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Sample records for achieving greater equity

  1. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  2. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues. PMID:26120091

  3. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  4. Achieving Equity: New Ideas for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent; Sumara, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The route to greater equity in education is tied to a clearer understanding of learning theory, including current research findings that are "game changers" for educators. These "game changers" include rapidly evolving definitions of "learning" and "learners"; an understanding that intelligence and ability are more learned than bestowed; a…

  5. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  6. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  7. Equity and working time: a challenge to achieve.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Rotenberg, Lúcia; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta

    2004-01-01

    internal synchronization of circadian rhythms and laboratory and field interventions; new methods of investigation or new approaches in shift-work studies; and prediction of risks in night and shift work. Current tendencies of work organization contribute to the amplification of inequality across groups and populations, revealing that equity remains a challenge to achieve. PMID:15646230

  8. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations. PMID:26802756

  9. The Effect of Wait-Time on Issues of Gender Equity, Academic Achievement, and Attitude toward a Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jim B.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extended wait-time versus short wait-time on ninth graders' academic achievement, as well as on gender equity and student attitudes toward a course. Surveys indicated students with more wait-time had greater gain in academic achievement. Females received longer wait-time in both experimental and control…

  10. Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Klein, Carissa J; Brown, Christopher J; Beger, Maria; Grantham, Hedley S; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J; Watts, Matt; White, Crow; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-04-01

    Triple-bottom-line outcomes from resource management and conservation, where conservation goals and equity in social outcomes are maximized while overall costs are minimized, remain a highly sought-after ideal. However, despite widespread recognition of the importance that equitable distribution of benefits or costs across society can play in conservation success, little formal theory exists for how to explicitly incorporate equity into conservation planning and prioritization. Here, we develop that theory and implement it for three very different case studies in California (United States), Raja Ampat (Indonesia), and the wider Coral Triangle region (Southeast Asia). We show that equity tends to trade off nonlinearly with the potential to achieve conservation objectives, such that similar conservation outcomes can be possible with greater equity, to a point. However, these case studies also produce a range of trade-off typologies between equity and conservation, depending on how one defines and measures social equity, including direct (linear) and no trade-off. Important gaps remain in our understanding, most notably how equity influences probability of conservation success, in turn affecting the actual ability to achieve conservation objectives. Results here provide an important foundation for moving the science and practice of conservation planning-and broader spatial planning in general-toward more consistently achieving efficient, equitable, and effective outcomes. PMID:23530207

  11. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses. PMID:23240908

  12. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Gould, Solange; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. PMID:25347193

  13. Resources for Achieving Sex Equity: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan W., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography provides a list of resources dealing with sex equity in vocational education. The bibliography first provides operational definitions of "sexism,""sex fair,""sex affirmative,""sex bias," and "affirmative action." It then lists resources under the following topics and/or bibliographic forms: (1) sex role definition, (2)…

  14. Achieving Equity in Faculty Salaries: A Proven Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Don Noel

    2008-01-01

    The University of Houston-Victoria's (UHV) approach to addressing salary equity, which has been successfully implemented for a decade, employs a methodology that derives salary targets by field, rank, and seniority from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) national salary survey. Based primarily on a…

  15. MECCA (Making Equity Count for Classroom Achievement). Utah Gender Equity Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This gender equity trainer's guide has three purposes: to raise awareness in Utah's preservice and inservice teachers of harmful, often unconscious, behaviors; to encourage gender fairness; and to help teachers develop strategies that result in gender fairness in schools. The guide contains 12 modules of instruction that cover the following…

  16. Critical Change for the Greater Good: Multicultural Perceptions in Educational Leadership toward Social Justice and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santamaría, Lorri J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational leadership for social justice and equity is the primary leadership response to inclusive and equitable education. This inquiry builds on multicultural education and educational leadership to explore an alternative approach to mainstream leadership practice. Purpose: To examine ways in which educational leaders of color in…

  17. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  18. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE. PMID:23921988

  19. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  20. Point of View: How Important Is Achieving Equity in Undergraduate STEM Education to You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Amy B.; Vandegrift, Eleanor V. H.; Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2016-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. In this month's issue the authors make a case for their belief that significant progress toward equity and inclusion will only be achieved when evidence-based pedagogies are deeply embedded in all classrooms.

  1. Can Schools Achieve Both Quality and Equity? Investigating the Two Dimensions of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which schools can achieve both equity and quality. Data emerged from two effectiveness studies in teaching mathematics and Greek language, which were conducted to test the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness. Separate multilevel analyses for each subject were conducted and it was found…

  2. Achieving Health Equity: Closing The Gaps In Health Care Disparities, Interventions, And Research.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Tanjala S; Calhoun, Elizabeth A; Golden, Sherita H; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Cooper, Lisa A

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic minority, rural, and low-income populations continue to experience suboptimal access to and quality of health care despite decades of recognition of health disparities and policy mandates to eliminate them. Many health care interventions that were designed to achieve health equity fall short because of gaps in knowledge and translation. We discuss these gaps and highlight innovative interventions that help address them, focusing on cardiovascular disease and cancer. We also provide recommendations for advancing the field of health equity and informing the implementation and evaluation of policies that target health disparities through improved access to care and quality of care. PMID:27503965

  3. Equity of the premium of the Ghanaian national health insurance scheme and the implications for achieving universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced to provide access to adequate health care regardless of ability to pay. By law the NHIS is mandatory but because the informal sector has to make premium payment before they are enrolled, the authorities are unable to enforce mandatory nature of the scheme. The ultimate goal of the Scheme then is to provide all residents with access to adequate health care at affordable cost. In other words, the Scheme intends to achieve universal coverage. An important factor for the achievement of universal coverage is that revenue collection be equitable. The purpose of this study is to examine the vertical and horizontal equity of the premium collection of the Scheme. The Kakwani index method as well as graphical analysis was used to study the vertical equity. Horizontal inequity was measured through the effect of the premium on redistribution of ability to pay of members. The extent to which the premium could cause catastrophic expenditure was also examined. The results showed that revenue collection was both vertically and horizontally inequitable. The horizontal inequity had a greater effect on redistribution of ability to pay than vertical inequity. The computation of catastrophic expenditure showed that a small minority of the poor were likely to incur catastrophic expenditure from paying the premium a situation that could impede the achievement of universal coverage. The study provides recommendations to improve the inequitable system of premium payment to help achieve universal coverage. PMID:23294982

  4. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  5. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. PMID:26242628

  6. Equity 2001. Strategies To Achieve Access and Equity in Vocational Education and Training for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This report, based on national consultations with community, industry, and government stakeholders in Australia, as well as an analysis of the recommendations of 60 major reports on access and equity in vocational education and training prepared since 1990, brings together the key strategic areas where cooperative and concerted activity for access…

  7. Achieving Excellence and Equity: Reflections on the Development of Practices in One Local District over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    As education systems in many countries respond to demands for higher standards, they face the challenge of how to achieve equity. Put simply, how can systems continue to raise overall levels of achievement whilst reducing the gap between higher and lower performing groups of learners? This paper reflects on evidence collected as a result of a…

  8. Excellence through Equity: Five Principles of Courageous Leadership to Guide Achievement for Every Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M., Ed.; Noguera, Pedro, Ed.; Kelly, Lorena, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Excellence Through Equity" is an inspiring look at how real-world educators are creating schools where all students are able to thrive. In these schools, educators understand that equity is not about treating all children the same. They are deeply committed to ensuring that each student receives what he or she individually needs to…

  9. A Cultural Approach to Establishing Equity and Closing the Educational Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the underdevelopment awaiting most children belonging to historically disparaged groups in the uneven playing field of public education remains--the top problem in advancing equity and excellence in education. Clearly, excellence in the educational system requires equity in opportunities to learn regardless of children's background or…

  10. Promoting "Relational Equity" and High Mathematics Achievement through an Innovative Mixed-Ability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaler, Jo

    2008-01-01

    Equity is a concept that is often measured in terms of test scores, with educators looking for equal test scores among students of different cultural groups, social classes or sexes. In this article the term "relational equity" is proposed to describe equitable relations in classrooms; relations that include students treating each other with…

  11. Can a public health care system achieve equity? The Norwegian experience.

    PubMed

    Grytten, J; Rongen, G; Sørensen, R

    1995-09-01

    Equity in health care provision is an important policy goal in Norway. This article addresses equality in the services provided by primary care physicians. These services are the responsibility of local government financed mainly through public funding. Patient fees are low. The local government system results in geographical variation in the number of physicians relative to local health demands. The authors present the hypothesis that this generates inequalities in health care utilization. The system of government finance is based on the assumption that utilization of health services is independent of patient income. Therefore, variation in income is expected to have only a small impact on utilization. The authors estimate a demand model by combining extensive micro data with aggregate data on municipal supply. There is very little relationship between indicators of access and health care utilization. The estimated income elasticities approximate zero, supporting the argument that equality in utilization has been achieved. However, the authors results also raise the question of whether equality has been achieved at the cost of limiting supply of services for people who could afford to consume more, or to pay for services of higher quality. PMID:7666707

  12. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  13. Environmental health sciences education--a tool for achieving environmental equity and protecting children.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L; Torres, T; Sanjurjo, E; Sherman, L R; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    Children are highly susceptible to deleterious effects of environmental toxins. Those who live in underserved communities may be particularly at risk because environmental pollution has been found to be disproportionately distributed among communities. Mounting evidence suggests that asthma rates are rising and that this disease can be caused or aggravated by air pollution. Although ambient air quality has generally improved, these improvements have not reached minority communities in equal proportions. This and other data has fueled the concept of environmental justice or environmental equity, which has led to community activism and government actions. One possible example of environmental inequity and its consequences is the Hunt's Point community, in the South Bronx, New York. This community experiences a high pollution burden with the siting of facilities that emit hazardous wastes into the air. Our approach to this problem has been the formation of mechanisms for bidirectional communication between community residents, government entities, and academic institutions such as Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a result of this experience, we believe that the key to achieving environmental health, especially in communities of color where many children are at risk, is to empower residents to take charge of their environment by providing relevant educational opportunities. Strategies for environmental health education include multitiered training approaches that include community residents, parent education, direct children education, and community education through professional counselors and train-the-trainer approaches. We propose that academic researchers must use community residents not just as subjects of our studies, but to increase our mutual understanding of environmental health, resulting in active participation of community members in research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results in order to make intervention strategies more

  14. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan. B. Ali

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were awarded to URM

  15. Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or Prevention) of Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John; Naidoo, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the theoretical and empirical literature on higher education's role in relation to social equity and related notions of citizenship, social justice, social cohesion and meritocracy. It considers both the education and the research functions of higher education and how these impact upon different sections of society, on who…

  16. Equity and Competitiveness: Contradictions between the Identification of Educational Skills and Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Amelia Molina

    2013-01-01

    As a starting point, this paper raises various questions to explain the teaching conditions that exist in rural communities and the learning conditions faced by children assigned to the rural community education mode. Equity and competitiveness are the conceptual axis used in the descriptive construction a documentary analysis and my personal…

  17. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements.

    PubMed

    Weyand, P G; Sternlight, D B; Bellizzi, M J; Wright, S

    2000-11-01

    We twice tested the hypothesis that top running speeds are determined by the amount of force applied to the ground rather than how rapidly limbs are repositioned in the air. First, we compared the mechanics of 33 subjects of different sprinting abilities running at their top speeds on a level treadmill. Second, we compared the mechanics of declined (-6 degrees ) and inclined (+9 degrees ) top-speed treadmill running in five subjects. For both tests, we used a treadmill-mounted force plate to measure the time between stance periods of the same foot (swing time, t(sw)) and the force applied to the running surface at top speed. To obtain the force relevant for speed, the force applied normal to the ground was divided by the weight of the body (W(b)) and averaged over the period of foot-ground contact (F(avge)/W(b)). The top speeds of the 33 subjects who completed the level treadmill protocol spanned a 1.8-fold range from 6.2 to 11.1 m/s. Among these subjects, the regression of F(avge)/W(b) on top speed indicated that this force was 1.26 times greater for a runner with a top speed of 11.1 vs. 6.2 m/s. In contrast, the time taken to swing the limb into position for the next step (t(sw)) did not vary (P = 0.18). Declined and inclined top speeds differed by 1.4-fold (9.96+/-0.3 vs. 7.10+/-0.3 m/s, respectively), with the faster declined top speeds being achieved with mass-specific support forces that were 1.3 times greater (2.30+/- 0.06 vs. 1.76+/-0.04 F(avge)/ W(b)) and minimum t(sw) that were similar (+8%). We conclude that human runners reach faster top speeds not by repositioning their limbs more rapidly in the air, but by applying greater support forces to the ground. PMID:11053354

  18. Integrating Systems Science and Community-Based Participatory Research to Achieve Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-02-01

    Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity. PMID:26691110

  19. Income redistribution is not enough: income inequality, social welfare programs, and achieving equity in health

    PubMed Central

    Starfield, Barbara; Birn, Anne‐Emanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Income inequality is widely assumed to be a major contributor to poorer health at national and subnational levels. According to this assumption, the most appropriate policy strategy to improve equity in health is income redistribution. This paper considers reasons why tackling income inequality alone could be an inadequate approach to reducing differences in health across social classes and other population subgroups, and makes the case that universal social programs are critical to reducing inequities in health. A health system oriented around a strong primary care base is an example of such a strategy. PMID:18000124

  20. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  1. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  2. The PILI ‘Ohana Project: A Community-Academic Partnership to Achieve Metabolic Health Equity in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kekauoha, Puni; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Hughes, Claire; Townsend, Claire KM

    2014-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have higher rates of excess body weight and related medical disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai‘i. To address this metabolic health inequity, the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) ‘Ohana Project, a community-academic partnership, was formed over eight years ago and developed two community-placed health promotion programs: the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP) to address overweight/obesity and the Partners in Care (PIC) to address diabetes self-care. This article describes and reviews the innovations, scientific discoveries, and community capacity built over the last eight years by the PILI ‘Ohana Project's (POP) partnership in working toward metabolic health equity. It also briefly describes the plans to disseminate and implement the PLP and PIC in other NHPI communities. Highlighted in this article is how scientific discoveries can have a real-world impact on health disparate populations by integrating community wisdom and academic expertise to achieve social and health equity through research. PMID:25535599

  3. The PILI 'Ohana Project: a community-academic partnership to achieve metabolic health equity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Kekauoha, Puni; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Hughes, Claire; Townsend, Claire Km

    2014-12-01

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have higher rates of excess body weight and related medical disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai'i. To address this metabolic health inequity, the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) 'Ohana Project, a community-academic partnership, was formed over eight years ago and developed two community-placed health promotion programs: the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP) to address overweight/obesity and the Partners in Care (PIC) to address diabetes self-care. This article describes and reviews the innovations, scientific discoveries, and community capacity built over the last eight years by the PILI 'Ohana Project's (POP) partnership in working toward metabolic health equity. It also briefly describes the plans to disseminate and implement the PLP and PIC in other NHPI communities. Highlighted in this article is how scientific discoveries can have a real-world impact on health disparate populations by integrating community wisdom and academic expertise to achieve social and health equity through research. PMID:25535599

  4. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  5. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  6. On Ideology, Causal Inference and the Reification of Statistical Methods: Reflections on "Examining Instruction, Achievement and Equity with NAEP Mathematics Data"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenglinsky, Harold

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to comment on the prior article entitled "Examining Instruction, Achievement and Equity with NAEP mathematics data," by Sarah Theule Lubienski. That article claims that a prior article by the author suffered from three weaknesses: (1) An attempt to justify No Child Left Behind (NCLB); (2) drawing causal inferences…

  7. Courageous Conversations about Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Glenn E.; Linton, Curtis

    2005-01-01

    Educators are acutely aware of the statistical gaps in achievement between different racial groups. Considering the rapidly changing racial composition of student populations, how can educators reach a level of cultural proficiency necessary to eliminate this disparity? Examining the achievement gap through the prism of race, this comprehensive…

  8. Novel Material Designed to Achieve Greater Tunability of Magnetic Dynamo Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casara, J. G.; Brown, E.

    2013-12-01

    We propose to use a novel material for dynamo experiments, creating suspensions of magnetic particles in liquid metals. These suspensions combine the conductive nature of liquid metals with the magnetic permeabilities of the particles, allowing much higher magnetic Reynolds numbers than previous liquid-metal experiments. Additionally, by adjusting the packing fraction φ of non-magnetic or magnetic particles in suspension, we can tune the viscosity and permeability respectively, thus achieving independent control of Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers over a wide range of parameter space. We will report rheology measurements showing that liquid metal suspensions of 10μm diameter iron powders in a eutectic mixture of gallium and indium exhibit Newtonian viscosity with the expected increase in viscosity with φ up to φ = 0.22. Preliminary investigation into the magnetic properties of these suspensions has suggested that magnetic permeabilities are proportional to the packing fraction and inherent permeability of the suspended particles. These results confirm that the resulting Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers will be highly tunable and straightforward to predict based on the proportions and properties of the suspension materials. The flow curve for suspensions of iron powder in eutectic gallium and indium exhibit Newtonian-like behavior for packing fractions φ below φ = 0.22. The viscosities of suspensions of iron powder in a eutectic mixture of gallium and indium follow a Krieger-Dougherty curve, providing more evidence that the material behaves in a Newtonian-like manner.

  9. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  10. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  11. Leading Schools of Excellence and Equity: Documenting Effective Strategies in Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Benkovitz, Jen; Muttillo, A. J.; Urban, Thad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In the Fall 2006 issue of AERJ, Hoy, Tarter, and Woolfolk Hoy identified the new construct of academic optimism as a general latent concept related to student achievement even after controlling for SES, previous performance, and other demographic variables. Through structural equation modeling, they found that the collective…

  12. Achieving Equity and Excellence: The Role of School Mental Health Providers in Shrinking Excellence Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bryn; Plucker, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The United States is becoming more racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse, yet the educational attainment of various student groups has been very uneven. For decades, educators and policymakers have been focused on minimal competencies rather than advanced achievement. Specifically, federal and state education policies have focused on…

  13. Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: Equity and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Han, Peggy P.; Pang, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement. AAPI student performance is often reported as an aggregate in discussions of the success of schoolchildren and issues of racial…

  14. Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…

  15. What Have We Achieved in 50 Years of Equity in School Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between social backgrounds and geographical locations with mathematical achievement. Using the national testing system in Australia, correlations between the variables were explored and it was found that students from rural and low SES backgrounds are still being marginalised in school mathematics--in terms of…

  16. Out-of-School-Time Academic Programs to Improve School Achievement: A Community Guide Health Equity Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096

  17. Measurement of equity sensitivity: a comparison of the Equity Sensitivity Instrument and Equity Preference Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shore, Ted H; Strauss, Judy

    2008-02-01

    The psychometric properties of the Equity Sensitivity Instrument (Huseman, Hatfield, & Miles, 1985, 1987) and Equity Preference Questionnaire (Sauley & Bedeian, 2000) are compared. 173 undergraduate business majors completed several work attitude and personality measures. Results suggest that the Equity Preference Questionnaire may be a better measure of the equity sensitivity construct than the Equity Sensitivity Instrument which is typically used in research. Reliabilities for the scores on the Equity Sensitivity Instrument and Equity Preference Questionnaire were equivalent (coefficient alphas of .85 and .86, respectively); however, evidence for convergent and content validity was greater for the Equity Preference Questionnaire. Understanding individual differences in perceptions of equity and how best to measure these differences can affect workplace outcomes (e.g., turnover, employee engagement. PMID:18481667

  18. Rethinking Equity--There Are Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1998-01-01

    Defines "equity" in terms of three concepts (horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality), summarizes school finance litigation history, and presents alternative distribution formats to improve student achievement. Enhancing equity and efficiency requires reallocation of existing resources, incentives for improved performance, a more…

  19. [The law and equity in health].

    PubMed

    Bolis, Mónica

    2002-01-01

    What role does the law play in reducing inequalities in health that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair? The question is addressed in this paper, whose purpose is to examine how the legal system, as a regulatory agency of the State, contributes to achieving greater equity in access to and use of health-related goods and services. From the legal viewpoint, health is a public commodity that is critical to human well-being and survival. But in prioritizing health as a human right, the legal system is challenged with finding ways to make health equally accessible to all, while bearing in mind the particular needs of different groups. There are currently important gaps in health legislation in the Region that must be addressed if greater equity in health is to be achieved. Such gaps, along with potential ways to correct them, are discussed throughout the paper. PMID:12162844

  20. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach. PMID:25291891

  1. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared grantmaking…

  2. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, L. D.; Toska, E.; Orkin, F. M.; Meinck, F.; Hodes, R.; Yakubovich, A. R.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    , particularly combinations of “cash plus care”, may improve adolescent adherence. Through this they have potential to improve survival and wellbeing, to prevent HIV transmission, and to advance treatment equity for HIV-positive adolescents. PMID:27392002

  3. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Cluver, L D; Toska, E; Orkin, F M; Meinck, F; Hodes, R; Yakubovich, A R; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    plus care", may improve adolescent adherence. Through this they have potential to improve survival and wellbeing, to prevent HIV transmission, and to advance treatment equity for HIV-positive adolescents. PMID:27392002

  4. Impact of Equity Models and Statistical Measures on Interpretations of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.

