensure its effectiveness by involving…

  4. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  5. The Power of Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Principals want teachers to do more than profess high expectations for their students. Principals want teachers to have the knowledge and skills to realize their expectations for students by using strategies that increase students' attention to their achievement and responsibilities for learning. Current expectancy literature states that teachers…

  6. Addressing the Human Resources for Health crisis in countries: How far have we gone? What can we expect to achieve by 2015?

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Manuel M; Dolea, Carmen; Dreesch, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Report 2006 identified 57 countries world-wide whose health worker to population density fell below a critical threshold of 2.3 per 1,000 population. This meant that below this critical threshold, a country could not provide the basic health services to its population, defined here as 80% immunization coverage and 80% skilled birth attendance at delivery. Of the 57 countries, 36 are located in Africa. This article reviews the progress countries have made in addressing their health workforce crisis. It cites 3 of the most recent global studies and the indicators used to measure progress. It also features the experiences of 8 countries, namely Malawi, Peru, Ethiopia, Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Zambia, Mali. Their situations provide a diverse picture of country efforts, challenges, and successes. The article asks the question of whether the target of 25% reduction in the number of crisis countries can be achieved by 2015. This was a goal set by the World Health Assembly in 2008. While the authors wish to remain optimistic about the striving towards this target, their optimism must be matched by an adequate level of investment in countries on HRH development. The next four years will show how much will really be achieved.

  7. Addressing the Human Resources for Health crisis in countries: How far have we gone? What can we expect to achieve by 2015?

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Manuel M; Dolea, Carmen; Dreesch, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Report 2006 identified 57 countries world-wide whose health worker to population density fell below a critical threshold of 2.3 per 1,000 population. This meant that below this critical threshold, a country could not provide the basic health services to its population, defined here as 80% immunization coverage and 80% skilled birth attendance at delivery. Of the 57 countries, 36 are located in Africa. This article reviews the progress countries have made in addressing their health workforce crisis. It cites 3 of the most recent global studies and the indicators used to measure progress. It also features the experiences of 8 countries, namely Malawi, Peru, Ethiopia, Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Zambia, Mali. Their situations provide a diverse picture of country efforts, challenges, and successes. The article asks the question of whether the target of 25% reduction in the number of crisis countries can be achieved by 2015. This was a goal set by the World Health Assembly in 2008. While the authors wish to remain optimistic about the striving towards this target, their optimism must be matched by an adequate level of investment in countries on HRH development. The next four years will show how much will really be achieved. PMID:21845315

  8. Addressing the expected survival benefit for clinical trial design in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Pilotto, Sara; Maines, Francesca; Bracarda, Sergio; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Carlini, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Porta, Camillo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    We performed a sensitivity analysis, cumulating all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received systemic therapy, to evaluate if the comparison of RCTs may drive to biased survival estimations. An overall survival (OS) significant difference according to therapeutic strategy was more likely be determined in RCTs evaluating hormonal drugs versus those studies testing immunotherapy, chemotherapy or other strategies. With regard to control arm, an OS significant effect was found for placebo-controlled trials versus studies comparing experimental treatment with active therapies. Finally, regarding to docetaxel (DOC) timing, the OS benefit was more likely to be proved in Post-DOC setting in comparison with DOC and Pre-DOC. These data suggest that clinical trial design should take into account new benchmarks such as the type of treatment strategy, the choice of the comparator and the phase of the disease in relation to the administration of standard chemotherapy.

  9. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Parents must learn to transmit a sense of high expectations to their children (related to behavior and accomplishments) without crushing them with too much pressure. This means setting realistic expectations based on their children's special abilities, listening to their children's feelings about the expectations, and understanding what…

  10. Exceeding Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

  11. Directed Self-Assembly: Expectations and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been a revolutionary thrust in recent years of development of science and technology for its broad appeal for employing a novel idea for relevant technological applications in particular and for mass-scale production and marketing as common man commodity in general. An interesting aspect of this emergent technology is that it involves scientific research community and relevant industries alike. Top–down and bottom–up approaches are two broad division of production of nanoscale materials in general. However, both the approaches have their own limits as far as large-scale production and cost involved are concerned. Therefore, novel new techniques are desired to be developed to optimize production and cost. Directed self-assembly seems to be a promising technique in this regard; which can work as a bridge between the top–down and bottom–up approaches. This article reviews how directed self-assembly as a technique has grown up and outlines its future prospects. PMID:20730077

  12. Maximize the benefit of SNCR: Combine SNCR with combustion optimization and achieve 50% NOx reduction from a low NOx burner baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, P.; Schindler, E.

    2000-07-01

    PECO Energy Company operates one coal fired boiler at its Cromby Generating Facility. Cromby Unit 1 is a B and W front fired unit rated at 160 MW. The units boiler has been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air ports. Due to NOx allowance pricing, PECO began evaluating options for reducing Cromby's NOx emissions. SNCR was evaluated at the best option for the plant even though the furnace exit temperatures and CO were high at practical injection locations. RJM Corporation, a Fuel Tech NOxOUT{trademark} Implementer, was selected to supply the system because of their extensive experience in solving combustion problems and applying NOxOUT SNCR systems on utility boilers. In order to reduce emissions during the 1999 NOx season, the deadline for an operational system was set at June 2nd. The project was issued on a fast track schedule starting February 2, 1999. The boiler was started up on June 2 on schedule after a six week maintenance outage. The project's 25% NOx reduction target was achieved after two weeks of combustion optimization. Combustion optimization was followed by NOxOUT A reagent injection system optimization which resulted in a 50% combined NOx reduction. Other benefits included a reduction in CO to less than 100 ppm and a 33% reduction in LOI.

  13. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jana J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how some universities are proactively looking to improve, enhance, and increase student housing on-campus through new and renovated residence halls that meet and exceed the expectations of today's students. Renovation improvements related to maximizing security, enhancing a homelike environment; developing a sense of community, and…

  14. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

  15. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  16. Great expectations.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Howard A

    2012-04-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, I am struck by his creative genius and by the parallel between the intellectual development of his protagonists and the evolution of peer review. Like many of his novels and serial writings, the story of the history of peer review is a bildungsroman, one that has followed a process of growing up, sought answers through a journey marked by achievement and disappointment, and ultimately matured to be accepted by a community.

  17. Great expectations

    PubMed Central

    Rockman, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens’s birth, I am struck by his creative genius and by the parallel between the intellectual development of his protagonists and the evolution of peer review. Like many of his novels and serial writings, the story of the history of peer review is a bildungsroman, one that has followed a process of growing up, sought answers through a journey marked by achievement and disappointment, and ultimately matured to be accepted by a community. PMID:22466653

  18. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  19. Training Focuses on Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses a training program that aims to raise teachers' awareness of how they treat their students. The Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement, or TESA, program--which delves into whether teachers deal with their lower-achieving and higher-achieving students equitably--has been used nationally for more than 30 years. But its…

  20. Long-Term Treatment Outcomes of Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Survival Benefit of Achieving a Sustained Virological Response

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Bryony; Saleem, Jawaad; Heath, Katherine; Cooke, Graham S.; Hill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Achievement of a sustained virologic response (SVR) after treatment for Hepatitis C infection is associated with improved outcomes. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of SVR on long-term mortality risk compared with nonresponders in a range of populations. Methods. An electronic search identified all studies assessing all-cause mortality in SVR and non-SVR patients. Eligible articles were stratified into general, cirrhotic, and populations coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for mortality in patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR, and pooled estimates for the 5-year mortality in each group were calculated. Results. 31 studies (n = 33 360) were identified as suitable for inclusion. Median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.9–7.5) across all studies. The adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR was 0.50 (95% CI, .37–.67) in the general population, 0.26 (95% CI, .18–.74) in the cirrhotic group, and 0.21 (.10–.45) in the coinfected group. The pooled 5-year mortality rates were significantly lower for patients achieving SVR compared with non-SVR in all 3 populations. Conclusions. The results suggest that there is a significant survival benefit of achieving an SVR compared with unsuccessful treatment in a range of populations infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:25987643

  1. Determinants of retirement timing expectations in the United States and Australia: a cross-national comparison of the effects of health and retirement benefit policies on retirement timing decisions.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Kendig, Hal; Skladzien, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,589) and the Australian Household Income and Labour Dynamics survey (N = 1,760) were used to compare the macro-level policy frameworks on individual retirement timing expectations for pre-baby boomers (61+ years) and early baby boomers (45 to 60 years). Australian workers reported younger expected age of retirement compared to the U.S. sample. Reporting poor health was more strongly associated with younger expected retirement age in the United States than in Australia. Cohort and gender differences in the United States were found for the effect of private health insurance on younger expected age at retirement. Our results draw attention to how cross-national comparisons can inform us on the effects of policies on retirement expectations among older workers. PMID:22720888

  2. Determinants of retirement timing expectations in the United States and Australia: a cross-national comparison of the effects of health and retirement benefit policies on retirement timing decisions.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Kendig, Hal; Skladzien, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,589) and the Australian Household Income and Labour Dynamics survey (N = 1,760) were used to compare the macro-level policy frameworks on individual retirement timing expectations for pre-baby boomers (61+ years) and early baby boomers (45 to 60 years). Australian workers reported younger expected age of retirement compared to the U.S. sample. Reporting poor health was more strongly associated with younger expected retirement age in the United States than in Australia. Cohort and gender differences in the United States were found for the effect of private health insurance on younger expected age at retirement. Our results draw attention to how cross-national comparisons can inform us on the effects of policies on retirement expectations among older workers.

  3. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION: PRIORITIZATION TO ACHIEVE EMERGENT BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The declining ability of ecosystems to support themselves and the demands placed on them is not new. Initial efforts to counteract these effects and trends focused on individual species (e.g., Endangered Species Act) or environmental media (e.g., Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act)....

  4. Achieving joint benefits from joint implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moomaw, W.R.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) appears to have been born with Applied Energy Services Guatemala project in 1988. That project, to plant 52 million trees, protect existing forests from cutting and fire, and enhance rural development, is being implemented by CARE Guatemala to offset 120 per cent of the emissions of a small coal burning power plant that has been built in Connecticut. Since that time, several utilities and governments have initiated additional projects. Not all of these necessarily consist of tree planting in other countries, but may consist of energy efficiency or energy conservation programs designed to reduce carbon emissions by at least as much as the additional releases from a new facility. All JI projects share the characteristic of linking the release of greenhouse gases in an industrial country with an offset that reduces or absorbs a comparable amount in another country. The emitter in the industrial country is willing to pay for the reduction elsewhere because costs are less than they would be at home.

