Science.gov

Sample records for achieving expected benefits

  1. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system.

  2. The VIZIER project: overview; expectations; and achievements.

    PubMed

    Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    VIZIER is an acronym for a research project entitled "Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication" funded by the European Commission between November 1st, 2004 and April 30th, 2009. It involved 25 partners from 12 countries. In this paper, we describe the organization of the project and the culture created by its multidisciplinary essence. We discuss the main thematic sections of the project and the strategy adopted to optimize the integration of various scientific fields into a common objective: to obtain crystal structures of the widest variety of RNA virus replication enzymes documented and validated as potential drug targets. We discuss the thematic sections and their overall organization, their successes and bottlenecks around the protein production pipeline, the "low hanging fruit" strategy, and measures directed to problem solving. We discuss possible future options for such large-scale projects in the area of antiviral drug design. In a series of accompanying papers in Antiviral Research, the project and its achievements are presented for each virus family.

  3. Expectations of Achievement: Student, Teacher and Parent Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Irving, Earl; Widdowson, Deborah; Dixon, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' expectations of students have been extensively studied for forty years. However, students' self-expectations and the expectations of parents are less well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of student, teacher and parent expectations in relation to student achievement from the perspective of each group. Focus…

  4. Exploring Students' Conception and Expectations of Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Achievement in a domain is normally defined by the experts within the curricula. This exploratory study reported student conception of achievement in physical education, attempting to address two questions: (1) what do students expect to achieve and (2) how do students view the achievement in physical education. Students (N = 48) purposefully…

  5. High-school seniors' college enrollment goals: Costs and benefits of ambitious expectations.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Brandilynn J; Heckhausen, Jutta; Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-12-01

    High school students with high long-term educational expectations attain higher levels of education than those with lower expectations. Less studied is the role of students' short-term college enrollment expectations for the year after high school graduation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the costs and benefits of ambitious short-term expectations and the impact of falling short of these expectations on mental health, motivation, and educational outcomes. Over 1000 youth with expectations to attend college were surveyed during their senior year of high school, one year later, and four years later. Participants who did not achieve their short-term expectations had lower educational attainment four years later but were not less satisfied with their educational progress. The negative consequences of falling short of one's expectations were restricted to individuals with less ambitious short-term expectations. Thus, the benefits of ambitious short-term expectations for youth may outweigh the costs.

  6. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Daellenbach, K. K.; Hughes, K. R.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps. The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a 'supply side' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a 'demand side' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research; and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  7. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G E; Daellenbach, K K; Hughes, K R; Brown, D R; Drost, M K

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a supply side'' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a demand side'' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  8. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE`s thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a ``supply side`` limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a ``demand side`` limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  9. Feedback Expectancy and EFL Learners' Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Kaivanpanah, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between feedback expectancy of Iranian learners of English and their level of education, achievement in English, and attitude toward peer and teacher feedback. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a sixty-item questionnaire focusing on issues related to feedback expectancy, peer feedback, teacher…

  10. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  11. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  12. Alpha Oscillatory Dynamics Index Temporal Expectation Benefits in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Wilsch, Anna; Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Enhanced alpha power compared with a baseline can reflect states of increased cognitive load, for example, when listening to speech in noise. Can knowledge about "when" to listen (temporal expectations) potentially counteract cognitive load and concomitantly reduce alpha? The current magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment induced cognitive load using an auditory delayed-matching-to-sample task with 2 syllables S1 and S2 presented in speech-shaped noise. Temporal expectation about the occurrence of S1 was manipulated in 3 different cue conditions: "Neutral" (uninformative about foreperiod), "early-cued" (short foreperiod), and "late-cued" (long foreperiod). Alpha power throughout the trial was highest when the cue was uninformative about the onset time of S1 (neutral) and lowest for the late-cued condition. This alpha-reducing effect of late compared with neutral cues was most evident during memory retention in noise and originated primarily in the right insula. Moreover, individual alpha effects during retention accounted best for observed individual performance differences between late-cued and neutral conditions, indicating a tradeoff between allocation of neural resources and the benefits drawn from temporal cues. Overall, the results indicate that temporal expectations can facilitate the encoding of speech in noise, and concomitantly reduce neural markers of cognitive load.

  13. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  14. A Case Study on the Failure of Management Controls around Expected Benefit Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Earl H.

    2013-01-01

    Organization leaders manage change through projects to realize specific expected benefits. Under Expectation-Confirmation theory, expected benefits can be used to judge the ongoing viability and final success of the project. Organization leaders often develop management controls to ensure that the expected benefits are defined to allow their use…

  15. [Cultural components within DSM-5: achievements, hopes, and expectations].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-01-01

    Cultural Psychiatry deals with the description, definition, evaluation and management of psychiatric conditions as a clinical reflection of cultural factors within an integral context, and as an explanatory, interpretative, nosological, therapeutic and preventive attribute in professional practice. This article attempts to analyze that link in the context of the dominant classification in our era, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), with emphasis on the development of its latest version, DSM-5. The cultural content of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization (WHO) can be the subject of further analysis, even when it can be said that, in general, it seemingly has less reach than the American classification. The author's participation, work and reflections about the DSM-5 Committee, created by the APA at the beginning of this century, constitute the basis of the presentation and discussion of concrete achievements, more or less idealized hopes, and more or less realistic expectations with a view to the future. Conclusions will also try to cover implications of DSM-5 cultural components in the field of Latin American and spanish-speaking psychiatry.

  16. Survey Finds Mismatch in Student Achievement and Parents' College Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Education Department released a report last week, "Parent Expectations and Planning for College," that offers new insights into the factors influencing whether parents expect their children to enroll at four-year colleges. It suggests that many young people who could succeed at such institutions are not being encouraged by their families or…

  17. Teachers' Expectations and Causal Attributions for Students' Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth M. P.; de Jesus, Denise M.

    The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' expectations of schooling and their causal attributions regarding the academic performance of their students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to 451 elementary school teachers. Analyses led to the following conclusions: (1) teachers hold high expectations of schooling…

  18. Family Socioeconomic Status, Parent Expectations, and a Child's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a family's socioeconomic status (SES) affects a child's educational achievement and differentiates the direct effects of SES on these experiences from the indirect ones as they are mediated by the school. This distinction is an important one as it is in the latter realm where social policy can have an impact. The data…

  19. Teachers Expectations for Achievement of Children in Head Start (TEACH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Carolyn; And Others

    The development of an instrument (TEACH) which would relate the variables of teacher goals, classroom activities, and children's achievement is fully described. A search of the literature, attitude inventories, and other teacher measures produced a pool of value statements about educational goals which were placed in traditional categories.…

  20. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  1. Expectations affect psychological and neurophysiological benefits even after a single bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Jo, Han-Gue; Seelig, Harald; Schmidt, Stefan; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.

  2. College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Critics of the college-for-all ethos argue that it encourages low-achieving adolescents to develop unrealistically high expectations. This argument posits that low-achievers waste time and money, and risk disappointment and self-recrimination, pursuing college when they are unlikely to complete it. The present study uses two national data…

  3. Achievement-Oriented Beliefs and Their Relation to Academic Expectations and School Achievement among Qatari Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; McInerney, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between motivational goals and university intentions, school valuing and school achievement. The premise of this study is that motivational goals play a key role in academic values and achievement. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to establish the construct validity of the motivational measures drawn…

  4. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  5. Achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of academically underprepared adolescent students.

    PubMed

    House, J D

    1993-03-01

    The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).

  6. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  7. The Longitudinal Relations of Teacher Expectations to Achievement in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion; Ghazarian, Sharon R.

    2009-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the role of teacher expectations in the early school years or the importance of teacher expectations as a predictor of future academic achievement. The current study investigated these issues in the reading and mathematic domains for young children. Data from nearly 1,000 children and families at 1st, 3rd,…

  8. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  9. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  10. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  11. Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to…

  12. Teacher attitudes toward dyslexia: effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an explicit, self-report measure. Achievement scores for 307 students were also obtained. Implicit teacher attitudes toward dyslexia related to teacher ratings of student achievement on a writing task and also to student achievement on standardized tests of spelling but not math for those students with dyslexia. Self-reported attitudes of the teachers toward dyslexia did not relate to any of the outcome measures. Neither the implicit nor the explicit measures of teacher attitudes related to teacher expectations. The results show implicit attitude measures to be a more valuable predictor of the achievement of students with dyslexia than explicit, self-report attitude measures.

  13. The World Already Avoided: Quantifying the Ozone Benefits Achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; McKenzie, Richard; Velders, Guus; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic Ozone Hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2014 the Montreal Protocol has already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using an off-line 3-D atmospheric chemistry model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with benefits for surface UV and climate. A deep Arctic Ozone Hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given the meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic Ozone Hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The ozone decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  14. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  15. Teachers' Expectancy and Efficacy as Correlates of School Achievement in Delta, Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain; Singh, Madhu

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between school achievement levels and teachers' expectations, locus of control and efficacy in four elementary schools in Delta, Mississippi in keeping with the self-fulfilling prophecy theory. Data from surveys of 102 teachers, five focus groups, observations, and secondary information on teachers' grading…

  16. Teacher Expectations and Minority Achievements; A Study of Black Students in Fairfax County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kitty Lou

    This report assesses the relationship between teacher expectations and the achievement of black intermediate school students attending school in Fairfax County, Virginia, a relatively affluent part of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan Area. Information was culled from interviews with and observation of 46 black students, their peers, teachers,…

  17. Culturally Responsive Caring and Expectations for Academic Achievement in a Catholic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallavis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article draws from a larger dissertation study that applied ethnographic and historical research methods to explore the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and Catholic schooling in immigrant communities. In particular, this article presents qualitative data analysis to describe student achievement expectations at a contemporary…

  18. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  19. Family Socioeconomic Status, Parental Expectations, and Adolescents' Academic Achievements: A Case of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines direct and indirect effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) and parental expectations on adolescents' mathematics and problem-solving achievement in mainland China. SES here is composed of family wealth, home educational resources, and parental education. Over 5,000 ninth-grade students in 5 geographical districts of China…

  20. Schools Raise Achievement by Setting High Expectations for All Groups of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Schools are raising standards to improve academic and technical achievement and intellectual growth for all groups of students, particularly at-risk students. This newsletter contains tools and strategies that school leaders and teachers are using successfully to help students meet higher expectations. It organizes the techniques into five…

  1. Expectancy, Achievement, and Self-Concept Correlates in Disadvantaged and Advantaged Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Anthony T.; Soares, Louise M.

    This study sought to determine the self-concept level, expectancy of success in school subjects, and actual achievement in those subjects of disadvantaged youths in high school in comparison to advantaged boys. The subjects (Ss) consisted of 100 disadvantaged and 100 advantaged boys from an urban integrated high school. No Ss were in the college…

  2. The Benefits of Following Your Pride: Authentic Pride Promotes Achievement.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Aaron C; Tracy, Jessica L; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Although the emotion authentic pride has been posited to promote achievement, it remains unclear precisely how this works. Here, we tested whether authentic pride promotes adaptive downstream achievement outcomes by motivating individuals to engage in appropriate behavioral responses to success and failure. In two longitudinal studies (N = 1,132), we measured pride emotional responses to a prior performance and subsequent changes in achievement-oriented behavior and performance outcomes among (a) adults training for long-distance running races and (b) undergraduates completing class exams. Authentic pride shifted in direct response to achievement outcomes, such that those who performed well felt greater pride. Furthermore, individuals who felt low authentic pride responded to these feelings by changing their achievement behavior in a functional manner. In Studies 2a, 2b, and 2c, we found that pride-driven behavioral changes led to improved future performance among low performers. In these studies we also demonstrated that the effect of authentic pride on achievement is independent of that of self-efficacy, which in fact works in an opposite manner. Taken together, these results suggest that authentic pride functions as a barometer of achievement, promoting behavioral responses that lead to improved performance.

  3. Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why

  4. It's only a dream if you wake up: Young adults' achievement expectations, opportunities, and meritocratic beliefs.

    PubMed

    Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines university graduates' beliefs about how meritocratic socioeconomic status (SES) attainment in U.S. society is for themselves (merit agency beliefs) and for most other people (merit societal beliefs), and how these distinct beliefs are differentially associated with labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Data from a 10-month longitudinal study of 217 graduates from the 2013 class of a large public U.S. university were analysed using multilevel modelling. The results indicate that most participants optimistically expected to attain upward social mobility. Furthermore, participants' merit agency beliefs were reflective of their labour market prospects and experiences, and calibrated their achievement-goal attitudes and expectations. However, participants' merit societal beliefs were not associated with these labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations. The distinction between merit agency beliefs and merit societal beliefs may be motivationally beneficial by allowing individuals to continue striving toward the uncertain long-term goal pursuit of upward social mobility despite the short-term struggles and setbacks many young adults are likely to experience in the aftermath of the Great Recession.

  5. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA), a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%), insurance (24%), pension (14%), and other (27%) companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least) offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available.

  6. Longevity expectations in the pension fund, insurance, and employee benefits industries

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in many areas of biomedical science since the 1960s, suggesting likely increases in life expectancy and decreases in morbidity and mortality in the adult population. These changes may pose substantial risks to the pensions and benefits industries. While there is no significant statistical evidence demonstrating rapid decreases in mortality rates, there are conflicting opinions among demographers and biogerontologists on the biological limits of the human lifespan and trends in life expectancy. We administered a survey of the International Employee Benefits Association (IEBA), a large, international industry group. Industry professionals employed by consulting (35%), insurance (24%), pension (14%), and other (27%) companies responded to 32 questions. Respondents showed reasonably conservative views on the future of longevity and retirement, including that for women. The respondents formed their personal longevity expectations based on their family history and, to a lesser degree, on the actuarial life tables. Most of the sample expressed no desire to life past age 100 years, even if the enabling technologies required to maintain a healthy youthful state were available, and only a few respondents in the sample expressed a desire to live for the maximum period (at least) offered by the survey question. The majority of the respondents would not undergo any invasive procedures, and only 56% of the respondents would opt for noninvasive therapies to extend their healthy lifespans to 150 years of age if these were available. PMID:25653568

  7. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females.

  8. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G. J. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  9. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-05-26

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013.

  10. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G.J.M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  11. 76 FR 74699 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...; Expected Retirement Age AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...-Employer Plans by substituting a new table for determining expected retirement ages for participants in... selected, or the expected retirement age, if the annuity starting date is not known on the valuation...

  12. 75 FR 74622 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...; Expected Retirement Age AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...-Employer Plans by substituting a new table for determining expected retirement ages for participants in... expected retirement age, if the annuity starting date is not known on the valuation date. Sections...

  13. 78 FR 72018 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...; Expected Retirement Age AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...-Employer Plans by substituting a new table for determining expected retirement ages for participants in... the annuity starting date, if a retirement date has been selected, or the expected retirement age,...