    2012-01-01

    We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given…

  5. A Review of Literature to Understand the Complexity of Equity, Ethics and Management for Achieving Public Health Goals in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  6. A review of literature to understand the complexity of equity, ethics and management for achieving public health goals in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-02-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  7. The Role of the California Postsecondary Education Commission in Achieving Educational Equity in California: The Report of the Commission's Special Committee on Educational Equity. Commission Report 88-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report reassesses the previous role of the California Postsecondary Education Commission in the area of educational equity, and develops a plan to guide the Commission in the next several years. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) vision for the future; (2) assessment of equal education in California today; and (3) recommendations on a…

  8. Controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment: the need to the end policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders to achieve health equity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Barbara C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss significant challenges to the achievement of urban health, specifically acknowledging numerous controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment that prevent the achievement of health equity. Seven specific controversies are analyzed in this article. The results of the analysis are recommendations for moving toward the resolution of each controversy. Among the most important recommendations is a call to end the policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders-as policies reflecting how politics and the misuse of power may derail knowledge translation. The article provides justification for evidence-based policy that supports community-based drug treatment as a public health approach consistent with the goals of health equity, ethical practice, and effective knowledge translation. PMID:22566149

  9. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  10. Ethnic-Based Equity in Teacher Judgment of Student Achievement on a Language and Literacy Curriculum-Embedded Performance Assessment for Children in Grade One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Dorinda J.; Moore, James L., III

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which ethnic-based differences exist in teacher ratings of African American students and White students on the language and literacy domain of a curriculum-embedded performance assessment for students in grade 1. It extended previous research on performance assessments to focus on issues related to equity in…

  11. Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? An Analysis of Trends and Determinants across 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suneeta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite widespread gains toward the 5th Millennium Development Goal (MDG), pro-rich inequalities in reproductive health (RH) and maternal health (MH) are pervasive throughout the world. As countries enter the post-MDG era and strive toward UHC, it will be important to monitor the extent to which countries are achieving equity of RH and MH service coverage. This study explores how equity of service coverage differs across countries, and explores what policy factors are associated with a country’s progress, or lack thereof, toward more equitable RH and MH service coverage. Methods We used RH and MH service coverage data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 74 countries to examine trends in equity between countries and over time from 1990 to 2014. We examined trends in both relative and absolute equity, and measured relative equity using a concentration index of coverage data grouped by wealth quintile. Through multivariate analysis we examined the relative importance of policy factors, such as political commitment to health, governance, and the level of prepayment, in determining countries’ progress toward greater equity in RH and MH service coverage. Results Relative equity for the coverage of RH and MH services has continually increased across all countries over the past quarter century; however, inequities in coverage persist, in some countries more than others. Multivariate analysis shows that higher education and greater political commitment (measured as the share of government spending allocated to health) were significantly associated with higher equity of service coverage. Neither country income, i.e., GDP per capita, nor better governance were significantly associated with equity. Conclusion Equity in RH and MH service coverage has improved but varies considerably across countries and over time. Even among the subset of countries that are close to achieving the MDGs, progress made on equity varies considerably across countries

  12. The Sublime Objects of Education Policy: Quality, Equity and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Quality and equity are touchstones of education policy in the twenty-first century in a range of global contexts. On the surface, this seems fitting: after all, who could object to more quality and greater equity in education? Yet what do we mean by quality and equity, and how are they related? This paper draws on Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to…

  13. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further ] student performance, especially for the students at the lower end of the achievement gap. The Commission will...

  14. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further student performance, especially for the students at the lower end of the achievement gap. The Commission will...

  15. 77 FR 49441 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further student performance, especially for the students at the lower end of the achievement gap. The Commission will...

  16. Holding Schools Accountable for Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Good reforms can have harmful results if equity effects are ignored. As California implements its accountability system, certain questions must be addressed concerning the system's data use, measurement features (consistency, meaningfulness, achievement growth, achievement gaps among groups), instructional improvement focus, incentives for…

  17. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  18. Taxpayer Equity in the Financing of Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, J. Richard; Hilley, John L.

    To test whether equity in educational expenditure can include equity for taxpayers, the authors analyze two suggested methods for achieving educational equity. The two methods are district power equalizing (DPE), which grants state aid in inverse proportion to school district wealth, and the wealth neutral system (WNS), which takes account of…

  19. Equity in Education: Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuel, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In October of 2010, Canadian Education Association (CEA), in conjunction with colleagues from SCOPE (Stanford Centre for Opportunity Policy in Education), hosted an event entitled "Achieving Equity through Innovation: A Canada-United States Colloquium." This two-day event provided an important platform for the exchange of ideas, insights, and…

  20. Optimum Cycle Length and Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel; Phase II: Results Achievable with Enrichments Greater than 5 w/o

    SciTech Connect

    J. Secker, et al

    2002-09-30

    The report evaluates increasing enrichment to achieve lower fuel cycle costs. Increasing enrichment 6 w/o does not reach the optimum point. Further increase is possible before the optimum will be reached.

  1. Contraceptive Equity

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act, introduced in Congress in 1997 and still unpassed, seeks to redress health insurers’ failure to pay for birth control as they pay for other prescription drugs, most paradoxically Viagra. In 1936 the International Workers Order (IWO), a fraternal society, became the first insurer to include contraception in its benefits package. A forerunner in the movement for prepaid medical care, the IWO offered its members primary care and contraceptive services for annual flat fees. Founded at a time when the legal status of contraception was in flux, the IWO’s Birth Control Center was the only such clinic to operate on an insurance system. Recent state laws and judicial actions have revived the IWO’s groundbreaking view of contraception as a basic preventive service deserving of insurance coverage. PMID:17761562

  2. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  3. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  4. [Re]Conceptualizing Inclusion: Can Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence Be Utilized to Achieve Inclusion and Equity for African American Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Shelley D.; Blanchett, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Even though not fully realized, in legislation and theory, the requirements of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act have created pressure to address the historical inequity in educational opportunity, achievement, and outcomes, as well as disparities in achievement between…

  5. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

  6. Science Education and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of "Equity Coalition" deals with issues related to the need for inclusive science training and encouraging the interest of women and minorities groups in science. The following articles are included: (1) "Say Yes to Science" (Percy Bates); (2) "Science and Equity: Why This Issue Is Important" (Eleanor Linn); (3) "Race Equity and…

  7. Impact of equity models and statistical measures on interpretations of educational reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.

    2012-12-01

    We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given by the study by Lorenzo et al. that shows that interactive engagement methods lead to increased gender equity. In this paper, we reexamine the results of Lorenzo et al. through three models of equity. We find that interpretation of the results strongly depends on the model of equity chosen. Further, we argue that researchers must explicitly state their model of equity as well as use effect size measurements to promote clarity in education reform.

  8. Race Equity and Inclusion Action Guide. Embracing Equity: 7 Steps to Advance and Embed Race Equity and Inclusion within Your Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Advancing race equity and inclusion can sometimes seem daunting and often leaves many wondering how and where to start. One way to achieve social change in an organization is to incorporate race equity and inclusion at every stage of work. The seven steps in this guide provide a clear framework for undertaking this important work. This tool adds…

  9. Magnet Schools in Chicago: Achievement at Risk if Policymakers Retreat. Research Notes on Education. No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Independent Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In many urban areas, educators rely on magnet schools to strike a delicate balance between the need to create opportunities for equity in education and the need for parents to have greater choice among schools. But, are magnet schools successful? This document considers whether they fulfill the promises of high achievement and desegregation in…

  10. Equity and adequacy in school funding.

    PubMed

    Augenblick, J G; Myers, J L; Anderson, A B

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971, most states have been subject to lawsuits seeking to reform their education funding systems. These cases are litigated on the basis of state (not federal) constitutional language and generally seek either greater equity in funding among school districts or a guaranteed level of adequate funding for education. State supreme courts have found the finance systems unconstitutional in 16 states, and many states are still actively involved in litigation. Even where litigation has not occurred or has not succeeded, the prospect of litigation has prompted revisions of state funding policies. Despite the predominant role equity and adequacy play in litigation, there are no universally accepted definitions for either of these words in education funding. Most commonly, equity is measured in terms of the variation in per-pupil revenues among school districts in a single state. By this measure, some states have greater funding equity than others, and in most states wealthy districts have significantly higher per-pupil expenditures than do poor districts. Equity is likely to be greater when the residents of poor districts pay higher taxes. (In some states, residents in poorer areas pay twice as much of their income in local taxes as do residents of wealthier communities.) Equity is also greater in those states where the state's share of the education budget is higher and where the state consistently targets its contributions to lower-income districts. Much of current litigation and legislative activity in education funding seeks to assure "adequacy," that is, a sufficient level of funding to deliver an adequate education to every student in the state. Most states have not explicitly addressed the questions of how much education is "adequate" or how educational standards can be converted to a finance formula. Several approaches to calculating the cost of an adequate education are described. PMID:10892466

  11. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  12. Breathing Local Life into a National Strategy for Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Jane G.

    Activities to achieve sex equity at five demonstration sites funded by the Women's Educational Equity Act are summarized. The five sites, all local education agencies, are located in North Carolina, Massachusetts, Oregon, Arizona, and Florida. The document is organized into seven major sections. Following an introduction, Section 2 describes the…

  13. The South Carolina Higher Education Access & Equity Program, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Access and Equity Program vision is to achieve educational equity for all students and faculty in higher education. Success in college should not be affected by a student's race. Minority enrollment should be at least proportional to the minority population in South Carolina and minority graduation rates should be comparable to the graduation…

  14. The Long Road to Pay Equity for Women at Adelphi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperstein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    It is clear from the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Faculty Gender Equities Indicator 2006 report and other studies that female faculty members have not achieved equity with their male colleagues. One indicator of this is that women, even when they hold the same rank as men, are paid less. Institutions frequently argue that…

  15. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  16. The Measurements of the Equity of Compulsory Education Finance in Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…

  17. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health. PMID:12162842

  18. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…

  19. Melding Excellence and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David A.

    1983-01-01

    This document examines the issues of educational excellence and equity. The Milwaukee Public School System, Wisconsin, is cited as an example of a desegregation program that both exceeded court requirements of equity and also made a substantial contribution to the goals of excellence in education. The school effectiveness movement, like…

  20. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE`s waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE`s waste management capabilities.

  1. Achieving Program Equity: Are Markets the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1994-01-01

    Reliance on market structures can help educators meet Clune's program adequacy goals. Transfer barriers should be eliminated so that teachers can freely choose schools with institutional missions approximating their own visions. Compensation should be based more on teacher knowledge and performance than on experience and training. A market-based…

  2. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months. PMID:12289286

  3. Beyond Gender: Equity Issues for Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    1986-01-01

    The field of home economics has generally been neglected within the literature focused on women, feminism, and education. Data concerning gender equity often measure women's achievements by their inroads into fields formerly dominated by men. (MT)

  4. Empowering Women for Equity: A Counseling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl Blalock; Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The purpose of this book is to describe the process through which women can achieve equity and to delineate the skills by which counselors can assist them. It is organized to into five sections and provides a developmental look at the problem, its manifestations, remedies, and the processes through which the problem can be vanquished. Section 1,…

  5. Complex Instruction: Equity in Cooperative Learning Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Arellano, Adele R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two dimensions of equity within small-group learning--access and equitable relations--describing complex instruction (CI) as an approach that lets educators address these issues. CI teachers use cooperative learning to teach at high academic levels in diverse classrooms. The paper describes CI in action, achievement results in CI…

  6. Equity Training for State Education Agency Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Claire; And Others

    A training manual for state education agency (SEA) staff dealing with issues of sex bias and discrimination in the educational system is presented. The manual is designed to achieve the following primary objectives: (1) provide a status report on federal and state roles in promoting educational equity; (2) provide an overview of inequities based…

  7. Equity and the social determinants of health in European cities.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All policy for 30 years. This article examines how cities have translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate phase IV (2003-2008) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) plus documentation from city programs and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far the concept of equity in health is understood, the political will to tackle the issue, and types of action taken. Results show that although cities continue to focus considerable support on vulnerable groups, rather than the full social gradient, most are now making the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment, education, housing, and the environment, without neglecting access to care. Although local level data reflecting inequalities in health is improving, there is still a long way to go in some cities. The Healthy Cities Project is becoming an integral part of structures for long-term planning and intersectoral action for health in cities, and Health Impact Assessment is gradually being developed. Participation in the WHO-EHCN appears to allow new members to leap-frog ahead established cities. However, this evaluation also exposes barriers to effective local policies and processes to reduce health inequalities. Armed with locally generated evidence of critical success factors, the WHO-EHCN has embarked on a more rigorous and determined effort to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. More attention will be given to evaluating the effectiveness of action taken and to dealing not only with the most vulnerable but a greater part of the gradient in socioeconomic health inequalities. PMID:22971932

  8. Social equity and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R. )

    1993-12-01

    Social equity has become an important concern of the environmental movement over the past decade. The equity issue is analyzed here for practically all of the inactive hazardous waste disposal sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) regulated under the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act and its 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA/SARA). Two dimensions of equity are emphasized, namely, site location relative to the location of minority population and the distribution of cleanup plans or Records of Decision (ROD) across communities with NPL sites that have different socioeconomic characteristics. With respect to site location, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics aggregated at the Census Place or MCD level in communities with NPL sites was greater than is typical nationwide (largely attributable to the concentration of minority populations in a few large urban areas with NPL sites). The percentage of the population below the poverty line in communities with NPL sites largely matched that of the nation as a whole. With respect to site cleanup, communities with relatively higher percentages of racial minority population have fewer cleanup plans than other communities with NPL site. Whether a ROD exists is influenced by when the site was designated for the NPL: sites designated earlier are more likely to have RODs and less likely to have high proportions of racial minority populations than sites designated later. This implies that initially the designation process may have resulted in NPL sites being located disproportionately in minority areas, but this pattern seems to be reversing itself in more recently designated sites. Racial and ethnic disproportionalities with respect to inactive hazardous waste site location seem to be concentrated in a relatively few areas. 35 refs., 12 tabs.

  9. Guidelines for Promoting Gender Equity in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miroiu, Mihaela

    This book provides a practically oriented reflection on gender equity in higher education and offers insights on how to achieve such equity. Equity, rather than "equality," is the focus of the discussion, which refines the discussion of gender and higher education to go beyond traditional ideas of equal provision and the mathematical equality of…

  10. Essays on equity-efficiency trade offs in energy and climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesmero, Juan P.

    Economic efficiency and societal equity are two important goals of public policy. Energy and climate policies have the potential to affect both. Efficiency is increased by substituting low-carbon energy for fossil energy (mitigating an externality) while equity is served if such substitution enhances consumption opportunities of unfavored groups (low income households or future generations). However policies that are effective in reducing pollution may not be so effective in redistributing consumption and vice-versa. This dissertation explores potential trade-offs between equity and efficiency arising in energy and climate policies. Chapter 1 yields two important results. First, while effective in reducing pollution, energy efficiency policies may fall short in protecting future generations from resource depletion. Second, deployment of technologies that increase the ease with which capital can substitute for energy may enhance the ability of societies to sustain consumption and achieve intertemporal equity. Results in Chapter 1 imply that technologies more intensive in capital and materials and less intensive in carbon such as corn ethanol may be effective in enhancing intertemporal equity. However the effectiveness of corn ethanol (relative to other technologies) in reducing emissions will depend upon the environmental performance of the industry. Chapter 2 measures environmental efficiency of ethanol plants, identifies ways to enhance performance, and calculates the cost of such improvements based on a survey of ethanol plants in the US. Results show that plants may be able to increase profits and reduce emissions simultaneously rendering the ethanol industry more effective in tackling efficiency. Finally while cap and trade proposals are designed to correcting a market failure by reducing pollution, allocation of emission allowances may affect income distribution and, hence, intra-temporal equity. Chapter 3 proves that under plausible conditions on preferences

  11. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  12. Restructuring Schooling: The Equity Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the school restructuring movement offers considerable promise for enhancing educational equity. Reviews equity definitions, outlines restructuring principles, and describes three powerful ethics (competitive/utilitarian, social justice, and caring) underlying current attempts to highlight equity values in education. Presents a strategy…

  13. Equity v. Equity: Why "Education Week" and the "Education Trust" Don't Agree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Each January since 1997, "Education Week," the K-12 industry's newspaper of record, has issued its "Quality Counts" report, ranking states by, among other things, the "equity" of their school finances. On the other hand, every fall since 2001, the "Education Trust," a national organization devoted to closing the achievement gap in public schools,…

  14. Equity, by what measure?

    PubMed

    Houston, Shane

    2006-12-01

    Equity has in many instances been framed around the notion of fairness. But the metric used to determine what is fair leaves some people at a disadvantage because the things that they value are not always taken properly into account. If I value mangoes and you value oranges is a measure of fairness based on how many oranges I seek appropriate? If I am expected to give up my love of mangoes in order to get ahead is that fair? The debate about judging equity - about measuring fairness - needs to find the conceptual and methodological space to allow the voices and claims of the other to be heard. PMID:17176236

  15. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in science and…

  16. Equity and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Ann

    In an effort to ensure that the arts receive equity with other areas of study, this paper presents an argument for the value of arts education in children's development. The argument is based on the work of four experts: (1) Nelson Goodman, who held that symbols are indispensable to communication, and that children's capacity for acquiring…

  17. Computer Equity @ School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity Coalition for Race, Gender, and National Origin, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This edition of "Equity Coalition" is designed to be a resource to assist those who have responsibility for technology in the schools. The authors of these articles discuss a variety of issues related to computer uses in education and equal access to educational technology. The issue contains the following articles: (1) "Technology--A New Kind of…

  18. Student Equity Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following a decrease in minority student enrollment within the California Community Colleges (CCC), the Board of Governors (BOG) convened a special statewide symposium to examine issues of minority student enrollment, retention, and transfer, and established a standing Board Committee on Equity and Diversity. Over the past 2 years, a system policy…

  19. Teacher Communities for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Teachers working together in learning communities is a popular aspect of school reform projects in countries around the world. However, teacher communities vary greatly from one another. This article describes two communities whose purpose is to help teachers work for equity by focusing on questions that emerge from practice and from genuine…

  20. Equity Literacy for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  1. The Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Oral Health Equity for Older Adults: A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.; Birenz, Shirley S.; Kunzel, Carol; Wang, Hua; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Marshall, Stephen E.; Northridge, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a collaborative, interdisciplinary systems science inquiry to explore implications of Medicaid expansion on achieving oral health equity for older adults. Through an iterative modeling process oriented toward the experiences of both patients and oral health care providers, complex feedback mechanisms for promoting oral health equity are articulated that acknowledge the potential for stigma as well as disparities in oral health care accessibility. Multiple factors mediate the impact of Medicaid expansion on oral health equity. PMID:26457047

  2. Developing Agency for Equity-Minded Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eric R.; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Hanson, Debbie; Gray, James; Klingsmith, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of the Equity Scorecard with the Community College of Aurora. The Equity Scorecard is a theory-based strategy that assists community colleges in embedding equity into their institutional norms, practices, and policies.

  3. Equity in community care.

    PubMed

    Challis, L; Henwood, M

    1994-06-01

    The implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 made local authority social services departments responsible for the organisation and funding of support and care in the community. This development took effect at the same time as a blurring of the boundaries between health and social care. One consequence is that the relevance of equity (a guiding principle of the 1946 National Health Service Act, but relatively lacking from the 1948 National Assistance Act, the foundation of many social services) has come to be more keenly appreciated within personal social services. Equity questions arise in community care over the distribution of public resources between different client groups, income groups, generations, and localities. Moreover, no mechanisms exist to monitor the trends that emerge from different ways that people get access to care. Yet there is a risk that substantial divisive consequences may occur, particularly between generations. PMID:8019286

  4. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  5. Operationalizing Equity: The Complexities of Equity in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasson, Ingela; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Assarson, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer some reflections on the relationship between meanings of equity at the national level and those working with these questions in local schools. We argue that meanings of equity at the national level are in strong contrast to the range complexity identified in local schools. The article draws from case study…

  6. Vocational Equity Resources from the Vocational Equity Resource Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Vocational Studies Center.

    This catalog identifies and describes 767 written and audiovisual resources on equity available on loan from the Vocational Equity Resource and Technical Assistance Center in Madison, Wisconsin. The publication lists materials under 44 headings: affirmative action, aging, apprenticeship, assessment instruments, bias-free communications,…

  7. Insisting on Equity: A Redistribution Approach to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrum, Lee E.

    2006-01-01

    Emphasis on educational efficiency, or accountability, with all its claims towards institutional improvement, has left the question of educational equity unanswered. Contemporary policy, particularly in Western nations, focuses largely on raising aggregate test scores while the greater society sees a steady increase in economic inequality. It is…

  8. Gender Equity & Visual Literacy: Schools Can Help Change Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Richard A.