  5. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  6. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  7. Expectation and conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Adelle C. F.; Alstrøm, Preben

    2001-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that embodies both classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms in the same framework. The model is based on the formation of expectations of stimuli and of rewards. The expectations of stimuli are formed in a recurrent process called expectation learning in which one activity pattern evokes another. The expectation of rewards or punishments (motivation) is modelled using reinforcement learning.

  8. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  9. Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

    2014-10-01

    Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit.

  10. Client Expectations for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Harris, Donna J.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=287) completed an 82-item questionnaire about their expectations of counseling. The respondents' strongest expectations were of seeing an experienced, genuine, expert, and accepting counselor they could trust. Expectancies that the counselor would be understanding and directive were lower. Significant sex differences were…

  11. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumstein, Regina

    College students' expectations regarding the physiological, psychological, and social effects of marijuana were investigated. A sample of 210 undergraduates stated their expectations about the effect of the drug by answering a series of structured-response type questions. Also, Ss provided background information related to their expectations about…

  12. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  13. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

  14. User Expectations: Nurses' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Güney

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare is a technology-intensive industry. Although all healthcare staff needs qualified computer support, physicians and nurses need more. As nursing practice is an information intensive issue, understanding nurses' expectations from healthcare information systems (HCIS) is a must issue to meet their needs and help them in a better way. In this study perceived importance of nurses' expectations from HCIS is investigated, and two HCIS is evaluated for meeting the expectations of nurses by using fuzzy logic methodologies. PMID:27332398

  15. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  16. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  17. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

  18. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  19. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  20. Multiple Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  1. Teaching Objectives in Biology: Priorities and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.; Jungwirth, E.

    1972-01-01

    There are differences between experienced BSCS biology teachers and those beginning to use BSCS, with respect to the ranking of objectives in order of importance and in the estimation of the ease of achieving the objectives. There is a disparity between the teachers' priorities and their expectations of achieving the objectives. (AL)

  2. Moonshot Science—Risks and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ever since the successful Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a “moonshot” has come to signify a bold effort to achieve a seemingly impossible task. The Obama administration recently called for a moonshot to cure cancer, an initiative that has elicited mixed responses from researchers who welcome additional funding but worry about raising expectations. We suggest that a successful moonshot requires a sufficient understanding of the basic science underlying a problem in question so that efforts can be focused on engineering a solution. Current gaps in our basic knowledge of cancer biology make the cancer moonshot a uniquely challenging endeavor. Nevertheless, history has shown that intensive research efforts have frequently yielded conceptual and technological breakthroughs with unanticipated benefits for society. We expect that this effort will be no different. PMID:27578761

  3. Moonshot Science-Risks and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-08-30

    Ever since the successful Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a "moonshot" has come to signify a bold effort to achieve a seemingly impossible task. The Obama administration recently called for a moonshot to cure cancer, an initiative that has elicited mixed responses from researchers who welcome additional funding but worry about raising expectations. We suggest that a successful moonshot requires a sufficient understanding of the basic science underlying a problem in question so that efforts can be focused on engineering a solution. Current gaps in our basic knowledge of cancer biology make the cancer moonshot a uniquely challenging endeavor. Nevertheless, history has shown that intensive research efforts have frequently yielded conceptual and technological breakthroughs with unanticipated benefits for society. We expect that this effort will be no different.

  4. Moonshot Science-Risks and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the successful Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a "moonshot" has come to signify a bold effort to achieve a seemingly impossible task. The Obama administration recently called for a moonshot to cure cancer, an initiative that has elicited mixed responses from researchers who welcome additional funding but worry about raising expectations. We suggest that a successful moonshot requires a sufficient understanding of the basic science underlying a problem in question so that efforts can be focused on engineering a solution. Current gaps in our basic knowledge of cancer biology make the cancer moonshot a uniquely challenging endeavor. Nevertheless, history has shown that intensive research efforts have frequently yielded conceptual and technological breakthroughs with unanticipated benefits for society. We expect that this effort will be no different. PMID:27578761

  5. Expectations in the Foreign Language Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketsman, Olha

    2012-01-01

    Research shows the strong correlation between expectations and student achievement across different disciplines. However, little research has been conducted regarding the role of discipline specific classroom expectations in student academic achievement. This multiple instrumental case study discusses expectations in two rural Spanish high school…

  6. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  7. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  8. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  9. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  10. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  11. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  12. Medicaid Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Eligibility Benefits Cost Sharing Waivers Long Term Services and Supports Delivery Systems Quality of Care Data and Systems Enrollment Strategies Access to Care Program Integrity Financing and ... type, amount, duration, and scope of services within broad federal guidelines. States are required to ...

  13. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  14. Raising Expectations, Giving Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Hold school!" was the directive that Principal Patricia Ashmore received from the deputy superintendent of Madison County Schools when she was appointed to Velma Jackson Magnet High School five years ago. The explicit instruction came as a direct result of looking at student achievement, attendance, and graduation data that confirmed the need to…

  15. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  16. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  17. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  18. Space expectations: Latest survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David; Swan, Cathy; Swan, Peter; Woods, Arthur

    2010-11-01

    At the 59th IAC in Glasgow, a paper was presented describing two studies being carried out by Commission VI of the International Academy of Astronautics on the impact of space activities upon society. One of these studies sought to discover the hopes, aspirations and expectations of those outside the space field - the person in the street - regarding space activities. The paper reviewed the thought processes and decisions leading up to the commencement of the survey, documented the reasoning behind the questions which the public were; described the efforts to translate the questionnaire into the six Unesco languages to achieve wider participation, and provided an overview of results to date. This present paper provides an update on this Space Expectations survey as the study comes to a close. The paper briefly discusses the addition of new languages for the questionnaire and the drive to make the survey better known and encourage participation worldwide, before going on to provide a detailed analysis of the latest results of opinions. Insights include respondent's thoughts regarding the visions and costs of space activities, how much people feel part of them and whether and how they would like to be more involved.

  19. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years. PMID:25208299

  20. Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J

    2013-06-01

    Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder.

  1. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  2. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  3. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  4. Change in the Stratification of Educational Expectations and Their Realization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John R.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick

    2011-01-01

    What do recent trends toward increasingly ambitious educational expectations and rising college completion rates mean for the stratification of higher education? This article shows that the odds of achieving expectations for a bachelor's degree increased across 15 cohorts of young adults, and to a lesser extent, for expectations to attend…

  5. The Teacher Expectation Effect: An Attempt at Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D.

    Several beliefs about the teacher expectancy effect are false or half-truths. Current interest in the teacher expectation effect began with the publication in 1968 of Rosenthal and Jacobson's book, "Pygmalion in the Classroom". That book stated that a teacher's expectations for a pupil's achievement function as a self-fulfilling prophecy.…

  6. Effects of Expectancy on Verbal Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Patty; Lazar, Alfred L.

    Examined were the effects of high expectancy and non-expectancy conditions on the verbal behavior of 12 moderately and mildly retarded children (3-16 years old). Six experimental Ss were exposed to a condition in which experimenters expressed expectation of achievement on the Children's Apperception Test. Comparisons of verbalization revealed…

  7. Great expectations: temporal expectation modulates perceptual processing speed.

    PubMed

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-10-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on perceptual speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus foreperiod were used to manipulate temporal expectations. By computational modeling we estimated two distinct components of visual attention: the temporal threshold of conscious perception (t₀ ms) and the speed of subsequent encoding into visual short-term memory (v items/s). Notably, these components were measured independently of any motor involvement. The threshold t₀ was unaffected by temporal expectation, but perceptual processing speed v increased with increasing expectation. By employing constant hazard rates to keep expectation constant over time, we further confirmed that the increase in perceptual speed was independent of the cue-stimulus duration. Thus, our results strongly suggest temporal expectations optimize perceptual performance by speeding information processing.

  8. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  9. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks. PMID:22329051

  10. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks.

  11. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  12. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  13. Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2007-06-01

    The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043

  14. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  15. Combining spatial and temporal expectations to improve visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Gould, Ian C.; Pessoa, Jéssica; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of temporal expectations in modulating perceptual functions is increasingly recognized. However, the means through which temporal expectations can bias perceptual information processing remains ill understood. Recent theories propose that modulatory effects of temporal expectations rely on the co-existence of other biases based on receptive-field properties, such as spatial location. We tested whether perceptual benefits of temporal expectations in a perceptually demanding psychophysical task depended on the presence of spatial expectations. Foveally presented symbolic arrow cues indicated simultaneously where (location) and when (time) target events were more likely to occur. The direction of the arrow indicated target location (80% validity), while its color (pink or blue) indicated the interval (80% validity) for target appearance. Our results confirmed a strong synergistic interaction between temporal and spatial expectations in enhancing visual discrimination. Temporal expectation significantly boosted the effectiveness of spatial expectation in sharpening perception. However, benefits for temporal expectation disappeared when targets occurred at unattended locations. Our findings suggest that anticipated receptive-field properties of targets provide a natural template upon which temporal expectations can operate in order to help prioritize goal-relevant events from early perceptual stages. PMID:24722562

  16. The Benefits of Good Teaching Extend beyond Course Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loes, Chad N.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, the National Study on Student Learning, and the Research on Iowa Student Experiences study that estimates the influence of certain effective instructional practices on a range of student outcomes. Student perceptions of two specific teacher…

  17. 48 CFR 1604.7001 - Coordination of benefits clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Coordination of benefits... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Coordination of Benefits 1604.7001 Coordination of benefits clause. OPM expects all FEHBP plans to coordinate...

  18. Pharmacy student expectations for professional practice.

    PubMed

    Baran, R W; Shaw, J; Crumlish, K

    1998-08-01

    The professional employment market for pharmacists has changed radically in recent years. Additionally, data regarding perception of future practice among pharmacy students are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize expectations for professional practice among pharmacy students and to identify curriculum support at a college of pharmacy. A survey examining student educational experiences, career preferences, and demographic variables was distributed to 1,297 students enrolled in the first to sixth year. Six hundred thirty responses were evaluated. Doctor of Pharmacy students indicated that their education better prepared them for their expected career than did Bachelor of Science students (P < .03). The former also had a more positive outlook regarding future career opportunities than the latter (P < .01) and indicated to a greater extent that HMOs and pharmacy benefit management companies are growing sources of employment for pharmacists (P < .001).