  14. Realising the Real Benefits of Outsourcing: Measurement Excellence and Its Importance in Achieving Long Term Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    These days firms are, more than ever, pressed to demonstrate returns on their investment in outsourcing. While the initial returns can always be associated with one-off cost cutting, outsourcing arrangements are complex, often involving inter-related high-value activities, which makes the realisation of long-term benefits from outsourcing ever more challenging. Executives in client firms are no longer satisfied with the same level of service delivery through the outsourcing lifecycle. They seek to achieve business transformation and innovation in their present and future services, beyond satisfying service level agreements (SLAs). Clearly the business world is facing a new challenge: an outsourcing delivery system of high-value activities that demonstrates value over time and across business functions. However, despite such expectations, many client firms are in the dark when trying to measure and quantify the return on outsourcing investments: results of this research show that less than half of all CIOs and CFOs (43%) have attempted to calculate the financial impact of outsourcing to their bottom line, indicating that the financial benefits are difficult to quantify (51%).

  15. Shifting the Bell Curve: The Benefits and Costs of Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total…

  16. 77 FR 71321 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Valuation of Benefits and Assets; Expected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...; Expected Retirement Age AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...-Employer Plans by substituting a new table for determining expected retirement ages for participants in... age, if the annuity starting date is not known on the valuation date. Sections 4044.55 through...

  17. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter calibration during Run I: progress achieved and expectations for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Alessio; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CMS ECAL is a high-resolution, hermetic, and homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter made of 75,848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals. It relies on precision calibration in order to achieve and maintain its design performance. A set of inter-calibration procedures is carried out to normalize the differences in crystal light yield and photodetector response between channels. Different physics channels such as low mass di-photon resonances, electrons from W and Z decays and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits from minimum bias events are used. A laser monitoring system is used to measure and correct for response changes, which arise mainly from the harsh radiation environment at the LHC. The challenges of the different calibration techniques are discussed along with the performance evolution during Run I. The impact on physics performance is illustrated through the successful quest for the Higgs boson via its electromagnetic decays, and the subsequent mass measurement of the newly discovered particle. Conclusions are drawn for the performance to be expected from 2015 onwards, following the start of the LHC Run II.

  18. Parental Expectations for Independent Behavior and School Achievement; Implications for Elementary Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Anita

    1969-01-01

    Study results suggest that if counselors were aware of home expectations early in child's school career, they could recognize trouble signals and attempt to alter parental expectations which are unreal. (CJ)

  19. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  20. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Richardus, Jan H.; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)—also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Methods Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. Results The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011–2020 and I$313 billion in 2021–2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Conclusion Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large

  1. Shifting the bell curve: the benefits and costs of raising student achievement.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Stuart S

    2009-02-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total social costs by a ratio of 28. Fiscal benefits to the federal government would exceed costs to the federal treasury by a ratio of 93. Social benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 286, and fiscal benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 5, for all but two state treasuries. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the findings are robust to a 5-fold change in the underlying parameters.

  2. A systems approach to achieving the benefits of open and modular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Gavin; Smith, Richard; Tripp, Howard; Worthington, Olwen

    2015-05-01

    The ability to evolve Military Communication and Information Systems (CIS) effectively and affordably is enhanced by the adoption of open and modular system architectures. However, there are a number of issues with actually achieving these benefits in practice. This paper presents the results of an initial system study into blockers to the achievement of the benefits of open and modular systems. In particular, the study and this paper, focuses on the issues associated with: the rapidly evolving Information and Communications Technology landscape; the commercial approach to the procurement of CIS systems; the evolution of such systems in a safe and secure manner.

  3. A Model of Student Engagement and Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Aja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of academic achievement among minority students and investigate teacher-student relationships, teachers' classroom and future educational expectations for students, and students' levels of classroom engagement in order to better understand their patterns of academic achievement. Participants (n =…

  4. Achievement, Motivation, and Educational Choices: A Longitudinal Study of Expectancy and Value Using a Multiplicative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes…

  5. A Case Study of the "Pygmalion Effect": Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    The "Pygmalion effect" usually refers to the fact that people, often children, students or employees, turn to live up to what's expected of them and they tend to do better when treated as if they are capable of success (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). However, the positive teaching expectations do not necessarily lead to high student…

  6. The Key to Successful Achievement as an Undergraduate Student: Confidence and Realistic Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Laura; Putwain, David; Connors, Liz; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how expectations of independent study and academic behavioural confidence predicted end-of-semester marks in a sample of undergraduate students. Students' expectations and academic behavioural confidence were measured near the beginning of the semester, and academic performance was taken from aggregated end-of-semester marks.…

  7. Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement: A Replication and Extension. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, William E.; Glock, Marvin D.

    Critiques of the Rosenthal research on experimenter bias and teacher expectancy have demonstrated that few, if any, conclusions can be drawn from it. From other research concerning the factors in and effects of teacher expectancy, it appears that elementary school children make accurate perceptions of subtle affective and cognitive behaviors of…

  8. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  9. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated [CO2] for soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising [CO2] is widely expected to counteract crop losses to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulations and year-to-ye...

  10. Disruption, Achievement and the Heterogeneous Benefits of Smaller Classes. NBER Working Paper No. 15812

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Graham J.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, empirical research investigating the possibility of heterogeneous benefits of class size reduction lacks a conceptual framework about specific dimensions of potential heterogeneity. In this paper we develop a model of education production that incorporates disruption and student achievement and illustrates how these underlying…

  11. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  12. Family Benefits--What Are Students' Attitudes and Expectations by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waner, Karen K.; Winter, Janet K.; Mansfield, Joan C.

    2007-01-01

    Benefits and leave policies are important aspects of employment when employees attempt to balance career and family. These policies include salary, promotion, vacation, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, medical insurance, life insurance, maternity or paternity leave, elder-care leave, discriminatory leave, and company support and counseling. The…

  13. Giving the Spoon Back: Higher Teacher Expectations of Achievement for Students Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This single case study examined a Deaf teacher's behaviors and beliefs that reflect her expectations of her deaf students. Primary modes of communication used were American Sign Language and written English. Data were collected via videotaped observations and interviews. Analysis was done by coding utterances of the participants using a deductive…

  14. Achieving and Sustaining New Knowledge Development in High-Expectation Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In markets characterized by strong competition, new knowledge and new knowledge development are generally recognized as the key means for an enterprise to gain competitive advantage. This knowledge-based competitive advantage is critical for all commercial ventures, but is especially so for high-expectation start-ups (technology-based ventures…

  15. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  16. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  17. An Examination of the Interrelationships between Self-Esteem, Others' Expectations, Family Support, Learning Approaches and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Sergio; Cuestas, Pedro J.; Fenollar, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The current research represents an initial step into the analysis of the effect of self-esteem, others' (peers and teachers) expectations and family support on academic achievement through learning approaches (deep processing, surface processing and effort). Data were gathered from 553 university students from different faculties of a Spanish…

  18. The Influence of Perceived Parental Expectations and Pressures on Women's Academic Achievement during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furry, Allyson N.; Sy, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has examined the relationship between parental expectations and student academic performance. However, less attention has been given to the role of different parental pressures in students' achievement during their first semester of college. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of perceived parental expectations…

  19. Using the Expectancy Value Model of Motivation to Understand the Relationship between Student Attitudes and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We tested a model of the relationship between attitudes toward statistics and achievement based on Eccles' Expectancy Value Model (1983). Participants (n = 149; 83% female) were second-year Australian university students in a psychology statistics course (mean age = 23.36 years, SD = 7.94 years). We obtained demographic details, past performance,…

  20. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  1. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  2. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sharon B; Dermody, Orla; Klein, Stephanie P; Locke, Anna M; McGrath, Justin M; Paul, Rachel E; Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Strellner, Reid; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R; Leakey, Andrew D B

    2016-09-05

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is widely expected to counteract crop losses that are due to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulation and year-to-year variation in weather conditions at a unique open-air field facility to show that the stimulation of soybean yield by elevated [CO2] diminished to zero as drought intensified. Contrary to the prevalent expectation in the literature, rising [CO2] did not counteract the effect of strong drought on photosynthesis and yield because elevated [CO2] interacted with drought to modify stomatal function and canopy energy balance. This new insight from field experimentation under hot and dry conditions, which will become increasingly prevalent in the coming decades, highlights the likelihood of negative impacts from interacting global change factors on a key global commodity crop in its primary region of production.

  3. Determining Teacher Expectations in an Urban School Environment Its Implications for Affecting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Tanya H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method, Case Study research was to explore the teacher's perceptions, efficacy, and belief systems. The researcher using a primary survey and a collection of secondary extant data endeavored to uncover the teachers' responses for efficacy, beliefs and perceptions of student achievement. The Effective Schools (Edmonds,…

  4. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  5. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  6. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  7. U.S. Dental Specialty Residents' Expectations and Anticipated Benefits of Academic Employment.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, Elena; Martin-Peele, Melanie; Fifield, Judith

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess features of an academic career that dental specialty residents, as a group and by gender, find most attractive and to identify what determines their expectations for responsibilities and professional growth in academic employment. In November 2013, an invitation to participate in the study along with a link to an online survey was sent to the 407 U.S. program directors of six of the dental specialties (endodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, pediatric dentistry, periodontics, prosthodontics, and orthodontics), asking them to forward the survey to their residents. A total of 287 residents responded (112 [41.3%] female and 159 [58.7%] male) out of 4,400 enrolled in these specialty training programs (6.5% response rate). The female respondents were significantly more interested in joining academia than were the male respondents (female 48%; male 31.5%; p<0.005). Respondents of both genders were attracted to academic dentistry by opportunities for intellectual and professional stimulation, but the lifestyle of academicians was significantly more important for the female respondents. The most important feature of a successful academic career for the female respondents was the ability to have a good balance between career and personal life. While opportunity to conduct research was a positive feature for all residents interested in academia and both male and female respondents agreed strongly on the need for collaboration between faculty members for productive research, male respondents agreed significantly more than female respondents that faculty members should conduct independent research. Faculty members' feedback about academic employment were a significantly positive influence on those planning an academic career compared to those planning to enter private practice. This study found that the female and male residents differed in their expectations of responsibilities and professional growth in academic employment. These

  8. Persistent gender inequities in mathematics achievement and expectations in Australia, Canada and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the general public's perceptions and those of 15-year-old school students, about aspects of mathematics learning. For the adult sample, survey data were gathered from pedestrians and Facebook users in Australia, Canada and the UK—countries in which English is the dominant language spoken. Participants responded to items about the teaching and learning of mathematics, the gender stereotyping of mathematics and the perceived importance of studying mathematics for future careers. Collection of the data from the pedestrian samples partially overlapped with the period of data gathering via Facebook and coincided loosely with the administration of the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2012 in the three countries of interest. We examined participants' views/beliefs by country and by respondent age. We also compared the results of the adult samples with student responses to four PISA 2012 attitudinal items for which the foci were comparable to items administered to the general public. Thus, we were able to compare the responses of three different age groups. While participants considered mathematics to be important for everyone to study, and important for employment, vestiges of traditional gender stereotyped beliefs and expectations were evident, more so among the younger than older respondents.

  9. Expected and unexpected achievements and trends in radiation processing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    2003-06-01

    The last four decades produced exponential development in the polymer processing. Radiation processing—initiated also about 40 years ago—yielded a similar pathway of development in the beginning, mostly in the radiation crosslinking of polymers and in the radiation sterilization of polymer products. There are some unexpected results in the developments of the radiation chemistry of polymers utilized well in the polymer processing today. The most dynamical developments of the microelectronics in our days are based on the efficient utilization of radiation-crosslinkable negative photoresist polymers and the radiation degradable positive photoresist polymers. Rapid prototyping and rapid tooling are indispensable methods in the continuously renewing manufacturing technologies of metal and plastic parts for almost all the industrial branches. Polymer composite manufacturing is also profited in many ways from the experiences of radiation technology. Compatibilization through radiation-reactive monomers and oligomers is attacking two great fields of the future polymer processing. Recycling of commingled polymer wastes, and manufacturing new type of alloys of different synthetic as well as natural polymers are requiring well-engineered interface, which can be achieved by radiation processing in a technically feasible and economically viable way.

  10. Informed Consent for Whole Genome Sequencing: A Qualitative Analysis of Participant Expectations and Perceptions of Risks, Benefits, and Harms

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Holly K.; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg., Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J.; Dent., Karin M.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the supplementary materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework. PMID:22532433

  11. Informed consent for whole genome sequencing: a qualitative analysis of participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Holly K; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg, Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J; Dent, Karin M; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the Supplementary Materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework.

  12. Occult peripheral artery disease is common and limits the benefit achieved in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tam, Marty C; Longenecker, Chris T; Chow, Chen; Vest, Marianne; Sukeena, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri K; Carman, Teresa; Parikh, Sahil A; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has proven morbidity and mortality benefits in cardiovascular disease, which directly correlates with exercise performance achieved. Many patients in CR exercise at sub-optimal levels, without obvious limitations. Occult lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) may be a determinant of diminished exercise capacity and reduced benefit obtained from traditional CR. In this prospective study of 150 consecutive patients enrolled in Phase II CR, we describe the prevalence of PAD, the utility of externally validated screening questionnaires, and the observed impact on CR outcomes. Abnormal ankle-brachial indices (ABI) (< 0.9 and >1.4) were observed in 19% of those studied. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was insensitive for detecting PAD by low ABI in this population, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and a modified Gardner protocol demonstrated a lack of typical symptoms with low levels of activity. Importantly, at completion of traditional CR, exercise improvement measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) was worse in those with a low ABI compared to those with a normal ABI (+1.39 vs +2.41 METs, p = 0.002). In conclusion, PAD is common in patients in Phase II CR and often clinically occult. Screening based on standard questionnaires appears insensitive in this population, suggesting a need for a broad-based screening strategy with ABI measurements. In this study, undiagnosed PAD significantly attenuated improvements in exercise performance, which potentially has bearings on future clinical events.

  13. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring.

  14. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  15. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  16. Universal patterns or the tale of two systems? Mathematics achievement and educational expectations in post-socialist Europe.