    Background information about gender inequity is provided, and the assertion is made that educators must recognize that many of the problems females encounter are begun and perpetuated in the schools. Visual literacy is part of the change that schools must make in order to make greater strides toward gender equity. Two connections between visual…

  9. Screening Educational Equity: A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Susan Morris, Comp.

    The more than 300 films and videos listed in this annotated filmography for use by educators and their students are presented in 14 categories: (1) Biases in Early Childhood Education; (2) Career and Vocational Opportunities; (3) Curriculum Equity; (4) Discrimination in Employment; (5) Equity in Sports; (6) A Legal Context; (7) Male Sex Role…

  10. Leadership, Equity, and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, H. Prentice, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays focuses on the intersection between equity and excellence in educational leadership and urges a reconceptualization that gives appropriate consideration to women and ethnic and racial minorities. The book begins with an introductory chapter, entitled "Equity and Excellence in Educational Leadership: A Necessary Nexus," by…

  11. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  12. Will Primary Grade Title I Students Demonstrate Greater Achievement in Reading With the Use of Audio-Visual Aids Than Those Who Haven't Utilized the Same Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skobo, Kathleen Ward

    Forty-two first, second, and third grade students participated in a 15-week study to determine the effects of audiovisual aids on reading achievement. The students were pretested and posttested using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Each group received 40 minutes of small group and individual instruction each day. The experimental group…

  13. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  14. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  15. Experiencing Diversity: Toward Educational Equity. The Second Annual Yearbook of the Bank Street College of Education: Thought and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignatelli, Frank, Ed.; Pflaum, Susanna W., Ed.

    Equity issues in education and the conditions out of which they emerge frame the chapters of this yearbook. These chapters analyze the arenas in which our society must seek greater equity, but they do not offer a blueprint, or any singular theory or body of knowledge. The chapters are: (1) "Community Education and Education for Community" (Colin…

  16. A Culturally Proficient Society Begins in School: Leadership for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Carmella S.; Ott, Maria G.; Robles, Darline P.

    2011-01-01

    Extending democracy into schools so that every child has the opportunity to achieve is the topic of many books and conversations. The three Latina superintendents who coauthored this book do more than discuss the issue of equity in education--they live it. They grew up affected by it, taught students who needed it, and changed the minds of those…

  17. Programming for Gender Equity. A Guide for Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldwedel, Bette J.

    This guide is designed to provide educators with ways to organize and implement strategies to ensure that deliberate efforts are made to achieve gender equity. The format allows facilitators to select specific unit content to meet both state and local staff development purposes and to adapt the suggested activities to the special professional…

  18. Reconceptualising Equity: Pedagogy for Chinese Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Education Queensland's New Basics project has extended conceptions of "equity" to incorporate dimensions such as higher order thinking and student control of classroom activity. This requires a critique of the outcomes attained by even high achieving students. It is therefore useful to interrogate professional discourses that shape pedagogies for…

  19. A Study of Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Christa D.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. Establishing an equitable classroom environment that results in student learning for African Americans requires specialized teacher knowledge, productive dispositions and beliefs, and effective teaching practices. The study reports on…

  20. Six Lessons for Pursuing Excellence and Equity at Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Stacey M.

    2009-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Maryland has made progress on the dual dimensions of excellence and equity for its 140,000 students, about half of whom are black or Hispanic. Beginning in 1999, with the leadership of Supt. Jerry Weast, MCPS managed to boost the achievement of its top quartile of students while the lower quartiles…

  1. Gender Equity in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Alison Danielle

    This document reviews literature on gender equity in U.S. schools. The paper reports that there is an unconscious ignorance on the growing achievement gap between male and female students. Young women in the United States today still are not participating equally in the education system. A 1992 report found that girls do not receive equitable…

  2. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  3. Standards, Assessments, and Students: Encouraging Both Equity and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Jim

    1995-01-01

    We must determine national standards, an acceptable degree of student achievement, and ways to guarantee equity while encouraging excellence. Any school can increase its graduation rate by decree through social promotion and lowered grading scales. The shift to standards means a shift to measurable outcomes, true learning, and a quality product.…

  4. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  5. [Equity and health].

    PubMed

    Laguna-García, J; Fernández de Castro, J; Cordera, A

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the right to health in Mexico. The authors present some ideas regarding equity and data which shows the existence of a deep inequity in the field of health in the country. The efforts of the social security agencies and of the Ministry of Health aimed at diminishing inequity in health are also described. The authors conclude that it is time to avoid retorical positions and attitudes of administrative solidarity and start to implement actions to improve the health conditions of those living in extreme poverty. These actions should include providing comprehensive health services to all the population, reinforcing specific preventive programs, improving certain basic health indicators and prompting intersectoral collaboration. PMID:1411783

  6. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-01

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  7. Schools of Excellence and Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor…

  8. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  9. Replication-competent adenoviruses with the type 35-derived fiber-knob region achieve reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity and produce greater toxicity than those with the type 5-derived region in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Suguru; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Okamoto, Shinya; Morinaga, Takao; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Shingyoji, Masato; Sekine, Ikuo; Kubo, Shuji; Tada, Yuji; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Shimada, Hideaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is relatively resistant to chemotherapy and cell death induced by replication of adenoviruses (Ad) can be one of the therapeutic options. Transduction efficacy of conventional type 5 Ad (Ad5) is however low and the cytotoxic mechanism by replication-competent Ad was not well understood. We constructed replication-competent Ad5 of which the E1A promoter region was replaced with a transcriptional regulatory region of the midkine, the survivin or the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, all of which were expressed at a high level in human tumors. We also prepared replication-competent Ad5 that were activated with the same region but had the type 35 Ad-derived fiber-knob region (AdF35) to convert the major cellular receptor for Ad infection from the coxsackie adenovirus receptor to CD46 molecules. Replication-competent AdF35 that were activated with the exogenous region produced cytotoxic effects on human pancreatic carcinoma cells greater than the corresponding Ad5 bearing with the same regulatory region. Cells infected with the AdF35 showed cytopathic effects and increased sub-G1 fractions. Caspase-9, less significantly caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, but not caspase-3 was cleaved and expression of molecules involved in autophagy and caspase-independent cell death pathways remained unchanged. Nevertheless, H2A histone family member X molecules were phosphorylated, and N-acetyl-L-cystein, an inhibitor for reactive oxygen species, suppressed the AdF35-mediated cytotoxicity. These data indicated a novel mechanism of Ad-mediated cell death and suggest a possible clinical application of the fiber-knob modified Ad. PMID:26373551

  10. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  11. Pursuing Racial Equity in Our Schools: Lessons Learned from African American Male Teachers in a Suburban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert W., III

    2010-01-01

    In a "Multicultural Teaching and Learning" course, racial equity is one of the many issues explored. When discussing racial equity in our schools, teacher education students in the course focus their attention on such issues as the achievement gap, referrals to special education of African American and Latino males, the racism of low expectations.…

  12. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  13. Achieving "Querencia": Integrating a Sense of Place with Disciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Charles R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish word "querencia," evocative of how feelings and deepest beliefs attach the self to place (Lopez, 1992), invites the rediscovery of the meaning of equity as a reciprocal relationship between peoples and the landscapes they inhabit. This article begins with an exploration of a concept of "reciprocal equity," cultivated by achieving such…

  14. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  15. 75 FR 48661 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) announces the establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Equity Commission or Commission). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463, as amended; 5 U.S.C.A., Appendix 2) shall govern the Equity Commission. Purpose: The Secretary is establishing the Commission in order to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain......

  16. An Examination of Charter School Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamba, Nathalis Guy; Ascher, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the implications of charter school choice for equity, discussing three standards of equity (racial balance, resources, and outcome). Reviews the equity provisions of state charter legislation, research on who chooses charter schools for their children and why, and analyses of the demographic characteristics of charter school students.…

  17. Understanding Equity Strategies of Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Volkoff, Veronica; Egg, Mez; Solomon, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    Limited research has been undertaken to identify and examine systemic issues associated with the provision of vocational education and training (VET) to equity groups. This report focuses on the institutional relationships and policies that determine equity provision, and proposes three principles for framing equity practices. The principles are:…

  18. Investing Equity Funding in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The United States has long been concerned with providing equal, quality education for all its citizens. With state-granted equity funding to needy districts comes the responsibility of wise use of equity monies. This study is an example of how three New Jersey districts invested their equity funding in a highly effective early literacy…

  19. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  20. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  1. Making Way for Equity: Elementary Principals' Interpretations of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Treating education as a socially transformative and morally conscious enterprise calls for educators to expose and improve social conditions related to oppression. These beliefs herald a different kind of practice for teachers and administrators in public schools, a practice that deals directly with dilemmas of equity and pluralism. Limited…

  2. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  3. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  4. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  5. Digital Equity and Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul; Laferrière, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Digital equity and intercultural education continue to be areas of concern in the emerging knowledge-based society. The digital divide is present across the globe as the result of a complex of factors such as the inequality in: access to hardware and connectivity; autonomy of use; digital and literacy skills; availability of technical and social…

  6. Education between Quality and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz-Rainer; And Others

    Papers read by three German educationalists at a workshop on "Education between Quality and Equity" are included in this document. The first, by Han Leo Reimann, is entitled "Simulated Reality: The Instructional Objectives within the Framework of Pedagogical Paper Plays." This paper describes a gaming method of simulating realistic planning and…

  7. Mathematics Equity. A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Eddy; And Others

    Provided in this document is a brief summary of current research on equity in mathematics, readings on the topic, and lists of selected programs and resource materials. Readings presented include: "Teaching Mathematics in a Multicultural Setting: Some Considerations when Teachers and Students are of Differing Cultural Backgrounds" (Willis N.…

  8. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  9. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  10. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…

  11. Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…

  12. National Equity and School Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    Supports William Clune's focus on outputs, rather than inputs and procedures. However, national and state standard setting and systemic reform would foster more school improvement and educational equity than the single-school approach. Focus on outcomes allows considerable local curricular discretion. Schools should be held accountable for student…

  13. Public health care provisions: access and equity.

    PubMed

    Bin Juni, M H

    1996-09-01

    Within the current exercise of reforming the health care system, underlying all issues, is the reassessment of the role of government. It is a government's responsibility and concern that the health sector be accessible and equitable to the population, and more important that the health sector be more efficient and affordable. Many governments in the world attempt to provide universal health care services to their population through public health care provisions. This paper reviews and analyses the experience of the Malaysian health system, focusing on the performance of the system in relation to access and equity. The performance of the Malaysian health system has been impressive. At minimum cost it has achieved virtually accessible and equitable health care to the entire population. This is evident by analysing almost all the commonly used indicators. These clearly show that when matched to comparable countries, health outcome is even better than predicted value. PMID:8870140

  14. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  15. Transforming objectivity to promote equity in transplant candidate selection.

    PubMed

    Majeske, R A

    1996-03-01

    It is necessary to recognize the variety of levels at which values and norms may inappropriately affect the equity of the transplantation process, including candidate selection. Using a revised, richer concept of objectivity, adopted from Longino's work in the philosophy of science and empirical studies of candidate selection, this paper examines what sort of objectivity can be obtained in the transplant candidate selection process, and the closely related question of how selection can occur in an equitable manner. This concept of objectivity requires that transformative criticism occur so that (1) the conceptual and normative commitments underlying selection may be articulated and perhaps challenged, and (2) the relationship between those commitments and criteria for candidate selection may be examined and justified, or revised. Through such transformative criticism, a greater degree of objectivity may be attained, which in turn will increase the likelihood of equity. PMID:8992646

  16. Achieving Gender Equity in Middle School Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Suzie E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a 7th grade science teacher creates an equal learning environment for both female and male students. Explains how to personalize classroom structure, create a cooperative learning environment, and provide diverse role models. (YDS)

  17. The Effective Principal: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denbo, Sheryl; Ross, Marlene

    The suggestions presented in this publication are designed to assist principals in improving school effectiveness through a well-planned, well-executed program of staff supervision and curriculum development. The document is organized into four major areas. First, the need for the principal to provide strong curriculum leadership through…

  18. Creating Small Schools: A Handbook for Raising Equity and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Dan; Atkinson, Mary; Rugen, Leah

    2007-01-01

    While current research shows that comprehensive high schools remain the norm, effective small-scale high schools feature lower student-to-teacher ratios, longer instructional blocks, more parent involvement, and increased advisory and student support. The resulting instructional benefits include reduced dropout rates, increased attendance, higher…

  19. Achieving Equity through Innovation: A Canada-U.S. Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Canadians often assume that what is said about education south of the U.S. border applies north of it as well. However Canada's international rankings are consistently higher than those of the U.S., primarily because of different social conditions (less inequality, less child poverty, etc.) and different educational policies (more equitable…

  20. Achieving Equity in Special Education: History, Status, and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiba, Russell J.; Simmons, Ada B.; Ritter, Shana; Gibb, Ashley C.; Rausch, M. Karega; Cuadrado, Jason; Chung, Choong-Geun

    2008-01-01

    Among the most-longstanding and intransigent issues in the field, the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs has its roots in a long history of educational segregation and discrimination. Although national estimates of disproportionality have been consistent over time, state and local estimates may show…

  1. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  2. Village health workers in Java, Indonesia: coverage and equity.

    PubMed

    Berman, P A

    1984-01-01

    Village health workers are often the main vehicle for promoting the primary health care approach in developing countries. Services provided by these workers are expected to be more appropriate to the health needs of populations than those of clinic-based services, to be less expensive and to foster self-reliance and local participation. Because village workers are more accessible and acceptable to clients in their communities, they are expected to improve the overall coverage of services as well as equity--increased service use by poorer individuals and households. This paper presents research on coverage and equity from village health worker programs in Java, Indonesia. Rural health and nutrition projects in Java using village-level volunteers with limited training have grown since the early 1970s to include large national programs managed by the government's rural health system. Volunteer village workers are now the most extensive link between the rural population and the formal health service structure. Previous research on coverage and equity of these village worker activities is reviewed and results from the author's own study are presented. Services provided by village health workers achieve significantly higher levels of population coverage than similar clinic-based services. In most cases, village workers show no bias towards better-off clients and they may favor poorer beneficiaries. These findings show that village workers are meeting the coverage and equity objectives of the primary health care approach. However, some of the research reviewed raises questions about the ability of village worker activities to maintain these results over a longer period. The rapid expansion of these programs requires continued research, not only on coverage and equity, but also on health outcomes, costs, and participation. PMID:6484628

  3. Conversations in Equity and Social Justice: Constructing Safe Schools for Queer Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a critique of discourse focused on at-risk behaviour and homophobic bullying. The paper argues that conversations around homophobic bullying must include discussions of doing equity and achieving social justice,in which the ultimate goal of constructing safe schools is achieved through the utter transformation of school culture.…

  4. (Non)Construction of the Teacher: An Inquiry into Ontario's Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naimi, Kevin; Cepin, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a critical discourse analysis on the policy document Ontario's Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy (2009). We examine the three core priorities the policy outlines: improve student achievement, reduce achievement gap and increase public confidence in public education. This document is approached from the context of new…

  5. Resource and Output Equity as a Mechanism for Assessing Educational Opportunity in Korean Middle School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.; Eom, Moonyoung

    2012-01-01

    Korea is recognized as a high-performing country in international achievement studies; however, many researchers in and outside Korea have been worried about the existing gaps between high-socioeconomic and low-socioeconomic (SES) students in both student achievement and educational resources. We analyzed the resource and output equity of Korean…

  6. Voices of Equity: Beginning Teachers Are Crucial Partners and Emerging Leaders of Equity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Burns, Nicole; Murray, Karen; Watt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an equity education program established in 2009 by Ontario's (Canada) Ministry of Education to improve outcomes for students at risk and create the conditions needed for student success. Beginning teachers were crucial partners and emerging leaders of equity education. Some of the equity concerns these teachers faced…

  7. Maternal, neonatal, and child health in southeast Asia: towards greater regional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Acuin, Cecilia S; Khor, Geok Lin; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Achadi, Endang L; Htay, Thein Thein; Firestone, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-02-01

    Although maternal and child mortality are on the decline in southeast Asia, there are still major disparities, and greater equity is key to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We used comparable cross-national data sources to document mortality trends from 1990 to 2008 and to assess major causes of maternal and child deaths. We present inequalities in intervention coverage by two common measures of wealth quintiles and rural or urban status. Case studies of reduction in mortality in Thailand and Indonesia indicate the varying extents of success and point to some factors that accelerate progress. We developed a Lives Saved Tool analysis for the region and for country subgroups to estimate deaths averted by cause and intervention. We identified three major patterns of maternal and child mortality reduction: early, rapid downward trends (Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand); initially high declines (sustained by Vietnam but faltering in the Philippines and Indonesia); and high initial rates with a downward trend (Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar). Economic development seems to provide an important context that should be coupled with broader health-system interventions. Increasing coverage and consideration of the health-system context is needed, and regional support from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can provide increased policy support to achieve maternal, neonatal, and child health goals. PMID:21269675

  8. Back to the Basics: In Defense of Achievement (and Achievement Tests) in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…

  9. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    PubMed

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels. PMID:12347385

  10. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed. PMID:26436716

  11. The Master Plan Renewed: Unity, Equity, Quality, and Efficiency in California Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education, Sacramento.

    This report presents 33 recommendations for improving the 1960 California State Master Plan for Higher Education. The report's five sections focus on: (1) a unified educational system; (2) greater equity; (3) educational quality; (4) efficient use of educational resources; and (5) resources and responsibility. Recommendations for increased unity…

  12. Using Collaborative Inquiry to Foster Equity within School Systems: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Goldrick, Sue; West, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on experiences in England over many years, this paper explores the authors' efforts to use collaborative inquiry in order to foster greater equity within schools. All of this is set within national policy contexts that emphasise increased school autonomy, competition, and accountability as central improvement strategies. It is argued that…

  13. "Chicks and Hunks:" Teenagers and Sex Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novogrodsky, Myra; Wells, Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Looks at issues of gender equity that are important to teenagers, showing how students' thoughts and feelings can be used as reference points in the social studies classroom. Suggests class discussions on work equity, gender communication, and intervention strategies. Reminds teachers that they must act as positive role models. (LS)

  14. 76 FR 41233 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... Center Plaza, 550 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20202 in the auditorium (room 10026). FOR...

  15. 77 FR 29621 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ..., in Room 1W105/108. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Guy Johnson, Designated Federal Official, Equity... equitycommission@ed.gov or via U.S. mail to Guy Johnson, Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence... contact Guy Johnson at (202) 453-6567 or by email at equitycommission@ed.gov . Individuals who will...

  16. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  17. Educational Equity: Challenges for Educator Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Winslow, Emily

    2015-01-01

    With increasingly diverse student populations, educational equity is a bigger challenge than ever for public schools across the United States. While federal government, states, and school districts work to identify and address the root causes of equity gaps, efforts are often hampered by a limited body of research-based strategies and approaches…

  18. 76 FR 27034 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes...

  19. 77 FR 67637 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue...

  20. Learning Equity in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, education policy documents in South Africa have prioritised the goal of equity in education, understood as increased access to programmes, more equitable staff and student profiles, and curricula that are more responsive to the needs of all students. The challenge of effecting the goal of equity at levels of teaching and learning in…

  1. 77 FR 484 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington,...

  2. 76 FR 62394 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes...

  3. Working Together toward Equity for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This inaugural edition of "Equity Coalition" introduces a new publication from the Programs for Educational Opportunity at the University of Michigan, one of 10 regional centers funded by the Federal Government to provide technical assistance to school districts on issues concerning race, gender, and national origin equity. This issue explores the…

  4. Spotlight on Sex Equity: A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Susan Morris, Comp.

    This catalog contains a list of films, slide-tape presentations, and filmstrips presented at a 2-day film festival sponsored by the Mid-Atlantic Center for Sex Equity and other resources. The guide represents new media resources in addition to classics that meet the requirements of Title IX provisions on sex equity. The filmography is divided into…

  5. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  6. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  7. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  8. Toward a Pluralistic Perspective on Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.; Avery, Maria-Paz Beltran

    1992-01-01

    This digest deals with the challenges of living in a pluralistic society. Comprised of three articles, the first (by Diane S. Pollard) is a discussion of the problems resulting from the fragmented effort of the equity movement, as many different groups working for equity in gender, race, class, and other concerns, have sought independence from…

  9. Gender Equity in Vocational Education. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Anne, Ed.

    This digest contains three articles on gender equity in vocational education, especially in relation to the provisions of the Vocational Education Act of 1976 and the Carl Perkins Act of 1984. "Gender Equity in Vocational Education" (Debra J. Robbin) describes interviews with students at a New England vocational school, in which they reported a…

  10. Understanding Gender Equity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnelley State Technical Coll., Childersburg, AL.

    This document discusses issues of gender equity in the workplace which are pertinent to the high school counselor. The first chapter provides guidelines for helping students to understand gender equity issues. These guidelines include asking the students if they would have the same career goals if they were of the other sex and challenging the…

  11. Orwell and the Politics of Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews three general themes--each related to contemporary situations affecting educational equity--in the works of George Orwell. These include (1) that it is difficult for the weak to preserve their "inner core"; (2) that revolutions for equality can fail; and (3) that all people, including those who work for educational equity, are attracted to…

  12. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  13. Gender Equity for Males. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Craig, Ed.; Bates, Percy, Ed.; Potter, Julia, Ed.