  19. Do Classroom Volunteers Benefit Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 575 volunteers in 57 elementary schools discovered that most are women (aged 36-55) supporting classroom and learning activities. Volunteers improve climate, individual student achievement, and school-community relations. Poorer schools lack sufficient volunteers. Benefits outweigh administrative, recruitment, and training costs. (MLH)

  20. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  1. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  2. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  3. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  4. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  5. High Hopes and High Expectations!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilford, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.

  6. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  7. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  8. Genomic medicine: too great expectations?

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, P P

    2013-08-01

    As advances in genomic medicine have captured the interest and enthusiasm of the public, an unintended consequence has been the creation of unrealistic expectations. Because these expectations may have a negative impact on individuals as well as genomics in general, it is important that they be understood and confronted.

  9. Making Your High Expectations Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Every teacher starts the school year with great expectations for an orderly classroom. An experienced educator has probably tried various approaches to maintain order and create a classroom environment where every student feels comfortable contributing. To let the students know how much is really expected of them, teachers should not simply state…

  10. Expectations of Garland [Junior College].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Junior Coll., Boston, MA.

    A survey was conducted at Garland Junior College to determine the educational expectations of 69 new students, 122 parents, and 22 college faculty and administrators. Each group in this private women's college was asked to rank, in terms of expectations they held, the following items: learn job skills, mature in relations with others, become more…

  11. High Expectations, High Support: Essential Elements of Engagement. 2008 Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the 2008 Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). This year, CCSSE zeroes in on high expectations and high support as it presents the results of its 2008 survey. Both are critical to student success: Students do best when expectations are high "and" they receive support that helps them achieve at…

  12. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  13. Promoting Positive Future Expectations During Adolescence: The Role of Assets.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Positive future expectations can facilitate optimal development and contribute to healthier outcomes for youth. Researchers suggest that internal resources and community-level factors may influence adolescent future expectations, yet little is known about the processes through which these benefits are conferred. The present study examined the relationship between contribution to community, neighborhood collective efficacy, purpose, hope and future expectations, and tested a mediation model that linked contribution to community and collective efficacy with future expectations through purpose and hope in a sample of 7th grade youth (N = 196; Mage = 12.39; 60 % female; 40 % African American; 71 % economically disadvantaged). Greater collective efficacy and contribution to community predicted higher levels of hope and purpose. Higher levels of hope and purpose predicted more positive future expectations. Contribution to community and neighborhood collective efficacy indirectly predicted future expectations via hope. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26385095

  14. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  15. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  18. A fresh look at the benefits and costs of the US acid rain program.

    PubMed

    Chestnut, Lauraine G; Mills, David M

    2005-11-01

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to those made in 1990. Important changes in our understanding of and ability to quantify the benefits of Title IV have occurred. Benefits to human health now take a much higher profile because the contribution of SO2 and NOx emissions to the formation of fine particulate (PM2.5) is substantial, and evidence of the harmful human health effects of PM2.5 has emerged in the last 15 years. New estimates of the health benefits of PM2.5 reductions are the largest category of quantified health and environmental benefits and total over 100 billion US dollars annually for 2010 when the program is expected to be fully implemented. Although important uncertainties exist in any specific estimate of the benefits, even if the estimates were calculated using more limiting assumptions and interpretations of the literature they would still substantially exceed the costs. Estimates of annualized costs for 2010 are about 3 billion US dollars, which is less than half of what was estimated in 1990. Research since 1990 also suggests that environmental problems associated with acid deposition and nitrogen deposition are more challenging to resolve than originally thought and will require larger reductions in emissions to reverse. The greater than expected benefits to human health, the greater vulnerability of natural resources and ecosystems, and the lower than expected costs all point to the conclusion that further reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions from power plants beyond those currently required by Title IV are warranted.

  19. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  20. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  1. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. PMID:21871522

  2. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products.

  3. Benefits of an improved wheat crop information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, I. L.

    1976-01-01

    The ECON work and the results of the independent reviews are summarized. Attempts are made to put this information into layman's terms and to present the benefits that can realistically be expected from a LANDSAT-type remote sensing system. Further the mechanisms by which these benefits can be expected to accrue are presented. The benefits are given including the nature of expected information improvements, how and why they can lead to benefits to society, and the estimated magnitude of the expected benefits. A brief description is presented of the ECON models, how they work, their results, and a summary of the pertinent aspects of each review. The ECON analyses show that substantial benefits will accrue from implementation of an improved wheat crop information system based on remote sensing.

  4. Expectations of older adults regarding the use of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kricos, P B; Lesner, S A; Sandridge, S A

    1991-07-01

    A 48-item questionnaire was administered to 100 older adults to determine their expectations regarding hearing aid use. The sample consisted of volunteers from a variety of senior citizen organizations and ranged in age from 55 to 92 years. Only individuals who reported no prior hearing aid usage were included in the sample. Expectations for the following factors were considered: cosmetics, acoustics, communication benefits, comfort, ease of use, cost and upkeep, and attitudes toward hearing aid use. In general, the older adults in this sample appeared to have very positive expectations regarding the use of hearing aids. Eighty-seven percent apparently have medium to high expectations for hearing aid use. Since the older adult's satisfaction with amplification may be influenced by original expectations and attitudes, the information provided in this study may be useful in improving the pre-fitting counseling of older hearing-impaired adults.

  5. Career Expectations and Perceptions of Part-Time MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lynn A.; Fish, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., part-time MBA students regard work/life balance as the critical factor that drives career expectations and perceptions. Job aspects and benefits/compensation closely follow in importance, while employee relations are valued less. Within work/life balance, students value job location, travel time, and telecommuting. Promotional…

  6. The Instructional Technology Clinical Experience: Expectations and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.; Holmes, Glen

    This paper provides an overview of the IT (Instructional Technology) Clinical graduate course at Virginia Tech and compares the perceived reality of the Clinical experience, in terms of benefits and concerns, with students' initial expectations. The paper begins with a discussion of the IT Clinical plan, the sociology of the learning environment…

  7. Sport Management Internships: Agency Perspectives, Expectations, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Should we hire a sport management intern in our organization or department? What role will the intern play? How will we benefit? What can we expect from sport management interns in terms of preparation and commitment? How easy is it to find, select, and work with an appropriately prepared intern? Professionals ask all of these questions when they…

  8. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  9. 29 CFR 4245.5 - Notice of insolvency benefit level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice of insolvency benefit level. 4245.5 Section 4245.5... Notice of insolvency benefit level. (a) Requirement of notice. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... parties, as defined in § 4245.3(e), of the level of benefits expected to be paid during the year...

  10. 29 CFR 4245.5 - Notice of insolvency benefit level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of insolvency benefit level. 4245.5 Section 4245.5... Notice of insolvency benefit level. (a) Requirement of notice. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... parties, as defined in § 4245.3(e), of the level of benefits expected to be paid during the year...

  11. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  12. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  13. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  14. Supervising Prerelease Offenders: Clarifying Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benekos, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Presents and discusses a conceptual model of the concerns of prerelease offenders and community supervisors. The conceptualization suggests that "perceptual differences" of the concerns of prerelease status is one alternative for examining the supervisorial relationship. Attempts to identify and confront the different expectations of supervisors…

  15. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  16. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  17. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  18. Corporate diversification: expectations and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clement, J P

    1988-01-01

    A review of the research concerning the diversification experience of firms in other industries shows that expectations of higher profit rates and lower risk are not entirely realistic. However, there are many ways in which the probability of financially successful diversification may be increased.

  19. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  20. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  1. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...

  2. Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesman, Alexander G.

    1966-01-01

    Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

  3. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  4. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual…

  5. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong “future relevance” is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the “future relevance” of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep. PMID:27760193

  6. Chapter 3: FY 2006 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2006 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed–NEMS-GPRA06 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA06 for the long term.

  7. Chapter 3: FY 2005 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2005 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed—NEMS-GPRA05 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA05 for the long term.

  8. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) Technique through the Moodle to Enhance Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiantong, Monchai; Teemuangsai, Sanit

    2013-01-01

    One of the benefits of using collaborative learning is enhancing learning achievement and increasing social skills, and the second benefits is as the more students work together in collaborative groups, the more they understand, retain, and feel better about themselves and their peers, moreover working together in a collaborative environment…

  9. Managed care and the radiologist: expectations and future trends.

    PubMed

    Kessler, H B

    1994-07-01

    Our health care system, burdened by excessive costs and unprecedented growth, is in need of reform. How to carry out such reform and achieve an acceptable balance between quality and cost of care remains the dilemma. Attempts to control costs and limit growth have, in recent years, produced a disturbing trend in the quality and availability of health care benefits, focusing on benefit reduction without addressing resource utilization or quality of care. The result of these efforts? Persons who have health care insurance are paying more for basic plans and reduced benefits; others are either uninsured or underinsured. Health care benefits continue to be the fastest growing component of business expenses, strengthening the perception of diminishing competitiveness in the world market. The formation of smaller businesses offering no health care benefits continues to be problematic. PMID:8010192

  10. Expected endings and judged duration.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Boltz, M G; Klein, J M

    1993-09-01

    In four experiments, the predictions of an expectancy/contrast model (Jones & Boltz, 1989) for judged duration were evaluated. In Experiments 1 and 2, listeners estimated the relative durations of auditory pattern pairs that varied in contextual phrasing and temporal contrast. The results showed that when the second pattern of a pair either seems to (Experiments 1 and 2) or actually does (Experiment 2) end earlier (later) than the first, subjects judge it as being relatively shorter (longer). In Experiment 3, listeners heard single patterns in which notes immediately preceding the final one were omitted. Timing of the final (target) tone was varied such that it was one beat early, on time, or one beat late. Listeners' ratings of target tones revealed systematic effects of phrasing and target timing. In Experiment 4, listeners temporally completed (extrapolated) sequences of Experiment 3 that were modified to exclude the target tone. The results again showed that phrase context systematically influenced expectancies about "when" sequences should end. As a set, these studies demonstrate the effects of event structure and anticipatory attending upon experienced duration and are discussed in terms of the expectancy/contrast model.

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  12. Benefits Outgrow Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses employee benefits offered to various manufacturing industry workers, especially for chemical professionals. Indicates that in the chemicals and allied products industry, such benefits averaged more than 30 percent of payroll in 1971. (CC)

  13. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    field is highly promising, it lacks significant private investment and is largely reliant on public support, requiring a more honest acknowledgement of the expected therapeutic benefits and the timelines to achieving them. PMID:23131007

  14. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  15. Noneconomic and economic benefits of continuing education for dietitians.