    PubMed

    Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne

    2014-09-01

    Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labor market capitalist relationships, de facto during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational inequality. This study examines the relationships among parental education, gender, educational expectations, and mathematics achievement of youths in five post-socialist Eastern European countries, comparing them with three Western countries. We employed the 8(th)-grade data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 and 2007. The findings point to the universal associations between parental education and student outcomes, whereas gender comparisons present interesting East-West differences. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Universal patterns or the tale of two systems? Mathematics achievement and educational expectations in post-socialist Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labor market capitalist relationships, de facto during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational inequality. This study examines the relationships among parental education, gender, educational expectations, and mathematics achievement of youths in five post-socialist Eastern European countries, comparing them with three Western countries. We employed the 8th-grade data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 and 2007. The findings point to the universal associations between parental education and student outcomes, whereas gender comparisons present interesting East-West differences. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25346564

  18. Parent Involvement as Parental Monitoring of Student Motivation and Parent Expectations Predicting Later Achievement among African American and European American Middle School Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfried, Sherri F.; Ick-Joong Chung

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effects of parent involvement and expectations on academic achievement among 567 Black and White middle school students in 18 Seattle (Washington) schools. Parent and teacher surveys indicated that parental involvement was the highest contributor to academic achievement among White students, whereas earlier educational…

  19. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  20. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Per-Student Expenditures and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Roberts, Kerry; Bell, C. David; Womack, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Cost-benefit correlations have been subject to "selective sampling" in the media. Usually extremes of data from a very few high-funding and low-funding states are cited in the media to construct the case that there is no relationship between economic inputs and academic outputs. This study, using average per-pupil expenditures and ACT…

  1. Pathways to Achievement: Career and Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Latina/o Immigrant Parents and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavira, Gabriela; Cooper, Catherine R.; Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural and related theories, 4 questions examined career and educational aspirations and expectations among 24 immigrant Latina/o early adolescents and their parents as predictors of students' grades. First, adolescents' career aspirations and expectations were correlated, and both parents and adolescents held educational…

  2. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  3. Do You See What I See? Understanding Filipino Elderly's Needs, Benefits, and Expectations from an Adult Continuing Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escolar Chua, Rowena L.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2014-01-01

    As the elderly population increases, encouraging older adults to participate in lifelong learning has become a priority for many countries. Properly structured lifelong learning programs have consistently yielded numerous benefits to older adults; therefore, careful attention and effort should be exerted to ensure its effectiveness by involving…

  4. Achieving the Benefits of a High-Potassium, Paleolithic Diet, Without the Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-04-01

    The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis. For this comprehensive review, we scanned the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE using the following search terms: potassium intake, renal potassium excretion, and prevention of hyperkalemia. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or review articles published between 1980 and 2015 in high-impact journals. The normal kidney has the capacity to tightly regulate K(+) homoeostasis. We discuss new findings with respect to sensing mechanisms by which the kidney maintains K(+) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and distal tubule. There are widely prescribed hypertensive medications that cause hyperkalemia and thus require dietary K(+) restriction. We conclude by discussing newly approved drugs capable of binding K(+) in the gastrointestinal tract and speculate that this new pharmacology might allow diet liberalization in patients at risk for hyperkalemia, affording them the numerous benefits of a K(+)-rich diet.

  5. The Impact of Academic Self-Concept, Expectations and the Choice of Learning Strategy on Academic Achievement: The Case of Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence of the impact of two critical self-regulation components--academic self-concept and outcome expectations--on the selection of learning strategies conducive to academic achievement in undergraduate business education. Self-concept theory is the framework for the analysis of students' motivations and learning behaviors.…

  6. Predicting High School Graduation for Latino Males Using Expectancy Value Theory of Motivation and Tenth Grade Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Erin Oakley

    2010-01-01

    National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…

  7. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  8. Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-Immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature. This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the…

  9. Supporting Low-Achieving EFL Learners: Expectations, Procedure and Significance of Remedial Sessions at a Saudi University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Fatimah M. A.; Siddiqui, Ozma

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on and investigates an institutionalized remedial approach held by an English language institute (ELI) at a Saudi University in order to support foundation year struggling students who often achieve low grades or fail to pass a certain level of the English language program. The study utilizes semi-structured interviews to…

  10. Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.

  11. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  12. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  13. Impact on Life Expectancy of Withdrawing Thiopurines in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Sustained Clinical Remission: A Lifetime Risk-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Sokol, Harry; Cosnes, Jacques; Schwarzinger, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Objective Long-term treatment with thiopurines is associated with a decreased risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) flare but an increased risk of various cancers depending on gender, age, and presence of extensive colitis. We evaluated risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines in patients with CD in prolonged remission. Methods We developed a Markov model assessing risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines compared to continuing thiopurines in a lifetime horizon. The model was stratified by age (35 and 65 years old at thiopurine withdrawal), gender and presence of extensive colitis. Parameter estimates were taken from French cohorts and hospital databases, cancer and death national registries and published literature. Life expectancy, rates of relapse, serious adverse events, and causes-of-death were evaluated. Results In patients without extensive colitis, continuing thiopurines increased life expectancy up to 0.03 years for 35 year-old men and women but decreased life expectancy down to 0.07 years for 65 year-old men and women. Withdrawal strategy became the preferred strategy at 40.6 years for men, and 45.7 years for women without extensive colitis. In patients with extensive colitis, continuation strategy was the preferred strategy regardless of age. Risk-benefit analysis was not modified by duration of CD activity. Conclusions Factors determining life expectancy associated with withdrawal or continuation of thiopurines in patients with CD and in sustained clinical remission vary substantially according to gender, age and presence of extensive colitis. Individual decisions to continue or withdraw thiopurines in patients with CD in sustained remission should take into account these parameters. PMID:27271176

  14. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students.

    PubMed

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L; Haag, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III-Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  15. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students†

    PubMed Central

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H.; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L.; Haag, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies. PMID:28101262

  16. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  17. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  18. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    development. Columbia University's teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for pre- college science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student motivation and achievement in science. The Program is premised on the beliefs that hands-on experience in the practice of science improves the quality and authenticity of science teaching, and that improved science teaching is correlated with increased student interest and achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant findings. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in a well-designed research program.

  19. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  20. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Benedikt, Clemens; Bokazhanova, Aliya; Đurić, Predrag; Petrenko, Irina; Ganina, Lolita; Kelly, Sherrie L.; Stuart, Robyn M.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Vinichenko, Tatiana; Zhang, Shufang; Hamelmann, Christoph; Manova, Manoela; Masaki, Emiko; Wilson, David P.; Gray, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. Methodology We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure—two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment. Findings Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1) optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2) either securing a 35% [30%–39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%–58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%–27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally. Significance With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives. PMID:28207809

  1. Do Low-Achieving Students Benefit More from Small Classes? Evidence from the Tennessee Class Size Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2002-01-01

    Studied possible effects of small classes on achievement using data from Project STAR, a 4-year, large-scale randomized experiment on the effects of class size. There were unambiguous positive effects of small classes on achievement, but no evidence for differentially larger effects of small classes for lower achieving students. (SLD)

  2. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  3. The Impacts of Success for All on Reading Achievement in Grades 3-5: Does Intervening during the Later Elementary Grades Produce the Same Benefits as Intervening Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of Success for All literacy instruction in grades 3 through 5 using data from the same cluster randomized trial used to evaluate effects in the earlier grades (K-2). In contrast to the early benefits, there is no effect on reading achievement in the later grades, either overall or for students and schools with high or low…

  4. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of SCILS for Early Childhood Training in Academic Achievement. Report 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, D. R.; And Others

    This report documents the long term cost benefits to society of the Self Controlled Interactive Learning Systems (SCILS), a program based on cybernetics and designed to teach early reading skills to children ages 3 to 6. SCILS required children to spend not more than 20 minutes daily using a "talking typewriter," a "talking…

  6. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  7. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  8. The Influence of Parents' Beliefs and Expectations on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the United States and Japan: A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliskow, Tia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, considerable research has been done comparing the relative achievement in mathematics by students in the United States and Japan. The current study focuses on one possible factor influencing student achievement: parental influence. The researcher interviewed a small group of teachers in the two countries regarding their…

  9. Family Fortunes: Female Students' Perceptions and Expectations of Higher Education and an Examination of How They, and their Parents, See the Benefits of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a case study undertaken in 2011 which examined a small group of female students', and their parents', perceptions of the purpose of a university education. The research is underpinned by a review of the literature examining the views held by academics and politicians as to the benefits of higher education and of research in the…

  10. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  11. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  12. The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment.

    PubMed

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the process of how socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors. Data from a national, cross-sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the author found that the socioeconomic factors were related indirectly to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors but that the process of these relations was different by racial group. Parents' years of schooling also was found to be an important socioeconomic factor to take into consideration in both policy and research when looking at school-age children.

  13. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  14. Addressing the expected survival benefit for clinical trial design in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Pilotto, Sara; Maines, Francesca; Bracarda, Sergio; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Carlini, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Porta, Camillo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    We performed a sensitivity analysis, cumulating all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received systemic therapy, to evaluate if the comparison of RCTs may drive to biased survival estimations. An overall survival (OS) significant difference according to therapeutic strategy was more likely be determined in RCTs evaluating hormonal drugs versus those studies testing immunotherapy, chemotherapy or other strategies. With regard to control arm, an OS significant effect was found for placebo-controlled trials versus studies comparing experimental treatment with active therapies. Finally, regarding to docetaxel (DOC) timing, the OS benefit was more likely to be proved in Post-DOC setting in comparison with DOC and Pre-DOC. These data suggest that clinical trial design should take into account new benchmarks such as the type of treatment strategy, the choice of the comparator and the phase of the disease in relation to the administration of standard chemotherapy.

  15. Addressing the Human Resources for Health crisis in countries: How far have we gone? What can we expect to achieve by 2015?

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Manuel M; Dolea, Carmen; Dreesch, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Report 2006 identified 57 countries world-wide whose health worker to population density fell below a critical threshold of 2.3 per 1,000 population. This meant that below this critical threshold, a country could not provide the basic health services to its population, defined here as 80% immunization coverage and 80% skilled birth attendance at delivery. Of the 57 countries, 36 are located in Africa. This article reviews the progress countries have made in addressing their health workforce crisis. It cites 3 of the most recent global studies and the indicators used to measure progress. It also features the experiences of 8 countries, namely Malawi, Peru, Ethiopia, Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Zambia, Mali. Their situations provide a diverse picture of country efforts, challenges, and successes. The article asks the question of whether the target of 25% reduction in the number of crisis countries can be achieved by 2015. This was a goal set by the World Health Assembly in 2008. While the authors wish to remain optimistic about the striving towards this target, their optimism must be matched by an adequate level of investment in countries on HRH development. The next four years will show how much will really be achieved.

  16. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A).

  17. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  18. Directed Self-Assembly: Expectations and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been a revolutionary thrust in recent years of development of science and technology for its broad appeal for employing a novel idea for relevant technological applications in particular and for mass-scale production and marketing as common man commodity in general. An interesting aspect of this emergent technology is that it involves scientific research community and relevant industries alike. Top–down and bottom–up approaches are two broad division of production of nanoscale materials in general. However, both the approaches have their own limits as far as large-scale production and cost involved are concerned. Therefore, novel new techniques are desired to be developed to optimize production and cost. Directed self-assembly seems to be a promising technique in this regard; which can work as a bridge between the top–down and bottom–up approaches. This article reviews how directed self-assembly as a technique has grown up and outlines its future prospects. PMID:20730077

  19. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  20. Leadership Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ray C.

    A review of theories of expectation as related to behavior shows a high correlation between educational leaders' perceptions of their faculties and the climate and quality of instructional programs. Thus, effective faculties and high quality educational programs could be linked to a particular type of leadership. Leaders who hold high expectations…

  1. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions…

  2. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  3. Can Explicit Instruction in Social and Emotional Learning Skills Benefit the Social-Emotional Development, Well-Being, and Academic Achievement of Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…

  4. Achieving joint benefits from joint implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moomaw, W.R.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) appears to have been born with Applied Energy Services Guatemala project in 1988. That project, to plant 52 million trees, protect existing forests from cutting and fire, and enhance rural development, is being implemented by CARE Guatemala to offset 120 per cent of the emissions of a small coal burning power plant that has been built in Connecticut. Since that time, several utilities and governments have initiated additional projects. Not all of these necessarily consist of tree planting in other countries, but may consist of energy efficiency or energy conservation programs designed to reduce carbon emissions by at least as much as the additional releases from a new facility. All JI projects share the characteristic of linking the release of greenhouse gases in an industrial country with an offset that reduces or absorbs a comparable amount in another country. The emitter in the industrial country is willing to pay for the reduction elsewhere because costs are less than they would be at home.

  5. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION: PRIORITIZATION TO ACHIEVE EMERGENT BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The declining ability of ecosystems to support themselves and the demands placed on them is not new. Initial efforts to counteract these effects and trends focused on individual species (e.g., Endangered Species Act) or environmental media (e.g., Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act)....

  6. 10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy... Reasonable expectation. Reasonable expectation means that the Commission is satisfied that compliance will be achieved based upon the full record before it. Characteristics of reasonable expectation include that...

  7. Economic benefits of the marine biomass program at GRI (Gas Research Institute. ) Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The overall economic benefits that will occur if marine biomass is successful are substantial; however the probability of achieving those benefits is assumed by GRI to be relatively small. Using a five percent real discount rate, the value of overall economic benefits if marine biomass succeeds rather than fails is 42.69 billion dollars. The benefits specifically attributable to GRI, using a five percent real discount rate and GRI's existing activities in marine biomass, is 7.88 billion dollars. GRI's R D activities can achieve roughly 18 percent of the maximum possible expected benefits.

  8. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... answer questions. Some of these tests, such as exercise tests, will be the same ones you had ...

  9. What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... how well you're able to breathe and exercise. You'll have lung function tests to check ...

  10. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  11. Hope, quality of life, and benefit from treatment in women having chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian cancer: the gynecologic cancer intergroup symptom benefit study.

    PubMed

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Friedlander, Michael L; O'Connell, Rachel L; Voysey, Merryn; King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Martyn, Julie K; Butow, Phyllis N

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer is motivated by the hope of benefit. We sought to determine the relationships between: (a) trait hope, expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy, and anxiety and depression; (b) hope and perceived efficacy of chemotherapy; and (c) unfulfilled hope (where expectations for benefit are not fulfilled) and depression. Methods. Adult patients enrolled within stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study were included. Patient. Reported outcomes were collected from 126 women with predominantly platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at baseline, prior to the first four treatment cycles (12-16 weeks), and four weeks after completing chemotherapy or at disease progression, whichever came first. Associations were assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio. Results. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy were weakly correlated with each other (r = 0.25). Trait hope, but not expectation of symptom benefit, was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.43) and depression (r = -0.50). The smaller the discrepancy between perceived and expected symptom benefit, the less likely the patient was to have scores indicative of depression (odds ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.96; p = .026). Conclusion. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy appear to be distinct and independent of the aspects of quality of life and scores for depression. Hope did not appear to affect perceived efficacy of chemotherapy in alleviating symptoms, but women whose expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy was not fulfilled were more likely to have scores indicative of depression. It may be preferable to encourage hope toward achievable goals rather than toward benefits from chemotherapy.

  12. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  13. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities.

  14. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

  15. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  16. Academic Achievement for English Learners: What Can We Reasonably Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, H. Gary; Boals, Timothy; Lundberg, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Over 5 million students are learning English in America's public schools, accounting for more than 10% of the K-12 population. That's a 50% increase in the last decade. This demographic change has been matched by changes in national policy. Before No Child Left Behind, states set their own accountability policies. Now, they must demonstrate that…

  17. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  18. Humans expect generosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  19. Humans expect generosity.

    PubMed

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-14

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people's expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  20. Humans expect generosity

    PubMed Central

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior. PMID:28195218

  1. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control…

  2. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  3. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  4. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  5. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  6. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

  7. Nutritional benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1989-03-01

    Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  9. Moonshot Science-Risks and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-08-30

    Ever since the successful Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a "moonshot" has come to signify a bold effort to achieve a seemingly impossible task. The Obama administration recently called for a moonshot to cure cancer, an initiative that has elicited mixed responses from researchers who welcome additional funding but worry about raising expectations. We suggest that a successful moonshot requires a sufficient understanding of the basic science underlying a problem in question so that efforts can be focused on engineering a solution. Current gaps in our basic knowledge of cancer biology make the cancer moonshot a uniquely challenging endeavor. Nevertheless, history has shown that intensive research efforts have frequently yielded conceptual and technological breakthroughs with unanticipated benefits for society. We expect that this effort will be no different.