    Traditionally, the term "gender equity" is associated with equalizing the playing field for girls. However, gender equity by definition applies to both genders. This digest states that, in the best possible scenario, gender equitable education provides equal opportunities and enables each student to reach his or her potential, reducing the gender…

  14. For Women and Girls, the Common Core Is a Step toward Greater Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2014

    2014-01-01

    More engaging and challenging standards build a strong academic foundation for all students. Girls--and in particular, girls of color--have a lot to gain from more rigorous learning standards that better prepare them for college and career success. This fact sheet explores the positive effect the Common Core State Standards can have on gender…

  15. Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Roza, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    As attention shifts to how districts allocate resources to schools, student weighted allocation has emerged as an alternative to traditional staff-based allocation policies. Student-weighted allocation uses student need, rather than staff placement, as the building block of school budgeting. This article examines how the shift to student-weighted…

  16. [Notes on equity in health outcomes].

    PubMed

    Fresneda-Bautista, Oscar

    2008-12-01

    The article locates analysing health outcomes within a set of elements covering evaluating equity in health and suggests some orientations for such analysis. The model of analysis for examining equity in health which has been adopted by the Equity in Quality of Life and Health> has been taken as a point of reference. The text approaches the following questions: What is the role played by evaluating health outcomes within the context of equity in health? How can inequities in health outcomes be evaluated? What should be evaluated regarding health outcomes? The final part deals with how the topic of equity in health does not become exhausted in examining unjust inequalities between individuals or groups. PMID:19377730

  17. Educational Opportunity Is Achievable and Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Raising academic standards while eliminating achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students are among America's primary national educational goals. According to a growing body of research, America will attain its goals of equity and preparing students to function effectively as citizens and productive workers only through a…

  18. Assessing Coverage, Equity and Quality Gaps in Maternal and Neonatal Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilunda, Calistus; Putoto, Giovanni; Riva, Donata Dalla; Manenti, Fabio; Atzori, Andrea; Calia, Federico; Assefa, Tigist; Turri, Bruno; Emmanuel, Onapa; Straneo, Manuela; Kisika, Firma; Tarmbulini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Background Gaps in coverage, equity and quality of health services hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa as well as in other high-burden countries, yet few studies attempt to assess all these dimensions as part of the situation analysis. We present the base-line data of a project aimed at simultaneously addressing coverage, equity and quality issues in maternal and neonatal health care in five districts belonging to three African countries. Methods Data were collected in cross-sectional studies with three types of tools. Coverage was assessed in three hospitals and 19 health centres (HCs) utilising emergency obstetric and newborn care needs assessment tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program. Emergency obstetrics care (EmOC) indicators were calculated. Equity was assessed in three hospitals and 13 HCs by means of proxy wealth indices and women delivering in health facilities were compared with those in the general population to identify inequities. Quality was assessed in three hospitals using the World Health Organization’s maternal and neonatal quality of hospital care assessment tool which evaluates the whole range of aspects of obstetric and neonatal care and produces an average score for each main area of care. Results All the three hospitals qualified as comprehensive EmOC facilities but none of the HCs qualified for basic EmOC. None of the districts met the minimum requisites for EmOC indicators. In two out of three hospitals, there were major quality gaps which were generally greater in neonatal care, management of emergency and complicated cases and monitoring. Higher access to care was coupled by low quality and good quality by very low access. Stark inequities in utilisation of institutional delivery care were present in all districts and across all health facilities, especially at hospital level. Conclusion Our findings confirm the existence of serious

  19. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  20. Reassessing the Achievement Gap: Fully Measuring What Students Should Be Taught in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Wilder, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    This presentation summarizes two products of the ongoing work the authors are doing for the Campaign for Educational Equity. Part 1 of this presentation is a summary of "A Report Card on Comprehensive Equity: Racial Gaps in the Nation's Youth Outcomes." This report estimates the black-white achievement gaps in each of these aspects of education…

  1. Assessing equity in health care through the national health insurance schemes of Nigeria and Ghana: a review-based comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nigeria and Ghana have recently introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) with the aim of moving towards universal health care using more equitable financing mechanisms. This study compares health and economic indicators, describes the structure of each country’s NHIS within the wider healthcare system, and analyses impacts on equity in financing and access to health care. Methods The World Bank and other sources were used to provide comparative health and economic data. Pubmed, Embase and EconLit were searched to locate studies providing descriptions of each NHIS and empirical evidence regarding equity in financing and access to health care. A diagrammatical representation of revenue-raising, pooling, purchasing and provision was produced in order to analyse the two countries’ systems. Results Over the period 2000–2010, Ghana maintained a marked advantage in life expectancy, infant mortality, under-5 year mortality, and has a lower burden of major diseases. Health care expenditure is about 5% of GDP in both countries but public expenditure in 2010 was 38% of total expenditure in Nigeria and 60% in Ghana. Financing and access are less equitable in Nigeria as, inter alia, private out-of-pocket expenditure has fallen from 80% to 66% of total spending in Ghana since the introduction of its NHIS but has remained at over 90% in Nigeria; NHIS membership in Nigeria and Ghana is approximately 3.5% and 65%, respectively; Nigeria offers a variable benefits package depending on membership category while Ghana has uniform benefits across all beneficiaries. Both countries exhibit improvements in equity but there is a pro-rich and pro-urban bias in membership. Conclusions Major health indicators are more favourable in Ghana and overall equity in financing and access are weaker in Nigeria. Nigeria is taking steps to expand NHIS membership and has potential to expand its public spending to achieve greater equity. However, heavy burdens of poverty

  2. Private equity investment in health care services.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Rudsenske, Todd; Vaughan, James S

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated private equity investors in health services provide venture capital for early-stage companies, growth capital for mid-stage companies, and equity capital for buyouts of mid-stage and mature companies. They pursue opportunities in provider sectors that are large and have a stable reimbursement environment, such as acute care services; sectors with room to execute consolidation strategies, such as labs; alternative-site sectors, such as "storefront" medicine; and clinical services, such as behavioral health, that are subject to profitably increasing quality and lowering costs. The innovations created through private equity investments could challenge established health services organizations. PMID:18780929

  3. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  4. Incorporating Access to More Effective Teachers into Assessments of Educational Resource Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Kevin C.; Henry, Gary T.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    To address gaps in achievement between more- and less-affluent students, states and districts need to ensure that high-poverty students and schools have equitable access to educational resources. Traditionally, assessments of resource equity have focused on per-pupil expenditures and more proximal inputs, such as teacher credentials and class…

  5. Drawing the Line on Minority Languages Equity and Linguistic Diversity in the Boston Adult Literacy Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Tomas Mario

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical/graphics schema used to analyze statistical data from an adult literacy initiative identifies gaps attributable to an implicit strategy of containment that differs from the intent of Lau v Nichols in elementary-secondary education. A moral equivalent of Lau is needed to achieve equity in linguistic diversity in adult literacy.…

  6. Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance. NYU Wagner Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna

    This paper analyzes the distribution of resources and performance across 840 New York City elementary and middle schools. It presents empirical evidence on input and output of equity of expenditures, teacher resources, and academic achievement. Historically, researchers have studied interdistrict distributions, but given the large number of pupils…

  7. Superintendent's Response to the Blue Ribbon Commission on Diversity and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Curman L.

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on Diversity and Equity, appointed by the Superintendent of the Saint Paul (Minnesota) Public Schools, reviewed the policies and practices of the city's public schools, focusing on the low achievement of students of color. The Commission presented its report in May 1994, and this report is the Superintendent's response.…

  8. Leading for Equity: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Stacey M.; Doyle, Denis P.; Thomas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    "Leading for Equity" tells the compelling story of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools and its transformation--in less than a decade--into a system committed to breaking the links between race and class and academic achievement. In chapters organized around six core themes, the authors lay out the essential elements of MCPS's success.…

  9. Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States: 45 Year Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan, Margaret; Perna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. has a core constitutional and founding commitment to equality of opportunity for all citizens. Whether viewed as an end in itself or a means to fostering increased national achievement and competitiveness, the 21st century United States conversation about equity reflects a national consensus about the many benefits of and necessity for…

  10. The School Leaders Our Children Deserve: Seven Keys to Equity, Social Justice, and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoharis, George

    2009-01-01

    George Theoharis draws on the experiences and words of successful public school principals committed to advancing equity, social justice, and school reform to show why social justice leadership is needed and how it can be effective. Although facing tremendous barriers, these principals made important strides toward closing the achievement gap in…

  11. Equity Audits: A Practical Leadership Tool for Developing Equitable and Excellent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph; Garcia, Juanita; Nolly, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Persistent achievement gaps by race and class in U.S. public schools are educationally and ethically deplorable and, thus, need to be eliminated. Based on their research on schools and districts that haven arrowed these gaps, the authors have developed a simplified reconceptualization of equity auditing, a concept with a respected history in civil…

  12. [Health reform, equity and the right to health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The author develops a long-term perspective to assess advances in equity and the right to health in the Colombian health system reform. In a restricted political system, actors in the field of health in Colombia have chosen individualistic alternatives to legalize inequities in individual purchasing power for services. Despite the complex regulations established in the General System for Social Security in Health, there is a trend towards consolidating traditional inequities and to further restrict opportunities for achieving the right to health with full, equitable, universal guarantees. PMID:12118306

  13. Workforce Issues in Rural Areas: A Focus on Policy Equity

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Rural communities in the United States are served by relatively fewer health care professionals than urban or suburban areas. I review the geographic distribution of 6 classes of health professionals and describe the multiple government and private policies and programs intended to affect their geographic distribution. These programs can be classified into 3 categories—coercive, normative, and utilitarian—that characterize the major policy levers used to influence practice location decisions. Health workforce policies must be normative to ensure equity for rural communities, but goals in this area can be achieved only through a balance of utilitarian and coercive mechanisms. PMID:15623856

  14. Development of Health Equity Indicators in Primary Health Care Organizations Using a Modified Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Browne, Annette J.; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Fridkin, Alycia; Smye, Victoria; Godwin, Olive; Tu, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a core set of indicators that could be used for measuring and monitoring the performance of primary health care organizations' capacity and strategies for enhancing equity-oriented care. Methods Indicators were constructed based on a review of the literature and a thematic analysis of interview data with patients and staff (n = 114) using procedures for qualitatively derived data. We used a modified Delphi process where the indicators were circulated to staff at the Health Centers who served as participants (n = 63) over two rounds. Indicators were considered part of a priority set of health equity indicators if they received an overall importance rating of>8.0, on a scale of 1–9, where a higher score meant more importance. Results Seventeen indicators make up the priority set. Items were eliminated because they were rated as low importance (<8.0) in both rounds and were either redundant or more than one participant commented that taking action on the indicator was highly unlikely. In order to achieve health care equity, performance at the organizational level is as important as assessing the performance of staff. Two of the highest rated “treatment” or processes of care indicators reflects the need for culturally safe and trauma and violence-informed care. There are four indicators that can be used to measure outcomes which can be directly attributable to equity responsive primary health care. Discussion These indicators and subsequent development of items can be used to measure equity in the domains of treatment and outcomes. These areas represent targets for higher performance in relation to equity for organizations (e.g., funding allocations to ongoing training in equity-oriented care provision) and providers (e.g., reflexive practice, skill in working with the health effects of trauma). PMID:25478914

  15. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  16. The Alliance for Equity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisotis, Jamie P.; Goulian, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter describes the organization, operations, and goals of the Alliance for Equity in Higher Education, a national coalition of associations and institutions founded to serve the emerging majority of racially diverse college students.

  17. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    PubMed

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Mohammadpour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Javadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education. PMID:25530059

  18. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  19. The Crisis in Excellence and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine

    1984-01-01

    Highlights the insufficient explanations and fundamental fallacies in policy and programs for sex equity in educational administration. Examines the lack of incentives for promotion of women to positions of leadership. (SK)

  20. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... market value based on the Lender's and RHS approval official's knowledge of the property and the area. (B... the shared equity calculation. In the event a junior lienholder forecloses, the RHS approval...

  1. New Directions For Foundations In Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Doykos, Patricia; Gray-Akpa, Kristina; Mitchell, Faith

    2016-08-01

    Rising income inequality and pessimism about the current and future status of race relations in the United States make this both a challenging time for the pursuit of health equity and also an important opportunity for action. We glean lessons from past and ongoing philanthropic investments in health equity and recommend approaches that can guide future work by foundations. Improving health equity is a complex process that must take into account a variety of factors that affect health, of which access to high-quality health care is just one element. Accordingly, improving health equity will require the combined forces of philanthropy, the public sector, and sectors that have not traditionally been identified with health. PMID:27503980

  2. Equity: A Future Issue in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Petra E.

    1981-01-01

    Reveals how equity, as the resort to specific strategies or plans of action based on general principles of fairness and justice whenever existing law is inadequate, will determine the future character of educational policy. (Author)

  3. 75 FR 48662 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Secretary for Civil Rights. Nomination Process: Any interested person or organization may nominate one or...: Send to: WhiteHouseLiaison@ed.gov (specify in the e-mail subject line, ``Equity Commission...

  4. Explaining equity gains in child survival in Bangladesh: scale, speed, and selectivity in health and development.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Rabbani, Atonu; Ahmed, Shamim; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Al-Sabir, Ahmed; Rashid, Sabina F; Evans, Timothy G

    2013-12-14

    By disaggregating gains in child health in Bangladesh over the past several decades, significant improvements in gender and socioeconomic inequities have been revealed. With the use of a social determinants of health approach, key features of the country's development experience can be identified that help explain its unexpected health trajectory. The systematic equity orientation of health and socioeconomic development in Bangladesh, and the implementation attributes of scale, speed, and selectivity, have been important drivers of health improvement. Despite this impressive pro-equity trajectory, there remain significant residual inequities in survival of girls and lower wealth quintiles as well as a host of new health and development challenges such as urbanisation, chronic disease, and climate change. Further progress in sustaining and enhancing equity-oriented achievements in health hinges on stronger governance and longer-term systems thinking regarding how to effectively promote inclusive and equitable development within and beyond the health system. PMID:24268604

  5. Moving the Dial to Advance Population Health Equity in New York City Asian American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.

    2015-01-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  6. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  7. Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Thomas J.; Larrañaga, Osvaldo; Giedion, Ursula; Arbelaez, José Jesus; Bowser, Diana M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization--the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes. PMID:12751417

  8. Trading Accountability for Greater Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Describes the plight of two risk-taking principals who drastically improved their schools' academic performance, only to be defeated by bureaucratic regulations and business-as-usual attitudes. Allowing schools greater flexibility in exchange for increased accountability will free talented teachers and principals to restructure schools and solve…

  9. Project Exploration's personalized curriculum: Fostering access and equity in science out-of-school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Gabrielle Helena

    Participation and achievement in science by students of color and girls remains inequitable despite decades of initiatives aimed at leveling the playing field. Science in out-of-school-time is a strategy that emphasizes the role of informal education, however, robust descriptions of learning environments which effectively recruit and retain historically underrepresented populations to science are lacking. Greater understanding of the potential of such efforts for increasing access and equity in science is needed. In 1999, I co-founded Project Exploration, a science education organization, to increase access to science for minority youth and girls through personalized experiences with science and scientists. This dissertation explores the personalized curriculum at the heart of Project Exploration's approach to science out-of-school, and contextualizes this approach in terms of the historic and present-day landscape of out-of-school efforts intended to increase the diversity of participation in science. This thesis is intended to be a contribution to an intellectual and practical curriculum conversation about how to effectively engage and retain minorities and girls to science. Ultimately I hope this study will raise questions about the hidden curriculum of a national competitiveness framework and offer an alternative way to value science in---and out---of school.

  10. Test Equity for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. PEPNet Test Equity Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the 2008 Test Equity Summit held in Bloomfield, Colorado last August 6-8, 2008. The 2008 Test Equity Summit convened by the Postsecondary Education Programs Network (PEPNet) identified and examined problems, challenges, and issues that academic and psychoeducational tests pose for individuals who are deaf or…

  11. Curriculum and Research for Equity. A Training Manual for Promoting Sex Equity in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; And Others

    The Curriculum And Research for Equity (C-A-R-E) program materials are inservice teacher training modules (workshops, curricula, references, and research data) designed to promote educational equity in elementary school classrooms. The training manual is intended to help elementary education professionals identify, assess, and rectify the problem…

  12. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries. Module 5: Educational Equity in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard

    Suggestions offered in the fifth module of a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists are designed to aid in identifying sexism and sex-role stereotyping in instructional materials, and help trainees foster educational equity in their own institutions. The first part is concerned with the promotion of such equity through…

  13. Students as Policy Actors: The TDSB Equity Foundation Statement and Commitments to Equity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination on the basis of homophobia/transphobia in many schools is an internationally recognised problem. The Toronto District School Board's (TDSB) Equity Foundation Statement and Commitments to Equity Policy (EFS) provides an explicit mandate to schools in its jurisdiction to address such discrimination and educate about sexual and…

  14. Educational Equity: The Integration of Equity into Preservice Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Martha E.; And Others

    This volume of papers, written by professors of education, an administrator, and a clinical psychologist, illustrate how the concept of equity can be woven into the professional components of teacher education. In "A Matter of Linkage: Multicultural Education and Educational Equity," Martha E. Dawson maintains that multicultural education is an…

  15. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated

  16. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  17. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  18. Equity in health care financing: The case of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2008-01-01

    Background Equitable financing is a key objective of health care systems. Its importance is evidenced in policy documents, policy statements, the work of health economists and policy analysts. The conventional categorisations of finance sources for health care are taxation, social health insurance, private health insurance and out-of-pocket payments. There are nonetheless increasing variations in the finance sources used to fund health care. An understanding of the equity implications would help policy makers in achieving equitable financing. Objective The primary purpose of this paper was to comprehensively assess the equity of health care financing in Malaysia, which represents a new country context for the quantitative techniques used. The paper evaluated each of the five financing sources (direct taxes, indirect taxes, contributions to Employee Provident Fund and Social Security Organization, private insurance and out-of-pocket payments) independently, and subsequently by combined the financing sources to evaluate the whole financing system. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed on the Household Expenditure Survey Malaysia 1998/99, using Stata statistical software package. In order to assess inequality, progressivity of each finance sources and the whole financing system was measured by Kakwani's progressivity index. Results Results showed that Malaysia's predominantly tax-financed system was slightly progressive with a Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.186. The net progressive effect was produced by four progressive finance sources (in the decreasing order of direct taxes, private insurance premiums, out-of-pocket payments, contributions to EPF and SOCSO) and a regressive finance source (indirect taxes). Conclusion Malaysia's two tier health system, of a heavily subsidised public sector and a user charged private sector, has produced a progressive health financing system. The case of Malaysia exemplifies that policy makers can gain an in depth

  19. Improving Education through Greater Partnerships with Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theede, Marcy P.

    Perspectives on a greater partnership between education and business/industry are offered. The goal of this partnership is to achieve educational excellence. To accomplish this, greater participation of business and industry in the universities' educational preparation programs is needed. It is necessary to define role responsibilities for a…

  20. 'Issues of equity are also issues of rights': Lessons from experiences in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Background Human rights approaches to health have been criticized as antithetical to equity, principally because they are seen to prioritise rights of individuals at the expense of the interests of groups, a core tenet of public health. The objective of this study was to identify how human rights approaches can promote health equity. Methods The Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa undertook an exploration of three regional case studies – antiretroviral access, patient rights charters and civic organization for health. A combination of archival reviews and stakeholder interviews were complemented with a literature review to provide a theoretical framework for the empirical evidence. Results Critical success factors for equity are the importance of rights approaches addressing the full spectrum from civil and political, through to socio-economic rights, as well as the need to locate rights in a group context. Human rights approaches succeed in achieving health equity when coupled with community engagement in ways that reinforce community capacity, particularly when strengthening the collective agency of its most vulnerable groups. Additionally, human rights approaches provide opportunities for mobilising resources outside the health sector, and must aim to address the public-private divide at local, national and international levels. Conclusion Where it is clear that rights approaches are predicated upon understanding the need to prioritize vulnerable groups and where the way rights are operationalised recognizes the role of agency on the part of those most affected in realising their socio-economic rights, human rights approaches appear to offer powerful tools to support social justice and health equity. PMID:17257421

  1. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK.

    PubMed

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions 'stack up', in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other 'best investments for health equity', Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the 'healthier, fairer society' referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for the nation

  2. What Are Health Disparities and Health Equity? We Need to Be Clear

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Health disparities” and “health equity” have become increasingly familiar terms in public health, but rarely are they defined explicitly. Ambiguity in the definitions of these terms could lead to misdirection of resources. This article discusses the need for greater clarity about the concepts of health disparities and health equity, proposes definitions, and explains the rationale based on principles from the fields of ethics and human rights. PMID:24385658

  3. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34) were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of non-state actors can

  4. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a... the most active market. (iii) Special rule for valuing dealer options. A dealer option which is...

  5. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as...) of this section, the trustee should use the most active market. (iii) Special rule for valuing...

  6. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  7. 46 CFR 67.31 - Stock or equity interest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stock or equity interest requirements. 67.31 Section 67... VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.31 Stock or equity interest requirements. (a) The stock or equity interest requirements for citizenship under this...