    PubMed

    Partlow, C G; Spears, M C; Oaklief, C R

    1989-09-01

    This research evaluated the expected and actual noneconomic and economic benefits from continuing education as perceived by registered dietitian members of the Kansas Dietetic Association in 1986. A random sample of 180 dietitians was selected from the 550 members of the association; 83.9% of the sample responded to the research questionnaire. Thirteen possible noneconomic or personal benefits and six possible economic or professional benefits were rated on a scale of 1, little or no benefit, to 5, great benefit. The highest ratings on noneconomic benefits were 4.43 expected and 3.95 actual on the benefit of "becoming informed about some subject". On economic benefits, the highest ratings were 4.36 expected and 3.82 actual on "learning recent job knowledge." The overall noneconomic ratings were 2.85 expected and 2.78 actual. On economic benefits, the overall ratings were 3.46 expected and 3.07 actual. Dietitians ranked "expertise of instructors" and "instructor's ability to explain or demonstrate" as the two highest perceived strengths of the continuing education experience. Obviously, the instructor is viewed as an important factor in continuing education. Dietitians rated their degree of participation in continuing experiences in the following descending order: "contributing to the evaluation process", "sharing experiences with others," and "developing goals and ideas."

  16. [Benefit assessment of drugs].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Thomas; Vervölgyi, V; Wieseler, B

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, new drugs are subject to a benefit assessment at the time of their market access. This "early benefit assessment" is the method primarily used for the benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany. While for the authorization of a drug a positive risk-benefit ratio is sufficient, early benefit assessment examines whether the new drug has an added benefit compared with other therapies, and thus differs significantly from authorization. For the evaluation, the manufacturer is required to submit a dossier, which must contain all the relevant studies. Early benefit assessment is very transparent in international comparisons, because all the relevant data and the evaluation report will be published. The assessment is carried out with regard to the evidence-based standard of care (the "appropriate comparator"). If the new drug is found to have an additional benefit, the extent of this added benefit is assessed. In addition, groups of patients should be identified with the particular extent of the added benefit. Therefore, subgroup analyses have to be carried out frequently. Often, for new drugs, only registration studies are available. General requirements for such studies (e.g., placebo comparison, endpoints) and decisions regarding the approval process (e.g., dosage regimens) can affect the level of confidence of these studies in the benefit assessment. Joint scientific advice by regulatory authorities and HTA (health technology assessment) agencies are provided to solve this problem. However, this is not possible without additional expense for the pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25566842

  17. Mesothelioma pathogenesis, facts and expectations.

    PubMed

    Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2005-02-01

    It is the merit of Dr J.C. Wagner and his co-workers to have triggered the research on mesothelioma, going back to 1960 when they published data demonstrating a relationship between mesothelioma occurrence and exposure to asbestos fibres in the Cape Province, in South Africa. From that time, epidemiological and toxicological investigations were performed in order to better define the occupational and environmental background of this pathology, to identify the fibre parameters accounting for the toxic effects, and to understand their mechanisms of action. Improvements in our knowledge in these areas benefited to health issues, by preventing risks associated with exposure to mineral fibres and by recognising the disease. Due to the actual progresses in the fields of biology and biotechnologies, the research on mesothelioma presently focuses on study of the mechanisms of mesothelial cell transformation, and on development of strategies to kill tumour cells. While mesothelioma benefited to fibre toxicology and allowed to improve the management health related issue, it would be a just return if the present advances in different scientific areas will permit a rapid eradication of the disease.

  18. Elevated expectancies among persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Eisner, Lori R.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Students at risk for bipolar disorder endorse highly ambitious goals. This study examined expectations for the future among people with actual bipolar disorder, versus people with no history of mood disorder and persons with history of unipolar depression. Methods One hundred and three students were assessed for Axis I disorders and completed a measure of expected life outcomes. Results History of mania, but not history of depression, related to higher expectations of achieving popular fame and wealth. Conclusions People with history of mania anticipate great success in domains involving public recognition. PMID:19254445

  19. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  20. [Costs and benefits of mechanical sutures in esophageal surgery].

    PubMed

    Peracchia, A; Bardini, R

    1990-03-01

    The cost/benefit ratio of mechanical sutures is a controversial issue. Aim of this work was to compare the cost of esophago-visceral anastomoses performed with staplers versus the cost of conventional anastomoses. Not only the cost of the material, but also the economical impact of the hospital stay and operative complications was evaluated. Results show a statistically significant decrease of morbidity in patients treated with mechanical sutures (3.7% vs 18.8%, p = 0.0001). The overall cost of a single mechanical suture was markedly lower than that of a single manual suture (934.000 vs 2,209.000 Italian lira). We conclude that a significant decrease of hospital cost can be expected using mechanical sutures. It has to be noted, however, that in order to achieve such results, an adequate surgical training with staplers is mandatory.

  1. Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez Ruiz, Eduardo R.; Lemoine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of EDEMOI - a French national project that proposed the use of semiformal and formal methods to infer the consistency and robustness of aeronautical regulations through the analysis of faithfully representative models- a methodology had been suggested (and applied) to different (safety and security-related) aeronautical regulations. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this experience by stating which were the methodology s expected benefits, from a scientific point of view, and which are its useful benefits, from a regulatory body s point of view.

  2. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  3. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  4. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  5. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments.

  6. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  7. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  8. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  9. Family context and adolescents' fertility expectations.

    PubMed

    Trent, K

    1994-09-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth are used to examine and contrast the effects of family context and individual characteristics on adolescents' expectations about adolescent fertility, nonmarital childbearing, family size, and childlessness. The findings indicate that family structure has modest but specific effects on adolescents' fertility expectations. Living with mothers only increases expectations for nonmarital childbearing, and living with fathers (without biological mother) lowers the total number of children expected. Larger subsize raises expectations for nonmarital childbearing and family size. Poverty raises expectations for adolescent childbearing but does not affect other fertility expectations. Adolescent women are less likely than men to expect nonmarital childbearing, and overall, expect fewer children. Blacks are more likely than Whites to expect adolescent and nonmarital fertility and Hispanics are significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to expect childlessness.

  10. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  11. Student Disengagement in Relation to Expected and Unexpected Educational Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondal, Kristjana S.; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2012-01-01

    Students' different educational pathways were examined in relation to their disengagement during adolescence. The participants were Icelandic youth (N = 832) who were followed from age 14 to 22. Based on their academic achievement at age 15 and educational attainment at age 22 they were classified into groups that took expected versus unexpected…

  12. Expecting the Best: The Essential Lesson for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Carl Williams writes in this article that effective teachers possess a repertoire of critical skills associated with student achievement. As one might expect, these skills relate to planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction. However, there is one indispensable component that is not a skill in the traditional sense; nonetheless, it is an…

  13. Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

  14. Reversing expectations during discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ming; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we asked whether comprehenders used the concessive connective, even so, to predict upcoming events. Participants read coherent and incoherent scenarios, with and without even so, e.g. “Elizabeth had a history exam on Monday. She took the test and aced/failed it. (Even so), she went home and celebrated wildly.”, as they rated coherence (Experiment 1) or simply answered intermittent comprehension questions (Experiment 2). The semantic function of even so was used to reverse real-world knowledge predictions, leading to an attenuated N400 to coherent versus incoherent target words (“celebrated”). Moreover, its pragmatic communicative function enhanced predictive processing, leading to more N400 attenuation to coherent targets in scenarios with than without even so. This benefit however, did not come for free: the detection of failed event predictions triggered a later posterior positivity and/or an anterior negativity effect, and costs of maintaining alternative likelihood relations manifest as a sustained negativity effect on sentence-final words. PMID:25914891

  15. WHO expectation and industry goals.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, W

    2001-02-01

    It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the development of such innovative vaccines holds the promise of applicability for vaccines that are highly desirable for developing countries. Corrective measures that take into account economic and industrial reality must be considered to span the widening gap between richer and poorer countries in terms of availability and general use of current and recent vaccines. Such measures must help developing countries to get access to future vaccines for diseases that predominantly or exclusively affect them, but for which the poor economic prospects do not provide a basis for the vaccine industry to undertake costly research and development programmes. Recent initiatives such as GAVI, including the establishment of a reliable, guaranteed purchase fund, could provide a solution to the problem. PMID:11166883

  16. Expected value of sample information for Weibull survival data.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Kharroubi, Samer A

    2007-11-01

    Expected value of sample information (EVSI) involves simulating data collection, Bayesian updating, and re-examining decisions. Bayesian updating in Weibull models typically requires Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We examine five methods for calculating posterior expected net benefits: two heuristic methods (data lumping and pseudo-normal); two Bayesian approximation methods (Tierney & Kadane, Brennan & Kharroubi); and the gold standard MCMC. A case study computes EVSI for 25 study options. We compare accuracy, computation time and trade-offs of EVSI versus study costs. Brennan & Kharroubi (B&K) approximates expected net benefits to within +/-1% of MCMC. Other methods, data lumping (+54%), pseudo-normal (-5%) and Tierney & Kadane (+11%) are less accurate. B&K also produces the most accurate EVSI approximation. Pseudo-normal is also reasonably accurate, whilst Tierney & Kadane consistently underestimates and data lumping exhibits large variance. B&K computation is 12 times faster than the MCMC method in our case study. Though not always faster, B&K provides most computational efficiency when net benefits require appreciable computation time and when many MCMC samples are needed. The methods enable EVSI computation for economic models with Weibull survival parameters. The approach can generalize to complex multi-state models and to survival analyses using other smooth parametric distributions. PMID:17328046

  17. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  18. College Students' Motivation toward Weight Training: An Application of Expectancy-Value Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Guided by an expectancy-value model of achievement choice (Eccles et al., 1983; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000), the relationships among expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values (importance, interest, and usefulness), and achievement outcomes (intention, engagement, and performance) were examined in a college-level beginning weight training…

  19. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  20. Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies.

  1. Connecting Expectations and Values: Students' Perceptions of Developmental Mathematics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen Latrice Terrell

    2014-01-01

    Students' perceptions influence their expectations and values. According to Expectations and Values Theory of Achievement Motivation (EVT-AM), students' expectations and values impact their behaviors (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This study seeks to find students' perceptions of developmental mathematics in a mastery learning computer-based…

  2. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  3. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  4. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects.

    PubMed

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G

    2011-12-01

    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  5. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects.