  10. Moonshot Science—Risks and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ever since the successful Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a “moonshot” has come to signify a bold effort to achieve a seemingly impossible task. The Obama administration recently called for a moonshot to cure cancer, an initiative that has elicited mixed responses from researchers who welcome additional funding but worry about raising expectations. We suggest that a successful moonshot requires a sufficient understanding of the basic science underlying a problem in question so that efforts can be focused on engineering a solution. Current gaps in our basic knowledge of cancer biology make the cancer moonshot a uniquely challenging endeavor. Nevertheless, history has shown that intensive research efforts have frequently yielded conceptual and technological breakthroughs with unanticipated benefits for society. We expect that this effort will be no different. PMID:27578761

  11. Reward expectations in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana

    2010-03-01

    The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward.

  12. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  13. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  14. Expectations in the Foreign Language Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketsman, Olha

    2012-01-01

    Research shows the strong correlation between expectations and student achievement across different disciplines. However, little research has been conducted regarding the role of discipline specific classroom expectations in student academic achievement. This multiple instrumental case study discusses expectations in two rural Spanish high school…

  15. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  16. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  17. Addicted to Expectations? Conference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Mary

    Whether teaching incoming students or training faculty in other disciplines, writing instructors often form unrealistic expectations about goals and skills of students and colleagues, which (like chemical addictions) predictably recur each semester as though they had never occurred before. For effective instruction, it is important that…

  18. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  19. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  20. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  1. Black Dialect and Academic Success: A Study of Teacher Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Nancy Lee

    1988-01-01

    Compares teacher expectations for Black children who speak Black Dialect with Black children who speak Standard English. Concludes that teachers expect significantly greater overall academic achievement, reading success, and intelligence from children who speak Standard English. (MM)

  2. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  3. Benefits associated with nutrigenomics research and their reporting in the scientific literature: researchers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, B

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (NGx) are fields of research that have raised significant expectations about their potential benefits. This article presents empirical data from an online survey seeking the opinions of NGx researchers (n=126) regarding the achievability of the potential benefits of NGx, the time envisioned for their realization, the motives that may lead to their explicit mention in scientific peer-reviewed articles and the audience(s) targeted by NGx researchers when reporting their results in such articles. Results show that caution should be taken to avoid the risks associated with biohype and the premature dissemination of the potential benefits of NGx among various audiences.

  4. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  5. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  6. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  7. Raising Expectations, Giving Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Hold school!" was the directive that Principal Patricia Ashmore received from the deputy superintendent of Madison County Schools when she was appointed to Velma Jackson Magnet High School five years ago. The explicit instruction came as a direct result of looking at student achievement, attendance, and graduation data that confirmed…

  8. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  9. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years.

  10. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  11. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  12. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  13. Change in the Stratification of Educational Expectations and Their Realization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John R.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick

    2011-01-01

    What do recent trends toward increasingly ambitious educational expectations and rising college completion rates mean for the stratification of higher education? This article shows that the odds of achieving expectations for a bachelor's degree increased across 15 cohorts of young adults, and to a lesser extent, for expectations to attend…

  14. The Teacher Expectation Effect: An Attempt at Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D.

    Several beliefs about the teacher expectancy effect are false or half-truths. Current interest in the teacher expectation effect began with the publication in 1968 of Rosenthal and Jacobson's book, "Pygmalion in the Classroom". That book stated that a teacher's expectations for a pupil's achievement function as a self-fulfilling prophecy.…

  15. 40 CFR 197.14 - What is a reasonable expectation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a reasonable expectation? 197... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal § 197.14 What is a reasonable expectation? Reasonable expectation means that NRC is satisfied that compliance will be achieved based upon the...

  16. An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-05-01

    Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)), unlike younger adults. However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals.

  17. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  18. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  19. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  20. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved.

  1. Perceived risk, dread, and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, R. ); Mendelsohn, R. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper uses regression techniques to take a second look at a classic risk-perception data set originally collected by Paul Slovic, Sarah Lichtenstein, and Baruch Fischhoff. As discussed in earlier studies, the attributes expected mortality, effects on future generations, immediacy, and catastrophic potential all significantly affect risk ratings. However, the authors find that perceived risk and dread show different regression patterns; most importantly, only perceived risk ratings correlate with expected mortality. In addition, average risk ratings are found to be significantly affected by perceived individual benefits, which suggests that perceptions of risk are net rather than gross indicators of harm. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. The Benefits of Good Teaching Extend beyond Course Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loes, Chad N.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, the National Study on Student Learning, and the Research on Iowa Student Experiences study that estimates the influence of certain effective instructional practices on a range of student outcomes. Student perceptions of two specific teacher…

  3. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  4. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  5. A benefit-cost framework of motivation for a specific activity.

    PubMed

    Studer, B; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity. Benefits comprise positive feelings, gains, and rewards experienced during performance of the activity (intrinsic benefits) or achieved through the activity (extrinsic benefits). Costs entail effort requirements, time demands, and other expenditure (intrinsic costs) as well as unwanted associated outcomes and missing out on alternative activities (extrinsic costs). The expected benefits and costs of a given exercise are subjective and state dependent. We discuss convergence of the proposed framework with a selection of extant motivation theories and briefly outline neurobiological correlates of its main components and assumptions. One particular strength of our framework is that it allows to specify five pathways to increasing motivation for a target exercise, which we illustrate and discuss with reference to previous empirical data.

  6. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  7. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  8. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  9. Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

    1973-01-01

    The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

  10. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  11. High Hopes and High Expectations!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilford, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.

  12. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  13. Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

    Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

  14. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  15. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California

  16. Patient Preferences and Expectations for Care

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Berven, Sigurd H.; Gibson-Chambers, Jennifer; Tosteson, Tor; Tosteson, Anna; Hu, Serena S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort. Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation who had different treatment preferences and the relationship of specific expectations with those preferences. Summary of Background Data Data were gathered from the observational cohort of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Patients in the observational cohort met eligibility requirements identical to those of the randomized cohort, but declined randomization, receiving instead the treatment of their choice. Methods Baseline preference and expectation data were acquired at the time of enrollment of the patient, before exposure to the informed consent process. Univariate analyses were performed using a t test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables. Multivariate analyses were also performed with ANCOVA for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables. Multiple logistic regression models were developed in a forward stepwise fashion using blocks of variables. Results More patients preferred operative care: 67% preferred surgery, 28% preferred nonoperative treatment, and 6% were unsure; 53% of those preferring surgery stated a definite preference, whereas only 18% of those preferring nonoperative care had a definite preference. Patients preferring surgery were younger, had lower levels of education, and higher levels of unemployment/disability. This group also reported higher pain, worse physical and mental functioning, more back pain related disability, a longer duration of symptoms, and more opiate use. Gender, race, comorbidities, and use of other therapies did not differ significantly across preference groups. Patients’ expectations regarding improvement with nonoperative care was the strongest predictor of preference. Conclusion Patient expectations, particularly regarding the benefit of nonoperative treatment, are the primary determinant of

  17. Expectation, the placebo effect and the response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    What we believe we will experience from a treatment--our expectation--has a substantial impact on what we actually experience. Expectation has been established as a key process behind the placebo effect. Studies in both laboratory and clinical settings consistently show that when people ingest a pharmacologically inert substance (placebo) but believe that it is an active substance, they experience both the subjective sensations and physiologic effects expected from that active substance. Expectation has an important place in the response to "real" treatment as well. This paper provides an overview of the data which point to the role of expectation in both the placebo effect and the response to treatment. These data suggest that clinicians might enhance the benefit of all treatments by promoting patients' positive expectations.

  18. FACT SHEET: Clean Power Plan Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about how the proposed Clean Power Plan will help us achieve a cleaner, more efficient power sector - providing health and climate benefits, affordable and reliable energy, and driving innovation while being flexible.

  19. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Rosie; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong negative correlation between increasing life expectancy and decreasing lifespan variation, a measure of inequality. Previous research suggests that countries achieving a high level of life expectancy later in time generally do so with lower lifespan variation than forerunner countries. This may be because they are able to capitalise on lessons already learnt. However, a few countries achieve a high level of life expectancy later in time with higher inequality. Scotland appears to be such a country and presents an interesting case study because it previously experienced lower inequality when reaching the same level of life expectancy as its closest comparator England and Wales. We calculated life expectancy and lifespan variation for Scotland and England and Wales for the years 1950 to 2012, comparing Scotland to England and Wales when it reached the same level of life expectancy later on in time, and assessed the difference in the level of lifespan variation. The lifespan variation difference between the two countries was then decomposed into age-specific components. Analysis was carried out for males and females separately. Since the 1950s Scotland has achieved the same level of life expectancy at least ten years later in time than England and Wales. Initially it did so with lower lifespan variation. Following the 1980s Scotland has been achieving the same level of life expectancy later in time than England and Wales and with higher inequality, particularly for males. Decomposition revealed that higher inequality is partly explained by lower older age mortality rates but primarily by higher premature adult age mortality rates when life expectancy is the same. Existing studies suggest that premature adult mortality rates are strongly associated with the social determinants of health and may be amenable to social and economic policies. So addressing these policy areas may have benefits for both inequality and population health in Scotland.

  20. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  1. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  2. Quantify information system benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.B.

    1995-06-01

    What are information systems and how do they relate to control systems? How do information systems produce benefits in hydrocarbon processing? What are some examples of benefit-generating information system applications? Information System Benefits (ISBEN) is a structured methodology for estimating information system benefits in hydrocarbon processing. The paper discusses information and control systems, information system benefits and applications, objectives, strategies and measures of ISBEN, ISBEN business drivers, ISBEN database, ISBEN methodology, and implementation.

  3. Benefits of an improved wheat crop information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, I. L.

    1976-01-01

    The ECON work and the results of the independent reviews are summarized. Attempts are made to put this information into layman's terms and to present the benefits that can realistically be expected from a LANDSAT-type remote sensing system. Further the mechanisms by which these benefits can be expected to accrue are presented. The benefits are given including the nature of expected information improvements, how and why they can lead to benefits to society, and the estimated magnitude of the expected benefits. A brief description is presented of the ECON models, how they work, their results, and a summary of the pertinent aspects of each review. The ECON analyses show that substantial benefits will accrue from implementation of an improved wheat crop information system based on remote sensing.

  4. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products.

  5. The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme: failing expectations.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme needs appraisal. Set up 10 years ago to improve the quality of postgraduate training that overseas (non-European) doctors receive in Britain, the scheme has been popular, but it is questionable how far it has achieved its aims. If Britain is to continue to employ large numbers of overseas doctors in training grades, both through the scheme and through independent arrangements, the apparent mismatch between their expectations and the reality of what Britain offers must be tackled. Images p1629-a PMID:7993422

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. Marketing Education Through Benefit Segmentation. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    The applicability of the "benefit segmentation" marketing technique to education was tested at the College of DuPage in 1979. Benefit segmentation identified target markets homogeneous in benefits expected from a program offering and may be useful in combatting declining enrollments. The 487 randomly selected students completed the 223…

  8. Good or Bad, What Teachers Expect from Students They Generally Get! ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Research suggests that teacher expectations can predict changes in student achievement and behavior. This Digest discusses the Pygmalion effect, or the idea that one's expectations about a person can eventually lead that person to behave and achieve in ways that conform to those expectations. Many teachers believe that they can judge ahead of time…

  9. Stability and Change in Parents' Expectations about Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Winton, Pamela J.

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of the expectations of families with handicapped (N=9) and nonhandicapped (N=50) young children before and after the introduction of handicapped children into a day care center revealed both groups felt that greatest benefits were derived from exposing children to the "real" world and promoting acceptance of handicapped children.…

  10. Career Expectations and Perceptions of Part-Time MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lynn A.; Fish, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., part-time MBA students regard work/life balance as the critical factor that drives career expectations and perceptions. Job aspects and benefits/compensation closely follow in importance, while employee relations are valued less. Within work/life balance, students value job location, travel time, and telecommuting. Promotional…

  11. Sport Management Internships: Agency Perspectives, Expectations, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Should we hire a sport management intern in our organization or department? What role will the intern play? How will we benefit? What can we expect from sport management interns in terms of preparation and commitment? How easy is it to find, select, and work with an appropriately prepared intern? Professionals ask all of these questions when they…

  12. Evaluations versus expectations: children's divergent beliefs about resource distribution.

    PubMed

    Dejesus, Jasmine M; Rhodes, Marjorie; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2014-01-01

    Past research reveals a tension between children's preferences for egalitarianism and ingroup favoritism when distributing resources to others. Here we investigate how children's evaluations and expectations of others' behaviors compare. Four- to 10-year-old children viewed events where individuals from two different groups distributed resources to their own group, to the other group, or equally across groups. Groups were described within a context of intergroup competition over scarce resources. In the Evaluation condition, children were asked to evaluate which resource distribution actions were nicer. In the Expectation condition, children were asked to predict which events were more likely to occur. With age, children's evaluations and expectations of others' actions diverged: Children evaluated egalitarian actions as nicer yet expected others to behave in ways that benefit their own group. Thus, children's evaluations about the way human social actors should behave do not mirror their expectations concerning those individuals' actions.

  13. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  14. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  15. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  16. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  17. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  18. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  19. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  20. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  1. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  2. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  3. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  4. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  5. Expectation Effects in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment reported here was conducted during a 12-month period at four plants owned by the same company. Managers were given artificial reports about previous findings obtained in implementing job enlargement and job rotation programs. Led to expect higher productivity as a result of these organizational innovations, the managers increased…

  6. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  7. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong “future relevance” is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the “future relevance” of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep. PMID:27760193

  8. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong "future relevance" is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the "future relevance" of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep.

  9. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  10. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) Technique through the Moodle to Enhance Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiantong, Monchai; Teemuangsai, Sanit

    2013-01-01

    One of the benefits of using collaborative learning is enhancing learning achievement and increasing social skills, and the second benefits is as the more students work together in collaborative groups, the more they understand, retain, and feel better about themselves and their peers, moreover working together in a collaborative environment…

  11. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  12. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    field is highly promising, it lacks significant private investment and is largely reliant on public support, requiring a more honest acknowledgement of the expected therapeutic benefits and the timelines to achieving them. PMID:23131007

  13. Bridging the Gap between Business and Education: Reconciling Expectations for Student Achievement. Critical Issues in Student Achievement Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasworthy, Carol; Rood, Magdalena

    Schools are forging linkages with noneducational organizations and agencies to address the needs of all students, particularly those who are most vulnerable to the southwest region's economic and social upheaval. This paper attempts to present an overview of the interrelationship between two elements of the community at large--business and…

  14. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  15. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  16. Expectation propagation for continuous time stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseke, Botond; Schnoerr, David; Opper, Manfred; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2016-12-01

    We consider the inverse problem of reconstructing the posterior measure over the trajectories of a diffusion process from discrete time observations and continuous time constraints. We cast the problem in a Bayesian framework and derive approximations to the posterior distributions of single time marginals using variational approximate inference, giving rise to an expectation propagation type algorithm. For non-linear diffusion processes, this is achieved by leveraging moment closure approximations. We then show how the approximation can be extended to a wide class of discrete-state Markov jump processes by making use of the chemical Langevin equation. Our empirical results show that the proposed method is computationally efficient and provides good approximations for these classes of inverse problems.