  8. 46 CFR 67.31 - Stock or equity interest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stock or equity interest requirements. 67.31 Section 67... VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.31 Stock or equity interest requirements. (a) The stock or equity interest requirements for citizenship under this...

  9. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that— (a) It would cause financial hardship to...

  10. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  11. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  13. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  14. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  16. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  17. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  18. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  19. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that— (a) It would cause financial hardship to...

  20. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that— (a) It would cause financial hardship to...

  1. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  4. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that— (a) It would cause financial hardship to...

  5. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  6. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  8. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that— (a) It would cause financial hardship to...

  9. Conceptions of Equity: How Influential Actors View a Contested Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina E.

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of educational equity have played an important role in educational policy in the United States over the past 50 years, and advocates with a broad range of perspectives on reform have sought to claim the equity mantle. In this article, I examine aspects of equity, including the distribution of "inputs" to public education, the…

  10. Investigating Ten Years of Equity Policy in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Hamish; Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports issues arising from a longitudinal study of 1991 to 2002 Australian higher education equity data. The national equity framework uses an empirical performance indicator system to monitor access, participation, success and retention of six designated equity groups. The paper examines three possible approaches for defining new…

  11. What Is Equity in Education? Reflections from the Capability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    While there is a substantial conceptual literature on equality in education, there has been little clarificatory discussion on the term equity, despite its frequent use in policy and planning documents. The article draws out some different ways in which equity can be understood in education. It distinguishes three forms of equity, looking at the…

  12. Pursuing Equity in and through Teacher Education Program Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Broad, Kathryn; Gallagher-Mackay, Kelly; Sher, Yael; Escayg, Kerry-Ann; McGrath, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated equity in teacher education admissions. Through document analysis and structured interviews with ten past or current members of the admissions committee in a large initial teacher education program in Ontario, we developed an understanding of equity in teacher education admissions as encompassing two foci: equity in…

  13. 33 CFR 385.19 - Environmental and economic equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental and economic equity... Implementation Processes § 385.19 Environmental and economic equity. (a) Project Management Plans and Program Management Plans shall include information concerning any environmental and economic equity activities to...

  14. 33 CFR 385.19 - Environmental and economic equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental and economic equity... Implementation Processes § 385.19 Environmental and economic equity. (a) Project Management Plans and Program Management Plans shall include information concerning any environmental and economic equity activities to...

  15. 33 CFR 385.19 - Environmental and economic equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental and economic equity... Implementation Processes § 385.19 Environmental and economic equity. (a) Project Management Plans and Program Management Plans shall include information concerning any environmental and economic equity activities to...

  16. 33 CFR 385.19 - Environmental and economic equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental and economic equity... Implementation Processes § 385.19 Environmental and economic equity. (a) Project Management Plans and Program Management Plans shall include information concerning any environmental and economic equity activities to...

  17. 33 CFR 385.19 - Environmental and economic equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental and economic equity... Implementation Processes § 385.19 Environmental and economic equity. (a) Project Management Plans and Program Management Plans shall include information concerning any environmental and economic equity activities to...

  18. Sex Equity Ideabook for the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Walteen; And Others

    This publication contains lesson plans and classroom activities to assist K-12 teachers develop sex equity themes. It supplements the "Sex Equity Resource Directory" (SO 013 579) which is a guide to sex equity resources available through the District of Columbia Public Schools. The "Ideabook" has several major sections each containing materials…

  19. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…

  20. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  1. 17 CFR 49.5 - Equity interest transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreement(s) that could result in an equity interest transfer of ten percent or more in the swap data.... (1) Upon a transfer of an equity interest of ten percent or more in a registered swap data repository... of this chapter, following the date on which the equity interest of ten percent or more was...

  2. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  3. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  4. Aspects of Student Equity and Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    Badat (2004, 4) refers to the triple challenge facing higher education: to promote equity and growth within a democratic framework and to consolidate a fledgling democracy. In higher education there is inherent tension between growth (access to education) and equity. The article argues that the vagueness in which the term "equity" is generally…

  5. 12 CFR 1026.40 - Requirements for home equity plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for home equity plans. 1026.40...) Special Rules for Certain Home Mortgage Transactions § 1026.40 Requirements for home equity plans. The... to consumers for home equity plans must provide the brochure required under paragraph (e) of...

  6. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  7. Continuing nursing education policy in China and its impact on health equity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandatory continuing nursing education (MCNE) policy in China and to examine whether or not the policy addresses health equity. MCNE was instituted in 1996 in China to support healthcare reform was to include producing greater equity in health-care. However, the literature increasingly reports inequity in participation in MCNE, which is likely to have had a detrimental effect on the pre-existing discrepancies of education in the nursing workforce, and thereby failing to really address health equity. Despite a growing appeal for change, there is lack of critical reflection on the issues of MCNE policy. Critical ethnography underpinned by Habermas' Communicative Action Theory and Giddens' Structuration Theory were used to guide this study. Findings are presented in four themes: (i) inaccessibility of learning programs for nurses; (ii) undervaluation of workplace-based learning; (iii) inequality of the allocation of resources; and (iv) demands for additional support in MCNE from non-tertiary hospitals. The findings strongly suggest the need for an MCNE policy review based on rational consensus with stakeholders while reflecting the principles of health equity. PMID:20712659

  8. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    PubMed

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation. PMID:18219205

  9. Implementation of equity in resource allocation for regional earthquake risk mitigation using two-stage stochastic programming.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R; Peyghaleh, Elnaz

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new methodology to implement the concept of equity in regional earthquake risk mitigation programs using an optimization framework. It presents a framework that could be used by decisionmakers (government and authorities) to structure budget allocation strategy toward different seismic risk mitigation measures, i.e., structural retrofitting for different building structural types in different locations and planning horizons. A two-stage stochastic model is developed here to seek optimal mitigation measures based on minimizing mitigation expenditures, reconstruction expenditures, and especially large losses in highly seismically active countries. To consider fairness in the distribution of financial resources among different groups of people, the equity concept is incorporated using constraints in model formulation. These constraints limit inequity to the user-defined level to achieve the equity-efficiency tradeoff in the decision-making process. To present practical application of the proposed model, it is applied to a pilot area in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Building stocks, structural vulnerability functions, and regional seismic hazard characteristics are incorporated to compile a probabilistic seismic risk model for the pilot area. Results illustrate the variation of mitigation expenditures by location and structural type for buildings. These expenditures are sensitive to the amount of available budget and equity consideration for the constant risk aversion. Most significantly, equity is more easily achieved if the budget is unlimited. Conversely, increasing equity where the budget is limited decreases the efficiency. The risk-return tradeoff, equity-reconstruction expenditures tradeoff, and variation of per-capita expected earthquake loss in different income classes are also presented. PMID:25676412

  10. Nonprofit equity: a behavioral model and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, H P; Chang, C F

    1992-01-01

    This article assumes that nonprofit decisionmakers have an incentive to earn and accumulate surpluses, and it suggests six reasons for this being the case. Based on the assumption that both the program outputs and the equity of a nonprofit yield satisfaction to its decisionmakers, a behavioral model is developed. This is used to derive a demand function for equity, which is then applied to a national sample of 6168 charitable nonprofits drawn by the Internal Revenue Service for the 1985 taxable year. The results substantiate the hypothesis that nonprofit decisionmakers consciously plan to increase their organization's equity. Currently, evidence of continued equity buildup is not sufficient to call into question a nonprofit's exempt status, because federal tax laws assume that surplus accumulations will ultimately be used in support of program mission. However, equity accumulation can become excessive. We present several criteria to define excessive equity accumulation and discuss why large equity accumulations may not be in the best interest of society. PMID:10116416

  11. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  12. Money, Equity, and College Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Three decades after massive government commitment to financial aid, minority and low income access is declining and aid going to middle class students. Policies and political deadlock have worsened the situation of those in need, and hard choices must be made if college access is to be restored without greater expenditures. (SK)

  13. 77 FR 31605 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of an up- coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and is intended to notify the public of their opportunity to...

  14. National VET Equity Advisory Taskforce. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The purview of the National VET (Vocational Education and Training) Equity Advisory Taskforce (NVEAT) encompasses a range of clients and issues across the full spectrum of the VET sector. NVEAT has undertaken a number of activities to gain a better understanding of the range of issues affecting all learners and particular disadvantaged groups of…

  15. Private Schooling and Equity: Dilemmas of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies some of the salient characteristics of American private schools. Examines possible effects that the status composition of the student body might have in influencing the educational opportunity structure. Raises questions about the educational and social equity of supporting private schools financially through school choice mechanisms…

  16. Sex Equity for Rural American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, Birdie H.

    1982-01-01

    Cites evidence showing traditional values are highly resistant to change regarding females in nontraditional skill/trade areas. Suggests a model for sex equity in vocational education in rural education systems, incorporating all components of rural education systems to interact in development of programs free from sex-role stereotyping. (NEC)

  17. With Equity and Excellence for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fipp, Mary; Barry, Carol; Hargrave, Chris; Countryman, Cassandra

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study, as seen through the eyes of the principal and sixth-grade team, of one middle school's attempt to move away from a tracking system which discriminated against students on the basis of test scores, and therefore, against students of color. Explores movement toward student equity through heterogeneous grouping and the…

  18. 77 FR 18798 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation. SUMMARY: The Department of Education gives notice of the cancellation of the...

  19. Diversity/Equity. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Madeline, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on diversity/equity from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Modeling and Developing Technology Integration with Pre-Service Indigenous Teachers" (Shadow W. J. Armfield and Marilyn Durocher); (2) "Integrating Diversity in Children's Literature into the…

  20. A Decade of "Sex Equity" in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Elinor

    1981-01-01

    Looks at how effective state and federal sex equity mandates (Chapter 622 and Title IX) have been in reducing bias and sex segregation in Massachusetts schools, particularly in the areas of physical education, athletics, home economics, and industrial arts. (Condensed from "The Massachusetts Teacher," April 1981, p6-12.) (Editor/SJL)

  1. Evaluating Score Equity Assessment for State NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Baldwin, Su; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Karatonis, Ana; Jirka, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Score equity assessment is an important analysis to ensure inferences drawn from test scores are comparable across subgroups of examinees. The purpose of the present evaluation was to assess the extent to which the Grade 8 NAEP Math and Reading assessments for 2005 were equivalent across selected states. More specifically, the present study…

  2. Where Discipline and Racial Equity Intersect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how "Courageous Conversations" workshops have assisted teachers charged with training colleagues in how to talk about racism with students and with each other, and how to do something about it. Such professional development around equity issues often includes personal reflection and discussion with colleagues about…

  3. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equity sharing. 1980.391 Section 1980.391 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  4. Equity, Diversity, and Tolerance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Kenneth; Kemerer, Frank; Ruderman, Richard; Martinez, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Defends the ideas presented in "Liberal Equity in Education: A Comparison of Choice Options" (SO 532 109) by responding to the arguments of John Coons, Jeffrey Henig, and Janet Weiss. Discusses the role of the competitive market, integration, tolerance in education, the meaning of diversity and "the state," and the liberal purposes of education.…

  5. Build Cultural Proficiency to Ensure Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Delores B.; Lindsey, Randall B.

    2016-01-01

    Delores and Randall Lindsey approach the Outcomes standard through the lens of their cultural proficiency work to highlight the equity focus embedded in the standard. This excerpt from their essay in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Outcomes" dives into their cultural proficiency tools and framework and their…

  6. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  7. Equity and Difference in Centralized Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the promise of equity that underlies centralized evaluation policies and its relation to difference, or in other words to the singularity of the subject. I defend that without taking the issue of difference into consideration, there is no education, and that the unique subject is what is aspired by education. The analyses rely…

  8. Equity Effects of Entrepreneurial Community College Revenues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Grant, John L.

    2007-01-01

    This study conceptualizes entrepreneurial forms of community college revenues as undermining finance equity and examines their distribution through a single-state case study. The hypothesis that colleges serving wealthier communities will be more successful in obtaining revenues from performance funding and private fundraising is tested. Based on…

  9. Evaluation of the Gender Equity Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    In spring 1992, the College of the Canyons (CC) in Valencia, California, held three workshops for faculty and staff on the topics of gender equity and sexual harassment. A total of 60 faculty and staff attended the workshops, representing 19.3% of the college's employees. Women comprised 52 of the 60 participants. To help assess the current campus…

  10. Gender Equity in Rural Secondary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara N.; Newcomer, Saundra

    This study determined the practices of secondary teachers in classroom situations related to gender equity. Researchers investigated: 1) whether teacher behaviors perpetuated sex stereotypes; 2) whether teachers gave more attention to either gender; 3) levels of student participation; 4) opportunities for student participation; and 5) gender…

  11. Managing Salary Equity. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Posey, Ellen I.

    Technical considerations in the development of a salary equity model based upon regression analysis are reviewed, and a simplified salary prediction equation is examined. Application and communication of the results of the analysis within the existing operational context of a postsecondary institution are also addressed. The literature is…

  12. Gender Equity, Sport Sponsorship, and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiamouyiannis, Athena

    2009-01-01

    As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…

  13. The National Potential of Home Equity Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examined the potential effects of converting home equity into spendable income using "reverse mortgages." Analysis revealed that reverse mortgage loans could have a substantial impact on the budgets of many elderly homeowners, with impressive percentage increases in income and decreases in poverty rates. (Author/ABB)

  14. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  15. Gender Equity in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima

    2004-01-01

    This book critically evaluates the extent to which current early years policies, provision and practice promote and foster gender equity. It explores the rationale for the drive to employ more men in the early years field and examines the link made between "underachievement" in boys and the "feminine: nature of early years provision. It also looks…

  16. Unraveling the Professional Development School Equity Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    1999-01-01

    Examines major critiques from the literature on the Professional Development School (PDS) equity agenda and accomplishments, referencing works from literature on PDSs, diversity, urban education, and multicultural education. The paper focuses on issues related to poor or working-class learners in PDS settings and learners from non-European racial,…

  17. Federal Funds: Women's Educational Equity Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charlotte

    1977-01-01

    Model programs funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) and administered by the Office of Education Women's Program staff are intended to reach girls and women from low-income and middle-age groups those from American-Indian, Asian- and Pacific-American, black, and Spanish-speaking backgrounds, and those from rural, urban, and…

  18. The Investment Case for Education and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Annababette; Bonnet, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Education is in crisis worldwide. Millions of children, especially the most marginalized, are excluded from school. Many millions more attend school, but they do not learn basic reading and math skills. In addition, international funding for education is on the decline. "The Investment Case for Education and Equity" explains the global…

  19. Notes on Alternative Conceptions of Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges

    Five interpretations of equity are examined as they relate to the distribution of public goods and services. The first principle, utilitarianism, maintains that individuals are free to pursue their own interests and are rewarded according to contributions. The second principle, needs, is the basis of communist societies in which each gives…

  20. Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

    Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

  1. Health care and equity in India

    PubMed Central

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  2. If private equity sized up your business.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    As the dust settles on the recent frenzy of private equity deals (including transactions topping $20 billion), what lessons can companies glean? Directors and executives of public companies may now be slightly less fearful of imminent takeover, yet the pressure remains: They face shareholders who wonder why they aren't getting private-equity-level returns. Rather than dismiss the value private equity has created as manipulated or aberrant, public company leaders should recognize the disciplined management that often underlies it. Pozen, a longtime leader in the financial services industry, finds that in the aftermath of buyouts, companies undergo five major thrusts of reform. These translate into five key questions that directors should pose to senior management: Have we left too much cash on our balance sheet instead of raising our cash dividends or buying back shares? Do we have the optimal capital structure, with the lowest weighted after-tax cost of total capital, including debt and equity? Do we have an operating plan that will significantly increase shareholder value, with specific metrics to monitor performance? Are the compensation rewards for our top executives tied closely enough to increases in shareholder value, with real penalties for nonperformance? Finally, does our board have enough industry experts who have made the time commitments and been given the financial incentives necessary to maximize shareholder value? The era of private equity is far from over - the top funds have become very large and are likely to play an influential role in future market cycles. Boards that ask these questions, and act on them, won't just beat the takeover artists to the punch. They will build stronger businesses. PMID:18159788

  3. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  4. Igualdad y suficiencia en las finanzas de la educacion (Equity and Adequacy in Educational Finance). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish discusses efforts to achieve financial equity in education. It describes the extent of financial disparity and how, after 3 decades of litigation, such disparities among districts and among states remain high. In New Jersey alone, the per-pupil expenditures ranged from $5,900 to $11,950. Even with such inequities, some…

  5. Keeping Sex Equity Issues "In The News." A Collection of Brief Articles for Reprints in School Newsletters and Bulletins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing. Office for Sex Equity in Education.

    A collection of 16 brief articles are provided as possible reprints for newsletters and bulletins in school district working to achieve Title IX compliance and sex equity. Topics covered are: children's spare time, women in nontraditional jobs, changing work patterns, females and math, tots and toys, child care and working parents, tomboys, gifted…

  6. Recommendation for Center-Based Early Childhood Education to Promote Health Equity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends early childhood education programs based on strong evidence of effectiveness in improving educational outcomes associated with long-term health and sufficient evidence of effectiveness in improving social- and health-related outcomes. When provided to low-income or racial and ethnic minority communities, early childhood education programs are likely to reduce educational achievement gaps, improve the health of low-income student populations, and promote health equity. PMID:26672408

  7. Equity of access under Korean universal health insurance.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Moon

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which equity in the use of physician services has been achieved in the Republic of Korea. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed examining the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables and the relative importance of factors. The results indicate that a universal health insurance system has not yielded a fully equitable distribution of services. Access differences arise from coverage limitation, as well as urban/rural variations in the distributions of providers. The policy options for expansion of coverage should be encouraged to ease the financial burden of out-of-pocket payments on patients and to limit the range of noninsured services. Urban/rural variations in the distributions of providers are caused by the government's "laissez-faire" policy for the private medical sector. To solve this geographic misdistribution, the attention of policy makers is required, with changing of the government's "laissez-faire" policy. PMID:22652252

  8. Data Use--For Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda; Park, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    School leaders are often drowning in data but are unsure which forms of data will help them create a portrait of student achievement that will motivate staff to look beyond simple trends and delve deeper into root causes. Teachers often wish for more guidance on the kinds of data analysis and teaching strategies that will help them move the needle…

  9. Arkansas's Fight for Real Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Even as states made educational advances in recent years, they have often struggled to close achievement gaps between white students and students of color and between wealthier and poorer students. Arkansas is a state that has unquestionably made great strides in overall educational adequacy since the Arkansas Supreme Court made a stream of…

  10. Diversity and Equity in the Lab: Preparing Scientists and Engineers for Inclusive Teaching in Courses and Research Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, L.; Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Roybal, G.; Shaw, J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite high attrition rates in college-level science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, with even higher rates for women and underrepresented minorities, not enough attention has been given to higher education STEM classroom practices that may limit the retention of students from diverse backgrounds. The Professional Development Program (PDP) has developed a range of professional development activities aimed at helping participants learn about diversity and equity issues, integrate inclusive teaching strategies into their own instructional units, and reflect on their own teaching practices. In the PDP, all participants develop and teach a STEM laboratory activity that enables their students to practice scientific inquiry processes as they gain an understanding of scientific concepts. In addition, they are asked to consider diversity and equity issues in their activity design and teaching. The PDP supports participants in this challenging endeavor by engaging them in activities that are aligned with a PDP-defined Diversity & Equity Focus Area that includes five emphases: 1) Multiple ways to learn, communicate and succeed; 2) Learners' goals, interests, motivation, and values; 3) Beliefs and perceptions about ability to achieve; 4) Inclusive collaboration and equitable participation; 5) Social identification within STEM culture. We describe the PDP Diversity & Equity focus, the five emphases, and the supporting activities that have been designed and implemented within the PDP, as well as future directions for our diversity and equity efforts.

  11. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK

    PubMed Central

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions ‘stack up’, in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other ‘best investments for health equity’, Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the ‘healthier, fairer society’ referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for

  12. 77 FR 53209 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Home Equity Conversion... Proposal: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM) Insurance Application for the Origination of Reverse Mortgages (and Related Documents) and the Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology System...

  13. [Equity, gender, and health: challenges for action].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    The Governing Bodies of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have mandated that the Organization apply a gender perspective in all aspects of the Organization's activities and its technical cooperation in the area of health with the PAHO Member States. This article points out the need to eradicate unjust gender differences that affect the right and access to health care that is appropriate for women. The piece explains the differences between equity and equality and between gender and sex, and how gender equity should come about in the state of health, in health care, and in all people's efforts to engender health. It is hoped the piece will contribute to a better understanding of the situation, thus helping to eliminate inequities that are due to sex, socioeconomic factors, and the distribution of power. PMID:12162846

  14. Physician equity alliances: attractive alternatives to PHOs.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D

    1997-04-01

    Physician equity alliances are becoming attractive alternatives to PHOs as integrative models for partnering with physicians, securing managed care contracts and increasing revenue. Unlike many PHOs, these alliances provide mechanisms for asset integration and long-term relationships along with utilization management, sophisticated information systems, access to capital and opportunities for physicians to integrate clinically. There are six major types of physician equity alliances: majority physician-owned, clinic without walls, health system joint venture, publicly held physician practice management company, specialty network, and venture capital. The type of alliance that a physician group practice ultimately develops depends on vision, values, method of capitalization, initial organizer of the alliance, level of involvement of physicians in business issues, corporate structure desired, and characteristics of the managed care market in which the alliance will operate. PMID:10166285

  15. Achieving Gender Equity: A Basic Guide to Title IX and Gender Equity in Athletics for Colleges and Universities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Overland Park, KS.