    PubMed

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G

    2011-12-01

    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  6. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes

  7. Graded Expectations: Predictive Processing and the Adjustment of Expectations during Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of local and global context to incoming words during listening comprehension. Local context was manipulated by presenting a target noun (e.g., cake, veggies) that was preceded by a word that described a prototypical or atypical feature of the noun (e.g., sweet, healthy). Global context was manipulated by presenting the noun in a scenario that was consistent or inconsistent with the critical noun (e.g., a birthday party). ERPs were examined at the feature word and at the critical noun. An N400 effect was found at the feature word reflecting the effect of compatibility with the global context. Global predictability and local feature-word consistency interacted at the critical noun: a larger N200 was found to nouns that mismatched predictions when the context was maximally constraining, relative to nouns in the other conditions. A graded N400 response was observed at the critical noun, modulated by global predictability and feature consistency. Finally, PNP effects of context-updating were observed to nouns supported by one contextual cue (global/local), but unsupported by the other. These results indicate (1) incoming words that are compatible with context-based expectations receive a processing benefit; (2) when the context is sufficiently constraining, specific lexical items may be activated; and (3) listeners dynamically adjust their expectations when input is inconsistent with their predictions, provided that the inconsistency has some level of support from either global or local context. PMID:25673006

  8. The Development of Children's Achievement-Related Expectancies and Subjective Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Klaus; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Children between the ages of three and six years were asked to predict their success or failure in two tasks, each of which had five difficulty levels. Tasks were presented either simultaneously or successively. Results indicated that children made realistic assessments of their chances for success at the difficulty levels. Performance factors are…

  9. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  10. Education: Hopes, Expectations and Achievements of Muslim Women in West Yorkshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Haleh

    1989-01-01

    Contends that Muslim women in West Yorkshire (England) place an inordinate trust in the educational system's ability to deliver their children from poverty. Results of a three-generational study indicate that daughters of Muslim immigrant families, though aware of intense racism and poor prospects, try to comply with parental wishes. (AF)

  11. Teacher Expectations and Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Magnet and Non-Magnet Traditional Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Bonita K.

    2012-01-01

    National mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the state of Texas standardized system of accountability pressures educators to provide optimum educational experiences for our students. The momentous challenge is not just to educate students who can compete in the 21st century global society but to prepare them for the most…

  12. The Role of Concept of Self and Societal Expectations in Academic and Career Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of self-esteem and confidence are attributes that affect the power of self or identity of a person such as one's ability to be successful in work. Many theorists have stated that the major variables that impact the self are an individual's core sense of self (who one is) and the environment or social relationships that affect a person…

  13. The Roles of Perceived Parental Expectation and Criticism in Adolescents' Multidimensional Perfectionism and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir; Voltsis, Marina; Weinstock, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Perfectionism consists of personal predispositions and attitudes toward performance. Although there is some disagreement in the field regarding how to best define and measure perfectionism, most studies have supported a distinction between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. The current study examines a model in which students' perceptions of…

  14. Assessing the Disconnect between Grade Expectation and Achievement in a Business Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Mark L.; Ramnarayanan, Renu; Oppenheim, Alan

    2015-01-01

    In an institutional review board--approved study aimed at evaluating differences in learning between a large-sized introductory business statistics course section using courseware assisted examinations compared with small-sized sections using traditional paper-and-pencil examinations, there appeared to be a severe disconnect between the final…

  15. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  16. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  17. Incorporating coping into an expectancy framework for explaining drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy Theory has offered much in the way of understanding alcohol use and abuse, and has contributed greatly to prevention and treatment initiatives. However although many cognitive-behavioural treatment approaches are based on expectancy constructs, such as outcome expectancies and self-efficacy, high relapse rates imply that expectancy theory may be too narrow in scope, and that additional variables need to be examined if a comprehensive understanding of drinking behaviour, and better treatment outcomes, are to be achieved. We suggest that the coping strategies an individual employs present one such set of variables that have largely been neglected from an expectancy framework. Although coping skills training is routinely used in prevention and treatment of alcohol problems, coping research has suffered from a poor theoretical framework. In this paper we review the existing research relating expectancies, self-efficacy and coping to drinking behaviour and propose a model which explains both social and dependent drinking, by incorporating coping into an expectancy theory framework. We also outline research and clinical implications of the proposed model. PMID:19630702

  18. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  16. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  17. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  1. Poor, Rural Neighborhoods and Early School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Smith, Cynthia; Eagle, Teresa Hardman

    A study sought to identify the existence of neighborhood effects on school achievement that are independent of social class and family background among students from poor, rural neighborhoods. Ethnographic material yielded a concept of rural West Virginia neighborhoods in which residents expect their encounters to be friendly, informal, almost…

  2. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  3. Redesigning Urban Classrooms to Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guice, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the No Child Left Behind school reform policies, public schools are gravely scrutinized. This analysis focuses on how to redesign the urban classroom in order to impact student achievement with the intent of being an impetus for better overall school performance ratings. All public school leaders are expected to adhere to the same…

  4. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  5. Targeting the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Ewing's Sarcoma: Reality and Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, David; Martins, Ana Sofia; Jones, Robin L.; Alam, Salma; Scurr, Michelle; Judson, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours comprises a group of very aggressive diseases that are potentially curable with multimodality treatment. Despite the undoubted success of current treatment, approximately 30% of patients will relapse and ultimately die of disease. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the genesis, growth, proliferation, and the development of metastatic disease in Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, IGF1-R has been validated, both in vitro and in vivo, as a potential therapeutic target in Ewing's sarcoma. Phase I studies of IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies reported several radiological and clinical responses in Ewing's sarcoma patients, and initial reports of several Phase II studies suggest that about a fourth of the patients would benefit from IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies as single therapy, with approximately 10% of patients achieving objective responses. Furthermore, these therapies are well tolerated, and thus far severe toxicity has been rare. Other studies assessing IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies in combination with traditional cytotoxics or other targeted therapies are expected. Despite, the initial promising results, not all patients benefit from IGF-1R inhibition, and consequently, there is an urgent need for the identification of predictive markers of response. PMID:21647361

  6. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to breastfeeding success The benefits ...

  7. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women. PMID:27263233

  8. Ethics, rhetoric, and expectations: responsibilities and obligations of health care systems.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm's length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments and divisions often utilize overblown promises of miracles and extraordinary advances to convince donors to contribute and to persuade the general public. The result can be a heightened sense of expectation on the part of patients, their families, and the general public as to what can realistically be achieved by the health care system, leading to disappointment and conflict when these expectations are not or cannot be met. This article suggests that such advertising and marketing be subject to the same advertising standards as other businesses.

  9. Ethics, rhetoric, and expectations: responsibilities and obligations of health care systems.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm's length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments and divisions often utilize overblown promises of miracles and extraordinary advances to convince donors to contribute and to persuade the general public. The result can be a heightened sense of expectation on the part of patients, their families, and the general public as to what can realistically be achieved by the health care system, leading to disappointment and conflict when these expectations are not or cannot be met. This article suggests that such advertising and marketing be subject to the same advertising standards as other businesses. PMID:24965439

  10. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated on a net level reserve basis, using appropriate values to account for lapse, mortality, morbidity, and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums...

  11. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... calculated on a net level reserve basis, using appropriate values to account for lapse, mortality, morbidity, and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums...

  12. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calculated on a net level reserve basis, using appropriate values to account for lapse, mortality, morbidity, and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums...

  13. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... calculated on a net level reserve basis, using appropriate values to account for lapse, mortality, morbidity, and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums...

  14. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... calculated on a net level reserve basis, using appropriate values to account for lapse, mortality, morbidity, and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums...

  15. Military genomic testing: proportionality, expected benefits, and the connection between genotypes and phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Mehlman and Li offer a framework for approaching the bioethical issues raised by the military use of genomics that is compellingly grounded in both the contemporary civilian and military ethics of medical research, arguing that military commanders must be bound by the two principles of paternalism and proportionality. I agree fully. But I argue here that this is a much higher bar than we may fully realize. Just as the principle of proportionality relies upon a thorough assessment of harms caused and military advantage gained, the use of genomic research, on Mehlman and Li's view, will require an accurate understanding of the connection between genotypes and phenotypes – accurate enough to ameliorate the risk undertaken by our armed forces in being subject to such research. Recent conceptual work in evolutionary theory and the philosophy of biology, however, renders it doubtful that such knowledge is forthcoming. The complexity of the relationship between genotypic factors and realized traits (the so-called ‘G→P map’) makes the estimation of potential military advantage, as well as potential harm to our troops, incredibly challenging. Such fundamental conceptual challenges call into question our ability to ever satisfactorily satisfy the demands of a sufficiently rigorous ethical standard.

  16. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  17. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging. What are the benefits expected in hand surgery?].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F; Delon-Martin, C; Martin, O; Sirigu, A; Delaquaize, F; Benali, H; Masquelet, A-C

    2013-06-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) allowed considerable advances upon understanding of cerebral functioning. Cortical plasticity, which allows the voluntary command of a restored function by a transferred muscle remains to be investigated in its intimacy. The authors present here the round table held at the 48th annual meeting of the French Society for Surgery of the Hand on December 22nd, 2012. It tries to review the analysis of the phenomenon observed during multiple tendinous transfers for restoration of proximal radial nerve palsy. Were successively approached: 1) Methods of acquisition and analysis of the signals (C. D-M.); 2) Movement reorganization (O.M.); 3) Motor plasticity after hand allograft (A. S.); 4) The potential interest of the fMRI in hand rehabilitation (F. D.); 5) The analysis of cerebral plasticity in general (H. B.). A rather philosophical conclusion opens other fields to f MRI (A.M.).

  18. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  19. Industrial benefits and future expectations in materials and processes resulting from space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed as applied to the field of materials science. Advances made in processing include improved computer techniques, and structural analysis. Technology transfer is shown to have an important impact potential in the overall productivity of the United States.

  20. Causes of and Solutions to the Achievement Gap: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Costner, Richard H.; Carroll, Kimberly L.; Jones, Cathy R.; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Hunt, Gilbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from 874 educators regarding the achievement gap are shared. The importance of the achievement gap, causes of and solutions to the achievement gap, and performance expectations for students in their schools are explored. Implications for teacher educators are discussed as related to both pre-service and in-service training programs.