  17. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  18. Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez Ruiz, Eduardo R.; Lemoine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of EDEMOI - a French national project that proposed the use of semiformal and formal methods to infer the consistency and robustness of aeronautical regulations through the analysis of faithfully representative models- a methodology had been suggested (and applied) to different (safety and security-related) aeronautical regulations. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this experience by stating which were the methodology s expected benefits, from a scientific point of view, and which are its useful benefits, from a regulatory body s point of view.

  19. National Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the basis for advancing the goal of producing tools in support of quantifying and valuing changes in water quality for EPA regulations. It will also identify specific data and modeling gaps and Improve benefits estimation for more complete benefit-cost a...

  20. Educational Reform: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may…

  1. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  2. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Lagarde, S.; Petrov, R. G.; Berio, P.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Lopez, B.; Antonelli, P.; Allouche, F.; Cruzalebes, P.; Millour, F.; Bazin, G.; Bourgès, L.

    2016-08-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  3. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... in your daily life Increase your ability to exercise Decrease the symptoms of your disease or condition ...

  4. What Are the Possible Benefits and Risks of Clinical Trials?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsors Why Are They Important How Do They Work Who Can Participate What To Expect During Benefits and Risks How They Protect Participants Finding Clinical Trials Links Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites What Are the ...

  5. Survey of Benefits and Perks for Retired Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Jacob H.

    1993-01-01

    Finds a broad range of college reactions to the needs of retirees. Formulates a "model program" of services, benefits, and perks--beyond pensions--colleges should be expected to give to retired faculty. (RS)

  6. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  7. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  10. Preservice Teachers' Expected Attrition from the Classroom: An International Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biraimah, Karen

    This study attempted to ascertain the degree to which teacher attrition rates may affect future educational trends on a cross-national basis and to identify particular characteristics, such as class, gender, or academic achievement, that might be associated with those teachers electing to leave and those expecting to remain in the classroom.…

  11. Raised Parental Expectations towards Higher Education and the Double Bind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Remy Yi Siang

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the participation of students from low socio-economic status (SES) families and communities in Australian higher education. One means of achieving this, as purported by the Australian Government and various universities, is through the raising of family aspirations or expectations. In this paper, I explore the…

  12. Is the Expectancy Phenomenon Operating in My Gym?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutslar, Sally

    A brief explanation of the factors associated with the "pygmalion effect" is presented and focuses on how teacher expectations of high or low student performance in a physical education class may influence the student's actual achievement. A model identifying four areas of teacher student interaction that differ with regard to high and…

  13. Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

  14. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  15. Student Disengagement in Relation to Expected and Unexpected Educational Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondal, Kristjana S.; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2012-01-01

    Students' different educational pathways were examined in relation to their disengagement during adolescence. The participants were Icelandic youth (N = 832) who were followed from age 14 to 22. Based on their academic achievement at age 15 and educational attainment at age 22 they were classified into groups that took expected versus unexpected…

  16. Education for All: High Expectations or False Hopes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, Jacques

    Although the World Conference on Education for All, held in March 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand, fostered international consensus on educational goals and raised expectations, obstacles to successful achievement of education for all (EFA) must be identified. This paper describes the five most important obstacles--political factors, economic/financial…

  17. Expecting the Best: The Essential Lesson for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Carl Williams writes in this article that effective teachers possess a repertoire of critical skills associated with student achievement. As one might expect, these skills relate to planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction. However, there is one indispensable component that is not a skill in the traditional sense; nonetheless, it is an…

  18. Reversing expectations during discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ming; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we asked whether comprehenders used the concessive connective, even so, to predict upcoming events. Participants read coherent and incoherent scenarios, with and without even so, e.g. “Elizabeth had a history exam on Monday. She took the test and aced/failed it. (Even so), she went home and celebrated wildly.”, as they rated coherence (Experiment 1) or simply answered intermittent comprehension questions (Experiment 2). The semantic function of even so was used to reverse real-world knowledge predictions, leading to an attenuated N400 to coherent versus incoherent target words (“celebrated”). Moreover, its pragmatic communicative function enhanced predictive processing, leading to more N400 attenuation to coherent targets in scenarios with than without even so. This benefit however, did not come for free: the detection of failed event predictions triggered a later posterior positivity and/or an anterior negativity effect, and costs of maintaining alternative likelihood relations manifest as a sustained negativity effect on sentence-final words. PMID:25914891

  19. Expectation-based syntactic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Levy, Roger

    2008-03-01

    This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale [Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Proceedings of NAACL (Vol. 2, pp. 159-166)], in which the difficulty of a word is proportional to its surprisal (its negative log-probability) in the context within which it appears. This proposal subsumes and clarifies findings that high-constraint contexts can facilitate lexical processing, and connects these findings to well-known models of parallel constraint-based comprehension. In addition, the theory leads to a number of specific predictions about the role of expectation in syntactic comprehension, including the reversal of locality-based difficulty patterns in syntactically constrained contexts, and conditions under which increased ambiguity facilitates processing. The paper examines a range of established results bearing on these predictions, and shows that they are largely consistent with the surprisal theory.

  20. College Students' Motivation toward Weight Training: An Application of Expectancy-Value Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Guided by an expectancy-value model of achievement choice (Eccles et al., 1983; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000), the relationships among expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values (importance, interest, and usefulness), and achievement outcomes (intention, engagement, and performance) were examined in a college-level beginning weight training…

  1. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection.... The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and...

  2. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Insurance Deduction Authorization (for Deduction from Benefit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Payments)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans.... 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of... collection and its expected cost and burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument....

  3. A Review of the Teacher Expectancy Effect: The Question of Preponderant Causation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Charles K.

    This discussion of teacher expectations attempts to delineate the research steps that are needed to convincingly validate or invalidate the Pygmalion Effect. Five elements of expectancy effects are identified: (1) Information provided to teachers, (2) their expectancies, (3) behavior, (4) children's achievement and (5) intelligence. An examination…

  4. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  5. Connecting Expectations and Values: Students' Perceptions of Developmental Mathematics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen Latrice Terrell

    2014-01-01

    Students' perceptions influence their expectations and values. According to Expectations and Values Theory of Achievement Motivation (EVT-AM), students' expectations and values impact their behaviors (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This study seeks to find students' perceptions of developmental mathematics in a mastery learning computer-based…

  6. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  7. Perceptions by Teachers about the Benefits and Liabilities of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alonzo, Bruno J.; Giordano, Gerard; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    1997-01-01

    This survey of 336 New Mexico regular and special educators investigated their perceptions of the benefits and problems of inclusion. Results indicated skepticism and a mixed opinion about potential benefits of inclusion and an overwhelming expectation that problems would be inherent in a unified system of education. (CR)

  8. 20 CFR 725.533 - Modification of benefits amounts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... because of death or partial or total disability due to pneumoconiosis; or (2) Any compensation or benefits received under or pursuant to any Federal law including part B of title IV of the Act because of death or... account of excess earnings may reasonably be expected. (d) Monthly benefit rates are payable in...

  9. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.253 Calculation of benefits. (a) General provisions. (1) Except as provided for... values on the initial calculation date of— (A) Expected incurred benefits in the loss ratio calculation period, to— (B) The total policy reserve at the last day of the loss ratio calculation period: and...

  10. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.253 Calculation of benefits. (a) General provisions. (1) Except as provided for... values on the initial calculation date of— (A) Expected incurred benefits in the loss ratio calculation period, to— (B) The total policy reserve at the last day of the loss ratio calculation period: and...

  11. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.253 Calculation of benefits. (a) General provisions. (1) Except as provided for... values on the initial calculation date of— (A) Expected incurred benefits in the loss ratio calculation period, to— (B) The total policy reserve at the last day of the loss ratio calculation period: and...

  12. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 Care for a condition other than your terminal illness ......................................... 4 How your Medicare hospice benefit works ..................................................... ... care, counseling, drugs, equipment, and supplies for the terminal illness and related conditions. ■■ Care is generally provided ...

  13. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  14. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  15. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    55, before they qualify for retirement benefits. 5 2. Approximately 94% of companies allow early retirement with reduced pensions. The Hay-Huggins...data indicate that the most common basis for eligibility for reduced early retirement is a combination of age and service (72% of plans). The most common...combination is age 55 and ten years of service. 13 • . . . . . . . . " " - .. . . . " . . . ’ For those companies providing early retirement benefits

  16. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes

  17. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  18. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects.

    PubMed

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G

    2011-12-01

    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  19. Graded Expectations: Predictive Processing and the Adjustment of Expectations during Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of local and global context to incoming words during listening comprehension. Local context was manipulated by presenting a target noun (e.g., cake, veggies) that was preceded by a word that described a prototypical or atypical feature of the noun (e.g., sweet, healthy). Global context was manipulated by presenting the noun in a scenario that was consistent or inconsistent with the critical noun (e.g., a birthday party). ERPs were examined at the feature word and at the critical noun. An N400 effect was found at the feature word reflecting the effect of compatibility with the global context. Global predictability and local feature-word consistency interacted at the critical noun: a larger N200 was found to nouns that mismatched predictions when the context was maximally constraining, relative to nouns in the other conditions. A graded N400 response was observed at the critical noun, modulated by global predictability and feature consistency. Finally, PNP effects of context-updating were observed to nouns supported by one contextual cue (global/local), but unsupported by the other. These results indicate (1) incoming words that are compatible with context-based expectations receive a processing benefit; (2) when the context is sufficiently constraining, specific lexical items may be activated; and (3) listeners dynamically adjust their expectations when input is inconsistent with their predictions, provided that the inconsistency has some level of support from either global or local context. PMID:25673006

  20. 42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and interest, that on the valuation date represents— (A) The present value of expected incurred benefits over the loss ratio calculation period; less— (B) The present value of expected net premiums over... in calculating the additional reserve. On the day the policy is issued, the present value of...

  1. Incorporating coping into an expectancy framework for explaining drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy Theory has offered much in the way of understanding alcohol use and abuse, and has contributed greatly to prevention and treatment initiatives. However although many cognitive-behavioural treatment approaches are based on expectancy constructs, such as outcome expectancies and self-efficacy, high relapse rates imply that expectancy theory may be too narrow in scope, and that additional variables need to be examined if a comprehensive understanding of drinking behaviour, and better treatment outcomes, are to be achieved. We suggest that the coping strategies an individual employs present one such set of variables that have largely been neglected from an expectancy framework. Although coping skills training is routinely used in prevention and treatment of alcohol problems, coping research has suffered from a poor theoretical framework. In this paper we review the existing research relating expectancies, self-efficacy and coping to drinking behaviour and propose a model which explains both social and dependent drinking, by incorporating coping into an expectancy theory framework. We also outline research and clinical implications of the proposed model.

  2. Assessing the Disconnect between Grade Expectation and Achievement in a Business Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Mark L.; Ramnarayanan, Renu; Oppenheim, Alan

    2015-01-01

    In an institutional review board--approved study aimed at evaluating differences in learning between a large-sized introductory business statistics course section using courseware assisted examinations compared with small-sized sections using traditional paper-and-pencil examinations, there appeared to be a severe disconnect between the final…

  3. The Roles of Perceived Parental Expectation and Criticism in Adolescents' Multidimensional Perfectionism and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir; Voltsis, Marina; Weinstock, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Perfectionism consists of personal predispositions and attitudes toward performance. Although there is some disagreement in the field regarding how to best define and measure perfectionism, most studies have supported a distinction between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. The current study examines a model in which students' perceptions of…

  4. The Development of Children's Achievement-Related Expectancies and Subjective Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Klaus; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Children between the ages of three and six years were asked to predict their success or failure in two tasks, each of which had five difficulty levels. Tasks were presented either simultaneously or successively. Results indicated that children made realistic assessments of their chances for success at the difficulty levels. Performance factors are…

  5. The Role of Concept of Self and Societal Expectations in Academic and Career Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of self-esteem and confidence are attributes that affect the power of self or identity of a person such as one's ability to be successful in work. Many theorists have stated that the major variables that impact the self are an individual's core sense of self (who one is) and the environment or social relationships that affect a person…

  6. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  7. Teacher Expectations and Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Magnet and Non-Magnet Traditional Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Bonita K.

    2012-01-01

    National mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the state of Texas standardized system of accountability pressures educators to provide optimum educational experiences for our students. The momentous challenge is not just to educate students who can compete in the 21st century global society but to prepare them for the most…

  8. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  9. Beating the Odds in Mississippi: Identifying Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations. REL 2017-213

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Mark A.; Koon, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine which Mississippi public schools perform better than could be predicted, considering demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Additionally, this study identified profiles of schools within Mississippi, or groups of schools with similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. This study…

  10. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  11. [Proven and expected benefits of intravenous lidocaine administered during the perioperative period].

    PubMed

    Giudice, V; Lauwick, S; Kaba, A; Joris, J

    2012-02-01

    Local anesthetics which inhibit sodium channels are used for neural blockade during infiltration and locoregional anesthesia. Furthermore lidocaine given intravenously acts on other cellular systems and produces multiple properties, some of which are beneficial during the perioperative period. Indeed, intravenous lidocaine is analgesic, antihyperalgesic, antiinflammatory, and improves the recovery of bowel function after abdominal surgery. As a consequence, lidocaine has been added to postoperative analgesic strategies. This article reviews clinically relevant properties of intravenous lidocaine. Its future perspectives for the prevention of chronicisation of postoperative pain, facilitation of postoperative fast track programs, and prevention of tumoral recurrence are also discussed.

  12. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  13. Industrial benefits and future expectations in materials and processes resulting from space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed as applied to the field of materials science. Advances made in processing include improved computer techniques, and structural analysis. Technology transfer is shown to have an important impact potential in the overall productivity of the United States.

  14. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  15. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  16. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women.

  17. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  18. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  19. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  20. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  1. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  2. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  3. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  4. ITS benefits: Review of evaluation methods and reported benefits. Research report, September 1997--August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.; Stockton, W.R.; James, S.; Rother, T.; Walton, C.M.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the reported benefits of deployed intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and the evaluation methods used to quantify these ITS benefits. A better understanding of the actual or expected benefits of ITS will allow TxDOT to make prudent ITS deployment and operating decisions. The authors present several evaluation frameworks that have been used to evaluate and quantify ITS benefits. Many of these frameworks are based on the five primary ITS goals (e.g. system efficiency/capacity, mobility, safety, environmental impacts, and economic productivity) identified in the National ITS Architecture. The authors concluded that the existing National ITS Architecture framework could serve as the basis for TxDOT`s ITS evaluation methodology, with some adaptation for TxDOT`s statewide goals, deployment strategy, and other considerations. This report also provides a synthesis of the reported benefits for the priority user services identified in TxDOT`s ITS Deployment Strategy. The authors found that reported benefits for similar ITS user services ranged widely (e.g., reductions in travel time ranged from 7 to 48 percent for ramp metering), presumably due to different pre-existing traffic conditions and ITS implementation details. The wide range in reported ITS benefits without accompanying data on pre-existing conditions made it difficult for the research team to accurately predict expected ITS benefits in Texas. The authors concluded that a careful re-examination of selected ITS evaluations may be necessary. The authors also recommend the development of an evaluation plan that could be used by TxDOT and the research team to fill gaps in existing ITS benefits knowledge.