    This guide is designed to help college athletic administrators obtain a basic and working knowledge of the Title IX Education Amendments of 1972 in order to ensure that athletics programs are in compliance with the law. Separate sections of the report cover: (1) Title IX basics, outlining the components of the amendment and offering examples of…

  16. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  17. Manage marketing by the customer equity test.

    PubMed

    Blattberg, R C; Deighton, J

    1996-01-01

    Managers have recently begun to think of good marketing as good conversation, as a process of drawing customers into progressively more satisfying relationships with a company. And just as the art of conversation follows two steps--first striking up a conversation with a likely partner and then maintaining the flow--so the new marketing naturally divides itself into the work of customer acquisition and the work of customer retention. But how can managers determine the optimal balance between spending on acquisition and spending on retention? Robert Blattberg and John Deighton use decision calculus to help managers answer that question. That is, they ask managers to approach the large, complex problem through several smaller, more manageable questions on the same topic. Then they use a formal model to turn those smaller judgments into an answer to the larger question. The ultimate goal, the authors say, is to grow the company's customer equity the sum of all the conversations-to its fullest potential. Recognizing that managers must constantly reassess the spending points determined by the decision-calculus model, the authors also provide a series of guidelines and suggestions to help frame the issues that affect acquisition, retention, and customer equity. When managers strive to grow customer equity rather than a brand's sales or profits, they put a primary indicator of the health of the business at the fore front of their strategic thinking: the quality of customer relationships. PMID:10158473

  18. Building brand equity and customer loyalty

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, G.

    1995-05-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are two different concepts, not merely two different phrases measuring a single consumer attitude. Utilities having identical customer satisfaction ratings based on performance in areas like power reliability, pricing, and quality of service differ dramatically in their levels of customer loyalty. As competitive markets establish themselves, discrepancies in customer loyalty will have profound impacts on each utility`s prospects for market retention, profitability, and ultimately, shareholder value. Meeting pre-existing consumer needs, wants and preferences is the foundation of any utility strategy for building customer loyalty and market retention. Utilities meet their underlying customer expectations by performing well in three discrete areas: product, customer service programs, and customer service transactions. Brand equity is an intervening variable standing between performance and the loyalty a utility desires. It is the totality of customer perceptions about the unique extra value the utility provides above and beyond its basic product, customer service programs and customer service transactions; it is the tangible, palpable reality of a branded utility that exists in the minds of consumers. By learning to manage their brand equity as well as they manage their brand performance, utilities gain control over all the major elements in the value-creation process that creates customer loyalty. By integrating brand performance and brand equity, electric utility companies can truly become in their customers` eyes a brand - a unique, very special, value-added energy services provider that can ask for and deserve a premium price in the marketplace.

  19. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  20. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  1. Annotated Bibliography on Equity in Health, 1980-2001

    PubMed Central

    Macinko, James A; Starfield, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of this bibliography are to present an overview of the published literature on equity in health and to summarize key articles relevant to the mission of the International Society for Equity in Health (ISEqH). The intent is to show the directions being taken in health equity research including theories, methods, and interventions to understand the genesis of inequities and their remediation. Therefore, the bibliography includes articles from the health equity literature that focus on mechanisms by which inequities in health arise and approaches to reducing them where and when they exist. PMID:12234390

  2. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  3. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  4. Looking twice at the gender equity index for public health impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been shown that gender equity has a positive impact on the everyday activities of people (decision making, income allocation, application and observance of norms/rules) which affect their health. Gender equity is also a crucial determinant of health inequalities at national level; thus, monitoring is important for surveillance of women’s and men’s health as well as for future health policy initiatives. The Gender Equity Index (GEI) was designed to show inequity solely towards women. Given that the value under scrutiny is equity, in this paper a modified version of the GEI is proposed, the MGEI, which highlights the inequities affecting both sexes. Methods Rather than calculating gender gaps by means of a quotient of proportions, gaps in the MGEI are expressed in absolute terms (differences in proportions). The Spearman’s rank coefficient, calculated from country rankings obtained according to both indexes, was used to evaluate the level of concordance between both classifications. To compare the degree of sensitivity and obtain the inequity by the two methods, the variation coefficient of the GEI and MGEI values was calculated. Results Country rankings according to GEI and MGEI values showed a high correlation (rank coef. = 0.95). The MGEI presented greater dispersion (43.8%) than the GEI (19.27%). Inequity towards men was identified in the education gap (rank coef. = 0.36) when using the MGEI. According to this method, many countries shared the same absolute value for education but with opposite signs, for example Azerbaijan (−0.022) and Belgium (0.022), reflecting inequity towards women and men, respectively. This also occurred in the empowerment gap with the technical and professional job component (Brunei:-0.120 vs. Australia, Canada Iceland and the U.S.A.: 0.120). Conclusion The MGEI identifies and highlights the different areas of inequities between gender groups. It thus overcomes the shortcomings of the GEI related to the

  5. Professional development for university scientists around issues of equity and diversity: Investigating dissent within community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Hilton-Brown, Bryan A.; Breton, Therese D.

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the role of dissent in a community of university scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and social scientists engaged in a 2-year professional development project around issues of equity and diversity. Members of this teacher learning community explored issues related to gender and ethnicity in science education, and attempted to develop course materials and instructional strategies inclusive of students from underrepresented groups. We focused our attention on those professional development sessions (6 of the 19) devoted to a contentious yet integral topic in science education: the gendered and multicultural nature of science. We examined conversations initiated by a member's concerns to learn how dissent led (or failed to lead) to new insights into feminist science studies scholarship or to greater understanding of ways to address equity issues in undergraduate science education. We also explored how teacher learners' resulting views of feminist science studies scholarship informed (or failed to inform) changes in their own educational practices. From our qualitative analyses, we highlight the challenges in balancing respect for members' individual voices with collective progress toward project goals, and in structuring conversations initiated by dissent to provide adequate space for deliberation and movement toward deeper understanding of equity and excellence.

  6. The Canada Pension Plan's experience with investing its portfolio in equities.

    PubMed

    Sarney, M; Preneta, A M

    For the past few years, the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) has been investing some of its assets in equities. Without changes, an imbalance between revenues and outlays would exhaust the CPP reserve fund by 2015. Creating an entity that was independent of government was one of several changes the federal and provincial governments enacted to achieve fuller funding. The governments created an independent Investment Board (the CPP Investment Board, or "CPPIB") to oversee the new investments. Because the plan already owned a large government bond portfolio, the CPPIB decided to invest new CPP funds in broad equity indices in March 1999. In 2000, the CPPIB began actively investing a portion of the CPP funds. Key features of that policy and some observations about its implementation include the following: In addition to investing CPP revenues in equities, reform also included contribution rate increases, benefit reductions, and a financing stabilizer. The new investment policy accounted for 25 percent of the total effect of all the reforms. It is premature to know if the investments will achieve their long-term performance objective. The new equity investments are projected by the Chief Actuary, in his most recent Actuarial Report, to earn a 4.5 percent real rate of return on Canadian equity and 5.0 percent real return on foreign equity for a blended real return of 4.65 percent based on an equity mix of 70 percent Canadian and 30 percent non-Canadian. However, it is too early to tell if the equity investments will achieve that goal over the long run. The Investment Board's mandate is to maximize returns. The Investment Board, which oversees the CPP's new investments, has broad discretion to pursue maximum returns on its assets without incurring undue risk of loss while keeping in mind the financial obligations and other assets of the CPP. Furthermore, it has developed into a professional investment organization staffed with private-sector experts in finance and investment

  7. Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Talih, Makram; Huang, David; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Beckles, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of health disparities and advancement of health equity in the United States require high-quality data indicative of where the nation stands vis-à-vis health equity, as well as proper analytic tools to facilitate accurate interpretation of these data. This article opens with an overview of health equity and social determinants of health. It then proposes a set of recommended practices in measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level to support the advancement of health equity, highlighting that (1) differences in health and its determinants that are associated with social position are important to assess; (2) social and structural determinants of health should be assessed and multiple levels of measurement should be considered; (3) the rationale for methodological choices made and measures chosen should be made explicit; (4) groups to be compared should be simultaneously classified by multiple social statuses; and (5) stakeholders and their communication needs can often be considered in the selection of analytic methods. Although much is understood about the role of social determinants of health in shaping the health of populations, researchers should continue to advance understanding of the pathways through which they operate on particular health outcomes. There is still much to learn and implement about how to measure health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level, and the challenges of health equity persist. We anticipate that the present discussion will contribute to the laying of a foundation for standard practice in the monitoring of national progress toward achievement of health equity. PMID:26599027

  8. Contribution of Targeted Subsidies Law to the Equity in Healthcare Financing in Iran: Exploring the Challenges of Policy Process

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Hamed; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Takian, Amirhossein; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) was implemented in 2010 with a platform of improving equity in the Iran’s society. One of the objectives of the TSL was improving equity in Healthcare Financing (HCF), but a significant change has not occurred since then. The aim of this study was to analyze the challenges of the TSL to equity in the HCF in Iran. Methods In this interpretive qualitative study, 31 policy makers and health system experts were interviewed face to face from September 2014 to June 2015. A purposeful and snowball sampling method was used to select participants. Also, a document analysis was conducted on upstream documents. Assisted by MAXQDA 10, recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on Framework Approach. Results Content analysis identified two themes and five sub-themes. Lack of justice in the healthcare system and lack of equity in the total socioeconomic structure of Iran were sub-themes identified as barriers to equity in HCF. Shortcomings in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the TSL were sub-themes identified as barriers in the policy process. The TSL did not achieve its intended objectives in the health sector because of the above-mentioned barriers, Conclusion The TSL, according to established goals, had no effect on the equity in HCF in Iran because of problems in the structure of the health system, socioeconomic status, and the policy process. To reach a more equitable HCF, it is advised that, when defining the related policies, various barriers be considered, such as those identified in our research. PMID:27053996

  9. Equity in adherence to antiretroviral therapy among economically vulnerable adolescents living with HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Laura Gauer; Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia; Mellins, Claude; McKay, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that children made vulnerable by poverty have been disproportionately affected by HIV with many exposed via mother-to-child transmission. For youth living with HIV, adherence to life-saving treatment regimens are likely to be affected by the complex set of economic and social circumstances that challenge their families and also exacerbate health problems. Using baseline data from the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) funded Suubi+Adherence study, we examined the extent to which individual and composite measures of equity predict self-reported adherence among Ugandan adolescents aged 10-16 (n = 702) living with HIV. Results showed that greater asset ownership, specifically familial possession of seven or more tangible assets, was associated with greater odds of self-reported adherence (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.85). Our analyses also indicated that distance to the nearest health clinic impacts youth's adherence to an ARV regimen. Youth who reported living nearest to a clinic were significantly more likely to report optimal adherence (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 0.92-2.40). Moreover, applying the composite equity scores, we found that adolescents with greater economic advantage in ownership of household assets, financial savings, and caregiver employment had higher odds of adherence by a factor of 1.70 (95% CI: 1.07-2.70). These findings suggest that interventions addressing economic and social inequities may be beneficial to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among economically vulnerable youth, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This is one of the first studies to address the question of equity in adherence to ART among economically vulnerable youth with HIV. PMID:27392003

  10. Equity in adherence to antiretroviral therapy among economically vulnerable adolescents living with HIV in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Laura Gauer; Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Nabunya, Proscovia; Mellins, Claude; McKay, Mary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that children made vulnerable by poverty have been disproportionately affected by HIV with many exposed via mother-to-child transmission. For youth living with HIV, adherence to life-saving treatment regimens are likely to be affected by the complex set of economic and social circumstances that challenge their families and also exacerbate health problems. Using baseline data from the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) funded Suubi+Adherence study, we examined the extent to which individual and composite measures of equity predict self-reported adherence among Ugandan adolescents aged 10–16 (n = 702) living with HIV. Results showed that greater asset ownership, specifically familial possession of seven or more tangible assets, was associated with greater odds of self-reported adherence (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00–2.85). Our analyses also indicated that distance to the nearest health clinic impacts youth’s adherence to an ARV regimen. Youth who reported living nearest to a clinic were significantly more likely to report optimal adherence (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 0.92–2.40). Moreover, applying the composite equity scores, we found that adolescents with greater economic advantage in ownership of household assets, financial savings, and caregiver employment had higher odds of adherence by a factor of 1.70 (95% CI: 1.07–2.70). These findings suggest that interventions addressing economic and social inequities may be beneficial to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among economically vulnerable youth, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This is one of the first studies to address the question of equity in adherence to ART among economically vulnerable youth with HIV. PMID:27392003

  11. Sex Equity, Single Parent, Displaced Homemaker, Single Pregnant Women Programs: Guidebook for Equity Accountability System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; Zhao, Peisheng

    As required by the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 (VATEA), a project was undertaken to develop an accountability system for New York State equity programs funded under sections 221 and 222 of the VATEA. This document profiles the resulting accountability system and serves as a guide for program staff…

  12. Sex Equity. Keeping the Drive Alive! A Guide to Promoting Sex Equity in Your School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Armenia

    This guide describes programs created by the Ysleta, Texas, Independent School District to promote sex equity in its high school programs. The programs described have been successful in leading both boys and girls to choose vocational education programs for jobs nontraditional for their sex. The guide describes the following five types of…

  13. ERIC and Equity: Using ERIC Products for Information and Publications Affirming Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Helen Rippier

    This guide to the Educational Resources Information Center system provides descriptions of ERIC products--i.e., the two indexes, Resources in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), and the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors--and illustrates their use with examples based on gender equity. Practice exercises using ERIC tools…

  14. Equity in Fine Arts: A Training Module. Equity in Education. The Alaska Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Curriculum Services.

    Alaska's sex equity law, which prohibits sex discrimination in public school education, was passed by the Alaska legislature in 1981. Regulations require school districts to establish the training of personnel in the recognition of sex bias, and in the use of techniques and materials that may be used to overcome the effects of sex bias. This…

  15. Confronting Equity Issues on Campus: Implementing the Equity Scorecard in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Estela Mara, Ed.; Malcom, Lindsey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How can it be that 50 years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act, our institutions of higher education have still not found ways of reducing the higher education gaps for racial and ethnic groups? That is the question that informs and animates the Equity Scorecard model of organizational change. It shifts institutions' focus from what…

  16. Toward Equity: An Action Manual for Women in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Karen

    Nearly 150 exemplary programs and policies at colleges and associations that promote sex equity in postsecondary education are described that are also adaptable to other settings. Thirteen short essays on the basics of change are also presented. The sex equity programs included those directed to students and staff, those designed to improve the…

  17. Equity and Access in the Workplace: A Feminist HRD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenziano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The issues of equity and access are becoming increasingly important as the workforce becomes diversified. As the number of minority groups in the ranks of organizations grows, there is a need to examine the issues related to equity and access from a perspective that strives for equality, e.g. feminist theory. This paper examines feminism's…

  18. 7 CFR 1773.43 - Capital and equity accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital and equity accounts. 1773.43 Section 1773.43... § 1773.43 Capital and equity accounts. (a) Capital stock. For privately owned companies, the workpapers... ledger control account; (2) Reviewed authorizations and issuances or redemptions of capital stock...

  19. Addressing Equity within Science Education Courses: Sharing Approaches and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Bryan, Lynn; Hammrich, Penny; Lynch, Sharon; McGinnis, Randy; Pyle, Eric

    A discussion session provided opportunities for individuals involved in science teacher education to exchange approaches and ideas on how equity issues in science teaching and learning are being addressed in science teacher education courses. Evaluative questions included: (1) What conceptions of equity in science education underpin individual…

  20. Gender Equity Model: High School Female Students and Technology Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Martha; Wark, Alan; Zimmerman, Sara

    A model for gender equity in a rural Appalachia school system is approaching its second year of implementation at the high school level. This model focuses on equity issues, student motivation, and nontraditional coursework. In addition, it addresses career awareness for females, including a strong emphasis on technology and the sciences. Specific…

  1. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627.2730 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a)...

  2. 77 FR 15089 - Equity and Excellence Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission Meeting AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education... up-coming meeting of the Equity and ] Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also...

  3. 77 FR 33203 - Equity and Excellence Commission, Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission, Meeting Cancellation AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington,...

  4. Equity for Targeted Populations in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Council on Vocational Technical Education, St. Paul.

    This report explores the extent to which equity in vocational programs is afforded targeted populations in Minnesota--the handicapped and disadvantaged, adults in need of training and retraining, single parents, displaced homemakers, incarcerated criminal offenders, and participants in sex equity programs. Following an introduction, section II…

  5. Three Dimensions of Equity of Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over equity of access to higher education are widespread, but there is significant disagreement over what should constitute a fair system. This article assesses diverse conceptualisations of equity and explores the ways in which they embody themselves in the policies of three systems, those of England, Brazil and Kenya. While showing…

  6. 47 CFR 65.301 - Cost of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of equity. 65.301 Section 65.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.301 Cost of equity....

  7. 47 CFR 65.301 - Cost of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of equity. 65.301 Section 65.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.301 Cost of equity....

  8. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1.809-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In...

  9. Health equity: evidence synthesis and knowledge translation methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the Rio Summit in 2011 on Social Determinants of Health, the global community recognized a pressing need to take action on reducing health inequities. This requires an improved evidence base on the effects of national and international policies on health inequities. Although systematic reviews are recognized as an important source for evidence-informed policy, they have been criticized for failing to assess effects on health equity. Methods This article summarizes guidance on both conducting systematic reviews with a focus on health equity and on methods to translate their findings to different audiences. This guidance was developed based on a series of methodology meetings, previous guidance, a recently developed reporting guideline for equity-focused systematic reviews (PRISMA-Equity 2012) and a systematic review of methods to assess health equity in systematic reviews. Results We make ten recommendations for conducting equity-focused systematic reviews; and five considerations for knowledge translation. Illustrative examples of equity-focused reviews are provided where these methods have been used. Conclusions Implementation of the recommendations in this article is one step toward monitoring the impact of national and international policies and programs on health equity, as recommended by the 2011 World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. PMID:23799964

  10. Do Professors Have Customer-Based Brand Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Jillapalli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This research endeavors to understand whether certain professors have customer-based brand equity (CBBE) in the minds of students. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to conceptualize, develop, and empirically test a model of customer-based professor brand equity. Survey data gathered from 465 undergraduate business students were used to…

  11. Policies for America's Public Schools: Teachers, Equity, and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron, Ed.; MacRae, Duncan, Ed.

    This book focuses on the education commission and its policy recommendations and provides an evaluation of policies on teachers and teaching, equity, and uses of educational testing to assess the effects of reform. The volume examines both equity and excellence in American education. After an introductory chapter providing an overview of the…

  12. A Perspective on the Continuing Struggle for Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax, Jean

    This publication contains a speech on the continuing struggle for equity in education for African Americans presented to the Southern Education Foundation (SEF) by Jean Fairfax when she received the John A. Griffin Award for Advancing Equity in Education. In the speech, Fairfax addressed disagreements within the black community over educational…

  13. Equity/Equality Issues of Gender, Race, and Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Critiquing two "Handbook" chapters on gender and race, this article observes that equity concerns have given way to concerns with quality and excellence. Both chapters explore reasons behind lack of equity (for poor students of color and women in school administration) and criticize "liberal" solutions to social problems. (Contains 55 references.)…

  14. Foregrounding Issues of Equity and Diversity in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the leadership practices within one secondary school in Queensland, Australia that uses equity as a central philosophy. Drawing on specific elements of productive leadership as defined by Hayes et al., the article draws attention to how the school's common equity agenda, its supportive social relations, and its dispersed…

  15. Equity Pedagogy: An Essential Component of Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Cherry A. McGee; Banks, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Equity pedagogy involves teaching strategies and environments that help diverse students attain necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes for functioning effectively within a just, democratic society. The article examines how equity pedagogy interacts with other dimensions of multicultural education (content integration, knowledge construction…

  16. Engaging Education: Developing Emotional Literacy, Equity and Coeducation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book to link the issues of emotional literacy, equity and social justice, and the education of the whole child, thus providing the social and political context for emotional literacy. In connecting emotional literacy and equity with the structure of schooling, it establishes that co-educational schools can contribute to enabling…

  17. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  18. Access to Education and Equity in Plural Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiztegui-Onate, Concepcion; Santibanez-Gruber, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of school systems which, under the assumption of formal equality, do not correct, but rather legitimate, social differences, has a long tradition in educational research. This topic has been broadened and enriched through the discourse of equity. In effect, equity in education pivots on redistribution proportional to the needs of…

  19. Restructuring Schooling: The Equity Infrastructure. Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    Ways in which restructuring approaches to school improvement are likely to promote advances in educational equity are discussed in this paper. The first sections briefly define restructuring and equity and examine three ethics that drive efforts to make schools more equitable: competitive/utilitarian, social justice, and caring ethics. A…

  20. 7 CFR 1773.43 - Capital and equity accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proper approvals by the board of directors, stockholders, and regulatory commissions; (3) Determined that... earnings, margins, and other equities. The workpapers must include an analysis of the patronage capital, retained earnings, margins and other equities, and any related reserve accounts. Based upon the...