  1. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  2. Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  3. Checkered Expectations: Predictors of Approval of Opening a Casino in the Niagara Community.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Room, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a survey prior to the opening of a casino in Niagara Falls, Ontario (N= 1002 adults) on approval of the casino, expectations regarding the impact of the casino, attitudes toward gambling, gambling behaviour, and demographic information. The respondents generally had a positive attitude towards gambling. The expectations of community impact clustered into 3 factors: negative social consequences (crimes, addiction), negative environmental consequences (litter, noise, traffic), and positive economic consequences (jobs, stores, income). The majority of respondents expected economic benefits from the casino as well as a decrease in the environmental quality of the city. Expectations regarding social problems were mixed with a majority expecting an increase in serious crimes, but only a minority expecting an increase in people on welfare. Covariance structure modelling revealed that a positive attitude towards gambling and expecting economic benefits were positively related to approval of the casino, and expecting social problems was negatively related to approval. Given that more than seven in ten respondents supported the opening of the casino, the expected economic benefits coupled with a generally positive attitude towards gambling, apparently outweighed concerns about problems associated with gambling. PMID:12766454

  4. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  5. Checkered Expectations: Predictors of Approval of Opening a Casino in the Niagara Community.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Room, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a survey prior to the opening of a casino in Niagara Falls, Ontario (N= 1002 adults) on approval of the casino, expectations regarding the impact of the casino, attitudes toward gambling, gambling behaviour, and demographic information. The respondents generally had a positive attitude towards gambling. The expectations of community impact clustered into 3 factors: negative social consequences (crimes, addiction), negative environmental consequences (litter, noise, traffic), and positive economic consequences (jobs, stores, income). The majority of respondents expected economic benefits from the casino as well as a decrease in the environmental quality of the city. Expectations regarding social problems were mixed with a majority expecting an increase in serious crimes, but only a minority expecting an increase in people on welfare. Covariance structure modelling revealed that a positive attitude towards gambling and expecting economic benefits were positively related to approval of the casino, and expecting social problems was negatively related to approval. Given that more than seven in ten respondents supported the opening of the casino, the expected economic benefits coupled with a generally positive attitude towards gambling, apparently outweighed concerns about problems associated with gambling.

  6. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication.

  7. Salience of Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Finetta L.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated whether the prediction of drinking might be enhanced by considering salience of alcohol expectancies rather than mere endorsement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that expectancy salience significantly improved the prediction of total alcohol consumption above and beyond the effects of expectancy endorsement. Expectancy…

  8. International and American Students' Expectancies about Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Rhoda Ka-Wai; Tinsley, Howard E.A.

    1981-01-01

    American students expect the counselor to be less directive and protective and they themselves expect to be more responsible for improvement. In contrast, the Chinese, Iranian, and African students expect to assume a more passive role and that the counselor will be a more directive and nurturing authority figure. (Author)

  9. 7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...

  10. Brain mechanisms supporting violated expectations of pain.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Kraft, Robert A; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between experiences, future predictions, and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain, whereas expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. This investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, 10 incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine whether expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between prestimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations in which patients' unrealistic expectations of pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management.

  11. Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

    Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

  12. Disasters as a necessary part of benefit-cost analyses.

    PubMed

    Mark, R K; Stuart-Alexander, D E

    1977-09-16

    Benefit-cost analyses for water projects generally have not included the expected costs (residual risk) of low-probability disasters such as dam failures, impoundment-induced earthquakes, and landslides. Analysis of the history of these types of events demonstrates that dam failures are not uncommon and that the probability of a reservoir-triggered earth-quake increases with increasing reservoir depth. Because the expected costs from such events can be significant and risk is project-specific, estimates should be made for each project. The cost of expected damage from a "high-risk" project in an urban area could be comparable to project benefits. PMID:17753321

  13. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  14. 20 CFR 416.1225 - An approved plan to achieve self-support; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false An approved plan to achieve self-support; general. 416.1225 Section 416.1225 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... achieve self-support; general. If you are blind or disabled, we will pay you SSI benefits and will...

  15. Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http

  16. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  17. Expectancy effects in memory for melodies.

    PubMed

    Schmuckler, M A

    1997-12-01

    Two experiments explored the relation between melodic expectancy and melodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the degree to which different endings confirmed their expectations for a set of melodies. After providing these expectancy ratings, listeners received a recognition memory test in which they discriminated previously heard melodies from new melodies. Recognition memory in this task positively correlated with perceived expectancy, and was related to the estimated tonal coherence of these melodies. Experiment 2 extended these results, demonstrating better recognition memory for high expectancy melodies, relative to medium and low expectancy melodies. This experiment also observed asymmetrical memory confusions as a function of perceived expectancy. These findings fit with a model of musical memory in which schematically central events are better remembered than schematically peripheral events. PMID:9606947

  18. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  19. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  20. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  1. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  2. Teacher Retirement Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis is forcing many employers, from General Motors to local general stores, to take a hard look at the costs of the compensation packages they offer employees. For public school systems, this will entail a consideration of fringe benefit costs, which in recent years have become an increasingly important component of…

  3. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  4. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  5. More Benefits of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  6. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  7. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  8. Inclusion: Who Really Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2009-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of 2003, schools across the nation are mandated to educate students within the regular educational environment. What impact does this merger have on students and teachers? Who really benefits from this merger of regular education and special education? This article discusses the attitudes of general education teachers…

  9. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  10. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196

  11. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  12. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  13. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  14. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  15. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  16. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  17. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  18. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  19. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  20. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  1. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  2. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  3. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  4. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  5. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  6. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  7. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  8. Home Monitoring: what can we expect in the future?

    PubMed

    Deharo, J-C; Djiane, P

    2006-01-01

    The Home Monitoring of implanted cardiac rhythm management devices developed by Biotronik (Berlin, Germany) is a new useful tool for monitoring patients. Home Monitoring provides access to technical and clinical data, allowing almost continuous patient surveillance. The implanted defibrillators and pacemakers transmit encrypted messages, which are automatically analyzed in the Home Monitoring Service Center and sent to the physician. The expected benefit of this kind of data transmission is an improvement in patient follow-up and early detection of changes in the rhythmologic state of the patient. However, these new tools raise several questions, which will require an answer in the nearest future. These questions focus on safety and economic aspects, and on the liability of the physician and the manufacturer. Technological improvement is also expected.

  9. Weighted EMPCA: Weighted Expectation Maximization Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Weighted EMPCA performs principal component analysis (PCA) on noisy datasets with missing values. Estimates of the measurement error are used to weight the input data such that the resulting eigenvectors, when compared to classic PCA, are more sensitive to the true underlying signal variations rather than being pulled by heteroskedastic measurement noise. Missing data are simply limiting cases of weight = 0. The underlying algorithm is a noise weighted expectation maximization (EM) PCA, which has additional benefits of implementation speed and flexibility for smoothing eigenvectors to reduce the noise contribution.

  10. Grief experiences and expectance of suicide.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-02-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief Experience Questionnaire and additional measurements on expectance and understanding. Results supported the prediction of a link between expecting suicide and understanding the suicide. Higher expectance and understanding were related to less searching for explanation and preoccupation with the suicide. There was no direct association with other grief experiences. We conclude that more attention should be brought to the relation between expecting the suicide of a loved one and later grief responses in research and in clinical practice.

  11. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Violated Expectations of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V.; Kraft, Robert A.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between prior experiences, future predictions and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain while expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event in order to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. The present investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, ten incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine if expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between pre-stimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations where patients’ unrealistic expectations for pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management. PMID:26083664

  12. Expectant fathers at risk for couvade.

    PubMed

    Clinton, J F

    1986-01-01

    A repeated measures survey design was used to monitor the physical and emotional health of 81 expectant fathers at lunar month intervals throughout their partners' pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The data set consisted of 515 repeated measures. The backward elimination regression procedure was used to identify six factors that partially explained health events experienced by expectant fathers: affective involvement in pregnancy, number of previous children, income, ethnic identity, perceived stress, and recent health prior to expectant fatherhood.

  13. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  14. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  15. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  16. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  17. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Marlene; Chandra, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment paradigms are based on identifying the magnitude of perioperative risk in patient subsets and on using predictive factors to stratify patients with high-risk asymptomatic stenosis. PMID

  18. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  19. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  20. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    PubMed

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  1. Achievement Motivation among Urban Adolescents: Work Hope, Autonomy Support, and Achievement-Related Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Walsh-Blair, Lynn Y.; Blustein, David L.; Bempechat, Janine; Seltzer, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon expectancy value, hope, and self-determination theories, this study explores the contributions of work-based beliefs and autonomy support as predictors of adaptive achievement-related beliefs. Two hundred and one urban high school students who were enrolled in a work-based learning program completed measures of work hope, autonomy…

  2. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  3. Intentions and Expectations in Differential Residential Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, William; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes intentions and expectations in differential residential selection among families who had chose to move. Wives appear at face value to assess alternatives in the selection process rationally, to be aware of limitations in housing and location they will experience, and to have expectations about behavioral changes consistant…

  4. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  5. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  6. First Grade Teacher Expectations in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles P.

    The focus of this study was on the expectations that first-grade teachers have of the mathematics skills of their incoming first-grade students. At the end of one school year and at the beginning of the next school year, first-grade teachers (n=64) in rural and urban settings completed the Mathematics Skills Expectations Survey (MSES). The MSES…

  7. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

  8. Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Corbin, Hilary

    1994-01-01

    Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

  9. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  10. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  11. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  12. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  13. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  14. Course Expectations and Career Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

  15. Weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of overweight and obese US adults.

    PubMed

    Fabricatore, Anthony N; Wadden, Thomas A; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Pillitteri, Janine L; Shiffman, Saul; Harkins, Andrea M; Burton, Steven L

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of US adults who planned to make a weight loss attempt, and to examine predictors of those expectations and goals. Participants were 658 overweight and obese adults (55% women, mean age = 47.9 years, BMI = 31.8 kg/m(2)) who responded to a telephone survey about weight loss. Respondents reported weight loss expectations (i.e., reductions they realistically expected) and goals (i.e., reductions they ideally desired) for an upcoming "serious and deliberate" weight loss attempt. They also reported the expectations they had, and the reductions they actually achieved, in a previous attempt. Respondents' weight loss expectations for their upcoming attempt (8.0% reduction in initial weight) were significantly more modest than their goals for that attempt (16.8%), and smaller than the losses that they expected (12.0%), and achieved (8.9%) in their most recent past attempt (Ps expectations and goals. After controlling for BMI, age, and gender, previous weight loss was unrelated to expectations (but was inversely related to goals) for the upcoming weight loss attempt. Results suggest that overweight and obese individuals can select realistic weight loss expectations that are more modest than their ideal goals. BMI and gender appear to be more important than previous weight loss experiences in determining expectations among persons planning a weight loss attempt.