  5. Women in developing countries and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castillo, Fatima; Feinholz, Dafna

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table.

  6. Patients’ Expectations Regarding Medical Treatment: A Critical Review of Concepts and Their Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Laferton, Johannes A. C.; Kube, Tobias; Salzmann, Stefan; Auer, Charlotte J.; Shedden-Mora, Meike C.

    2017-01-01

    Patients’ expectations in the context of medical treatment represent a growing area of research, with accumulating evidence suggesting their influence on health outcomes across a variety of medical conditions. However, the aggregation of evidence is complicated due to an inconsistent and disintegrated application of expectation constructs and the heterogeneity of assessment strategies. Therefore, based on current expectation concepts, this critical review provides an integrated model of patients’ expectations in medical treatment. Moreover, we review existing assessment tools in the context of the integrative model of expectations and provide recommendations for improving future assessment. The integrative model includes expectations regarding treatment and patients’ treatment-related behavior. Treatment and behavior outcome expectations can relate to aspects regarding benefits and side effects and can refer to internal (e.g., symptoms) and external outcomes (e.g., reactions of others). Furthermore, timeline, structural and process expectations are important aspects with respect to medical treatment. Additionally, generalized expectations such as generalized self-efficacy or optimism have to be considered. Several instruments assessing different aspects of expectations in medical treatment can be found in the literature. However, many were developed without conceptual standardization and psychometric evaluation. Moreover, they merely assess single aspects of expectations, thus impeding the integration of evidence regarding the differential aspects of expectations. As many instruments assess treatment-specific expectations, they are not comparable between different conditions. To generate a more comprehensive understanding of expectation effects in medical treatments, we recommend that future research should apply standardized, psychometrically evaluated measures, assessing multidimensional aspects of patients’ expectations that are applicable across various

  7. Checkered Expectations: Predictors of Approval of Opening a Casino in the Niagara Community.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Room, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a survey prior to the opening of a casino in Niagara Falls, Ontario (N= 1002 adults) on approval of the casino, expectations regarding the impact of the casino, attitudes toward gambling, gambling behaviour, and demographic information. The respondents generally had a positive attitude towards gambling. The expectations of community impact clustered into 3 factors: negative social consequences (crimes, addiction), negative environmental consequences (litter, noise, traffic), and positive economic consequences (jobs, stores, income). The majority of respondents expected economic benefits from the casino as well as a decrease in the environmental quality of the city. Expectations regarding social problems were mixed with a majority expecting an increase in serious crimes, but only a minority expecting an increase in people on welfare. Covariance structure modelling revealed that a positive attitude towards gambling and expecting economic benefits were positively related to approval of the casino, and expecting social problems was negatively related to approval. Given that more than seven in ten respondents supported the opening of the casino, the expected economic benefits coupled with a generally positive attitude towards gambling, apparently outweighed concerns about problems associated with gambling.

  8. Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  9. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial.

  10. Noncaloric Benefits of Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Noncaloric benefits of carbohydrates are due to the presence of dietary fibers, which are a heterogeneous group of natural food sources and form an important component of a healthy diet. They differ in physiochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity. They have a wide range of physiological effects resulting in gastrointestinal and systemic benefits. These include appetite, satiety, bowel transit time and function, production of short-chain fatty acids and certain vitamins, and effects on gut microbiota, immunity and inflammation, as well as mineral absorption. They also help to control the glycemic status and serum lipid levels, resulting in reduced incidence rates of atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Measuring community benefits provided by for-profit and nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Pauly, M V; Burns, L R; Baumritter, A; Asch, D A

    2000-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to provide benefits to their community in return for being exempt from most taxes. In this paper we develop a new method of identifying activities that should qualify as community benefits and of determining a benchmark for the amount of community benefits a nonprofit hospital should be expected to provide. We then compare estimates of nonprofits' current level of community benefits with our benchmark and show that actual provision appears to fall short. Either nonprofit hospitals as a group ought to provide more community benefits, or they are performing activities that cannot be measured. In either case, better measurement and accounting of community benefits would improve public policy.

  12. More in hope than expectation: a systematic review of women's expectations and experience of pain relief in labour

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Joanne E; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Macphail, Sheila; Thomson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits of the various methods of pain relief can heighten anxiety. Women are increasingly expected, and are expecting, to participate in decisions about their healthcare. Involvement should allow women to make better-informed decisions; the National Institute for Clinical Excellence has stated that we need effective ways of supporting pregnant women in making informed decisions during labour. Our aim was to systematically review the empirical literature on women's expectations and experiences of pain and pain relief during labour, as well as their involvement in the decision-making process. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Bath Information and Database Service (BIDS), Excerpta Medica Database Guide (EMBASE), Midwives Information and Resource (MIDIRS), Sociological Abstracts and PsychINFO. Studies that examined experience and expectations of pain, and its relief in labour, were appraised and the findings were integrated into a systematic review. Results Appraisal revealed four key themes: the level and type of pain, pain relief, involvement in decision-making and control. Studies predominantly showed that women underestimated the pain they would experience. Women may hope for a labour free of pain relief, but many found that they needed or benefited from it. There is a distinction between women's desire for a drug-free labour and the expectation that they may need some sort of pain relief. Inaccurate or unrealistic expectations about pain may mean that women are not prepared appropriately for labour. Many women acknowledged that they wanted to participate in decision

  13. Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed.

  14. Causes of and Solutions to the Achievement Gap: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Costner, Richard H.; Carroll, Kimberly L.; Jones, Cathy R.; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Hunt, Gilbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from 874 educators regarding the achievement gap are shared. The importance of the achievement gap, causes of and solutions to the achievement gap, and performance expectations for students in their schools are explored. Implications for teacher educators are discussed as related to both pre-service and in-service training programs.

  15. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  16. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

  17. Brain mechanisms supporting violated expectations of pain.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Kraft, Robert A; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between experiences, future predictions, and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain, whereas expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. This investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, 10 incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine whether expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between prestimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations in which patients' unrealistic expectations of pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management.

  18. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  19. Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derden, Michael Wade

    2011-01-01

    Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

  20. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  1. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  2. GIO benefits the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) benefits the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by providing access to and delivery of USGS information and services, safety and security of USGS data and information, support for USGS science, and coordination of partnerships through Federal interagency data committees.

  3. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein and the Athlete - How Much Do You Need? Protein and the Athlete — How Much Do You Need? stop watch - Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout ... of Java Published September 29, 2014 Print Email ...

  4. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  5. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  6. The Benefits of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the academic benefits of bilingual education gained by language-minority students, highlighting school districts that have had great success with bilingual education and discussing the negative consequences of the proposed English for Children initiative, which would end bilingual education and instead provide intensive…

  7. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  8. Expectations of life and health among spinal cord injured adults.

    PubMed

    McColl, M A; Walker, J; Stirling, P; Wilkins, R; Corey, P

    1997-12-01

    While our understanding of aging and mortality in spinal cord injury is evolving, precise estimates are still not available for expectations of life and health following a spinal cord injury. In order to derive these estimates, information about mortality and health must be combined into a single estimate. Health expectancy estimates have been widely used in the literature of the last decade to try to understand the relationship between population health and survival, both in the general population and in special populations. This study brought the benefit of this methodology to the question of long-term survival following spinal cord injury. Specifically, the study aimed to calculate life and health expectancy in a population of spinal cord injured individuals; and to estimate the effect of factors associated with survival and health. The study involved a retrospective cohort, all of whom sustained a spinal cord injury between the ages of 25 and 34 years, and between 1945 and 1990. The study predicted a median survival time of 38 years post-injury, with 43% surviving at least 40 years. These findings suggest an increase in life expectancy of about 5 years over previous research on the same cohort. Factors affecting survival were age at injury, level and completeness of lesion. Expectations of health found in the present study are similar to those found in studies of the general population. This study showed seven remaining years of poor health expected at injury, and five remaining years expected at 40 years post injury, presumably occurring at the end of life.

  9. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  10. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  11. Employee benefits, retirement patterns, and implications for increased work life.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, P

    1997-04-01

    This Issue Brief examines why policymakers are concerned about the trend toward early retirement and how it relates to Social Security, Medicare, and employee health and retirement benefits. It reviews the rationale for the effects of economic incentives on early retirement decisions and includes a summary of empirical literature on the retirement process. It presents data on how employee benefits influence workers' expected retirement patterns. Finally, it examines the implications of public policies to reverse early-retirement trends and raise the eligibility age for Social Security and Medicare. An employee Benefit Research Institute/Gallup survey indicates that there is a direct link between a worker's decision to retire early and the availability of retiree health benefits. In 1993, 61 percent of workers reported that they would not retire before becoming eligible for Medicare if their employer did not provide retiree health benefits. Participation in a pension plan can be an important determinant of retirement. Twenty-one percent of pension plan participants planned to stop working before age 65, compared with 12 percent among nonparticipants. Workers whose primary pension plan was a defined benefit plan were more likely to expect to stop working before age 65 (23 percent) than workers whose primary plan was a defined contribution plan (18 percent). Expected income replacement rates effect retirement patterns, indicating that as the expected replacement increases, the probability of expecting to stop working before age 65 increases. Twenty-two percent of workers with an expected income replacement rate below 60 percent expected to stop working before age 65, compared with 29 percent for those in the 60-69 percent replacement range, and 30 percent for those in the 70-79 percent replacement range. Workers expecting to receive retiree health insurance are more likely to expect to stop working before age 65 than workers who do not expect to have retiree health

  12. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction.

  13. Older candidates for kidney transplantation: Who to refer and what to expect?

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Beatrice P; Forbes, Rachel C; Schaefer, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    The number of older end-stage renal disease patients being referred for kidney transplantation continues to increase. This rise is occurring alongside the continually increasing prevalence of older end-stage renal disease patients. Although older kidney transplant recipients have decreased patient and graft survival compared to younger patients, transplantation in this patient population is pursued due to the survival advantage that it confers over remaining on the deceased donor waiting list. The upper limit of age and the extent of comorbidity and frailty at which transplantation ceases to be advantageous is not known. Transplant physicians are therefore faced with the challenge of determining who among older patients are appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. This is usually achieved by means of an organ systems-based medical evaluation with particular focus given to cardiovascular health. More recently, global measures of health such as functional status and frailty are increasingly being recognized as potential tools in risk stratifying kidney transplant candidates. For those candidates who are deemed eligible, living donor transplantation should be pursued. This may mean accepting a kidney from an older living donor. In the absence of any living donor, the choice to accept lesser quality kidneys should be made while taking into account the organ shortage and expected waiting times on the deceased donor list. Appropriate counseling of patients should be a cornerstone in the evaluation process and includes a discussion regarding expected outcomes, expected waiting times in the setting of the new Kidney Allocation System, benefits of living donor transplantation and the acceptance of lesser quality kidneys. PMID:28058214

  14. Older candidates for kidney transplantation: Who to refer and what to expect?

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Beatrice P; Forbes, Rachel C; Schaefer, Heidi M

    2016-12-24

    The number of older end-stage renal disease patients being referred for kidney transplantation continues to increase. This rise is occurring alongside the continually increasing prevalence of older end-stage renal disease patients. Although older kidney transplant recipients have decreased patient and graft survival compared to younger patients, transplantation in this patient population is pursued due to the survival advantage that it confers over remaining on the deceased donor waiting list. The upper limit of age and the extent of comorbidity and frailty at which transplantation ceases to be advantageous is not known. Transplant physicians are therefore faced with the challenge of determining who among older patients are appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. This is usually achieved by means of an organ systems-based medical evaluation with particular focus given to cardiovascular health. More recently, global measures of health such as functional status and frailty are increasingly being recognized as potential tools in risk stratifying kidney transplant candidates. For those candidates who are deemed eligible, living donor transplantation should be pursued. This may mean accepting a kidney from an older living donor. In the absence of any living donor, the choice to accept lesser quality kidneys should be made while taking into account the organ shortage and expected waiting times on the deceased donor list. Appropriate counseling of patients should be a cornerstone in the evaluation process and includes a discussion regarding expected outcomes, expected waiting times in the setting of the new Kidney Allocation System, benefits of living donor transplantation and the acceptance of lesser quality kidneys.

  15. Analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuming; Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained.

  16. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  17. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  18. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  19. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  20. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  1. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    PubMed

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  2. How Do Unemployment Insurance and Recall Expectations Affect On-the-Job Search among Workers Who Receive Advance Notice of Layoff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Paul L.; Low, Stuart A.

    1998-01-01

    Prelayoff job search of workers receiving advance notice of layoffs increased with length of notice and decreased with expected recall. For those not expecting recall, prelayoff search decreased with level of available unemployment benefits. (SK)

  3. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  4. Video Captions Benefit Everyone

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2016-01-01

    Video captions, also known as same-language subtitles, benefit everyone who watches videos (children, adolescents, college students, and adults). More than 100 empirical studies document that captioning a video improves comprehension of, attention to, and memory for the video. Captions are particularly beneficial for persons watching videos in their non-native language, for children and adults learning to read, and for persons who are D/deaf or hard of hearing. However, despite U.S. laws, which require captioning in most workplace and educational contexts, many video audiences and video creators are naïve about the legal mandate to caption, much less the empirical benefit of captions. PMID:28066803

  5. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  6. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  7. Benefits of NSF work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Ted

    This fall I will leave my rotatorship as Associate Director for Chemical Oceanography at the National Science Foundation. I have very much enjoyed my duty and want to outline for those who may become “rotators” some of the job's benefits, since NSF is now seeking applicants to replace me. Batiza, Rea and Rumble [Eos, 69, 801, 1988] have discussed the rotator's experience; my comments supplement their points.The most important benefit in working at NSF is the breadth of vision you acquire. This is important for researchers, because it pulls you away from your narrowly focused subfield and forces you to review again, as you did as a graduate student, your entire field. For teachers, this benefit is equally important, because you will keep up with current research even while away from teaching your up-to-date balanced courses. During my stay here I have reviewed proposals to study trace metals scavenging, gas exchange, sediment traps, biochemical cycling, stable and unstable isotopes, lipid biomarkers, sediment diagenesis, anoxic redox processes, and many other exciting topics. Some research areas, such as the vent and seep studies, had not been conceived when I was a graduate student in the sixties, so my experience here has been, in fact, a real sabbatical.

  8. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  9. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  10. Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483

  11. Family Literacy Programs: Who Benefits? Occasional Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim

    Family literacy programs have been demonstrated to have significant and widespread benefits for children, parents, families, and society. Documented benefits of family literacy programs to children appear in the following areas: children's achievement in school, school attendance, oral language development, reading comprehension and vocabulary,…

  12. Exploring nurses' confirmed expectations regarding health IT: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Zadvinskis, Inga M; Chipps, Esther; Yen, Po-Yin

    2014-02-01

    Health information technology (IT) benefits both patients and providers with respect to health care quality and perceived usefulness. Although existing research provides a preliminary understanding of nurses' perception of health IT, perceptions do not guide actions. This phenomenological study explored nurses' perceptions regarding electronic health records and bar code medication administration four months post implementation on a medical-surgical unit in an academic medical center. Ten staff nurses (8 females and 2 males) participated. We categorized the results into five themes from personal-level to organizational-level confirmed expectations: (1) nurses' interaction with computer, (2) nursing performance regarding task accomplishment, (3) unit-specific teamwork, (4) interdisciplinary teamwork, and (5) quality of care. We discovered that effective health IT must be congruent with nursing expectations. IT professionals, nursing and organizational leaders may use findings to structure an environment supportive of effective health IT in nursing practice.