  1. Home Equity Conversion for the Elderly: An Analysis for Lenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrobe, Maurice

    This report was prepared to explain home equity conversion (HEC), a means whereby elderly persons can convert the wealth represented by homeownership into a flow of income. It focuses exclusively on arrangements that convert residential equity into discretionary cash. The introduction reviews the recent history of HEC in the United States. A…

  2. The Economics of Independent Living: Efficiency, Equity and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, E.; Kennelly, B.

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of efficiency and equity in the context of independent living programs for people with disabilities. Conflicts in costs and trade-offs in various scenarios of the efficiency/equity equation are examined in terms of theories of utilitarianism, contractarianism, justice and mutual advantage, and justice as…

  3. 12 CFR 1026.40 - Requirements for home equity plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for home equity plans. 1026.40...) Special Rules for Certain Home Mortgage Transactions § 1026.40 Requirements for home equity plans. The...) Duties of third parties. Persons other than the creditor who provide applications to consumers for...

  4. Pay Equity for the Library Profession: An Employer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidmaier, Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Pay equity, as a concept and outcome, is significant for libraries and librarians because it demonstrates the value of the library and information profession, and the significance of the work undertaken by librarians and allied professionals. The State Library's involvement in the NSW Pay Equity Case and precursor investigations into the worth of…

  5. Gender Equity Issues in Education: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Thomas D.; And Others

    This paper addressed: (1) gender equity issues in a major Canadian urban school district; and (2) made gender comparisons relating to seven specific equity measures associated with teachers who were hired from September 1982 to June 1993. The comparisons were made over an 11 year period and included consistency of work, frequency of leaves from…

  6. Equity in Health Care Financing in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Evidence from Studies Using Benefit and Financing Incidence Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health financing reforms in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) over the past decades have focused on achieving equity in financing of health care delivery through universal health coverage. Benefit and financing incidence analyses are two analytical methods for comprehensively evaluating how well health systems perform on these objectives. This systematic review assesses progress towards equity in health care financing in LMICs through the use of BIA and FIA. Methods and Findings Key electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Global Health, CinAHL, EconLit and Business Source Premier were searched. We also searched the grey literature, specifically websites of leading organizations supporting health care in LMICs. Only studies using benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and/or financing incidence analysis (FIA) as explicit methodology were included. A total of 512 records were obtained from the various sources. The full texts of 87 references were assessed against the selection criteria and 24 were judged appropriate for inclusion. Twelve of the 24 studies originated from sub-Saharan Africa, nine from the Asia-Pacific region, two from Latin America and one from the Middle East. The evidence points to a pro-rich distribution of total health care benefits and progressive financing in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the majority of cases, the distribution of benefits at the primary health care level favoured the poor while hospital level services benefit the better-off. A few Asian countries, namely Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, maintained a pro-poor distribution of health care benefits and progressive financing. Conclusion Studies evaluated in this systematic review indicate that health care financing in LMICs benefits the rich more than the poor but the burden of financing also falls more on the rich. There is some evidence that primary health care is pro-poor suggesting a greater investment in such services and removal

  7. How Can the Expansion of the Apprenticeship System in India Create Conditions for Greater Equity and Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Kemmis, Ros Brennan; Comyn, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on aspects of a recent project carried out for the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Bank, which was designed to feed into the process of updating and expanding India's apprenticeship system. The apprenticeship system in India is extremely small for the country's population, even taking into account…

  8. Advocacy for Health Equity: A Synthesis Review

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Linden; Marinetti, Claudia; Cavaco, Yoline Kuipers; Costongs, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Context Health inequalities are systematic differences in health among social groups that are caused by unequal exposure to—and distributions of—the social determinants of health (SDH). They are persistent between and within countries despite action to reduce them. Advocacy is a means of promoting policies that improve health equity, but the literature on how to do so effectively is dispersed. The aim of this review is to synthesize the evidence in the academic and gray literature and to provide a body of knowledge for advocates to draw on to inform their efforts. Methods This article is a systematic review of the academic literature and a fixed-length systematic search of the gray literature. After applying our inclusion criteria, we analyzed our findings according to our predefined dimensions of advocacy for health equity. Last, we synthesized our findings and made a critical appraisal of the literature. Findings The policy world is complex, and scientific evidence is unlikely to be conclusive in making decisions. Timely qualitative, interdisciplinary, and mixed-methods research may be valuable in advocacy efforts. The potential impact of evidence can be increased by “packaging” it as part of knowledge transfer and translation. Increased contact between researchers and policymakers could improve the uptake of research in policy processes. Researchers can play a role in advocacy efforts, although health professionals and disadvantaged people, who have direct contact with or experience of hardship, can be particularly persuasive in advocacy efforts. Different types of advocacy messages can accompany evidence, but messages should be tailored to advocacy target. Several barriers hamper advocacy efforts. The most frequently cited in the academic literature are the current political and economic zeitgeist and related public opinion, which tend to blame disadvantaged people for their ill health, even though biomedical approaches to health and political short

  9. From Division to Vision: Achievement Climbs at a Reservation School High in the Rocky Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee

    2002-01-01

    In response to Salish and Kootenai tribal demands for educational equity, a Montana school district chose a reform model based on cooperative learning strategies, which fits American Indian learning styles, and switched from tolerating to celebrating American Indian culture. Academic achievement has risen in all subjects, and the achievement gap…

  10. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership. PMID:14717573

  11. Programming Equity into Computer Education: Today's Guide to the Schools of the Future. A PEER Computer Equity Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-McCormick, Lynda; And Others

    An advocacy packet on educational equity in computer education consists of five separate materials. A booklet entitled "Today's Guide to the Schools of the Future" contains four sections. The first section, a computer equity assessment guide, includes interview questions about school policies and allocation of resources, student and teacher…

  12. Priorities for research to take forward the health equity policy agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Ostlin, Piroska; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Despite impressive improvements in aggregate indicators of health globally over the past few decades, health inequities between and within countries have persisted, and in many regions and countries are widening. Our recommendations regarding research priorities for health equity are based on an assessment of what information is required to gain an understanding of how to make substantial reductions in health inequities. We recommend that highest priority be given to research in five general areas: (1) global factors and processes that affect health equity and/or constrain what countries can do to address health inequities within their own borders; (2) societal and political structures and relationships that differentially affect people's chances of being healthy within a given society; (3) interrelationships between factors at the individual level and within the social context that increase or decrease the likelihood of achieving and maintaining good health; (4) characteristics of the health care system that influence health equity and (5) effective policy interventions to reduce health inequity in the first four areas. PMID:16462988

  13. Incorporating intersectionality into psychology: An opportunity to promote social justice and equity.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    Intersectionality is receiving increasing attention in many fields, including psychology. This theory or framework has its roots in the work of Black feminist scholar-activists, and it focuses on interlocking systems of oppression and the need to work toward structural-level changes to promote social justice and equity. Thus, the current interest in intersectionality in psychology presents an opportunity to draw psychologists' attention more to structural-level issues and to make social justice and equity more central agendas to the field. The large, ever-growing bodies of research demonstrating the wide-ranging adverse consequences of structural- and interpersonal-level oppression, inequality, and stigma for the health and well-being of many diverse groups of people support that these issues are central to the field of psychology. We as individual psychologists and the field as a whole can work to fully incorporate the insights of intersectionality and therefore contribute to making social justice and equity more central across the varied subfields and realms of our work. Specific ways that we can do this are to (a) engage and collaborate with communities, (b) address and critique societal structures, (c) work together/build coalitions, (d) attend to resistance in addition to resilience, and (e) teach social justice curricula. There are important examples both within and outside of psychology that can guide us in achieving these goals. These suggestions are meant to foster conversation and consideration by psychologists across all subfields and areas of focus. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571527

  14. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion. PMID:26812416

  15. Patient choice and equity in the British National Health Service: towards developing an alternative framework.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2010-09-01

    Choice and competition have been phased into many public health systems with the aim of achieving various and potentially exclusive goals such as improving efficiency, quality and responsiveness to users' needs. Yet their use to promote equity of access as evidenced recently in the British National Health Service (the NHS) is unprecedented. Giving users the power of exit over unresponsive providers is meant to address the failures of previous policies. This paper shows that there is a potential conflict between choice and equity, in terms of both the values and the outcomes each policy is likely to produce. Using a multidisciplinary and multidimensional framework, drawn from Bourdieusian sociology, feminist theory and economics, the study highlights the implications of the simplistic and one-sided conception of individual patient choice in relation to equity. It also uses the existing evidence on the impact of market competition and choice, in the UK and elsewhere, to emphasise the importance of socio-economic and psycho-social factors, which are left out of current policy considerations. PMID:20553424

  16. Straight A's: Accountability, Assessment, Achievement. A Handbook for School Board Members. NSBA Leadership Reports, 1991-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Kristen J.; Richardson, Craig

    Aimed at school board members, this publication discusses the critical importance of developing an accountability system for a school district. The first chapter advises board members to balance their spending and resource allocations between equity and effectiveness. The option of greater regulatory flexibility mandates greater board…

  17. The power of brand equity: Exploiting a singular incumbent advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Almquist, E.; Piotroski, S.A.

    1999-03-01

    The US utility ``brandscape`` resembles feudal Europe: There are numerous adjacent fiefdoms where the brand equity within each falls off precipitously outside territory borders. Those who want to ``go national`` face a protracted, expensive task dislodging local incumbents. With the onset of competition in retail electric power markets, America`s last great deregulation is well under way. Customers are pressing their suppliers to reduce energy bills by opening markets to competition. Deregulation of power generation, which has moved quickly in recent years throughout North America and Europe, is eroding the traditional pillars of value: franchise protection, cost-based pricing, and rate-of-return regulation. The stakes are high for incumbent utilities, given that electric sales in the United States alone total more than $200 billion, greater than sales in telecommunications, air transportation, or railroads. Add in natural gas ($5 billion or so) and related energy products and services, and it is clear why upstart entrepreneurs and outsider firms are attracted to the opportunities opened up by deregulation.

  18. Equity in health care access to: assessing the urban health insurance reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health

  19. 42 CFR 413.157 - Return on equity capital of proprietary providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computing the allowable return, the provider's equity capital means— (i) The provider's investment in plant... equity capital. In computing the amount of equity capital upon which a return is allowable, investment in... computing the allowable return, the amount of equity capital is the average investment during the...

  20. 42 CFR 413.157 - Return on equity capital of proprietary providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... computing the allowable return, the provider's equity capital means— (i) The provider's investment in plant... equity capital. In computing the amount of equity capital upon which a return is allowable, investment in... computing the allowable return, the amount of equity capital is the average investment during the...

  1. 20 CFR 408.914 - When would overpayment recovery be against equity and good conscience?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... equity and good conscience? 408.914 Section 408.914 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Svb Overpayments § 408.914 When would overpayment recovery be against equity and good conscience? We... would be against equity and good conscience. Recovery would be against equity and good conscience if...

  2. 20 CFR 408.914 - When would overpayment recovery be against equity and good conscience?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equity and good conscience? 408.914 Section 408.914 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Svb Overpayments § 408.914 When would overpayment recovery be against equity and good conscience? We... would be against equity and good conscience. Recovery would be against equity and good conscience if...

  3. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area. PMID:12162840

  4. [Social equity in the health domain].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J

    1990-01-01

    In the European debate on equity in health and health care a crucial question has received scant consideration. It concerns the precise specification of a health system's objectives and the manner by which they can be suitably interpreted to permit monitoring of implemented policies. This article is an attempt to review actual and potential contributions to this area of study. It adopts the view that the meaning of equity in the health domain depends crucially on how social justice is defined and that this in turn depends on value judgements or the views of society held by individuals, groups or governments. Such an approach allows one to choose principles of distribution which are in agreement with a society's value set and subsequently to apply them as the correct yardstick for measuring the success of policy. Following an initial exposition of the approach, the main body of the article discusses the question of competing theories of society - Libertarian, Liberal and Democratic Socialist - and appraises the various distribution principles, to be found in the economic and philosophical literature, which they imply. The final section offers some brief conclusions and avenues for further research. PMID:15962156

  5. Topological structures in the equities market network

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Pauls, Scott; Rockmore, Daniel; Savell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for articulating scale-dependent topological descriptions of the network structure inherent in many complex systems. The technique is based on “partition decoupled null models,” a new class of null models that incorporate the interaction of clustered partitions into a random model and generalize the Gaussian ensemble. As an application, we analyze a correlation matrix derived from 4 years of close prices of equities in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ). In this example, we expose (i) a natural structure composed of 2 interacting partitions of the market that both agrees with and generalizes standard notions of scale (e.g., sector and industry) and (ii) structure in the first partition that is a topological manifestation of a well-known pattern of capital flow called “sector rotation.” Our approach gives rise to a natural form of multiresolution analysis of the underlying time series that naturally decomposes the basic data in terms of the effects of the different scales at which it clusters. We support our conclusions and show the robustness of the technique with a successful analysis on a simulated network with an embedded topological structure. The equities market is a prototypical complex system, and we expect that our approach will be of use in understanding a broad class of complex systems in which correlation structures are resident.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  7. Viewing the Kenyan health system through an equity lens: implications for universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Equity and universal coverage currently dominate policy debates worldwide. Health financing approaches are central to universal coverage. The way funds are collected, pooled, and used to purchase or provide services should be carefully considered to ensure that population needs are addressed under a universal health system. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health financing system meets the key requirements for universal coverage, including income and risk cross-subsidisation. Recommendations on how to address existing equity challenges and progress towards universal coverage are made. Methods An extensive review of published and gray literature was conducted to identify the sources of health care funds in Kenya. Documents were mainly sourced from the Ministry of Medical Services and the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. Country level documents were the main sources of data. In cases where data were not available at the country level, they were sought from the World Health Organisation website. Each financing mechanism was analysed in respect to key functions namely, revenue generation, pooling and purchasing. Results The Kenyan health sector relies heavily on out-of-pocket payments. Government funds are mainly allocated through historical incremental approach. The sector is largely underfunded and health care contributions are regressive (i.e. the poor contribute a larger proportion of their income to health care than the rich). Health financing in Kenya is fragmented and there is very limited risk and income cross-subsidisation. The country has made little progress towards achieving international benchmarks including the Abuja target of allocating 15% of government's budget to the health sector. Conclusions The Kenyan health system is highly inequitable and policies aimed at promoting equity and addressing the needs of the poor and vulnerable have not been successful. Some progress has been made towards

  8. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  9. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  10. Assessing Equity beyond Knowledge- and Skills-Based Outcomes: A Comparative Ethnography of Two Fourth-Grade Reform-Based Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Haun-Frank, Julie; Webb, Angela

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating equity, researchers often look at the "achievement gap." Privileging knowledge and skills as primary outcomes of science education misses other, more subtle, but critical, outcomes indexing inequitable science education. In this comparative ethnography, we examined what it meant to "be scientific" in two fourth-grade classes taught…

  11. Ohio Students Speak Out on Equity Issues. Ohio Vocational Sex Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity Issues, 1998

    1998-01-01

    During fiscal year 1998, 7 of Ohio's 12 school-to-work regions conducted a needs assessment on equity issues within their regions. The survey instruments were completed by 6,173 students in grades 9-12 (3,316 girls and 2,857 boys). The survey focused on the economics of gender and work, nontraditional careers, and gender and career choices. Only…

  12. Equity in the finance of health care: some further international comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A; van Doorslaer, E; van der Burg, H; Calonge, S; Christiansen, T; Citoni, G; Gerdtham, U G; Gerfin, M; Gross, L; Häkinnen, U; Johnson, P; John, J; Klavus, J; Lachaud, C; Lauritsen, J; Leu, R; Nolan, B; Perán, E; Pereira, J; Propper, C; Puffer, F; Rochaix, L; Rodríguez, M; Schellhorn, M; Winkelhake, O

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents further international comparisons of progressivity of health care financing systems. The paper builds on the work of Wagstaff et al. [Wagstaff, A., van Doorslaer E., et al., 1992. Equity in the finance of health care: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 11, pp. 361-387] but extends it in a number of directions: we modify the methodology used there and achieve a higher degree of cross-country comparability in variable definitions; we update and extend the cross-section of countries; and we present evidence on trends in financing mixes and progressivity. PMID:10537896

  13. Reconstitution of the not-for-profit hospital: new ethics, new equity.

    PubMed

    Swett, J N

    1985-01-01

    In meeting the challenge of economic competition, the not-for-profit hospital has made two significant responses: corporate reorganization and formation of multihospital systems. However, an additional response is needed to improve access to equity capital. This can be achieved by separating the hospital into a not-for-profit entity that contains nursing care, administration, and support services and a series of economic partnerships with members of its medical staff and other investors for provision of ancillary diagnostic and treatment services. Additionally, it is proposed that the parent holding company add an insurance arm, form a primary care network, and vertically integrate all modalities of care. PMID:10271467

  14. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  15. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart disease tends to develop earlier than ... About one in nine men will suffer a cardiac arrest before the age of 70, compared to about ...

  16. [Health policy and practice towards equity].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renilson Rehem

    2007-12-01

    The article discusses the concepts of equality and equity in the health area in Brazilian scenario, which means under the Unified Health System (UHS). The author shows the principles of UHS, emphasizing the principles of Universality and Integrality. Also reviews briefly the history of UHS and its construction process. It shows singularity of present issues such as technological advances and its consequences to the quality of health attention, both reflecting to the costs of the health care. It analyses some advances that were possible in Brazilian health attention and especially in São Paulo State. In conclusion, he explains a brief analyze about UHS news challenges: the increasing of accessibility to the health services, increasing of needs and the limited resources. PMID:20608374

  17. Do Left or Right Brain Training Exercises Have the Greater Effect upon College Calculus Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    Research supports the premise that various mathematical topics can be categorized as being performed better by the left or right brain hemisphere. This study examined the effect of left and right brain hemispheric lateralization exercises upon course grades in two sections of Analysis I (beginning calculus for mathematics/science majors) at a…

  18. Identification and Analysis of the Alternatives for Achieving Greater Television Program Diversity in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, John A., Jr.; And Others

    Several alternatives to the present television industry structure are considered in this study. They are: continuation of present policies, satellite-to-home broadcasting, and cable distribution of television. Trends noted are: the growth of commercial UHF (Ultra High Frequency) stations, the introduction of all-channel sets, population growth,…

  19. Achieving greater consistency in telehealth project evaluations to improve organisational learning.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Anthony; Gray, Kathleen; Borda, Ann; Poultney, Nathan; Basilakis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Telehealth pilot projects and trial implementations are numerous but are often not fully evaluated, preventing construction of a sound evidence base and so limiting their adoption. We describe the need for a generic Telehealth project evaluation framework, within which evaluation is undertaken based on existing health systems performance indicators, using appropriately chosen measures. We provide two case studies explaining how this approach could be applied, in Australian and Canadian settings. It is argued that this framework type of approach to evaluation offers better potential for incorporating the learnings from resultant evaluations into business decisions by "learning organisations", through alignment with organisational performance considerations. PMID:25980709

  20. Public health equity in refugee situations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions. PMID:21575218

  1. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part VIII--Stockholders' Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This eighth installment in the series on accounting theory pertains to stockholders' equity and its related conceptual, measurement and ethical issues. Coverage includes the associated theoretical, empirical, and popular literature. (Contains 5 footnotes.)