  16. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  17. Health systems ownership: can regulation preserve community benefits?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses two questions. What determines the amount of community benefit a nonprofit firm will provide? What would be the expected effect of legal rules requiring nonprofit firms to provide more community benefit than they would otherwise have chosen? The amount of community benefit provided, it is argued, depends on the desires of the donors who endow the nonprofit firm with its equity capital and control its corporate board. The effect of a law requiring the provision of community benefit depends on the degree of competition in the local market. In competitive markets, such a rule is like a hidden tax. In markets in which nonprofit firms have market power, it may divert resources from types of benefit valued highly by the board toward activities valued highly by the political process. The definition of community benefit and the future of nonprofit hospitals are also discussed. PMID:10157360

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Early Parent Involvement and Parent Expectation in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Peterson, Aubrey; Davison, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Building on social-cognitive theory and the expectancy-value theory, this study indicated that early parent expectations for children’s post-secondary educational attainment have a stronger effect on 8th-grade achievement than home-based parental involvement. With a nationally representative sample of kindergarten students and their parents in the…

  19. High Expectations, High Support: Essential Elements of Engagement. 2008 Findings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the 2008 Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). This year, CCSSE zeroes in on high expectations and high support as it presents the results of its 2008 survey. Both are critical to student success: Students do best when expectations are high "and" they receive support that helps them achieve at…

  20. An Observational Study of Teachers' Expectancy Effects and Their Mediating Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Patricia B.

    The theory that teachers treat students from whom they expect superior achievement differently than those from whom they expect inferior performance is examined. Five ways of reacting on the part of the teacher are identified for the purpose of this study--teacher warmth, teacher feedback, teacher selection of materials, opportunity offered for…

  1. Foregone Opportunities: Unveiling Teacher Expectancy Effects in Kindergarten Using Counterfactual Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998-1999 of the United States, this article evaluates teacher expectancy effects on achievement growth in kindergarten. We attempt to disentangle teacher expectancy effects from omitted variable bias or predictive validity by exploiting counterfactual predictions in…

  2. Expectations, Fears, and Strategies: Juvenile Offender Thoughts on a Future outside of Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Zohra, Tusty

    2012-01-01

    The current article explores the possible selves, or future expectations, of 543 incarcerated juvenile offenders in four Western states in the United States. We argue that juveniles who are able to articulate future expectations and fears and generate concrete strategies for achieving their goals have higher levels of motivational capital (i.e.,…

  3. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. On the Achievable Throughput Over TVWS Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Marcello; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the throughput achievable by an unlicensed sensor network operating over TV white space spectrum in presence of coexistence interference. Through the letter, we first analytically derive the achievable throughput as a function of the channel ordering. Then, we show that the problem of deriving the maximum expected throughput through exhaustive search is computationally unfeasible. Finally, we derive a computational-efficient algorithm characterized by polynomial-time complexity to compute the channel set maximizing the expected throughput and, stemming from this, we derive a closed-form expression of the maximum expected throughput. Numerical simulations validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27043565

  5. On the Achievable Throughput Over TVWS Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Marcello; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara

    2016-03-30

    In this letter, we study the throughput achievable by an unlicensed sensor network operating over TV white space spectrum in presence of coexistence interference. Through the letter, we first analytically derive the achievable throughput as a function of the channel ordering. Then, we show that the problem of deriving the maximum expected throughput through exhaustive search is computationally unfeasible. Finally, we derive a computational-efficient algorithm characterized by polynomial-time complexity to compute the channel set maximizing the expected throughput and, stemming from this, we derive a closed-form expression of the maximum expected throughput. Numerical simulations validate the theoretical analysis.

  6. On the Achievable Throughput Over TVWS Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Caleffi, Marcello; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the throughput achievable by an unlicensed sensor network operating over TV white space spectrum in presence of coexistence interference. Through the letter, we first analytically derive the achievable throughput as a function of the channel ordering. Then, we show that the problem of deriving the maximum expected throughput through exhaustive search is computationally unfeasible. Finally, we derive a computational-efficient algorithm characterized by polynomial-time complexity to compute the channel set maximizing the expected throughput and, stemming from this, we derive a closed-form expression of the maximum expected throughput. Numerical simulations validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27043565

  7. Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.

  8. Achieving effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David J; Spence, Susan H; Wilson, Jill; Crow, Natasha

    2002-09-01

    Supervision probably does have benefits both for the maintenance and improvement of clinical skills and for job satisfaction, but the data are very thin and almost non-existent in the area of alcohol and other drugs services. Because of the potential complexity of objectives and roles in supervision, a structured agreement appears to be an important part of the effective supervision relationship. Because sessions can degenerate easily into unstructured socialization, agendas and session objectives may also be important. While a working alliance based on mutual respect and trust is an essential base for the supervision relationship, procedures for direct observation of clinical skills, demonstration of new procedures and skills practice with detailed feedback appear critical to supervision's impact on practice. To ensure effective supervision, there needs not only to be a minimum of personnel and resources, but also a compatibility with the values and procedures of management and staff, access to supervision training and consultation and sufficient incentives to ensure it continues. PMID:12270075

  9. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  10. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  11. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is that,…

  12. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  13. Achievement Testing for English Language Learners, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Sau-Lim; Katz, Anne; Stack, Jim

    2008-01-01

    School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out…

  14. Achievement Gaps in Pre-Service Teachers in Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kim H.; Christiansen, Faith

    The preparation of preservice teachers plays a major role in closing the achievement gap in the education of urban children. Urban teachers often do not understand how their low expectations and deficit assumptions influence their instructional practices and contribute to a widening achievement gap between urban and non-urban students. Many…

  15. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  16. Science Achievement, Class Size, and Demographics: The Debate Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between school system financial and demographic data and student achievement in the science section of the 1998 Tennessee statewide Terra Nova tests. Results indicate that while many schools had science scale score achievement higher than expected based on system demographics, others should examine a variety of…

  17. Benefits and costs of continuing nursing education: an analytical survey.

    PubMed

    Turner, P

    1991-01-01

    Federal and statutory requirements demand and professional associations, health care agencies, and individual nurses expect benefits from nurses' participation in continuing nursing education (CNE). These benefits include: competence; improved quality of care; personal benefits, such as self-satisfaction; and social benefits, such as shorter hospital stays for patients. However, it is not clear from the literature whether CNE provides what is expected. Also, the costs of CNE are not clear. In this research, 244 registered nurses rated the benefits and identified the costs of CNE via a mailed survey. Personal benefits, accruing to the individual nurse, were rated highest and economic benefits were rated lowest. All cost data were positively skewed (many low costs). Opportunity cost (time lost from work) was higher than either direct (tuition) or indirect (travel, books/supplies, child care, and meals) cost. Employers were found to pay more of the cost of CNE than the individual nurse. No significant relationships were identified between the costs and the benefits of CNE.

  18. The benefit of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melonie; Hong, Sang W; Kang, Min-Suk; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2013-04-01

    Recent research using change-detection tasks has shown that a directed-forgetting cue, indicating that a subset of the information stored in memory can be forgotten, significantly benefits the other information stored in visual working memory. How do these directed-forgetting cues aid the memory representations that are retained? We addressed this question in the present study by using a recall paradigm to measure the nature of the retained memory representations. Our results demonstrated that a directed-forgetting cue leads to higher-fidelity representations of the remaining items and a lower probability of dropping these representations from memory. Next, we showed that this is made possible by the to-be-forgotten item being expelled from visual working memory following the cue, allowing maintenance mechanisms to be focused on only the items that remain in visual working memory. Thus, the present findings show that cues to forget benefit the remaining information in visual working memory by fundamentally improving their quality relative to conditions in which just as many items are encoded but no cue is provided. PMID:23208769

  19. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  20. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227

  1. What to Expect After Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic References What to expect after breast reconstruction surgery It’s important to have an idea of what ... regular mammograms. Possible risks during and after reconstruction surgery There are certain risks from any type of ...

  2. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  3. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...

  4. What to Expect During a Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...

  5. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  6. Comparison of evidenced and expected ADN competencies.

    PubMed

    Burch, S; Joyce-Nagata, B; Reeb, R

    1991-01-01

    These study findings indicate that nursing service administrators in the State of Mississippi expect strong technical level skills from the ADN. Congruency between nursing education and nursing service was validated. The predominance of role competencies outlined by nurse educators were validated as both expected and evidenced for the ADN in the State of Mississippi. Competencies need to be continually evaluated to reflect changes in the health delivery system as related to the ADN.

  7. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  8. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  9. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  10. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  11. Teaching and Assessing Low-Achieving Students with Disabilities: A Guide to Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perie, Marianne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For lower-achieving students with disabilities, effective and appropriate alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) can open the door to greater expectations and opportunities. State policymakers have the option of providing certain students who have disabilities with AA-MAS aligned with grade-level content--and now…

  12. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy. PMID:15242031

  13. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  14. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  15. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  16. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B.; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C.; Nemeth, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  17. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.

  18. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  19. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  20. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  1. Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure

  2. Life expectancy in Canada--an overview.

    PubMed

    Adams, O

    1990-01-01

    At 73 years for men and more than 80 years for women, Canada's life expectancy at birth compares favourably with other developed countries; Japan currently leads the world with 75.6 years for men and 81.4 years for women. In 1920-1922, fewer than six out of ten Canadians could expect to survive to their 65th birthday; by 1985-1987, this had risen to eight out of ten. At the oldest ages, the increases in survival are even more striking. In 1920-1922, just over one in ten Canadians could expect to reach their 85th birthday; by 1985-1987, this had increased to more than three out of ten. Since the 1920s, life expectancy has been higher in the Western provinces and lower in Atlantic Canada and Quebec. In 1950-1952, for example, a person born in Saskatchewan could expect to live four years longer than a person born in Quebec. By 1985-1987, this difference had been reduced to just over one year. Women have made much greater gains in life expectancy than men. In 1920-1922, women had an advantage in life expectancy over men of less than two years; by 1970-1972, this had more than tripled to seven years. Married men and women have a distinct advantage in longevity over other marital status categories. Married men may expect to live over eight years longer than never-married men, and more than ten years longer than widowed men. Married women can expect to live three years longer than never-married women, and four years longer than women who are either divorced or widowed. As of 1986, a boy born in highest-income quintile area in urban Canada can expect to live almost six years longer than a boy born in a lowest-income quintile area. For girls, the difference is almost two years. However, this socio-economic differential narrowed from 1971 to 1986.