  13. Nurses' expectations and perceptions of a redesigned Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Zulma; Recondo, Francisco; Sommer, Janine; Schachner, Bibiana; Garcia, Gabriela; Luna, Daniel; Benítez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    When a new Electronic Health Record is implemented or modifications are made, the full acceptance by end users depends on their expectations and perceptions about the possible benefits and the potential impacts on care quality. The redesign of an electronic nurse chart should consider the inherent characteristics of nurses' practice and the variables that may influence the implementation and use of the new chart. In this study, a qualitative method evaluated nurses' expectations and perceptions about the implementation impacts of a redesigned nurse chart in an electronic health record at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Seventy-four nurses participated in three operative groups. Following ground theory, three analytic dimensions were found: impact at work, communication and chart quality. In addition, time was a recurrent topic. Nurses found it difficult to think positively if reduction in time of documentation was not assured.

  14. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  15. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  16. Peace of Mind, Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement in Filipino High School Students.

    PubMed

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-04-09

    Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.

  17. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

  18. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  19. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Violated Expectations of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V.; Kraft, Robert A.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between prior experiences, future predictions and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain while expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event in order to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. The present investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, ten incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine if expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between pre-stimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations where patients’ unrealistic expectations for pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management. PMID:26083664

  20. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  1. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  2. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  3. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  4. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  5. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  6. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  7. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  8. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  9. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  10. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  11. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  12. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  13. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  14. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  15. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  16. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  17. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  18. Health benefits of nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-07-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets.

  19. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  20. Affect-regulation expectancies among Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Will Shead, N; Hodgins, David C

    2009-09-01

    Factor scores on a gambling expectancy questionnaire (GEQ) were used to subtype 132 university students who gamble regularly (37.9% male; M age = 22.6 years, SD = 6.04) as: Reward Expectancy Gamblers (Reward EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling augments positive mood, Relief Expectancy Gamblers (Relief EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling relieves negative affect, and Non-Expectancy Gamblers (Non-EGs)-have neither strong expectation. Gambling on a high-low card game was compared across subtypes following priming for either "relief" or "reward" affect-regulation expectancies with the Scrambled Sentence Test (SST). The hypothesized Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction was not significant. When a more stringent set of criteria for GEQ subtyping was imposed, the "purified" sub-sample (n = 54) resulted in the hypothesized statistically significant Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction. Relief EGs gambled more after being primed with the construct "relief of negative emotions" compared to after being primed with the construct "augmentation of positive emotion." Planned orthogonal contrasts showed a significant linear increase in number of bets made across GEQ subtypes when prime type corresponded to GEQ subtype. The results suggest a need for components in gambling treatment programs that address clients' expectancies that gambling can provide a specific desirable emotional outcome.

  1. Affirmative Action and the Issue of Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Faye; Clayton, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact of affirmative action policies on expectancies and interpersonal relations. Concludes that affirmative action policies offer clear advantages to the members of target groups. (DM)

  2. Reciprocal Effects of Positive Future Expectations, Threats to Safety, and Risk Behavior Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Prince, Dana M; Epstein, Marina; Nurius, Paula S; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B

    2016-09-12

    We examined the reciprocal relationships among positive future expectations, expected threats to future safety, depression, and individual substance use and delinquency using 4 waves of data (N = 248-338) from African American and Latino adolescent male participants in the Chicago Youth Development Study. Individual positive future expectations and expected threats to safety were assessed at each wave and modeled as latent constructs. Individual substance use and delinquency were assessed at each wave and represented as ordinal variables ranging from low to high. Categorical autoregressive cross-lagged structural models were used to examine the hypothesized reciprocal relationships between both aspects of future expectations construct and risk behavior across adolescence. Analyses show that future expectations has important effects on youth substance use and involvement in delinquency, both of which in turn decrease positive expectations and increase expectation of threats to future safety across adolescence. Similarly, low positive expectations for the future continued to predict increased substance use and involvement in delinquency. The expected threats to safety construct was significantly correlated with delinquency within time. These effects are observed across adolescence after controlling for youth depression and race. Findings support the reciprocal effects hypothesis of a negative reinforcing cycle in the relationships between future expectations and both substance use and involvement in delinquent behavior across adolescence. The enduring nature of these relationships underscores the importance of future expectation as a potential change mechanism for intervention and prevention efforts to promote healthy development; vulnerable racial and ethnic minority male adolescents may especially benefit from such intervention.

  3. Low versus High Expectations: A Review of Teacher Expectations Effects on Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Theresa E.; Noriega, Tino

    1986-01-01

    The article describes different types of teacher expectations and expectation effects, particularly on minority students. Evidence for the existence of expectation effects is reviewed. Descriptions of behaviors associated with teacher expectations are summarized and recommendations are made for enhancing the learning environment for all students.…

  4. Temporal expectation and spectral expectation operate in distinct fashion on neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Fang; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Waszak, Florian

    2013-11-01

    The formation of temporal expectation (i.e., the prediction of "when") is of prime importance to sensory processing. It can modulate sensory processing at early processing stages probably via the entrainment of low-frequency neuronal oscillations in the brain. However, sensory predictions involve not only temporal expectation but also spectral expectation (i.e., the prediction of "what"). Here we investigated how temporal expectation may interrelate with spectral expectation by explicitly setting up temporal expectation and spectral expectation in a target detection task. We found that reaction time (RT) was shorter when targets were temporally expected than when they were temporally unexpected. The temporal expectation effect was larger with than without spectral expectation. However, this interaction in the behavioural data did not result from an interaction in the electroencephalography (EEG), where we observed independent main effects of temporal expectation and spectral expectation. More precisely, we found that the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components and the entrainment of low-frequency neuronal oscillations were exclusively modulated by temporal expectation, whilst only the P3 ERP component was modulated by spectral expectation. Our results, thus, support the idea that temporal expectation and spectral expectation operate in distinct fashion on neuronal populations.

  5. Nonhematological benefits of iron.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its importance in supporting erythropoiesis is unquestioned especially in those patients treated with erythropoietin. Clinical symptomatology such as fatigability, cold intolerance, failure to concentrate and poor effort intolerance is often attributed to anemia or uremia. That iron deficiency, per se, can cause these symptoms is poorly recognized. Clinical and animal studies that support the benefits of iron supplementation, independent of increasing hemoglobin, such as those on immune function, physical performance, thermoregulation, cognition, and restless leg syndrome and aluminum absorption is the subject of this narrative review.

  6. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  7. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    PubMed

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  8. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  9. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  10. Cognitive Processing and Expectancy Behavior in Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Robyn M.; Sheehan, Peter W.

    1977-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to examine the expectancy behavior of unselected hypnotic, task-motivated, and control-imagination subjects on a slide task requiring response to ambiguous visual information. Results showed that hypnotic subjects consistently demonstrated expectancy behavior, whereas nonhypnotic subjects did not. (Editor/RK)

  11. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  12. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-02-27

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning.

  13. Course Expectations and Career Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

  14. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  15. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  16. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  17. Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Corbin, Hilary

    1994-01-01

    Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

  18. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  19. The Benefit of Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melonie; Hong, Sang W.; Kang, Min-Suk; Carlisle, Nancy B.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research using change-detection tasks has shown that a directed-forgetting cue, indicating that a subset of the information stored in memory can be forgotten, significantly benefits the other information stored in visual working memory. How do these directed-forgetting cues aid the memory representations that are retained? We addressed this question in the present study by using a recall paradigm to measure the nature of the retained memory representations. Our results demonstrate that a directed-forgetting cue leads to higher fidelity representations of the remaining items and a lower probability of dropping these representations from memory. Next, we show that this is possible because the to-be-forgotten item is expelled from visual working memory following the cue allowing maintenance mechanisms to be focused on only the items that remain in visual working memory. Thus, the present findings show that cues to forget benefit the remaining information in visual working memory by fundamentally improving their quality relative to conditions in which just as many items are encoded but no cue is provided. PMID:23208769

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. How expectation works: psychologic and physiologic pathways.

    PubMed

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    Although expectation has been the most widely studied of the mechanisms that drive the placebo effect, we still don't know how it works. We don't know how the thought that one will respond to a substance in a certain way is converted to symptom relief, intoxication, or airway resistance; the pathway between expectation of a response and the response itself remains uncharted. Nonetheless, in the last decade, brain-imaging studies have begun to uncover this pathway. This paper reviews both long-standing psychologic concepts about the underpinnings of expectation and some of the contemporary brain imaging research, which shows that when expectation alleviates depression, produces pain relief or improves parkinsonian symptoms, these effects come with relevant changes in brain activity and chemistry. These findings oblige us to reevaluate some of the traditional common sense notions of how expectation brings about its effects and how placebos work.

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Early Parent Involvement and Parent Expectation in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Peterson, Aubrey; Davison, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Building on social-cognitive theory and the expectancy-value theory, this study indicated that early parent expectations for children’s post-secondary educational attainment have a stronger effect on 8th-grade achievement than home-based parental involvement. With a nationally representative sample of kindergarten students and their parents in the…

  3. Foregone Opportunities: Unveiling Teacher Expectancy Effects in Kindergarten Using Counterfactual Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998-1999 of the United States, this article evaluates teacher expectancy effects on achievement growth in kindergarten. We attempt to disentangle teacher expectancy effects from omitted variable bias or predictive validity by exploiting counterfactual predictions in…

  4. An Observational Study of Teachers' Expectancy Effects and Their Mediating Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Patricia B.

    The theory that teachers treat students from whom they expect superior achievement differently than those from whom they expect inferior performance is examined. Five ways of reacting on the part of the teacher are identified for the purpose of this study--teacher warmth, teacher feedback, teacher selection of materials, opportunity offered for…

  5. Expectations, Fears, and Strategies: Juvenile Offender Thoughts on a Future outside of Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Zohra, Tusty

    2012-01-01

    The current article explores the possible selves, or future expectations, of 543 incarcerated juvenile offenders in four Western states in the United States. We argue that juveniles who are able to articulate future expectations and fears and generate concrete strategies for achieving their goals have higher levels of motivational capital (i.e.,…

  6. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  7. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  8. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  9. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  10. Life Expectancy after Myocardial Infarction by Hospital Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Butala, Neel M.; Ma, Shuangge; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction are commonly used to evaluate and compare hospital performance. However, it is not known whether differences between hospitals in early patient survival are associated with differences in long-term survival. Methods We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction between 1994-96 with 17 years of follow-up. We grouped hospitals into five strata based on case-mix severity. Within each case-mix stratum, we compared life expectancy in patients admitted to high and low-performing hospitals, as defined by quintiles of thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate life expectancy. Results The study sample included 119,735 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 1,824 hospitals. Within each case-mix stratum, survival curves for patients admitted to hospitals in each risk-standardized mortality rate quintile separated within the first 30 days and then remained parallel over 17 years of follow-up. Estimated life expectancy declined as hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintile increased. On average, patients treated at high-performing hospitals lived between 1.14 and 0.84 years longer than patients treated at low-performing hospitals, depending on hospital case-mix. When 30-day survivors were examined separately, there was no difference in unadjusted or adjusted life expectancy across hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintiles. Conclusion Patients admitted to high-performing hospitals after acute myocardial infarction had longer life expectancies than patients treated in low-performing hospitals. This survival benefit arose in the first 30 days and persisted over the long term. PMID:27705249

  11. The Department of Defense pharmacy benefit management program.

    PubMed

    Ridderhoff, Kevin; Remund, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Prescription drug prices are frequently both politically and personally salient issues. The Department of Defense (DoD) offers a robust prescription benefit to 8.8 million beneficiaries. This benefit has evolved to meet changes in technology and patient requirements. The PharmacoEconomic Center (PEC) was established as the first pharmacy benefit manager entity in 1992, primarily in response to rapidly rising DoD pharmacy program expenditures. In its short history, the PEC has dramatically improved patient safety and decreased costs. To accelerate the efficiency and effectiveness the enterprise-wide pharmacy benefit manager has already achieved, DoD should increase the funding, staff, and authority of the PEC.

  12. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%–5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%–6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking

  13. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L

    2013-04-18

    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  14. Expectation mismatch: differences between self-generated and cue-induced expectations.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, R; Schwager, S; Umbach, V J; Frensch, P A; Schubert, T

    2014-10-01

    Expectation of upcoming stimuli and tasks can lead to improved performance, if the anticipated situation occurs, while expectation mismatch can lead to less efficient processing. Researchers have used methodological approaches that rely on either self-generated expectations (predictions) or cue-induced expectations to investigate expectation mismatch effects. Differentiating these two types of expectations for different contents of expectation such as stimuli, responses, task sets and conflict level, we review evidence suggesting that self-generated expectations lead to larger facilitating effects and conflict effects on the behavioral and neural level - as compared to cue-based expectations. On a methodological level, we suggest that self-generated as compared to cue-induced expectations allow for a higher amount of experimental control in many experimental designs on expectation effects. On a theoretical level, we argue for qualitative differences in how cues vs. self-generated expectations influence performance. While self-generated expectations might generally involve representing the expected event in the focus of attention in working memory, cues might only lead to such representations under supportive circumstances (i.e., cue of high validity and attended).

  15. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  16. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  17. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  18. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  19. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.

  20. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  1. Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.

  2. Expected and Experienced Pain Levels in Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    YALINAY DİKMEN, Pınar; ILGAZ AYDINLAR, Elif; KARLIKAYA, Geysu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to assess pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) in patients awaiting an EMG procedure (i.e., expected VAS) and after an EMG procedure (i.e., experienced VAS). Methods Expected and experienced pain in response to nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle EMG were assessed in 108 patients (61 females, 47 males; mean age 43.2±11.6) using a VAS. Results No significant correlations were noted between the expected or the experienced VAS in response to EMG and demographic features of the patients. The expected VAS was significantly higher than the experienced VAS in response to needle EMG (p=0.005). The highest VAS level was noted in the expected VAS in response to needle EMG (4.7±2.2). The lowest VAS level was noted in the experienced VAS in response to NCS (3.6±2.5). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that neither the expected nor the experienced pain associated with EMG exceeded a moderate level. Interestingly, we found that expected pain levels in response to needle EMG were significantly higher than experienced pain levels. Therefore, it may be possible to increase compliance if patients are provided with this information before undergoing electrophysiological procedures.

  3. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-26

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor.Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  4. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... you worked long enough and paid Social Security taxes. Supplemental Security Income pays benefits based on financial ... Education Benefits For Children With Disabilities Professional Relations Green Book - Consultative Examinations: Guide For Health Professionals Blue ...