  2. What have health care reforms achieved in Turkey? An appraisal of the "Health Transformation Programme".

    PubMed

    Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Çakar, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Poor health status indicators, low quality care, inequity in the access to health services and inefficiency due to fragmented health financing and provision have long been problems in Turkey's health system. To address these problems a radical reform process known as the Health Transformation Programme (HTP) was initiated in 2003. The health sector reforms in Turkey are considered to have been among the most successful of middle-income countries undergoing reform. Numerous articles have been published that review these reforms in terms of, variously, financial sustainability, efficiency, equity and quality. Evidence suggests that Turkey has indeed made significant progress, yet these achievements are uneven among its regions, and their long-term financial sustainability is unresolved due to structural problems in employment. As yet, there is no comprehensive evidence-based analysis of how far the stated reform objectives have been achieved. This article reviews the empirical evidence regarding the outcomes of the HTP during 10 years of its implementation. Strengthening the strategic purchasing function of the Social Security Institution (SSI) should be a priority. Overall performance can be improved by linking resource allocation to provider performance. More emphasis on prevention rather than treatment, with an effective referral chain, can also bring better outcomes, greater efficiency gains and contribute to sustainability. PMID:26183890

  3. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  4. The quest for equity in Latin America: a comparative analysis of the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Brazil and Colombia have pursued extensive reforms of their health care systems in the last couple of decades. The purported goals of such reforms were to improve access, increase efficiency and reduce health inequities. Notwithstanding their common goals, each country sought a very different pathway to achieve them. While Brazil attempted to reestablish a greater level of State control through a public national health system, Colombia embraced market competition under an employer-based social insurance scheme. This work thus aims to shed some light onto why they pursued divergent strategies and what that has meant in terms of health outcomes. Methods A critical review of the literature concerning equity frameworks, as well as the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia was conducted. Then, the shortfall inequality values of crude mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and life expectancy for the period 1960-2005 were calculated for both countries. Subsequently, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed and controlled for possibly confounding factors. Results When controlling for the underlying historical time trend, both countries appear to have experienced a deceleration of the pace of improvements in the years following the reforms, for all the variables analyzed. In the case of Colombia, some of the previous gains in under-five mortality rate and crude mortality rate were, in fact, reversed. Conclusions Neither reform seems to have had a decisive positive impact on the health outcomes analyzed for the defined time period of this research. This, in turn, may be a consequence of both internal characteristics of the respective reforms and external factors beyond the direct control of health reformers. Among the internal characteristics: underfunding, unbridled decentralization and inequitable access to care seem to have been the main constraints. Conversely, international economic adversities

  5. Interregional sharing of energy conservation targets in China: Efficiency and equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dan

    implications differ across the applications of various equity criteria. However, for the energy production-based sovereignty and egalitarian equity criteria, the poorest region (in terms of per capita gross regional product) can enjoy net profits from trading, while the clustered region of wealthy coastal provinces shoulders the highest cost. This indicates that a conservation-quota trading system applying these two equity criteria is consistent with the national strategy in China to reduce regional income disparities and to develop the interior and western less-developed regions of the country. Third, compared with trading among conventional regions, trading among statistically clustered regions can more sharply apply the equity criteria to burden sharing and utilize larger differences in marginal conservation costs between regions to achieve a lower total net cost for the country as a whole. In sum, this research develops a useful methodology and identifies an operational way to attain energy conservation targets in China. It offers insights for similar interregional burden-sharing or benefit-sharing policies for China in the future, such as greenhouse gas emission trading, which is closely related to the energy conservation issue.

  6. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  7. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  8. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  9. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  10. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  11. Signal phase switches offer greater dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit, placed in the signal path of a closed-loop receiver to modulate telemetered data in the 10-MHz spectrum, improves signal-to-noise ratio by 3 db in a communication receiver. The switch enables bandwidth reduction which reduces noise overload on the following stages, giving the system greater dynamic range.

  12. Value acceleration: lessons from private-equity masters.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Paul; Holland, Tom; Haas, Dan

    2002-06-01

    The most successful private-equity firms regularly spearhead dramatic business transformations, creating exceptional returns for their investors. To understand how those firms do it, the authors studied more than 2,000 PE transactions over the past ten years and discovered that the top performers' success stems from the rigor with which they manage their businesses. This article describes the four management disciplines vital to the success of the best PE firms. First, for each business, they define an investment thesis: a brief, clear statement of how to make the business more valuable within three to five years. The thesis, which guides all actions by the company, usually focuses on growth. PE firms know that the demonstration of a path to strong growth produces the big returns on investment. Second, they don't measure too much. They zero in on a few financial indicators that most clearly reveal the business's progress in increasing its value. They watch cash more closely than earnings and tailor performance measures to each business, rather than imposing one set of measures across their entire portfolio. Third, they work their balance sheets, mining undervalued assets, turning fixed assets into sources of financing, and aggressively managing their physical capital. Last, they make the center the shareholder. Corporate staffs in PE firms make unsentimental investment decisions, buying and selling businesses when the price is right and bringing in new management when performance falters. These firms also keep their corporate centers extremely lean. By adopting these four disciplines, executives at public companies should be able to reap significantly greater returns from their own business units. PMID:12048998

  13. Universal Health Insurance in India: Ensuring Equity, Efficiency, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  14. Universal health insurance in India: ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  15. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  16. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  17. Greater sadness reactivity in late life

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Benjamin H.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Whalen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age. PMID:20650943

  18. Meeting the Curricular Needs of Academically Low-Achieving Students in Middle Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John; Brown, Cyrus

    2006-01-01

    An important component of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards is the equity principle: All students should have access to a coherent, challenging mathematics curriculum. Many in the mathematics reform community have maintained that this principle can be achieved through one well-designed curriculum. However, the extant…

  19. What's the Point of Moderation? A Discussion of the Purposes Achieved through Contemporary Moderation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Hughes, Clair; Adie, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    An increasingly regulated higher education sector is renewing its attention to those activities referred to as "moderation" in its efforts to ensure that judgements of student achievement are based on appropriate standards. Moderation practices conducted throughout the assessment process can result in purposes identified as equity,…

  20. Promoting Academic Achievement among English Learners: A Guide to the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Claude; Coleman, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    A generation or two ago, the achievement of children who came to school knowing little or no English was not a prominent national issue. Today, with the increased focus on school accountability and educational equity, it is. This comprehensive resource explores the research on promoting academic success among language-minority students. The…

  1. School and Community Wellness: Transforming Achievement Using a Holistic Orientation to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Rick; Beck, Ellen; Alvarado, Jose Luis; Pang, Valerie Ooka

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive school and community wellness plan was developed and implemented to transform "Lemon Grove Academy" for the Sciences and Humanities, an urban school, where student achievement and faculty satisfaction has soared. The school has become the center for the local neighborhood where culture, language, and equity are valued.…

  2. Cooperative Learning in the Untracked Middle School Science Classroom: A Study of Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, Julie; And Others

    In recent years, science educators have struggled with the dual challenge of equity and excellence, of providing all students access to a quality science education, and ensuring each student achieves an understanding of scientific concepts and processes. The Program for Complex Instruction, a model of group work, addresses this dual challenge by…

  3. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  4. Genomic landscape of the Greater Middle East.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Tayfun; Onat, Onur Emre

    2016-08-30

    Study of the Greater Middle East (GME), home to approximately 10% of the world's population, has made invaluable contributions to the characterization of rare genetic disease, especially recessive conditions arising from the tradition of consanguinity and large families with multiple children. A new study now reports 1,111 unrelated exomes from the GME and provides a comprehensive view of genetic variation for enhanced discovery of disease-associated genes. PMID:27573686

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  6. Myopes experience greater contrast adaptation during reading.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Colm; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina; Engel, Stephen A; Mallen, Edward A H; Allen, Peter M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether reading influences contrast adaptation differently in young adult emmetropic and myopic participants at the spatial frequencies created by text rows and character strokes. Pre-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured for test gratings with spatial frequencies of 1cdeg(-1) and 4cdeg(-1), presented horizontally and vertically. Participants then adapted to reading text corresponding to the horizontal "row frequency" of text (1cdeg(-1)), and vertical "stroke frequency" of the characters (4cdeg(-1)) for 180s. Following this, post-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured. Twenty young adults (10 myopes, 10 emmetropes) optimally corrected for the viewing distance participated. There was a significant reduction in logCS post-text adaptation (relative to pre-adaptation logCS) at the row frequency (1cdeg(-1) horizontal) but not at the stroke frequency (4cdeg(-1) vertical). logCS changes due to adaptation at 1cdeg(-1) horizontal were significant in both emmetropes and myopes. Comparing the two refractive groups, myopic participants showed significantly greater adaptation compared to emmetropic participants. Reading text on a screen induces contrast adaptation in young adult observers. Myopic participants were found to exhibit greater contrast adaptation than emmetropes at the spatial frequency corresponding to the text row frequency. No contrast adaptation was observed at the text stroke frequency in either participant group. The greater contrast adaptation experienced by myopes after reading warrants further investigation to better understand the relationship between near work and myopia development. PMID:26804636

  7. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  8. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy. PMID:21496297

  9. Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marilyn; Hancock, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    In this commentary the urban setting is explored from the perspective of ecological sustainability and social equity. Urban-related issues are highlighted related to social inequality, deficits in urban infrastructures, behavior-related illnesses and risks, global ecological changes, and urban sprawl. Approaches to addressing these issues are described from the perspective of urban governance, urban planning and design, social determinants of health, health promotion, and personal and community empowerment. Examples of successful strategies are provided from Latin America, including using participatory instruments (assessments, evaluation, participatory budgeting, etc.), establishing intersectoral committees, increasing participation of civil society organizations, and developing virtual forums and networks to channel participatory and collaborative processes. A way forward is proposed, using the urban setting to show the imperative of creating intersectoral policies and programs that produce environments that are both healthy and sustainable. It will be important to include new forms of social participation and use social media to facilitate citizen decision-making and active participation of all sectors of society, especially excluded groups. PMID:27199023

  10. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations. PMID:27029539

  11. Equity of the Medicaid Program to the Poor Versus Taxpayers

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Jerry; Adamache, Killard W.; Ammering, Carol; Bartosch, William J.; Boulis, Ann

    1995-01-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed explosive growth in State Medicaid programs. This article demonstrates the equalizing impacts of greater spending and recent Federal mandates on the health care coverage of the poor. Large inequalities in generosity still remain, however. Inequalities in taxpayer burdens are also documented, and simulations of alternative Federal sharing algorithms show significant changes that would be required to achieve a more equitable distribution of the program's financial burden. PMID:10142582

  12. [Social and population policy. Considerations on efficiency and equity].

    PubMed

    Gomez De Leon Cruces, J

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that modern governments have a series of obligations and responsibilities to their citizens, and that the modern state should institutionalize its responses to social demands of its citizens in its social policy. Social policy should assure the production of public goods, defined as goods available to all society and distributed equally to all members, whose consumption does not deprive any other individual of similar consumption. Private goods by contrast are those whose benefits are consumed by an individual without providing any benefit to others. Many goods fall between the 2 categories and share characteristics of each. The state should finance and subsidize goods that generate social benefits and should establish rules of operation for the private sector. 2 goals of government participation are that it be efficient and just. Efficiency means that it is clearly oriented to production of public goods, or to the public component of goods that are a mixture of public and private, and that it does not interfere with the "social efficiency" that results from the free development of private institutions. Justice implies equity and equality of opportunities for citizens to promote their personal goals. The specific cases of education and health care demonstrate that efficiency and redistribution may conflict. Although primary and secondary education are recognized as a social good that produces greater social benefits than university education, investment in higher education is frequently greater than that in primary and secondary education, with severe distributive biases. Following the focus of the classic theory of welfare, health expenditures should be concentrated on preventive interventions, increasing the availability of potable water and sanitary facilities, providing basic health services to the least favored groups, and similar actions. But institutionalized medicine in Mexico strongly favors curative services, typically devoting 2

  13. Louisiana's Achievements for Gender Equity in Vocational Education. Executive Summary 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargroder, Margaret

    Workplace and educational changes related to gender in Louisiana in 1996-97 suggest some progress but a continued need to reduce wide gender gaps in some occupational areas. Workplace data show a closing gender gap, but changes are occurring at different rates for different areas. Women's share of the total labor force continues to rise; wage…

  14. School Finance: Achieving High Standards with Equity and Efficiency. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard A.; Swanson, Austin D.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    This third edition of this book explores traditional economic and political models and contemporary issues that affect the social, political, and economic state of schools. Like the previous two editions, this edition takes a balanced approach to understanding school finance issues by using paradigms of both the economist and the political…

  15. Data Processing and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  16. Management Assistant and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  17. Clerical and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  18. Business Management and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  19. School Consultants as Change Agents in Achieving Equity for Families in Public Schools. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2005-01-01

    This commentary summarizes four major themes emerging from this special issue: (a) Consultation with nonmainstream families involves empowering parents to navigate the public education system, integrating cultural considerations into consultation and intervention, and educating families and school personnel; (b) a participatory process that brings…

  20. Accounting and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  1. Equity and Empathy: Toward Racial and Educational Achievement in the Obama Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Prudence L.

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting on the 2008 election, Prudence Carter challenges the popular notion that President Obama's victory is symbolic of a postracial society in the United States. Citing statistics about the opportunity gap that still exists in our nation's schools--as well as the recent Supreme Court cases that served to halt racial desegregation--Carter…

  2. Achieving Quality and Equity through Inclusive Education in an Era of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Susan; Oliver, Laura Ann

    2009-01-01

    While great progress has been made by the international community to promote inclusive education for all children, regardless of race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, gender or disability, many countries still continue to marginalize and exclude students in educational systems across the globe. High-stakes assessments in market-driven economies…

  3. K-8 Implementation Strategies for "A Curriculum Guide for Achieving Equity in Education and the Workplace."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum addendum was developed to offer suggestions and strategies to change mindsets and remove barriers in order to pave the way for a gender-equitable, technically trained work force beginning at the elementary and middle school levels. The guide contains 73 strategies, a variety of examples of how they can be implemented, and a large…

  4. A Curriculum Guide for Achieving Equity in Education and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials that offer suggestions and strategies to change mindsets and remove barriers in order to pave the way for a gender-equitable, technically trained work force. A DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) chart forms the basis for the task performance guides provided for five audiences: students,…

  5. Gender Equity in High School Math: A Study of Female Participation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rosetta Marantz; Kosler, Joseph

    This survey of 316 Precalculus, Calculus AB, and Calculus BC students from markedly different socioeconomic levels in four district high schools in San Antonio, Texas, looked at factors that have traditionally caused women to avoid mathematics, and attempted to discover which of them continue to influence women's decisions to reject the…

  6. Colonialism on Campus: A Critique of Mentoring to Achieve Equity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Roger L.

    In order to reconceptualize the mentoring relationship in higher education, parallels to colonialist strategies of subordination are drawn. The objective is to stimulate renewed thinking and action more consistent with stated policy goals in higher education. One of the primary functions of a mentor or sponsor is to exercise personal power to…

  7. Achieving Equity through "Gender Autonomy": The Challenges for Vet Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on research carried out in an European Union Fifth Framework project on gender and qualification. The research partners, from five European countries, investigated the impact of gender segregation in European labour markets on vocational education and training (VET), with particular regard to competences and qualifications.…

  8. Re/Presenting a Gender Equity Project: Contrasting Visions and Versions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, P. James; Hepburn, Gary; Robeck, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Provides three different accounts of a gender equity project in a grade 10 science class. Illustrates different rhetorical forms for representing research and different assumptions about gender, equity, pedagogy, and the representation of data. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  9. 78 FR 36562 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM) Insurance... Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT) System is HUD's system of record for the HECM program and...

  10. 13 CFR 107.850 - Restrictions on redemption of Equity Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... redemption of Equity Securities. (a) A Portfolio Concern cannot be required to redeem Equity Securities..., or has a change of management or control, or files for protection under the provisions of...

  11. Data resource profile: Pathways to Health and Social Equity for Children (PATHS Equity for Children).

    PubMed

    Nickel, Nathan C; Chateau, Dan G; Martens, Patricia J; Brownell, Marni D; Katz, Alan; Burland, Elaine M J; Walld, Randy; Hu, Mingming; Taylor, Carole R; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Goh, Chun Yan

    2014-10-01

    The PATHS Data Resource is a unique database comprising data that follow individuals from the prenatal period to adulthood. The PATHS Resource was developed for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research into child health and health equity. It contains individual-level data on health, socioeconomic status, social services and education. Individuals' data are linkable across these domains, allowing researchers to follow children through childhood and across a variety of sectors. PATHS includes nearly all individuals that were born between 1984 and 2012 and registered with Manitoba's universal health insurance programme at some point during childhood. All PATHS data are anonymized. Key concepts, definitions and algorithms necessary to work with the PATHS Resource are freely accessible online and an interactive forum is available to new researchers working with these data. The PATHS Resource is one of the richest and most complete databases assembled for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research, incorporating many variables that address the social determinants of health and health equity. Interested researchers are encouraged to contact [mchp_access@cpe.umanitoba.ca] to obtain access to PATHS to use in their own programmes of research. PMID:25212478

  12. Data Resource Profile: Pathways to Health and Social Equity for Children (PATHS Equity for Children)

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Nathan C; Chateau, Dan G; Martens, Patricia J; Brownell, Marni D; Katz, Alan; Burland, Elaine MJ; Walld, Randy; Hu, Mingming; Taylor, Carole R; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Goh, Chun Yan

    2014-01-01

    The PATHS Data Resource is a unique database comprising data that follow individuals from the prenatal period to adulthood. The PATHS Resource was developed for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research into child health and health equity. It contains individual-level data on health, socioeconomic status, social services and education. Individuals’ data are linkable across these domains, allowing researchers to follow children through childhood and across a variety of sectors. PATHS includes nearly all individuals that were born between 1984 and 2012 and registered with Manitoba’s universal health insurance programme at some point during childhood. All PATHS data are anonymized. Key concepts, definitions and algorithms necessary to work with the PATHS Resource are freely accessible online and an interactive forum is available to new researchers working with these data. The PATHS Resource is one of the richest and most complete databases assembled for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research, incorporating many variables that address the social determinants of health and health equity. Interested researchers are encouraged to contact [mchp_access@cpe.umanitoba.ca] to obtain access to PATHS to use in their own programmes of research. PMID:25212478

  13. Approaches to rationing antiretroviral treatment: ethical and equity implications.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Sara; Chanfreau, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Despite a growing global commitment to the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), its availability is still likely to be less than the need. This imbalance raises ethical dilemmas about who should be granted access to publicly-subsidized ART programmes. This paper reviews the eligibility and targeting criteria used in four case-study countries at different points in the scale-up of ART, with the aim of drawing lessons regarding ethical approaches to rationing. Mexico, Senegal, Thailand and Uganda have each made an explicit policy commitment to provide antiretrovirals to all those in need, but are achieving this goal in steps--beginning with explicit rationing of access to care. Drawing upon the case-studies and experiences elsewhere, categories of explicit rationing criteria have been identified. These include biomedical factors, adherence to treatment, prevention-driven factors, social and economic benefits, financial factors and factors driven by ethical arguments. The initial criteria for determining eligibility are typically clinical criteria and assessment of adherence prospects, followed by a number of other factors. Rationing mechanisms reflect several underlying ethical theories and the ethical underpinnings of explicit rationing criteria should reflect societal values. In order to ensure this alignment, widespread consultation with a variety of stakeholders, and not only policy-makers or physicians, is critical. Without such explicit debate, more rationing will occur implicitly and this may be more inequitable. The effects of rationing mechanisms upon equity are critically dependent upon the implementation processes. As antiretroviral programmes are implemented it is crucial to monitor who gains access to these programmes. PMID:16175829

  14. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  15. The equity lens in the health care performance evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Sara; Nuti, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe how indicators of the equity of access to health care according to socioeconomic conditions may be included in a performance evaluation system (PES) in the regional context level and in the planning and strategic control system of healthcare organisations. In particular, the paper investigates how the PES adopted, in the experience of the Tuscany region in Italy, indicators of vertical equity over time. Studies that testify inequality of access to health services often remain just a research output and are not used as targets and measurements in planning and control systems. After a brief introduction to the concept of horizontal and vertical equity in health care systems and equity measures in PES, the paper describes the 'equity process' by which selected health indicators declined by socioeconomic conditions were shared and used in the evaluation of health care institutions and in the CEOs' rewarding system, and subsequently analyses the initial results. Results on the maternal and child path and the chronicity care path not only show improvements in addressing health care inequalities, but also verify whether the health system responds appropriately to different population groups. PMID:23722829

  16. Social innovation for the promotion of health equity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chris; Barraket, Jo; Friel, Sharon; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Stenta, Christian-Paul

    2015-09-01

    The role of social innovations in transforming the lives of individuals and communities has been a source of popular attention in recent years. This article systematically reviews the available evidence of the relationship between social innovation and its promotion of health equity. Guided by Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity and examining four types of social innovation--social movements, service-related social innovations, social enterprise and digital social innovations--we find a growing literature on social innovation activities, but inconsistent evaluative evidence of their impacts on health equities, particularly at the socio-economic, political and cultural level of the framework. Distinctive characteristics of social innovations related to the promotion of health equity include the mobilization of latent or unrealised value through new combinations of (social, cultural and material) resources; growing bridging social capital and purposeful approaches to linking individual knowledge and experience to institutional change. These have implications for health promotion practice and for research about social innovation and health equity. PMID:26420807

  17. Promoting Health and Behavioral Health Equity in California.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director. PMID:26599022

  18. Health Systems Governance for health equity: critical reflections.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses several issues pertinent to health systems governance for health equity. It argues the importance of health systems using measures of positive health (well-being), discriminating in favour of historically less advantaged groups and weighing the costs of health care against investments in the social determinants of health. It cautions that the concept of governance could weaken the role of government, with disequalizing effects, while emphasizing the importance of two elements of good governance (transparency and participation) in health systems decision-making. It distinguishes between participation as volunteer labour and participation as exercising political rights, and questions the assumption that decentralization in health systems is necessarily empowering. It then identifies five health system roles to address issues of equity (educator/watchdog, resource broker, community developer, partnership developer and advocate/catalyst) and the implications of these roles for practice. Drawing on preliminary findings of a global research project on comprehensive primary health care, it discusses political aspects of progressive health system reform and the implications of equity-focused health system governance on health workers' roles, noting the importance of health workers claiming their identity as citizens. The article concludes with a commentary on the inherently political nature of health reforms based on equity; the necessary confrontation with power relations politics involves; and the health systems governance challenge of managing competing health discourses of efficiency and results-based financing, on the one hand, and equity and citizen empowerment, on the other. PMID:20963302

  19. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  20. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.