  3. Great social benefits.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1991-06-01

    The Integrated Project (IP), originated by the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) was started in China in 1984. The 2nd phase covered 210,000 people in 8 townships in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and others in Liaoning, Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces, in 1987-1989. 2 pilot areas, monitored by representatives from IPPF's East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region in September 1990, showed significant gains in contraceptive prevalence as well as health benefits and community acceptance. The IP consists of integrated family planning, maternal and child health and parasite control for rural areas. In Tumotezuo County, Inner Mongolia, the village of Bashi with 2526 people was mobilized to construct its own health clinic with a delivery room and a maternal and child health unit, where night classes were held for women. Because of antihelminthic treatment, installation of water pipes and toilets, parasites were controlled. Neighboring towns benefited by treatment of common disorders such as anemia and rickets. In the pilot areas there have been no maternal deaths in 3 years, and declines in perinatal mortality from 33.3 to 17.9/1000, and in infant mortality from 35.1 to 21.5/1000. Incidence of roundworm infection fell from 27.8 to 7.6%, Contraceptive prevalence, already high at 91.8%, rose to 93.7% among the Han majority, and from 65.9 to 77.2% in minorities. Family planning was spread by using the "core household" approach. The large household of the village leader, with 13 women of childbearing age, subscribed to several periodicals on family planning and farm and home economics, so people learned how to become well off by raising vegetables and pigs, and how to limit family size with the correct concept of a happy healthy family.

  4. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-01

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor. Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  6. Cardiovascular benefits of bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Glenn K; Cha, Yong-Mei

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the United States and worldwide, bringing with it an excess of morbidity and premature death. Obesity is strongly associated with both traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as direct effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular structure and function. In fact, cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in obese patients. Often, lifestyle and pharmacological weight-loss interventions are of limited efficacy in severely obese patients. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a feasible option to achieve substantial and sustained weight loss in this group of patients. It is a safe procedure with low in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates even in groups that are considered higher risk for surgery (e.g., the elderly), especially if performed in high-volume centers. There is observational evidence that bariatric surgery in severely obese patients is associated with both a reduction of traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as improvement in cardiac structure and function. Marked decreases in the levels of inflammatory and prothrombotic markers, as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, are seen after bariatric surgery. This article summarizes the existing evidence regarding the cardiovascular benefits in patients following bariatric surgery.

  7. Raising the graduation bar for the schools: expectations vs outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, J; Langer, P

    2001-10-01

    Educational reform is an ongoing concern of parents, educators, policy makers, and the public at large. The past 50 years have ushered in a new era of reform, whose major objective was to improve students' performance based on the use of statewide standardized testing and changes in graduation requirements. This study examined one such reform movement, initially developed during the late 1970s, which developed minimum competency testing standards as well as increased course demands to specify graduation requirements for public high school students. The outcomes for this reform model, both in terms of students' achievement and failure, did not meet expectations.

  8. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-11-01

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up.

  9. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up. PMID:26617342

  10. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-11-30

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up.

  11. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  12. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

  13. Benefit Plans in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.

    This study describes the present status of benefit planning in the junior colleges, discusses the principles governing benefit plans, and raises questions regarding the development of sound benefit plans in light of the needs of individual faculty and staff as well as of the goals of the institution. The base of the study was a questionnaire…

  14. Great Expectations: State of Education, 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the state of education in Maryland in 2003 following adoption of the Achievement Matters Most school reform plan. Advances in attendance, graduation and academic achievement are summarized. Continuing commitment to student health and safety, and the ongoing challenges of teacher preparation, recruitment and retention are…

  15. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  16. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  17. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  18. Assessing the stochastic variability of the Benefit-Cost ratio in roadway safety management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Carmelo

    2016-08-01

    Road Agencies set quantitative targets and adopt related road safety strategies within the priorities and the available resources at the time of an economic crisis. In this framework, benefit-cost analyses (BCA) are carried out to support the decision making process and alternative measures are ranked according to their expected benefit and benefit-cost ratio calculated using a Safety Performance Function (SPF) and Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) as predictors of future safety performances. Due to the variance of CMFs and crash frequency we are uncertain what the benefits of some future actions will be. The chance of making wrong decisions depends on the size of the standard deviation of the probability distribution of the considered stochastic variables. To deal with the uncertainty inherent in the decision making process, a reliability based assessment of benefits must be performed introducing a stochastic approach. In the paper the variability of the CMFs, the predicted number of crashes and the crash costs are taken into account in a reliability based BCA to address improvements and issues of an accurate probabilistic approach when compared to the deterministic results or other approximated procedures. A case study is presented comparing different safety countermeasures selected to reduce crash frequency and severity on sharp curves in motorways. These measures include retrofitting of old safety barriers, delineation systems and shoulder rumble strips. The methodology was applied using the Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of failure of BCA statements. Results and comparisons with alternative approaches, like the one proposed in the HSM, are presented showing remarkable differences in the evaluation of outcomes which can be achieved. PMID:27208591

  19. Expectations for Melodic Contours Transcend Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Jackson E.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good “melodic continuation” involve melodic contour – the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show with two experiments that the generalization of contour perception to non-traditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for three-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the three auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that 1) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and 2) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. PMID:25365571

  20. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters.

  1. The subjective marijuana experience: great expectations.

    PubMed

    Stark-Adamec, C; Adamec, R E; Pihl, R O

    1981-10-01

    Participants' expectations of marijuana effects are frequently cited as unmeasured post hoc explanations of variability in response to the drug, or of the data which fail to conform to the experimenters' expectations of the drug's effects. Twenty-four male volunteers, experienced in the use of marijuana, participated in research involving the administration of coltsfoot, placebo, and marijauna to investigate whether expectancy of marijuana effects could be measured and related to observed effects. Data for the Expectancy Questionnaire were derived from the Marihuana Effects Questions filled out when potential participants volunteered for the study and were compared to the High Questionnaire filled out after drug administration sessions. Expectancy was shown to have a quantifiable effect on the drug experience (both placebo and marijuana), even in an experimental situation. Prior frequency of occurrence of specific effects was positively related to both the intensity and duration of the effects in the laboratory. The data are discussed in terms of the learned components in getting stoned, and in terms of the social nature of cannabis intoxication.

  2. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  3. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851

  5. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337391

  6. 20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels of performance for the core indicators and what will be the consequences of failing to meet expected levels of performance? 641.740 Section 641.740 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING...

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  8. The benefits of convergence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Kung; Cheng, Lin

    2016-03-01

    A multi-tier radio access network (RAN) combining the strength of fibre-optic and radio access technologies employing adaptive microwave photonics interfaces and radio-over-fibre (RoF) techniques is envisioned for future heterogeneous wireless communications. All-band radio spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GHz will be used to deliver wireless services with high capacity, high link speed and low latency. The multi-tier RAN will improve the cell-edge performance in an integrated heterogeneous environment enabled by fibre-wireless integration and networking for mobile fronthaul/backhaul, resource sharing and all-layer centralization of multiple standards with different frequency bands and modulation formats. In essence, this is a 'no-more-cells' architecture in which carrier aggregation among multiple frequency bands can be easily achieved with seamless handover between cells. In this way, current and future mobile network standards such as 4G and 5G can coexist with optimized and continuous cell coverage using multi-tier RoF regardless of the underlying network topology or protocol. In terms of users' experience, the future-proof approach achieves the goals of system capacity, link speed, latency and continuous heterogeneous cell coverage while overcoming the bandwidth crunch in next-generation communication networks. PMID:26809570

  9. Life Expectancy after Myocardial Infarction, According to Hospital Performance.

    PubMed

    Bucholz, Emily M; Butala, Neel M; Ma, Shuangge; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-10-01

    Background Thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction are commonly used to evaluate and compare hospital performance. However, it is not known whether differences among hospitals in the early survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction are associated with differences in long-term survival. Methods We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a study of Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction between 1994 and 1996 and who had 17 years of follow-up. We grouped hospitals into five strata that were based on case-mix severity. Within each case-mix stratum, we compared life expectancy among patients admitted to high-performing hospitals with life expectancy among patients admitted to low-performing hospitals. Hospital performance was defined by quintiles of 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to calculate life expectancy. Results The study sample included 119,735 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to 1824 hospitals. Within each case-mix stratum, survival curves of the patients admitted to hospitals in each risk-standardized mortality rate quintile separated within the first 30 days and then remained parallel over 17 years of follow-up. Estimated life expectancy declined as hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintile increased. On average, patients treated at high-performing hospitals lived between 0.74 and 1.14 years longer, depending on hospital case mix, than patients treated at low-performing hospitals. When 30-day survivors were examined separately, there was no significant difference in unadjusted or adjusted life expectancy across hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintiles. Conclusions In this study, patients admitted to high-performing hospitals after acute myocardial infarction had longer life expectancies than patients treated in low-performing hospitals. This survival benefit

  10. Experience and Choice Shape Expected Aversive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sharot, Tali; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    The value assigned to aversive events is susceptible to contextual influences. Here, we asked whether a change in the valuation of negative events is reflected in an altered neuronal representation of their expected aversive outcome. We show that experiencing an aversive event in the past, and choosing to experience it in the future, reduces its aversive value. This psychological change is mirrored in an altered neural representation of aversive value in the caudate nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our findings indicate that subcortical regions known to track expected value such as the caudate nucleus, together with anterior cingulate cortical regions implicated in emotional modulation, mediate a re-valuation in expectancies of aversive states. The results provide a striking example of a contextual sensitivity in how the brain ascribes value to events, in a manner that may foster resilience in the face of adversity. PMID:20610755

  11. Effect of price expectations on drilling activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.H.

    1984-11-01

    The decision to drill depends partly on expectations about the future path of prices which are formed through historical experience. The estimates indicate that as long as nominal crude oil prices remain at the official price of $29 per barrel for Saudi light, there will be a slight but steady decline in the average level of the drilling rig count. A theoretical model to test this confirms that continued downward pressure on oil prices, caused by the glut in the world oil market, is expected to keep prices from rising in 1985. The results suggest that steady or falling oil prices can decrease the rig count through the expectations factor. Two appendices describe the theoretical model and test the results with a proxy variable. 17 references, 4 figures.

  12. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

  13. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  14. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  15. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.

    PubMed

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

    2013-12-01

    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

  16. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.

    PubMed

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

    2013-12-01

    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity.

  17. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  18. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  19. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  20. Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John R.; Baird, Chardie L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the benefits of educational expectations, researchers have failed to show that unrealized plans are consequential for mental health, as self-discrepancy and other social psychological theories would predict. This article uses two national longitudinal studies of youth to test whether unrealized educational…