  5. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  6. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  7. On the Achievable Throughput Over TVWS Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Caleffi, Marcello; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the throughput achievable by an unlicensed sensor network operating over TV white space spectrum in presence of coexistence interference. Through the letter, we first analytically derive the achievable throughput as a function of the channel ordering. Then, we show that the problem of deriving the maximum expected throughput through exhaustive search is computationally unfeasible. Finally, we derive a computational-efficient algorithm characterized by polynomial-time complexity to compute the channel set maximizing the expected throughput and, stemming from this, we derive a closed-form expression of the maximum expected throughput. Numerical simulations validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27043565

  8. All-Male Discussion Forums for Expectant Fathers: Evaluation of a Model

    PubMed Central

    Friedewald, Mark; Fletcher, Richard; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an all-male discussion forum for expectant fathers led by a male facilitator. The 617 participants completed an evaluation form and were unanimous in their agreement about the benefits of the forum, in particular the opportunity to discuss issues of importance to them with others in a similar situation. The results should encourage those developing antenatal education programs to be more inclusive of expectant fathers and to acknowledge their feelings, unique role, and contribution. PMID:17273428

  9. College and University Fringe Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleditch, Leigh B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    As the number and level of fringe benefits increases, particularly in the retirement sphere, institutions must keep in mind that today's commitment will be felt in tomorrow's budget. The range of employee benefits available are analyzed with regard to cost: unfunded benefits (vacations, leave), government programs, insurance, retirement plans, and…

  10. Goals and task difficulty expectations modulate striatal responses to feedback.

    PubMed

    DePasque Swanson, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The striatum plays a critical role in learning from reward, and it has been implicated in learning from performance-related feedback as well. Positive and negative performance-related feedback is known to engage the striatum during learning by eliciting a response similar to the reinforcement signal for extrinsic rewards and punishments. Feedback is an important tool used to teach new skills and promote healthful lifestyle changes, so it is important to understand how motivational contexts can modulate its effectiveness at promoting learning. While it is known that striatal responses scale with subjective factors influencing the desirability of rewards, it is less clear how expectations and goals might modulate the striatal responses to cognitive feedback during learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of task difficulty expectations and achievement goals on feedback processing during learning. We found that individuals who scored high in normative goals, which reflect a desire to outperform other students academically, showed the strongest effects of our manipulation. High levels of normative goals were associated with greater performance gains and exaggerated striatal sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback during blocks that were expected to be more difficult. Our findings suggest that normative goals may enhance performance when difficulty expectations are high, while at the same time modulating the subjective value of feedback as processed in the striatum.

  11. Acupuncture for preconditioning of expectancy and/or Pavlovian extinction.

    PubMed

    Lundeberg, Thomas; Lund, Iréne

    2008-12-01

    Both specific and non-specific factors, as well as the therapist, may play a role in acupuncture therapy. Recent results suggest that verum acupuncture has specific physiological effects and that patients expectations and belief regarding a potentially beneficial treatment modulate activity in the reward and self-appraisal systems in the brain. We suggest that acupuncture treatment may partly be regarded and used as an intervention that preconditions expectancy, which results in both conditional reflexes and conditioning of expected reward and self-appraisal. If so, acupuncture should preferably be applied before the start of the specific treatment (drug or behavioural intervention which is given with the intention of achieving a specific outcome) to enhance the specific and non-specific effects. This hypothesis is further supported by the suggestions that acupuncture may be viewed as a neural stimulus that triggers Pavlovian extinction. If this is the case, acupuncture should preferably be applied repeatedly (ie in a learning process) before the start of the specific treatment to initiate the extinction of previous unpleasant associations like pain or anxiety. Our clinical data suggest that acupuncture may precondition expectancy and conditional reflexes as well as induce Pavlovian extinction. Based on the above we suggest that acupuncture should be tried (as an adjunct) before any specific therapy.

  12. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  13. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is…

  14. Achievement Testing for English Language Learners, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Sau-Lim; Katz, Anne; Stack, Jim

    2008-01-01

    School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out…

  15. Biosocial Influences on Sex Differences in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    Biosocial influences on sex differences, found for school achievement test results in grades 3 and 6, have been studied by means of opposite-sex twin pairs and singleton controls, attending the same classes as the twins. As expected the opposite-sex twin pairs tend to be more similar in achievement test results in Swedish and mathematics than…

  16. What to Expect After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a day ... heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and incision site(s). Recovery at Home People respond differently to heart surgery. ...

  17. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  18. Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...

  19. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  20. Domain Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Domain Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected Leigh Metcalf , Jonathan Spring netsa-contact@cert.org CERT® Coordination Center, Software Engineering...Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Metcalf /Jonathan Spring Leigh 5d...Tech. Rep. RFC 3927, May 2005. [11] L. B. Metcalf and J. M. Spring, “Everything you wanted to know about black- lists but were afraid to ask

  1. A Bayesian cost-benefit approach to the determination of sample size in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Gittins, John

    2008-01-15

    Current practice for sample size computations in clinical trials is largely based on frequentist or classical methods. These methods have the drawback of requiring a point estimate of the variance of the treatment effect and are based on arbitrary settings of type I and II errors. They also do not directly address the question of achieving the best balance between the cost of the trial and the possible benefits from using the new treatment, and fail to consider the important fact that the number of users depends on the evidence for improvement compared with the current treatment. Our approach, Behavioural Bayes (or BeBay for short), assumes that the number of patients switching to the new medical treatment depends on the strength of the evidence that is provided by clinical trials, and takes a value between zero and the number of potential patients. The better a new treatment, the more the number of patients who want to switch to it and the more the benefit is obtained. We define the optimal sample size to be the sample size that maximizes the expected net benefit resulting from a clinical trial. Gittins and Pezeshk (Drug Inf. Control 2000; 34:355-363; The Statistician 2000; 49(2):177-187) used a simple form of benefit function and assumed paired comparisons between two medical treatments and that the variance of the treatment effect is known. We generalize this setting, by introducing a logistic benefit function, and by extending the more usual unpaired case, without assuming the variance to be known.

  2. Assessing the stochastic variability of the Benefit-Cost ratio in roadway safety management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Carmelo

    2016-08-01

    Road Agencies set quantitative targets and adopt related road safety strategies within the priorities and the available resources at the time of an economic crisis. In this framework, benefit-cost analyses (BCA) are carried out to support the decision making process and alternative measures are ranked according to their expected benefit and benefit-cost ratio calculated using a Safety Performance Function (SPF) and Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) as predictors of future safety performances. Due to the variance of CMFs and crash frequency we are uncertain what the benefits of some future actions will be. The chance of making wrong decisions depends on the size of the standard deviation of the probability distribution of the considered stochastic variables. To deal with the uncertainty inherent in the decision making process, a reliability based assessment of benefits must be performed introducing a stochastic approach. In the paper the variability of the CMFs, the predicted number of crashes and the crash costs are taken into account in a reliability based BCA to address improvements and issues of an accurate probabilistic approach when compared to the deterministic results or other approximated procedures. A case study is presented comparing different safety countermeasures selected to reduce crash frequency and severity on sharp curves in motorways. These measures include retrofitting of old safety barriers, delineation systems and shoulder rumble strips. The methodology was applied using the Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of failure of BCA statements. Results and comparisons with alternative approaches, like the one proposed in the HSM, are presented showing remarkable differences in the evaluation of outcomes which can be achieved.

  3. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning.

  4. Consumer expectations for future gasoline prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    A key finding of this study is that consumer expectations respond to the volatility in retail gasoline prices. Historical price trends can be characterized as a series of rapid steps separated by varying periods of relative stability. The behavorial models investigated here imply that consumer response to downward steps is constrained by the effect of the longer-term (less volatile) trends. The response to upward steps is, however, essentially unconstrained in that it can be driven directly through the short-term price trend. The rough trajectory by which retail gasoline prices have climbed historically thus appears to sustain relatively high consumer expectations for future price levels. In a second point of divergence, analytical efforts also generally employ real price trends. While arguably the basis for decision-making by business planners and analysts, it does not necessarily hold that consumers discount nominal price trends for expected inflation rates in developing their year-ahead price forecasts. An initial review of the SRC data for expected real price increases (expected prices adjusted for the expected inflation rate) identified no consistent relationships, and generally lower correlations, with historical trends in real prices.

  5. Expectation and attention in hierarchical auditory prediction.

    PubMed

    Chennu, Srivas; Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2013-07-03

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding.

  6. Mentoring practices benefiting pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés.

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Teaching and Assessing Low-Achieving Students with Disabilities: A Guide to Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perie, Marianne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For lower-achieving students with disabilities, effective and appropriate alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) can open the door to greater expectations and opportunities. State policymakers have the option of providing certain students who have disabilities with AA-MAS aligned with grade-level content--and now…

  10. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  11. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  12. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up. PMID:26617342

  13. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-11-30

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up.

  14. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  17. [The effects of teacher expectancy and self-expectancy on performance].

    PubMed

    Choi, K S

    1987-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between teacher expectancy and self-expectancy. For the induced expectancy, a random half of 96 high school students enrolled in a four-week summer language course of a Christian association were described to the instructors as having high success potential. The remaining trainees served as controls. Correct scores on the learning task, instructor ratings of behavior and attitude of the instructors were measured on three sessions of the course. Ratings of teacher's behavior were factor-analyzed and four interpretable factors emerged: Support, Caring, Attention, and Tutoring. The induced expectancy and specific levels of self-expectancy had significant effects on the subjects' performance and ratings of the instructor. It was concluded that self-expectancy mediates the effects of teacher expectancy on learning performance. Implications of these results for the Pygmalion effect were discussed.

  18. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters.

  19. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  20. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  1. Cost Benefit Analysis and Other Fun and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Herbert S.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of application of cost benefit analysis (CBA) accounting techniques to libraries highlights user willingness to be charged for services provided, reasons why CBA will not work in library settings, libraries and budgets, cost distribution on basis of presumed or expected use, implementation of information-seeking behavior control, and…

  2. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  3. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  4. 20 CFR 404.1591 - If your medical recovery was expected and you returned to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... returned to work. 404.1591 Section 404.1591 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... Stopping Disability § 404.1591 If your medical recovery was expected and you returned to work. If your... month you returned to work. Unless there is evidence showing that your disability has not ended, we...

  5. Adolescents' Emotion Attributions and Expectations of Behavior in Situations Involving Moral Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saelen, Cecile; Markovits, Henry

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the idea that expectations of behavior in hypothetical situations involving potential moral transgressions are related to emotion attributions relating to both moral and cost-benefit considerations. We asked younger (14 years 5 months) and older (16 years 1 month) female and male adolescents (a) to make predictions about the…

  6. Psychometric validity of the parent's outcome expectations for children's television viewing (POETV) scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TV and other screen use are common among elementary-school-aged children with both potential benefits and harms. It is not clear why some parents restrict their children's screen use and others do not. Parents' outcome expectations for allowing their child to watch TV and other screen media, i.e., t...

  7. Information Systems in Higher Education: Expectations Versus Realities. Proceedings of the 1977 CAUSE National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretwell, Jan, Ed.; Thomas, Charles R., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers presented at an annual conference of the College and University Systems Exchange (CAUSE). Conference activities included a keynote address, general session, and five tracks of presentations: (1) Information Systems Development and Management's Expectations; (2) Information Systems Benefit Analysis; (3) Small College…

  8. Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John R.; Baird, Chardie L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the benefits of educational expectations, researchers have failed to show that unrealized plans are consequential for mental health, as self-discrepancy and other social psychological theories would predict. This article uses two national longitudinal studies of youth to test whether unrealized educational…

  9. Participation in Advanced Mathematics: Do Expectation and Influence of Students, Peers, Teachers, and Parents Matter?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin

    2001-01-01

    Using six waves of data (Grades 7 through 12) from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), this study investigated the effects of expectation and influence of students, peers, teachers, and parents on participation in advanced mathematics. Results of survival analysis indicated a significant decline in participation rate in the transition from Grades 11 to 12. Students with higher future expectation were more likely to participate in advanced mathematics. Peer influence and teacher expectation did not have strong effects, and the effect of student future expectation was independent of peer and teacher effects. The effect of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were strong, and in their presence, the effect of student future expectation declined. Mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics were the most important factors affecting participation in advanced mathematics. With control over achievement and attitude, (a) the effect of student future expectation declined, (b) the effects of peer influence and teacher expectation disappeared, and (c) the effects of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were reduced. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.

    PubMed

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

    2013-12-01

    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity.

  11. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  12. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  13. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  14. Cumulative achievement testing: progress testing in reverse.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D B; Holtzman, K Z; Butler, A

    2010-01-01

    This collaborative project between the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine explored the design and use of cumulative achievement tests in basic science education. In cumulative achievement testing, integrative end-of-unit tests are deliberately constructed to systematically retest topics covered in previous units as well as material from the just-completed unit. CWRU faculty developed and administered a series of six web-based cumulative achievement tests using retired United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 test material and tools provided by NBME's Customized Assessment Services, and trends in student performance were examined as the new CWRU basic science curriculum unfolded. This article provides the background information about test design and administration, as well as samples of score reporting information for students and faculty. While firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cumulative achievement testing are not warranted after a pilot test at a single school, preliminary results suggest that cumulative achievement testing may be an effective complement to progress testing, with the former used to encourage retention of already-covered material and the latter used to assess growth toward the knowledge and skills expected of a graduating student.

  15. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  16. Pygmalion and the student: age and classroom differences in children's awareness of teacher expectations.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R S; Marshall, H H; Sharp, L; Botkin, M

    1987-08-01

    This study explores age and classroom differences in children's awareness of teacher expectations and in the relation between awareness and self-expectations. In a sample of 579 children and their teachers in 30 first- (6-7-year-olds), third- (8-9-year-olds), and fifth-grade (10-11-year-olds) classrooms, assessed in the fall, younger children were found to be less accurate than fifth graders in predicting teacher expectations and in reporting differential patterns in their own interactions with the teacher. Yet first graders identified classroom differences in the degree of differential teacher treatment toward high and low achievers that were associated with differences in the expectations that high and low teacher-expectancy students reported for themselves. Fifth graders appeared more likely than younger children to mirror teacher expectancies in their self-descriptions regardless of the degree of differential treatment reported in the classroom environment.

  17. Disconnections Between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-09-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their ideas, formulate educated opinions and value others’ viewpoints. Research has shown that science teachers’ expectations of student success and knowledge directly influence student achievement and confidence levels. Our study analyzes pre-course and post-course surveys completed by students enrolled in a university level bioethics course ( n = 111) and by faculty in the College of Biology and Agriculture faculty ( n = 34) based on their perceptions of student confidence. Additionally, student data were collected from classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis showed a disconnect between faculty and students perceptions of confidence for both knowledge and the use of science argumentation. Student reports of their confidence levels regarding various bioethical issues were higher than faculty reports. A further disconnect showed up between students’ preferred learning styles and the general faculty’s common teaching methods; students learned more by practicing scientific argumentation than listening to traditional lectures. Students who completed a bioethics course that included practice in scientific argumentation, significantly increased their confidence levels. This study suggests that professors’ expectations and teaching styles influence student confidence levels in both knowledge and scientific argumentation.

  18. Lowered Expectations: How Schools Reward Incompetence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    Playing "dumb" can earn students easier classes, lower expectations, reduced pressure, and individual attention. Schools can stop rewarding failure by making remedial classes difficult, backing up homework policies with unappealing alternatives, providing penalties for attendance violations, and deglamorizing alternatives to regular programs. (PGD)

  19. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge.

  20. Parental Expectations about Adapted Physical Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaapel, Holly; Columna, Luis; Lytle, Rebecca; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants ("N" = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative…