Science.gov

Sample records for achieving high detection

  1. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  2. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  3. Linear Colliders: Achieving High Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Gerald

    2002-04-01

    Four styles of linear collider are under active consideration by the high energy physics community as candidates for the next machine at the energy frontier. The four concepts (CLIC, the C-band linear collider, NLC/JLC and TESLA) differ widely in technology but share similar goals for energy and luminosity. The luminosity goal is more than three orders of magntiude larger than what has been acheived at the SLC. Nevertheless, as a result of many years of world-wide accelerator R&D efforts, feasible designs now exist for machines capable of reaching this goal. This talk will review the methods proposed by each linear collider concept to attain its luminosity goal. The most challenging issues facing each concept will be outlined and compared, and the areas requiring further R&D efforts will be noted.

  4. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  5. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  6. Systemic Reform and Minority Student High Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treisman, Philip Uri; Surles, Stephanie A.

    The under-representation of African American and Hispanic American students among high achievers on standardized tests, honors graduates of most colleges, and practitioners of mathematics and science professions is well-documented. This paper explores the extent to which the current educational reform movement is achieving the goal of…

  7. High academic achievement in psychotic students.

    PubMed

    Defries, Z; Grothe, L

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.

  8. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  9. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  10. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  11. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1).

  12. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  13. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  14. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  15. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  16. 16th Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    The report presents data from 2,043 questionnaires completed by secondary student leaders and high achievers. Ss were selected for recognition in "Who's Who Among American High School Students" by their principals or guidance counselors, national youth organizations, or the publishing company because of high achievement in academics, activities,…

  17. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  18. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  19. Unfulfilled Potential: High-Achieving Minority Students and the High School Achievement Gap in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotok, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This study uses multilevel modeling to examine a subset of the highest performing 9th graders and explores the extent that achievement gaps in math widen for high performing African American and Latino students and their high performing White and Asian peers during high school. Using nationally representative data from the High School Longitudinal…

  20. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  1. Achieving High Adolescent HPV Vaccination Coverage.

    PubMed

    Farmar, Anna-Lisa M; Love-Osborne, Kathryn; Chichester, Katherine; Breslin, Kristin; Bronkan, Kristi; Hambidge, Simon J

    2016-11-01

    Despite national recommendations for adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, rates have lagged behind those of other adolescent vaccines. We implemented interventions and examined rates of vaccination coverage in a large, urban, safety net health care system to understand whether our tactics for achieving high rates of adolescent vaccination were successful. Denver Health is an integrated urban safety net health system serving >17 000 adolescents annually. The process for achieving high vaccination rates in our health system includes "bundling" of vaccines, offering vaccines at every visit, and standard orders. Data from vaccine registry and utilization statistics were used to determine vaccination rates in adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from 2004 to 2014, and these findings were compared with state and national rates for 2013. Regression analysis was used to identify characteristics associated with vaccination. In 2013 (N = 11 463), HPV coverage of ≥1 dose was 89.8% (female subjects) and 89.3% (male subjects), compared with national rates of 57.3% and 34.6%. Rates of HPV coverage (≥3 doses) were 66.0% for female subjects and 52.5% for male subjects, versus 37.6% and 13.9% nationally. For both sexes, tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed, vaccine coverage was 95.9% (86.0% nationally), and meningococcal conjugate vaccine coverage was 93.5% (77.8% nationally). Female subjects, Hispanic subjects, non-English speakers, and teenagers <200% below the federal poverty level were more likely to have received 3 doses of HPV. Through low-cost, system-wide standard procedures, Denver Health achieved adolescent vaccination rates well above national coverage rates. Avoiding missed opportunities for vaccination and normalizing the HPV vaccine were key procedures that contributed to high coverage rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Revisiting T-population derived from Tifrunner x GT-C20 for achieving high density genetic maps and detecting disease resistance QTLs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Realizing the serious threats from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots (LS) to sustainable peanut production, high-density genetic linkage maps based on F2 and recombinant inbred line (RIL) T-population (Tifrunner × GT-C20) have been constructed and QTLs were identified in order to aid i...

  3. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  4. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  5. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  7. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  8. High School Order and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Gary D.

    In contrast to public opinion, the relationship between school order and achievement is neither simple nor certain. While research shows individuals who misbehave perform poorly in school, it has not made clear why. Further, the evidence on order and achievement at the school level is even more limited. One inference drawn here is that failure to…

  9. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  10. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  11. High bandwidth EDMR detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebl, H.; Willems van Beveren, L. H.; Starrett, R. P.; McCamey, D. R.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Several proposals discuss the realization of quantum computation with the help of the spin degree of freedom in semiconductors. Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) provides a well established tool to investigate spin states in semiconductors which was recently extended to investigate the spin dynamics of phosphorus donors in silicon. Typically, the detection bandwidth of EDMR is limited by the characteristic RC time constant of the sample. In this contribution we show that by embedding the sample in a LRC resonant circuit, a so-called tank circuit, it is possible to overcome this limitations. Here, we investigate a silicon MOSFET where the microwave magnetic field to induce the spin transitions is generated on chip by a shorted coplanar stripline[1]. We monitor the MOSFET resistance with a current preamplifier and in-situ by the response of the LRC resonant circuit and observe a spin resonance signature in both cases. Investigating the detection bandwidth by using frequency modulation of the microwaves applied indicates that the spin signature observed with the tank circuit is limited at the high end currently by the experimental setup. This shows that this method has the expected high bandwidth opening the view to faster phenomena in EDMR in a more direct manner. [1] Willems van Beveren et al., APL 93, 072102 (2008)

  12. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind"…

  13. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…

  14. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…

  15. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind"…

  16. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  17. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  18. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom; Parkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This report contains two separate studies examining the status of high-achieving students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) era. Part I, An Analysis of NAEP Data, authored by Brookings Institution scholar Tom Loveless, examines achievement trends for high-achieving students (defined, like low-achieving students, by their performance on the…

  19. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  20. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  1. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  2. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  3. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  4. Linear Colliders: Achieving High Beam Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolphsen, Chris

    2002-04-01

    For the next generation linear colliders, the luminosity will be approximately proportional to the average power of the colliding beams. Thus it is the goal of the accelerator systems of these machines to transfer wall plug power, which will be limited to a few hundred megawatts to be practical, to beam power in an efficient and low cost manner. Just as important, the beam acceleration must not degrade the small beam emittances that are necessary for high luminosity. In this paper, we examine the linac designs of the leading linear collider proposals (CLIC, JLC, NLC and TESLA) in these respects and review their R&D status.

  5. Gun requirements to achieve high field spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-04

    It is shown that a gun similar to that in the SSPX could demonstrate the high fields required for Pulsed Spheromak reactors merely by prolonging the pulse. Important considerations are choosing the voltage to exceed ohmic losses; designing the gun to avoid wasteful short-circuiting of current within the gun; and the injection efficiency factor, f, determined by the ''sag'' in the profile of {lambda} = {mu}{sub o}j/B. Typically f = 0.75 in experiments, giving an overall efficiency > 50 % if short-circuiting is avoided. Theoretical transport models agree qualitatively with the need for a finite gradient in h to pump in helicity by current-driven tearing modes and suggest that pressure-driven resistive modes would not compete with current-driven modes during a buildup to ohmic ignition.

  6. Do Small Classes Reduce the Achievement Gap between Low and High Achievers? Evidence from Project STAR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2008-01-01

    Given that previous findings on the social distribution of the effects of small classes have been mixed and inconclusive, in the present study I attempted to shed light on the mechanism through which small classes affect the achievement of low- and high-achieving students. I used data from a 4-year, large-scale, randomized experiment (project…

  7. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  8. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  9. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able…

  10. The Achievement Drive and Ego Strength of Highly Creative Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, W. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Shows that the "highly creative" group did not differ significantly from the control group on measures of ego strength or nonconforming achievement. Indicates that the highly creative group was more conforming than the control group in their need for achievement. (Author/RL)

  11. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able…

  12. High Speed Edge Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  13. High Speed Edge Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  14. What factors determine academic achievement in high achieving undergraduate medical students? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed A; Khalil, Mahmood S; Ahmad, Farah; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G; Amin, Zubair

    2014-04-01

    Medical students' academic achievement is affected by many factors such as motivational beliefs and emotions. Although students with high intellectual capacity are selected to study medicine, their academic performance varies widely. The aim of this study is to explore the high achieving students' perceptions of factors contributing to academic achievement. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out with 10 male and 9 female high achieving (scores more than 85% in all tests) students, from the second, third, fourth and fifth academic years. During the FGDs, the students were encouraged to reflect on their learning strategies and activities. The discussion was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Factors influencing high academic achievement include: attendance to lectures, early revision, prioritization of learning needs, deep learning, learning in small groups, mind mapping, learning in skills lab, learning with patients, learning from mistakes, time management, and family support. Internal motivation and expected examination results are important drivers of high academic performance. Management of non-academic issues like sleep deprivation, homesickness, language barriers, and stress is also important for academic success. Addressing these factors, which might be unique for a given student community, in a systematic manner would be helpful to improve students' performance.

  15. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  16. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  17. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  18. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  19. Some Correlates of High School Foreign Language Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    This paper investigates the influences of traditional kinds of verbal and quantitative achievement and aptitude variables on high school foreign language achievement, as measured by Modern Language Association and University of Washington tests of language skills administered to entering college students. The report focuses on: (1) the sample and…

  20. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  1. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic…

  2. Achievement Motivation Training for Potential High School Dropouts. Achievement Motivation Development Project Working Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    This pilot project sought to determine if instruction in achievement motivation would help potential dropouts to complete their schooling. Subjects were tenth grade students in a suburban Boston high school. A one-week residential course during winter and spring vacations was taken by one group of six boys and a second group of four. Equated…

  3. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  4. Achieving fast and stable failure detection in WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiyu; Zhang, Hanyi

    2005-02-01

    In dynamic networks, the failure detection time takes a major part of the convergence time, which is an important network performance index. To detect a node or link failure in the network, traditional protocols, like Hello protocol in OSPF or RSVP, exchanges keep-alive messages between neighboring nodes to keep track of the link/node state. But by default settings, it can get a minimum detection time in the measure of dozens of seconds, which can not meet the demands of fast network convergence and failure recovery. When configuring the related parameters to reduce the detection time, there will be notable instability problems. In this paper, we analyzed the problem and designed a new failure detection algorithm to reduce the network overhead of detection signaling. Through our experiment we found it is effective to enhance the stability by implicitly acknowledge other signaling messages as keep-alive messages. We conducted our proposal and the previous approaches on the ASON test-bed. The experimental results show that our algorithm gives better performances than previous schemes in about an order magnitude reduction of both false failure alarms and queuing delay to other messages, especially under light traffic load.

  5. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the…

  7. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  8. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  9. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  10. High-Stakes Testing: Does It Increase Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    I review the literature on the impact on student achievement of high-stakes testing. Its popularity as a mechanism for holding educators accountable has triggered studies to examine whether its promise to increase student learning has been fulfilled. The review concludes there is no consistent evidence to suggest high-stakes testing leads to…

  11. What Does Quality Programming Mean for High Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudzi, Cleo

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing (Missouri Academy) is a two-year accelerated, early-entrance-to-college, residential school that matches the level, complexity and pace of the curriculum with the readiness and motivation of high achieving high school students. The school is a part of Northwest Missouri State University…

  12. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  13. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  14. Achieving the College Dream? Examining Disparities in Access to College Information among High Achieving and Non-High Achieving Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura-Walsh, Erin; Yamamura, Erica K.; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Allen, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Using an Opportunity to Learn (OTL) framework, this study examines the college preparatory experiences of Latina high and non-high achievers at an urban Latina/o majority high school. Findings indicate that students relied almost exclusively on school resources to navigate their college preparation process. However, the school provided…

  15. Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Cila

    2012-01-01

    Every year around 2.5–3 million skin lesions are biopsied in the US, and a fraction of these – between 50,000 and 100,000 – are diagnosed as melanoma. Diagnostic instruments that allow early detection of melanoma are the key to improving survival rates and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies, the associated morbidity, and the costs of care. Advances in technology over the past 2 decades have enabled the development of new, sophisticated test methods, which are currently undergoing laboratory and small-scale clinical testing. This review highlights and compares some of the emerging technologies that hold the promise of melanoma diagnosis at an early stage of the disease. The needs for detection at different levels (patient, primary care, specialized care) are discussed, and three broad classes of instruments are identified that are capable of satisfying these needs. Technical and clinical requirements on the diagnostic instruments are introduced to aid the comparison and evaluation of new technologies. White- and polarized-light imaging, spatial and spectroscopic multispectral methods, quantitative thermographic imaging, confocal microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and Terahertz (THZ) imaging methods are highlighted in light of the criteria identified in the review. Based on the properties, possibilities, and limitations of individual methods, those best suited for a particular setting are identified. Challenges faced in development and wide-scale application of novel technologies are addressed. PMID:23204850

  16. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  17. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    PubMed

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2016-08-29

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  18. Vocational interests of intellectually gifted and highly achieving young adults.

    PubMed

    Vock, Miriam; Köller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-06-01

    Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of trait complexes, specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Vocational interests of gifted and highly achieving adolescents were compared to those of their less intelligent/achieving peers according to Holland's (1997) RIASEC model. Further, the impact of intelligence and achievement on interests were analysed while statistically controlling for potentially influencing variables. Changes in interests over time were investigated. N= 4,694 German students (age: M= 19.5, SD= .80; 54.6% females) participated in the study (TOSCA; Köller, Watermann, Trautwein, & Lüdtke, 2004). Interests were assessed in participants' final year at school and again 2 years later (N= 2,318). Gifted participants reported stronger investigative and realistic interests, but lower social interests than less intelligent participants. Highly achieving participants reported higher investigative and (in wave 2) higher artistic interests. Considerable gender differences were found: gifted girls had a flat interest profile, while gifted boys had pronounced realistic and investigative and low social interests. Multilevel multiple regression analyses predicting interests by intelligence and school achievement revealed stable interest profiles. Beyond a strong gender effect, intelligence and school achievement each contributed substantially to the prediction of vocational interests. At the time around graduation from high school, gifted young adults show stable interest profiles, which strongly differ between gender and intelligence groups. These differences are relevant for programmes for the gifted and for vocational counselling. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  20. Learning Environment, Motivation, and Achievement in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement. Discusses the focus of shared perceptions and instruction and indicates that shared perceptions focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students'…

  1. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  2. Comparison of Achievement of Students in High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Verne A.

    1970-01-01

    Compares student achievements on common objectives of CHEMS, CBA, and "Modern Chemistry high school chemistry courses. Results indicate the three couses are not equally effective in meeting their objectives. CHEMS and CBA develop a better understanding of chemistry and science, as well as develop greater ability for critical thinking. CBA…

  3. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  4. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  5. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  6. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  7. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  8. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  9. The Construction of Black High-Achiever Identities in a Predominantly White High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Dorinda J. Carter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine how black students construct their racial and achievement self-concepts in a predominantly white high school to enact a black achiever identity. By listening to these students talk about the importance of race and achievement to their lives, I came to understand how racialized the task of achieving was for them even…

  10. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  11. Improving science achievement at high-poverty urban middle schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen

    2006-11-01

    A large percentage of U.S. students attending high-poverty urban middle schools achieve low levels of science proficiency, posing significant challenges to their success in high school science and to national and local efforts to reform science education. Through its work in Philadelphia schools, the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University developed a teacher-support model to address variation in science curricula, lack of materials, and underprepared teachers that combined with initial low levels of proficiency block improvements in science achievement. The model includes a common science curriculum based on NSF-supported materials commercially available, ongoing teacher professional development built around day-to-day lessons, and regular in-class support of teachers by expert peer coaches. One cohort of students at three Philadelphia middle schools using the model was followed from the end of fourth grade through seventh grade. Their gains in science achievement and achievement levels were substantially greater than students at 3 matched control schools and the 23 district middle schools serving a similar student population. Under school-by-school comparisons, these results held for the two schools with adequate implementation. Using widely available materials and techniques, the model can be adopted and modified by school partners and districts.

  12. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  13. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  14. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  15. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  16. Achieving High Reliability with People, Processes, and Technology.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Candice L; Brennan, John A

    2017-01-01

    High reliability as a corporate value in healthcare can be achieved by meeting the "Quadruple Aim" of improving population health, reducing per capita costs, enhancing the patient experience, and improving provider wellness. This drive starts with the board of trustees, CEO, and other senior leaders who ingrain high reliability throughout the organization. At WellStar Health System, the board developed an ambitious goal to become a top-decile health system in safety and quality metrics. To achieve this goal, WellStar has embarked on a journey toward high reliability and has committed to Lean management practices consistent with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's definition of a high-reliability organization (HRO): one that is committed to the prevention of failure, early identification and mitigation of failure, and redesign of processes based on identifiable failures. In the end, a successful HRO can provide safe, effective, patient- and family-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable care through a convergence of people, processes, and technology.

  17. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-01

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite.

  18. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  19. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  20. High-quality learning: harder to achieve than we think?

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Knight, Lynn

    2007-07-01

    High-quality learning in the context of medical education can be defined by current conceptions of a deep approach to learning and studying, in combination with metacognitive skills such as personal organisation and reflection on learning. Modern undergraduate education aims to provide an environment that will promote high-quality learning, but this is not as easy to achieve as it might at first seem. Part of the difficulty arises because it is student perceptions of the learning and assessment environment that determine the adopted approach to studying and these are notoriously hard to predict. To generate a detailed understanding of aspects that facilitate and inhibit high-quality learning within an innovative, undergraduate medical programme. We carried out semi-structured interviews with Year 2 undergraduate students. Self-directed, problem-based and vocationally relevant activities appeared to promote high-quality learning. Unanticipated barriers to high-quality learning in this setting included a perceived lack of useful feedback on learning, the assessment of applied medical knowledge for a subset of underperforming students, anatomy as a curricular topic and the quantity of information to be assimilated in medicine. Only by understanding the barriers as they are perceived by students can we design evidence-based modifications to curricula that are likely to be successful in promoting high-quality learning.

  1. Toward achieving flexible and high sensitivity hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, A.; Grenadier, S. J.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2017-07-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) detectors have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency to date among solid-state neutron detectors at about 51%. We report here the realization of h-BN neutron detectors possessing one order of magnitude enhancement in the detection area but maintaining an equal level of detection efficiency of previous achievement. These 3 mm × 3 mm detectors were fabricated from 50 μm thick freestanding and flexible 10B enriched h-BN (h-10BN) films, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition followed by mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Mobility-lifetime results suggested that holes are the majority carriers in unintentionally doped h-BN. The detectors were tested under thermal neutron irradiation from californium-252 (252Cf) moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator. A thermal neutron detection efficiency of ˜53% was achieved at a bias voltage of 200 V. Conforming to traditional solid-state detectors, the realization of h-BN epilayers with enhanced electrical transport properties is the key to enable scaling up the device sizes. More specifically, the present results revealed that achieving an electrical resistivity of greater than 1014 Ωṡcm and a leakage current density of below 3 × 10-10 A/cm2 is needed to fabricate large area h-BN detectors and provided guidance for achieving high sensitivity solid state neutron detectors based on h-BN.

  2. Data-Mining Techniques in Detecting Factors Linked to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Abad, Fernando; Chaparro Caso López, Alicia A.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the emergence of statistical analysis techniques based on data mining in education sciences, and the potential they offer to detect non-trivial information in large databases, this paper presents a procedure used to detect factors linked to academic achievement in large-scale assessments. The study is based on a non-experimental,…

  3. Data-Mining Techniques in Detecting Factors Linked to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Abad, Fernando; Chaparro Caso López, Alicia A.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the emergence of statistical analysis techniques based on data mining in education sciences, and the potential they offer to detect non-trivial information in large databases, this paper presents a procedure used to detect factors linked to academic achievement in large-scale assessments. The study is based on a non-experimental,…

  4. Mindmapping: Its effects on student achievement in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Glennis Edge

    The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the

  5. Achieving unusual oxidation state of matter under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Lin, Haiqing; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng

    2013-03-01

    Pressure has many effects to matter including the reduction of the volume, the increase of the coordination number and the broadening of the band-widths. In the past, most of the high-pressure studies focused on structural and electronic state phase transitions. Using first principles calculations and a bias-free structural search method, we will demonstrate that high pressure can lead to high oxidation state of elements that can never be achieved under ambient condition, making high pressure technique a nice tool to explore many traditional topics in solid state and molecular chemistry. As an example, we will show that Hg can transfer the electrons in its outmost d shell to F atoms and form HgF4 molecular crystals under pressure, thereby acting as a true transition metal. Group IIB elements, including Zn, Cd, and Hg are usually defined as post-transition metals because they are commonly oxidized only to the +2 state. Their d shells are completely filled and do not participate in the formation of chemical bonds. Although the synthesis of HgF4 molecules in gas phase was reported before, the molecules show strong instabilities and dissociate. Therefore, the transition metal propensity of Hg remains an open question.

  6. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  7. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  8. Achievement of high nitrite accumulation via endogenous partial denitrification (EPD).

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiantao; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2017-01-01

    This study proposed a novel strategy for achievement of partial denitrification driven by endogenous carbon sources in an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system. Results showed that in the steady-stage, the nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio (NTR) was kept at around 87% without nitrate in the effluent. During the anaerobic period, exogenous carbon sources was completely taken up, accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During the anoxic period, nitrate was reduced to nitrite by using PHAs as carbon sources, followed by the replenishment of glycogen. Thus, the phenotype of denitrifying GAOs was clearly observed and endogenous partial denitrification (EPD) occurred. Furthermore, results showed the nitrate reduction was prior to the nitrite reduction in the presence of nitrate, which led to the high nitrite accumulation.

  9. Identifying key nursing and team behaviours to achieve high reliability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristi; Riley, William; Davis, Stanley

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure markers of key nursing behaviours in interdisciplinary teams during critical events to assess the extent of high reliability. Technical and team competence are necessary to achieve high reliability to ensure safe patient care. Technical competence is generally assured because of professional training, licensure and practice standards. During critical events, team competence is difficult to observe, measure and evaluate in interdisciplinary teams. During critical events, in situ simulation was the method used to observe interdisciplinary interaction of nursing behaviours regarding communication. Seventeen trials were conducted and videotaped for evaluation at four hospital sites. Key nursing behavioural markers for interdisciplinary interaction were described: situational awareness, use of situation, background, assessment, recommendation-response (SBAR-R), closed-loop communication and shared mental model. Skills necessary for nurses to contribute to highly reliable, interdisciplinary teams are not consistently observed during critical events and constitute breaches in defensive barriers for ensuring patient safety. Nurses have a key role in assuring effective team performance through the transfer of critical information. Nurses need to recognize and identify important clinical and environmental cues, and act in order to ensure that the team progresses along the optimal course for patient safety.

  10. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  11. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  14. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  15. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  16. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  17. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  18. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  19. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  20. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  1. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  2. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  3. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  4. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  5. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  6. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  7. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  8. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  9. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  10. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  11. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  12. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  13. Charter High Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap. Innovations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The eight schools profiled in this document are serving different populations, but all of them are closing the achievement gap between low-income, minority, and special needs students and their peers. By trying out innovative new strategies, these schools are blazing a trail for others to follow. They are dispelling the myth that some students can…

  14. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  15. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  16. Cooperative Learning: A Standard for High Achievement. The Nutshell Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals some of the structural complexities involved in implementing authentic cooperative learning in the classroom. It also suggests that when full cooperative learning structures are implemented, the benefits in student achievement often can be astounding. Descriptions, decisions, designs, and developments, a simple four-part scheme,…

  17. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  18. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  19. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  20. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  1. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  2. High Stakes for High Achievers: State Accountability in the Age of ESSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Griffith, David; Wright, Brandon L.; Kim, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine the extent to which states' current (or planned) accountability systems for elementary and middle schools attend to the needs of high-achieving students, and how these systems might be redesigned under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) to better serve all students. In their view, states can and should take…

  3. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  4. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  5. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  6. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  7. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  8. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  9. Excellence: Achieving High Performance in the Army Personnel System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    high-technology in our lives.32 What is important here is that both the human and high tech dimensions must be synchronized. In summary, these emerging...base, to the southern and western states with their warm weather and high tech industry.1 2 While there is some indication that this trend may be...34excellentia", past participle of "excellere"-to surpass.3 5 It is a term which describes the condition of excelling, and is perhaps best defined by its synonyms

  10. High Achiever: A School Modernization Uncovers Hidden Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Regina Raiford

    2003-01-01

    Describes the renovation of Lisle Senior High School in Lisle, Illinois, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, suppliers, and construction team. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

  11. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  12. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  13. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  14. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  15. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains educators…

  16. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  17. High and Low Norms as Goals for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; Hiatt, Deirdre

    This study, conducted with 279 5th graders, examined the effects of high norms (HN) and low norms (LN) used as goals in a 2-week vocabulary learning task. Ss in the LN condition yielded significantly higher retention scores; performance and interest scores were not significantly different. These results were compared with those of a related…

  18. Alternative High School Scheduling. Student Achievement and Behavior. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John; Westfall, Amy Lynn

    In 1995 the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC), Richmond (Virginia) commissioned a study of alternative high school scheduling modules to determine the effects of different schedules on teaching strategies, teacher and student satisfaction, and student and school performance. This report presents results of an analysis of student…

  19. More High-Achieving Students Are Choosing Community Colleges First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Certainly, "Tonight Show" host Jay Leno has nurtured the perception that community colleges are a punishment for underperforming high school students by joking that community colleges aren't "real colleges." This article shows that this perception belies the reality that contemporary community colleges serve students seeking trade skills but also…

  20. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  1. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains educators…

  2. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  3. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  4. Behaviour and achievement disorders in children with high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, H; Kinze, W

    1990-01-01

    With 6% of the patients of a childpsychiatric population using treatment a high intelligence with an IQ of over 120 was the result. This is in agreement with the results by Reinhard (1981), but is below the results by Schmidt (1977) and justifies neither the association to a higher talent as risk factor nor as protective factor in view of a potential psychic illness. 341 child-neuropsychiatric patients with hyperkinetic syndrome (55%), Enuresis (28%), reactions of adaptation (5%), specific emotional disturbances in childhood (4%), Encopresis (3%), Psychalgy (3%) and tics (2%) were studied; thereby 22 highly intelligent patients were compared with average intelligent patients. With high intelligence better performances of concentration, more reflexive style of study, better school notes and more favourable motor capabilities, less pronounced signs of anxiety and neuroticism are found, but also a poorer social adaptation and less favourable effects of treatment. Concerning the poorer chances of treatment with high intelligence however the behaviour-therapeutic concentration of our therapy has to be pointed out, which might not offer an optimal chance for development.

  5. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  6. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and…

  7. More High-Achieving Students Are Choosing Community Colleges First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Certainly, "Tonight Show" host Jay Leno has nurtured the perception that community colleges are a punishment for underperforming high school students by joking that community colleges aren't "real colleges." This article shows that this perception belies the reality that contemporary community colleges serve students seeking trade skills but also…

  8. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  9. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  10. From Dropout to High Achiever: An Understanding of Academic Excellence through the Ethnography of High and Low Achieving Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alfredo

    This paper, a follow-up to a previous review of literature on academic excellence that synthesized information from the United States and Mexico, describes an ethnographic study of high-achieving and low-achieving Hispanic secondary school students from Calexico, California and Mexicali, Baja California Mexico. Five students for each group were…

  11. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  12. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  14. Detection limits of organic compounds achievable with intense, short-pulse lasers.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jordan; De Camillis, Simone; Alexander, Grace; Hamilton, Kathryn; Kelly, Thomas J; Costello, John T; Zepf, Matthew; Williams, Ian D; Greenwood, Jason B

    2015-06-21

    Many organic molecules have strong absorption bands which can be accessed by ultraviolet short pulse lasers to produce efficient ionization. This resonant multiphoton ionization scheme has already been exploited as an ionization source in time-of-flight mass spectrometers used for environmental trace analysis. In the present work we quantify the ultimate potential of this technique by measuring absolute ion yields produced from the interaction of 267 nm femtosecond laser pulses with the organic molecules indole and toluene, and gases Xe, N2 and O2. Using multiphoton ionization cross sections extracted from these results, we show that the laser pulse parameters required for real-time detection of aromatic molecules at concentrations of one part per trillion in air and a limit of detection of a few attomoles are achievable with presently available commercial laser systems. The potential applications for the analysis of human breath, blood and tissue samples are discussed.

  15. Sensitivity and noise in GC-MS: Achieving low limits of detection for difficult analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Lehotay, Steven J.; Amirav, Aviv

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument limit of detection (LOD) is typically listed by major vendors as that of octafluoronaphthalene (OFN). Most current GC-MS instruments can achieve LODs in the low femtogram range. However, GC-MS LODs for realistic analytes in actual samples are often a few orders of magnitude higher than OFN's. Users seldom encounter 1 pg LOD in the single ion monitoring mode in their applications. We define this detectability difference as the "OFN gap." In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss how the OFN gap can be significantly reduced by the use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (SMB). Experimental results were obtained with a recently developed GC-MS with SMB named 1200-SMB, that is based on the conversion of the Varian 1200 system into a GC-MS-MS with SMB. With this 1200-SMB system, the LOD of all types of analytes, including OFN, in real samples is significantly improved through the combination of: (a) enhanced molecular ion; (b) elimination of vacuum background noise; (c) elimination of mass independent noise; (d) elimination of ion source peak tailing and degradation; (e) significantly increased range of thermally labile and low volatility compounds that are amenable for analysis through lower sample elution temperatures; (f) reduced column bleed and ghost peaks through sample elution at lower temperatures; (g) improved compatibility with large volume injections; and (h) reduced matrix interferences through the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. As a result, the 1200-SMB LODs of common and/or difficult compounds are much closer to its OFN LOD, even in complex matrices. We crossed the <1 fg OFN LOD milestone to achieve the lowest LOD to date using GC-MS, but more importantly, we attained LOD of 2 fg for diazinon, a common pesticide analyte. In another example, we achieved an LOD of 10 fg for underivatized testosterone, which is not amenable in traditional GC-MS analysis, and conducted many analyses

  16. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  17. The Impact of Formative Assessment on Students in a High Achieving Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toungette, William Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind mandate, school systems clamored to ensure that all students showed academic growth. For schools with a high-achieving population, this could be a daunting task. This analysis examined the impact formative assessment had on student achievement in a high-achieving, middle school by measuring three…

  18. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  19. International note: between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that academic achievement was largely domain-general in nature.

  20. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  1. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  2. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-27

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is {approx} 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an {approx}800 MV/m field on the diamond surface - provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  3. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is ˜ 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an ˜800 MV/m field on the diamond surface—provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  4. Achieving high confidence protein annotations in a sea of unknowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmins-Schiffman, E.; May, D. H.; Noble, W. S.; Nunn, B. L.; Mikan, M.; Harvey, H. R.

    2016-02-01

    Increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry (MS) technology allows deep and broad insight into community functional analyses. Metaproteomics holds the promise to reveal functional responses of natural microbial communities, whereas metagenomics alone can only hint at potential functions. The complex datasets resulting from ocean MS have the potential to inform diverse realms of the biological, chemical, and physical ocean sciences, yet the extent of bacterial functional diversity and redundancy has not been fully explored. To take advantage of these impressive datasets, we need a clear bioinformatics pipeline for metaproteomics peptide identification and annotation with a database that can provide confident identifications. Researchers must consider whether it is sufficient to leverage the vast quantities of available ocean sequence data or if they must invest in site-specific metagenomic sequencing. We have sequenced, to our knowledge, the first western arctic metagenomes from the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea. We have addressed the long standing question: Is a metagenome required to accurately complete metaproteomics and assess the biological distribution of metabolic functions controlling nutrient acquisition in the ocean? Two different protein databases were constructed from 1) a site-specific metagenome and 2) subarctic/arctic groups available in NCBI's non-redundant database. Multiple proteomic search strategies were employed, against each individual database and against both databases combined, to determine the algorithm and approach that yielded the balance of high sensitivity and confident identification. Results yielded over 8200 confidently identified proteins. Our comparison of these results allows us to quantify the utility of investing resources in a metagenome versus using the constantly expanding and immediately available public databases for metaproteomic studies.

  5. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  6. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000–15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert’s visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition. PMID:21544266

  7. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  8. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  9. Rejection or Confirmation of Racial Identity: A Dilemma for High-Achieving Blacks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a literature review on the achievement problems of Black students, with particular emphasis on the problems of high-achieving Black students, the effects of peer pressure on achievement, and the phenomenon of acting "white" or "raceless." Offers recommendations for educators, parents, community leaders, and others interested in reversing…

  10. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  11. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  12. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  13. Formal Operational Precocity and Achievement in Biology among Some Nigerian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehindero, Olusola Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Compares the performances on a battery of six Piagetian tasks of 80 Nigerian high school students classified as high and low achievers in biology. The relationship between performance of very bright biology students (high achievers) and intellectual precocity is also investigated. (HM)

  14. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  15. High Sensitivity deflection detection of nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sanii, Babak; Ashby, Paul

    2009-10-28

    A critical limitation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is the lack of a high-sensitivity position detection mechanism. We introduce a noninterferometric optical approach to determine the position of nanowires with a high sensitivity and bandwidth. Its physical origins and limitations are determined by Mie scattering analysis. This enables a dramatic miniaturization of detectable cantilevers, with attendant reductions to the fundamental minimum force noise in highly damping environments. We measure the force noise of an 81{+-}9??nm radius Ag{sub 2}Ga nanowire cantilever in water at 6{+-}3??fN/{radical}Hz.

  16. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  17. Achieving High Strength and High Ductility in Friction Stir-Processed Cast Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Panigrahi, Sushanta K.; Mishra, Rajiv S.

    2013-08-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as an effective tool for microstructural modification and property enhancement. As-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy was friction stir processed with one-pass and two-pass to examine the influence of processing conditions on microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties. Grain refinement accompanied with development of strong basal texture was observed for both processing conditions. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) AZ91 was achieved under two-pass FSP with fine precipitates distributed on the grain boundary. The processed UFG AZ91 exhibited a high tensile strength of ~435 MPa (117 pct improvement) and tensile fracture elongation of ~23 pct. The promising combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the elimination of casting porosity, and high density of fine precipitates in an UFG structure with quite low dislocation density. The effects of grain size, precipitate, and texture on deformation behavior have been discussed.

  18. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  19. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  20. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  1. High Energy Polarization of Blazars: Detection Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  2. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  3. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  4. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  5. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  7. The Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics and the Achievement of Black Inner-City High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkay, Forrest W.

    The study described in this paper examined certain personality factors and dispositions characteristic of two types of inner city black high school students: those who achieve and those who fail to achieve. Interviews with eight black students from a ghetto high school in Chicago were analyzed. This analysis revealed six dichotomies which seemed…

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  9. Individual and Longitudinal Differences among High and Low-Achieving, LD, and ADHD L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2008-01-01

    High-achieving (HA) and low-achieving (LA), learning disabled (LD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) high school students were followed over two years of L2 study and compared on measures of L1 literacy (reading and writing) in elementary school, L1 cognitive ability, L2 aptitude, oral and written L2 proficiency, and L2 word…

  10. Professional Competences of Teachers for Fostering Creativity and Supporting High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoth, Jessica; Kaiser, Gabriele; Busse, Andreas; Döhrmann, Martina; König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an important task teachers face in class: the identification and support of creative and high-achieving students. In particular, we examine whether primary teachers (1) have acquired professional knowledge during teacher education that is necessary to foster creativity and to teach high-achieving students, and whether they (2)…

  11. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  12. The High Achieving Sioux Indian Child: Some Preliminary Findings from the Flower of Two Soils Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, William H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural factors that differentiate between high and low academic achievers among 30 elementary Indian children. Suggests that the high achiever strongly identifies with the aims of education, and comes from a stable, somewhat acculturated, English-speaking family. Contains 11 references. (SV)

  13. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  14. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  15. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  16. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  17. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-03-22

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) waveguide-based, 36 degree-rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO₃) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO₂ layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection.

  18. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguide–based, 36 degree–rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO3) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO2 layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. PMID:28327504

  19. High voltage spark carbon fiber detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pulse discharge technique was used to determine the length and density of carbon fibers released from fiber composite materials during a fire or aircraft accident. Specifications are given for the system which uses the ability of a carbon fiber to initiate spark discharge across a high voltage biased grid to achieve accurate counting and sizing of fibers. The design of the system was optimized, and prototype hardware proved satisfactory in laboratory and field tests.

  20. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  1. Highly sensitive terahertz sensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Suk; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Seok; Chung, Youngchul; Seo, Minah

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we present a new type of non-contact detection method for glucose molecule using nano antenna array based bio sensing chip that operates at terahertz frequency range (0.5 - 2.5 THz). Localized and hugely enhanced transmitted terahertz field by nano antenna array in the sensing chip induced enhancement of absorption coefficient of glucose molecule that enables us to detect even very small volume of molecules. Nano antenna based terahertz sensing chip can be expected to offer accurate identification of glucose level as a non-invasive and painless sensing tool with high sensitivity.

  2. Achieving High Rates and High Uniformity in Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Lucy Marjorie

    The chemical mechanical polishing of Copper (Cu-CMP) is a complex and poorly understood process. Despite this, it is widely used throughout the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, and makes up a significant portion of wafer processing costs. In these contexts, desirable polishing outcomes such as a high rate of removal from the copper surface, and high removal rate uniformity, are achieved largely by trial-and-error. In this study, the same outcomes are pursued through a systematic investigation of polishing lubrication characteristics and abrasive and oxidiser concentrations in the polishing slurry. A strong link between lubrication characteristics, quantified by the dimensionless Sommerfield number, and the uniformity of polishing is demonstrated. A mechanism for the observed relationship is proposed, based on an adaptation of hydrodynamic lubrication theory. The overall rate of removal is maximized by polishing in a slurry containing oxidiser and abrasives in a synergistic ratio. Polishing away from this ratio has additional effects on the overall quality of the surface produced. Transport of slurry across the polishing pad is investigated by using tracers; the results demonstrate that slurry usage can be reduced in many circumstances with no impact on overall polishing outcomes, reducing overall processing costs. These findings are combined to design a polishing process, with good results.

  3. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  4. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  5. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-11-25

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  6. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  7. ULTRASENSITIVE HIGH-TEMPERATURE SELECTIVE GAS DETECTION USING PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Y. Shih; Tejas Patil; Qiang Zhao; Yi-Shi Chiu; Wei-Heng Shih

    2004-03-05

    We have obtained very promising results in the Phase I study. Specifically, for temperature effects, we have established that piezoelectric cantilever sensors could retain their resonance peak strength at high temperatures, i.e., the Q values of the resonance peaks remained above 10 even when the temperature was very close to the Curie temperature. This confirms that a piezoelectric cantilever sensor can be used as a sensor up to its Curie temperature. Furthermore, we have shown that the mass detection sensitivity remained unchanged at different temperatures. For selective gas detection, we have demonstrated selective NH{sub 3} detection using piezoelectric cantilever sensors coated with mesoporous SiO{sub 2}. For high-temperature sensor materials development, we have achieved highly oriented Sr-doped lead titanate thin films that possessed superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Such highly oriented films can be microfabricated into high-performance piezoelectric microcantilever sensors that can be used up to 490 C. We have accomplished the goal of Phase I study in exploring the various aspects of a high-temperature gas sensor. We propose to continue the study in Phase II to develop a sensor that is suitable for high-temperature applications using piezoelectrics with a high Curie temperature and by controlling the effects of temperature. The lead titanate based thin film developed in Phase I is good for applications up to 490 C. In phase II, we will develop lithium niobate thin film based cantilevers for applications up to 1000 C.

  8. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  9. New York State Superintendents and Board Presidents Attitudes on Superintendent Responsibilities in High-Achieving and Low-Achieving School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of New York State superintendents and board presidents in high-achieving and low-achieving school districts on the six superintendent leadership responsibilities identified by Waters and Marzano (2006) and their relationship to improving student achievement: (1) creating research-relevant…

  10. New York State Superintendents and Board Presidents Attitudes on Superintendent Responsibilities in High-Achieving and Low-Achieving School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of New York State superintendents and board presidents in high-achieving and low-achieving school districts on the six superintendent leadership responsibilities identified by Waters and Marzano (2006) and their relationship to improving student achievement: (1) creating research-relevant…

  11. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  12. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  13. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  14. Exploring High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students' Erroneous Answers and Misconceptions on the Angle Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bütüner, Suphi Önder; Filiz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate high achievers' erroneous answers and misconceptions on the angle concept. The participants consisted of 233 grade 6 students drawn from eight classes in two well-established elementary schools of Trabzon, Turkey. All the participants were considered to be current achievers in mathematics, graded 4 or 5…

  15. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  16. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  17. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  18. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  19. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  20. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  1. The Impact of Placement on Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jennifer Stell

    2011-01-01

    The question of where best to educate students with disabilities to maximize their academic achievement has been discussed and researched for over four decades, with inconsistent and contradictory results. This study focused on the mathematics and reading achievement of middle and high school students with mild disabilities in an urban district in…

  2. An Analysis of Mathematics Course Sequences for Low Achieving Students at a Comprehensive Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, D. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This non-experimental study attempted to determine how the different prescribed mathematic tracks offered at a comprehensive technical high school influenced the mathematics performance of low-achieving students on standardized assessments of mathematics achievement. The goal was to provide an analysis of any statistically significant differences…

  3. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  4. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  5. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  6. Student Academic Achievement in Rural vs. Non-Rural High Schools in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droessler Mersch, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed how Wisconsin rural public high schools' academic achievement compared to their city, suburb and town peers while controlling for ten factors. The Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) measured academic achievement for tenth graders including reading, language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. The ten…

  7. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  8. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  9. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  10. High-sensitivity detection of TNT.

    PubMed

    Pushkarsky, Michael B; Dunayevskiy, Ilya G; Prasanna, Manu; Tsekoun, Alexei G; Go, Rowel; Patel, C Kumar N

    2006-12-26

    We report high-sensitivity detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy where the laser radiation is obtained from a continuous-wave room temperature high-power quantum cascade laser in an external grating cavity geometry. The external grating cavity quantum cascade laser is continuously tunable over approximately 400 nm around 7.3 microm and produces a maximum continuous-wave power of approximately 200 mW. The IR spectroscopic signature of TNT is sufficiently different from that of nitroglycerine so that unambiguous detection of TNT without false positives from traces of nitroglycerine is possible. We also report the results of spectroscopy of acetylene in the 7.3-microm region to demonstrate continuous tunability of the IR source.

  11. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  12. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  13. Polymeric ion sensors with multiple detection modes achieved by a new type of click chemistry reaction.

    PubMed

    Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Li, Yongrong; Hyakutake, Tsuyoshi

    2013-02-28

    The rapid growth of the click chemistry concept enables the production of a wide variety of functional polymers. Among the new generation of click chemistry reactions, the highly efficient addition reactions between electron-rich alkynes and cyano-based acceptors, referred to as alkyne-acceptor click chemistry, have found promising application possibilities as polymeric chemosensors. The donor-acceptor chromophores, formed by this click chemistry reaction, feature intense charge-transfer (CT) bands in the visible region, but they are hardly fluorescent. Importantly, the chromophores possess two different nitrogen atoms, namely the aniline nitrogen and cyano nitrogen. The recognition of some specific metal cations by different nitrogen atoms in the polymers led to different modes of changes in the absorption spectra. For example, the hard acid of Fe(3+) ion was recognized by the aniline nitrogen, resulting in a decrease in the CT bands. On the other hand, the soft acid of the Ag(+) ion was captured by the cyano nitrogen, leading to a bathochromic shift in the CT bands. Some specific anions, such as CN(-), F(-), and I(-) ions, were also recognized by a chemodocimetric detection mode, discoloring the original solutions. When the CT bands decreased upon the addition of analytes, the polymers were found to serve as turn-on fluorescent sensors. In this perspective, the detailed detection modes of the new polymeric chemosensors are fully described.

  14. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  15. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  16. A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Craig W.

    2000-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis, a quantitative approach to conducting literature reviews. Illustrates the power of this technique by reporting the quantitative effects of cooperative learning on chemistry achievement in high school and college classes. (Contains 32 references.) (WRM)

  17. The Outward Bound Bridging Course for Low-Achieving High School Males: Effect on Academic Achievement and Multidimensional Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Garry

    The Outward Bound Bridging Course is a 6-week residential program designed to improve academic achievement and self-concepts in low-achieving high school males. During 1980-1984, five courses were conducted for 66 Australian high school males. Most of them were ninth grade students, chosen on the basis of poor academic performance, an apparent…

  18. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  19. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim. PMID:23136447

  20. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim.

  1. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  2. High resolution detection system of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Li Qiang; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Lu, Zu Kang

    2007-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) system was founded according to confocal theory. The 3-D adjustment of the exciting and collecting optical paths was realized. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used and the signals are processed by a software designed by ourselves. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to appropriate reservoirs and to inject and separate DNA samples respectively. Two fluorescent dyes Thiazole Orange (TO) and SYBR Green I were contrasted. With both of the dyes, high signals-to-noise images were obtained with the CE-LIFD system. The single-bases can be distinguished from the electrophoretogram and high resolution of DNA sample separation was obtained.

  3. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  4. A rapid method to achieve aero-engine blade form detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  5. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success.

  6. The Effect of Error Correction vs. Error Detection on Iranian Pre-Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Razie; Latifi, Mehdi; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    This study tries to answer some ever-existent questions in writing fields regarding approaching the most effective ways to give feedback to students' errors in writing by comparing the effect of error correction and error detection on the improvement of students' writing ability. In order to achieve this goal, 60 pre-intermediate English learners…

  7. Predicting College Achievement Using Performance in College-Level Courses Taken in High School, SAT Scores, and High School Rank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Susan M.; Wilbur, Franklin P.

    The potential use of actual performance by high school students in college-level courses as a predictor of college achievement, rather than or in addition to Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, was investigated. At Syracuse University Project Advance over 4,000 students a year in 80 high schools in four states participate in joint high school…

  8. Kentucky Middle College High Schools: Analysis of Academic Achievement and Educational Plans of Middle College High School Students in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The Middle College High School (MCHS) is an optional high-school format, typically co-sponsored by community colleges and local school districts. Students complete core high-school graduation requirements while concurrently completing college courses. This dissertation presents an analysis of the academic achievement and educational plans of the…

  9. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  10. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  11. An Examination of the Relationship among High School Size, Social Capital, and Adolescents' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to enhance both adolescents' social capital and increase achievement, public school districts across the United States have created small high schools. Using data derived from a longitudinal and nationally representative study of U.S. high school students, the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, results show that when adolescents'…

  12. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  13. The Relationship between Principals' Instructional Focus and Academic Achievement of High Poverty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aste, Mahri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teacher perceptions of the frequency and effectiveness of principal instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement in high-poverty elementary schools. In order to accomplish the purpose, survey methodology was employed. Teachers from six high-poverty elementary schools…

  14. The Contribution of Limbic Learning Aptitude to Achievement in High School. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ax, Albert F.; And Others

    Achievement in earning grades in high school was resolved into its intellectual and motivational components. This study employed tests of I.Q., personality inventories and classical and operant conditioning of autonomic nervous system controlled variables. Eleven procedures were given to 99 Black inner city high school seniors. Six physiological…

  15. Achieve Scholarship Spending on Expanding Access to Rigorous High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Legislature enacted the Achieve Scholarship program, which provides a $1,200 scholarship to high school graduates who took rigorous courses in high school and met certain income and other eligibility criteria. In deliberations about this new program, concerns were expressed that certain rigorous courses like Advanced Placement,…

  16. Family Processes Affect Students' Motivation, and Science and Math Achievement in Cypriot High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoulis, Michalis K.; Campbell, James Reed

    2001-01-01

    Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…

  17. 10 Strategies for Raising Achievement and Improving High School Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2004-01-01

    No state can afford to have the percentage of young people who are failing to finish high school remain at the present levels nor can they afford to ease the standards. This document discusses the following 10 strategies that states can implement to raise achievement and increase high school completion rates: (1) Initiate a transition program for…

  18. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  19. Coping with High-Achieving Transnationalist Immigrant Students: The Experience of Israeli Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisikovits, Rivka A.

    2008-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to teacher attitudes toward high-achieving culturally diverse student groups. This in-depth study focuses on the experience of Israeli teachers who tell the story of a decade and a half of educational work with their highly motivated, academically successful immigrant students from the Former Soviet Union. The paper…

  20. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  1. Dual Enrollment Programs: A Comparative Study of High School Students' College Academic Achievement at Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L. Acker

    2012-01-01

    The "ex post facto" causal-comparative study examined the academic achievement of high school students who took their dual credit English or mathematics college credit-bearing course in two different environments, namely, the college setting and the high school setting. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences…

  2. False or Fitting Recognition? The Use of High Performance Bonuses in Motivating Organizational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.

    2007-01-01

    This research undertakes a theoretical and empirical examination of (high performance bonus) systems in government, that is, incentive payments awarded by the federal government to state organizations or statewide programs to motivate and recognize high performance achievements. The paper draws from a multidisciplinary literature on incentives in…

  3. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  4. Classroom Environment, Instructional Resources, and Teaching Differences in High-Performing Kentucky Schools with Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.

    This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…

  5. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  6. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  8. Achievement Outcomes among High School Graduates in College and Career Readiness Programs of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Ewart Sundell, Kirsten; Richardson, George B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between completing the high school portion of a college- and career-preparatory program of study and high school achievement outcomes in a large urban district in the West. Programs of study are secondary-to-postsecondary educational programs mandated by the federal legislation (Perkins IV) governing…

  9. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  10. The Role of Teachers at University: What Do High Achiever Students Look for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Silvia; Almeida, Leandro S.; Vasconcelos, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of students about their teachers have interested the academic and scientific community, regarding the improvement of the quality of higher education. This paper presents data obtained from interviews conducted with ten high achiever engineering students and focuses on the characteristics of teachers that are highly valued by the…

  11. Dual Enrollment Programs: A Comparative Study of High School Students' College Academic Achievement at Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L. Acker

    2012-01-01

    The "ex post facto" causal-comparative study examined the academic achievement of high school students who took their dual credit English or mathematics college credit-bearing course in two different environments, namely, the college setting and the high school setting. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences…

  12. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  13. Causes of Nonattendance and Its Effect on Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Many high schools in America have issues with student nonattendance. The researcher designed this mixed methods study to determine the affect of nonattendance on student achievement and to ascertain whether home-related factors or school-related factors were more significant causes of nonattendance. Both the high school in this study and other…

  14. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  15. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  16. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  17. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  18. Achieving high-precision pointing on ExoplanetSat: initial feasibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pong, Christopher M.; Lim, Sungyung; Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Seager, Sara

    2010-07-01

    ExoplanetSat is a proposed three-unit CubeSat designed to detect down to Earth-sized exoplanets in an orbit out to the habitable zone of Sun-like stars via the transit method. To achieve the required photometric precision to make these measurements, the target star must remain within the same fraction of a pixel, which is equivalent to controlling the pointing of the satellite to the arcsecond level. The satellite will use a two-stage control system: coarse control will be performed by a set of reaction wheels, desaturated by magnetic torque coils, and fine control will be performed by a piezoelectric translation stage. Since no satellite of this size has previously demonstrated this high level of pointing precision, a simulation has been developed to prove the feasibility of realizing such a system. The current baseline simulation has demonstrated the ability to hold the target star to within 0.05 pixels or 1.8 arcseconds (with an 85 mm lens and 15 μm pixels), in the presence of large reaction wheel disturbances as well as external environmental disturbances. This meets the current requirement of holding the target star to 0.14 pixels or 5.0 arcseconds. Other high-risk aspects of the design have been analyzed such as the effect of changing the guide star centroiding error, changing the CMOS sampling frequency, and reaction wheel selection on the slew performance of the satellite. While these results are promising as an initial feasibility analysis, further model improvements and hardware-in-the-loop tests are currently underway.

  19. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  20. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  1. Using Large Data to Analyze the Effect of Learning Attitude for Cooperative Learning between the High Achievement Students and the Low Achievement Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia-Ling, Hsu; Ya-Fung, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of the cooperation learning between the high achievement students and the low achievement students. Nowadays, the influences of the flipped classroom are all over the world in the secondary school education. Therefore, the cooperative learning becomes hot teaching strategies again. However, the learning…

  2. Patterns of Self-Regulation: Patterns of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; Reis, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study attempts to provide insights into the nature, idiosyncrasies, and inter- and intra-individual patterns of academic self-regulatory strategy use among two different populations of university students. Low-achieving (n = 49) and high-achieving students (n = 131) described their self-regulatory strategy use in their…

  3. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class

    PubMed

    Nichols

    1996-10-01

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Eighty students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups receiving cooperative learning instruction. Geometry achievement was assessed using scores from the IOWA Test of Basic Skills and teacher-made exams. An 83-item questionnaire was used as a pretest, posttest, and post-posttest assessment of efficacy, intrinsic valuing, goal orientation, and cognitive processing. Students in the cooperative treatment groups exhibited significantly greater gains than the control group in geometry achievement, efficacy, intrinsic valuing of geometry, learning goal orientation, and reported uses of deep processing strategies. The implications for cooperative group structures and motivation theory are discussed.

  4. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  5. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right…

  6. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  7. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School

    PubMed Central

    LANGENKAMP, AMY G.

    2010-01-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students’ level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  8. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  9. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  10. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-06

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems.

  11. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  12. What Goes into High Educational and Occupational Achievement? Education, Brains, Hard Work, Networks, and Other Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wai, Jonathan; Rindermann, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors that go into high educational and occupational achievement, including hard work, motivation, and luck. But how important is talent? Specifically, how likely were global innovators and leaders intellectually talented or gifted when younger? This paper reviews retrospective data on multiple US samples (Total N = 11,745),…

  13. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  14. Turkish High School Students' Biology Achievement in Relation to Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Necmettin; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the contribution of motivational beliefs, cognitive, and metacognitive strategy use to Turkish high school students' achievement in biology. In order to investigate the specified purpose of the study, 519 tenth-grade students were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith,…

  15. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey teachers'…

  16. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  17. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  18. Filial Piety and Academic Motivation: High-Achieving Students in an International School in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…

  19. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  20. High Achievers from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: The Critical Role of Disciplinary Climate and Grit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Zhu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether school disciplinary climate and grit predicted low socioeconomic status (SES) students being high achievers in mathematics and science with a representative sample of 15-year-old students in the United States. Our analysis, using a two-level logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM), indicated both…

  1. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  2. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  3. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey teachers'…

  4. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  5. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  6. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  7. Standardized Tests as Measurements of Achievement: Does the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Susan Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between HSAP scores and various measures of classroom achievement such as overall GPA, End Of Course Scores and SAT/ACT scores of Berea High School [BHS] students in the classes of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Methodology: The researcher collected the following data for random samples…

  8. Differential Achievement Patterns between Gifted Male and Gifted Female High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Marilyn Ann; Campbell, James Reed

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated factors that contribute to gifted high school students' (N=225) mathematics achievement using the Walberg Productivity Model to analyze interconnections among family processes, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Campbell's Differential Socialization Paradigm was used to analyze gender differences. Findings…

  9. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  10. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  11. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  13. Teachers and Student Achievement in the Chicago Public High Schools. WP 2002-28. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Barrow, Lisa; Sander, William

    2003-01-01

    Using unique administrative data on Chicago public high school students and their teachers, we are able to estimate the importance of teachers on student mathematical achievement. We find that teachers are educationally and statistically important. To be sure, sampling variation and other measurement issues can strongly influence estimates of…

  14. Low- and High-Achieving Sixth-Grade Students' Access to Participation during Mathematics Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lack, Brian; Swars, Susan Lee; Meyers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A descriptive, holistic, multiple-case methodology was applied to examine the nature of participation in discourse of two low- and two high-achieving grade 6 students while solving mathematical tasks in a standards-based classroom. Data collected via classroom observations and student interviews were analyzed through a multiple-cycle coding…

  15. Teaching Practices in Grade 5 Mathematics Classrooms with High-Achieving English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Palacios, Natalia; Banse, Holland; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Leis, Micela

    2017-01-01

    Teachers need more clarity about effective teaching practices as they strive to help their low-achieving students understand mathematics. Our study describes the instructional practices used by two teachers who, by value-added metrics, would be considered "highly effective teachers" in classrooms with a majority of students who were…

  16. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  17. Ego Identity, Cognitive Ability, and Academic Achievement: Variances, Relationships, and Gender Differences Among High School Sophomores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrabel, Thomas J.

    This study examined the contributions of cognitive quantitative ability, cognitive verbal ability, normed test achievement and grade point average to the ego identity of 202 high school sophomores. The instrumentation used in this study was as follows: (1) Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale: Revised Short Form; (2) The 3-R's Abilities and Achievement…

  18. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  19. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  20. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  1. Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of U.S. High School Sophomores Based on Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, James

    2017-01-01

    What are high school students thinking? The purpose of this study was to examine the degree that psychosocial attitudes affect academic achievement in mathematics for students of different races during secondary schooling. Based on a quantitative methodology, data was gathered from a nationally distributed survey involving over 16,000 student…

  2. Examining the Predictive Power of Autonomy and Self-Evaluation on High School Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Toker, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine language learners' autonomy, self-evaluation levels and to examine the predictive power of these two variables on language achievement. The study was designed as mixed method design and was conducted with 108 high school students. Data were collected through an autonomy scale, a self-evaluation scale, schools record on…

  3. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  4. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  5. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  6. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  7. Examining the Relationship between Selected Variables and the Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, David Mark

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the impact of factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, racial socialization, and academic self-concept on the academic achievement of African American high school students has been of interest to scholars for decades. Previous literature has focused much attention on the relationship of each of these constructs and…

  8. Fostering the Promise of High Achieving Mathematics Students through Curriculum Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmood, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests some teachers may not have a wide range of teaching and learning strategies for their most proficient mathematics students, which could impact on these students' learning and ongoing improvement in performance. This paper outlines the different drivers of high achievement and explores the main curriculum differentiation…

  9. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  10. The Impact of High School Size on Math Achievement and Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Duesbery, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the ways in which school size influences two important student outcomes commonly used in school effects research: growth in mathematics achievement and dropout rate. Past research suggests that smaller high schools can lead to increased benefits for students. In this study, multilevel analytic models of the first two waves of…

  11. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  12. Using Computer Animation and Illustration Activities to Improve High School Students' Achievement in Molecular Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rotbain, Yosi; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Our main goal in this study was to determine whether the use of computer animation and illustration activities in high school can contribute to student achievement in molecular genetics. Three comparable groups of eleventh- and twelfth-grade students participated: the control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format,…

  13. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  14. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  15. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  16. Effects of Part-Time Work on School Achievement During High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…

  17. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  18. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  19. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  20. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  1. Reliability and Validity Evidence for Achievement Goal Models in High School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Although empirical research in academic areas provides support for both a 3-factor as well as a 4-factor achievement goal model, both models were proposed and tested with a collegiate sample. Little is known about the generalizability of either model with high school level samples. This study was designed to examine whether the 3-factor model…

  2. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  3. Black High Achieving Undergraduate Mathematics Majors Discuss Success and Persistence in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Roni M.; Frederick, Rona

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of eight Black high-achieving college junior and senior mathematics majors are examined to discern which social and cultural factors shape success and persistence in mathematics. College persistence literature as well as mathematics education studies that document Black students' success in mathematics were used as frameworks to…

  4. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  5. Teaching Practices in Grade 5 Mathematics Classrooms with High-Achieving English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Palacios, Natalia; Banse, Holland; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Leis, Micela

    2017-01-01

    Teachers need more clarity about effective teaching practices as they strive to help their low-achieving students understand mathematics. Our study describes the instructional practices used by two teachers who, by value-added metrics, would be considered "highly effective teachers" in classrooms with a majority of students who were…

  6. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  7. Negative Relationship between Achievement in High School and Self-Concept in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond N.; Grosch, James W.

    Social learning theory implies that there should be a significant positive relationship between academic performance and self-concept and outcomes of recent meta-analyses support this prediction. While path-analytic studies of high school samples in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that ability and achievement each made a small positive…

  8. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  9. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  10. Achievement Locus of Control of Hispanic and Anglo High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; Wagner, Michael J.

    The achievement locus of control of 64 Hispanic and 87 Anglo students enrolled in grades 9-12 in 2 high schools in a large school district in the Southwest was examined with the Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS). Ethnic and sex differences in the attributions of academic success or failure to ability, effort, context, or…

  11. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  12. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  13. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative…

  14. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the appendices to the "High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act" report. It contains the following appendices: (1) Example of Context for Assessing State-Level Stakes Sheet--Connecticut; (2) Example of Completed Rewards and Sanctions Worksheet--Connecticut; (3) Directions…

  15. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  16. The Effect of Technology Integration on High School Students' Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kara

    2016-01-01

    This literature review presents a critical appraisal of current research on the role technology integration plays in high school students' literacy achievement. It identifies the gaps within the research through comprehensive analysis. The review develops an argument that the use of laptops in secondary English classrooms has a significant impact…

  17. High School Students' Cognitive Flexibility Is Predicted by Self-Efficacy and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Binnaz Kiran; Özcan, H. Duygu; Sezgin, Mehtap

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the prediction cognitive flexibility obtained by general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and achievement is examined. This study is executed in 2014-2015 academic year on 760 high school students who are between ages 15 and 18. Cognitive flexibility Scale is developed by Bilgin…

  18. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  19. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest…

  20. Examining the Predictive Power of Autonomy and Self-Evaluation on High School Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Toker, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine language learners' autonomy, self-evaluation levels and to examine the predictive power of these two variables on language achievement. The study was designed as mixed method design and was conducted with 108 high school students. Data were collected through an autonomy scale, a self-evaluation scale, schools record on…

  1. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  2. Effects of a Reform High School Mathematics Curriculum on Student Achievement: Whom Does It Benefit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, Erin E.; Confrey, Jere

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of an integrated reform-based curriculum to a subject-specific curriculum on student learning of 19,526 high school algebra students. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for variation in student achievement, the impact of the reform-based "Core-Plus Mathematics" curricular materials on student…

  3. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  4. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  5. Student Achievement and Attitude in a Satellite-Delivered High School Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elaine D.; Rainey, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Discusses results of a study of high school students that was conducted to determine, through measures of student achievement, the educational effectiveness of interactive satellite delivery compared with traditional classroom instruction in anatomy and physiology and to compare the attitudes toward anatomy and physiology of distance students and…

  6. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Indian High School Students in Federal and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Willard P.

    A longitudinal study was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in academic achievement between senior high American Indian students in Federal on-reservation, Federal off-reservation, public on-reservation, and public off-reservation schools. The purpose of the study was to gather a variety of data on psychological and…

  7. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  8. Further Evidence of an Engagement-Achievement Paradox among U.S. High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, David J.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Achievement, engagement, and students' quality of experience were compared by racial and ethnic group in a sample of students (N = 586) drawn from 13 high schools with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic student populations. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 3,529 samples of classroom experiences were analyzed along with self-reported…

  9. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  10. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  11. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  12. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  13. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  14. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  15. Self-Graded and Teacher-Graded Achievement in a BSCS High School Biology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Wallace Martin

    The effect of self-grading on biology students exposed to the same instruction (except grading) in an upper-middle class public school was investigated by comparing self-graded and teacher-graded populations in (1) achievement in high school biology, (2) level of aspiration behavior, (3) critical thinking skills, and (4) productivity. The…

  16. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  17. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  18. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  19. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  20. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  1. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  2. Comparing Computer Game and Traditional Lecture Using Experience Ratings from High and Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Green, Richard; Nilsen, Trond; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Computer games are purported to be effective instructional tools that enhance motivation and improve engagement. The aim of this study was to investigate how tertiary student experiences change when instruction was computer game based compared to lecture based, and whether experiences differed between high and low achieving students. Participants…

  3. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  4. Overall Findings: Common Practices and Procedures across Schools. High Achieving Schools Study. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajeri-Nelson, Nazanin; Bamberry, Lynn; Dunaway, Wendy; Hunter, Ellen; Klein, Jeff; Kuntz, Courtney; Negley, Tina; Singer, Robin; Ottenbreit, Rebekah; Young, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the factors that were commonly noted across five high achieving elementary schools in Colorado: (1) Burlington; (2) Canyon Creek; (3) Soaring Eagles; (4) South Lakewood; and (5) Tavelli. After 10 days of onsite visits to participating schools, noteworthy commonalities surfaced across the schools. Policies, practices, and…

  5. Concept Mapping, Vee Mapping, and Achievement: Results of a Field Study with Black High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, James D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents and discusses results of a project that studied the effectiveness of concept and Vee mapping strategies in helping Black inner-city high school students (N=250) learn biology concepts meaningfully. The project sought to assess effects on achievement of the two methods as part of a carefully designed sequence of instruction. (Author/JN)

  6. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest…

  7. The Effect of Journal Writing on Mathematics Achievement among High-Ability Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tracy; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of journal writing on mathematics achievement in high-ability students in Singapore. It assessed both the cognitive benefits of journal writing (as evidenced through gains in math test scores) and the socio-affective benefits of journal writing (as demonstrated in their personal reflections) as the students learned…

  8. High Speed Genetic Lips Detection by Dynamic Search Domain Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Takuya; Wakasa, Yuji; Tanaka, Kanya; Karungaru, Stephen; Fukumi, Minoru

    In this paper, high-speed size and orientation invariant lips detection of a talking person in an active scene using template matching and genetic algorithms is proposed. As part of the objectives, we also try to acquire numerical parameters to represent the lips. The information is very important for many applications, where high performance is required, such as audio-visual speech recognition, speaker identification systems, robot perception and personal mobile devices interfaces. The difficulty in lips detection is mainly due to deformations and geometric changes of the lips during speech and the active scene by free camera motion. In order to enhance the performance in speed and accuracy, initially, the performance is improved on a single still image, that is, the base of video processing. Our proposed system is based on template matching using genetic algorithms (GA). Only one template is prepared per experiment. The template is the closed mouth of a subject, because the application is for personal devices. In our previous study, the main problem was trade-off between search accuracy and search speed. To overcome this problem, we use two methods: scaling window and dynamic search domain control (SD-Control). We therefore focus on the population size of the GA, because it has a direct effect on search accuracy and speed. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated by performing computer simulations. We achieved a lips detection accuracy of 91.33% at an average processing time of 33.70 milliseconds per frame.

  9. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  10. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  11. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  12. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Membranes for Detection of High-Mass Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Park, J.; Aksamija, Z.; Arbulu, M.; Blick, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nanoscale by now offer applications in mass sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical mass sensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zepto- or yoctogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a classical scale. However, the small effective size and long response time for weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restricts their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS), on the other hand, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) and their charge-amplifying detectors are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as TOF. The principle we describe here for ion detection is based on the conversion of kinetic energy of the biomolecules into thermal excitation of chemical vapor deposition diamond nanomembranes via phonons followed by phonon-mediated detection via field emission of thermally emitted electrons. We fabricate ultrathin diamond membranes with large lateral dimensions for MALDI TOF MS of high-mass proteins. These diamond membranes are realized by straightforward etching methods based on semiconductor processing. With a minimal thickness of 100 nm and cross sections of up to 400 ×400 μ m2 , the membranes offer extreme aspect ratios. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI TOF analysis over a broad range from insulin to albumin. The resulting data in detection show much enhanced resolution as compared to existing detectors, which can offer better sensitivity and overall performance in resolving protein masses.

  13. Radio Detection of Ultra High Energy Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays interact with the cosmic microwave background radiation, resulting in the production of energetic pions. These interactions result in energy loss by the incident cosmic ray leading to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) feature in the cosmic ray spectrum at about 4×10^19 eV, and the decay of the charged pions produced in these interactions results in neutrinos known as Berezinskii-Zatsepin (BZ) neutrinos. These neutrinos interact only via the weak interaction, with negligible absorption over cosmic distances but interaction lengths in the Earth of a few hundred kilometers. When these neutrinos interact in a dense medium, the electromagnetic component of the resulting shower develops a negative charge excess due to Compton scattering of the electrons from the medium and depletion of positrons by in-flight annihilation. This macroscopic charge excess moves at nearly the speed of light, and its passage through a dielectric medium results in coherent Cherenkov radiation at radio wavelengths longer than the size of the radiating region. This process is known as the Askaryan mechanism, and has been observed in accelerator experiments. The radio pulse is impulsive, and can be detected over large volumes in materials with long radio attenuation lengths, most notably the cold ice in the Antarctic ice sheet. Upper limits on the neutrino flux obtained by the balloon-borne instrument ANITA are now approaching the expected flux, and prototype in-ice antenna arrays are now being deployed. Prospects for large detectors capable of detecting hundreds of these neutrinos will be discussed. This work is supported by NASA under grants NNX08AC17G and NNX11AC45G, by the NSF under grant PHY-0758082, and by the Ohio State Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CCAPP).

  14. Achieving High Resolution Measurements Within Limited Bandwidth Via Sensor Data Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    are buffered separately and then saved when peaks are detected. The data are time stamped and inserted into a first-in, first-out ( FIFO ) buffer...16 samples around the peak are saved. These samples are combined with 2 solar sync words and 2 time stamp words, and are buffered into a FIFO for...Output Frame 5 A/D High Speed Fames Low Speed Fames Solar Buffer Peak Detect Time- Stamped Solar Pulse TX Buffer Solar FIFO

  15. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  16. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  17. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  18. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  19. Course Syllabi: High Expectations...High Achievement. Social Studies (and) History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    The document describes social studies and history courses offered in the junior high and senior high schools of Henry County, Tennessee. The syllabi were developed as part of a Teacher's Corps Demonstration Project. The overall objectives of the syllabi are to inform students and parents of the minimum competencies expected in social studies and…

  20. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  1. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  2. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  3. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  4. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  5. Computer-Based Drill and Practice in Arithmetic: Widening the Gap between High- and Low-Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1988-01-01

    The differential effects of computer-assisted instruction for high-achieving and low-achieving students were examined for seven elementary students of varied background. Higher-achieving students were more able to adjust to the requirements of computer work and to derive benefit from it than were lower-achieving students. Implications for teaching…

  6. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  7. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  8. Peace of Mind, Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement in Filipino High School Students.

    PubMed

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-04-09

    Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.

  9. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  10. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones: Tactics to achieve high reactivity, enantioselectivity, and wide scope

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Ru complexes with chiral diphosphines and amine-based ligands achieve high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the hydrogenation of ketones under neutral to slightly basic conditions. The chiral environment is controllable by changing the combination of these two ligands. A concerted six-membered transition state is proposed to be the origin of the high reactivity. The η6-arene/TsDPEN–Ru and MsDPEN–Cp*Ir catalysts effect the asymmetric reaction under slightly acidic conditions. A variety of chiral secondary alcohols are obtained in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:20228621

  11. Facilitating High Achievement: High School Principals' Reflections on Their Successful Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.; Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The burden for school improvement in a time of accountability falls squarely on the shoulders of principals as new requirements demand that they act as instructional leaders. The purpose of this study is to discover the common themes of school leadership and instructional practices of high school principals at successful schools in…

  12. Weak signal detection: A discrete window of opportunity for achieving 'Vision 90:90:90'?

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    UNAIDS' Vision 90:90:90 is a call to 'end AIDS'. Developing predictive foresight of the unpredictable changes that this journey will entail could contribute to the ambition of 'ending AIDS'. There are few opportunities for managing unpredictable changes. We introduce 'weak signal detection' as a potential opportunity to fill this void. Combining futures and complexity theory, we reflect on two pilot case studies that involved the Archetype Extraction technique and the SenseMaker(®) Collector(™) tool. Both the piloted techniques have the potentials to surface weak signals--but there is room for improvement. A management response to a complex weak signal requires pattern management, rather than an exclusive focus on behaviour management. Weak signal detection is a window of opportunity to improve resilience to unpredictable changes in the HIV/AIDS landscape that can both reduce the risk that emerges from the changes and increase the visibility of opportunities to exploit the unpredictable changes that could contribute to 'ending AIDS'.

  13. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  14. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

  15. Achieving High Pressure Shock Hugoniot Measurements in Cylindrical Geometry Utilizing a High-Explosive Pulsed Power Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Achieving High Pressure Shock Hugoniot Measurements in Cylindrical Geometry Utilizing a High- Explosive Pulsed Power Drive J. H. Peterson Los Alamos...is used to drive a >60MA current that accelerates an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. A simple circuit model is presented that models...the DEMG to reasonable accuracy and is then coupled with 1-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of both the liner and target. 2-D hydrodynamic

  16. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  17. Family Processes, SES, and Family Structure Differentially Affect Academic Self-Concepts and Achievement of Gifted High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Marilyn Ann; Campbell, James Reed; Beasley, Mark

    A study involving 109 male and 116 female high achieving high school students (ages 16-18) and their parents investigated the causal linkages among home environment, self-concepts, prior ability, and socioeconomic status on mathematics achievement, science achievement, and Scholastic Aptitude Test-Quantitative (SAT-Q) and Verbal scores. Students…

  18. GPU based cloud system for high-performance arrhythmia detection with parallel k-NN algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tae Joon Jun; Hyun Ji Park; Hyuk Yoo; Young-Hak Kim; Daeyoung Kim

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an GPU based Cloud system for high-performance arrhythmia detection. Pan-Tompkins algorithm is used for QRS detection and we optimized beat classification algorithm with K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN). To support high performance beat classification on the system, we parallelized beat classification algorithm with CUDA to execute the algorithm on virtualized GPU devices on the Cloud system. MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database is used for validation of the algorithm. The system achieved about 93.5% of detection rate which is comparable to previous researches while our algorithm shows 2.5 times faster execution time compared to CPU only detection algorithm.

  19. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

  20. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  1. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1994-09-06

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]18] atm cc sec[sup [minus]1]. 2 figs.

  2. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapatic R.

    1994-01-01

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1.times.10.sup.-18 atm cc sec.sup.-1.

  3. Motivational profiles in high school students: Differences in behavioural and emotional homework engagement and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Valle, Antonio; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-12-12

    This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    overcome thermal noise in the receiver circuits: this is what makes it possible to achieve near-quantum-limited detection in the presence of strong background. Following quantum-limited coherent detection, the outputs of the individual photodetectors are automatically aligned in phase by use of one or more adaptive array compensation algorithms [e.g., the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm]. Then the outputs are combined and the resulting signal is processed to extract the high-rate information, as though the PPM signal were received by a single photodetector. In a continuing series of experiments to test this method (see Fig. 1), the local oscillator has a wavelength of 1,064 nm, and another laser is used as a signal transmitter at a slightly different wavelength to establish an IF of about 6 MHz. There are 16 photodetectors in a 4 4 focal-plane array; the detector outputs are digitized at a sampling rate of 25 MHz, and the signals in digital form are combined by use of the LMS algorithm. Convergence of the adaptive combining algorithm in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence for optical PPM signals has already been demonstrated in the laboratory; the combined output is shown in Fig. 2(a), and Fig. 2(b) shows the behavior of the phase of the combining weights as a function of time (or samples). We observe that the phase of the weights has a sawtooth shape due to the continuously changing phase in the down-converted output, which is not exactly at zero frequency. Detailed performance analysis of this coherent free-space optical communication system in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence is currently under way.

  5. Nutrition and education. III. Educational achievement and food habits of Chilean elementary and high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Aguayo, M; Ballester, D; Marambio, M; Zacarías, I

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the educational achievement (EA) of Chilean elementary and high-school graduates with their food habits. For this purpose, a random sample of 550 schoolers from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, graduating from elementary and high school (1:1) of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was selected. Food habits were determined through a specially designed questionnaire and defined as the frequency of consumption of the food groups, expressed as days per week. The EA was established through the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary-and high-school graduates-, respectively. Results revealed that EA was found significantly and positively correlated with the frequency of consumption of dairy products, meat products and eggs, in both elementary and high school graduates. A significant and inverse correlation between EA and the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption was observed in both educational levels, and with miscellaneous products, only in elementary school graduates. Food habits explained 24.4% and 16.6% of the EA variance, in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. The frequency of consumption of dairy products was the independent variable with the greatest explanatory power in EA variance (approximately above 70% of the explained variance). These results are important to consider for educational planning focused on the School Feeding Program.

  6. Achieving high strength and high electrical conductivity in Ag/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M. Z.; Xu, L. J.; Shi, J.; Pan, G. J.; Cao, Z. H.; Meng, X. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the microstructure evolution of Ag/Cu multilayers and its influences on the hardness and electric resistivity with individual layer thickness (h) ranging from 3 to 50 nm. The hardness increases with the decreasing h in the range of 5-20 nm. The barrier to dislocation transmission by stacking faults, twin boundaries, and interfaces leads to hardness enhancement. Simultaneously, in order to get high conductivity, the strong textures in-layers were induced to form for reducing the amount of grain boundaries. The resistivity keeps low even when h decreases to 10 nm. Furthermore, we developed a facile model to evaluate the comprehensive property of Ag/Cu multilayers—the results indicate that the best combination of strength and conductivity occurs when h = 10 nm.

  7. Ultra-high cell-density silicon photomultipliers with high detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Regazzoni, Veronica; Paternoster, Giovanni; Borghi, Giacomo; Piemonte, Claudio; Zorzi, Nicola

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are arrays of many single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), all connected in parallel. Each SPAD is sensitive to single photons and the SiPM gives an output proportional to the number of detected photons. These sensors are becoming more and more popular in different applications, from high-energy physics to spectroscopy, and they have been significantly improved over last years, decreasing the noise, increasing the cell fill-factor (FF) and thus achieving very high photon-detection efficiency (PDE). In FBK (Trento, Italy), we developed new SiPM technologies with high-density (HD) and, more recently, ultra-high-density (UHD) of cells (i.e. density of SPADs). These technologies employ deep-trenches between cells, for electrical and optical isolation. As an extreme case the smallest-cell, SiPM, i.e. with 5μm cell pitch, has about 40000 SPADs per squared millimeter. Such small SPAD dimensions gives a significantly high dynamic range to the SiPM. These small-cells SiPM have a lower correlated noise (including lower afterpulsing probability) and a faster recharge time (in the order of few nanoseconds), and they also preserve a very good detection efficiency (despite the small SPAD dimension).

  8. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  9. The potential for achieving superplasticity in high-entropy alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmir, Hamed; Kawasaki, Megumi; Langdon, Terence G.

    2017-05-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are now becoming important because they offer unique combinations of solid solution strengthening and good ductility at low temperatures. Only limited information is at present available on the high temperature mechanical properties of these materials. Nevertheless, it is evident that, as in conventional metallic alloys, processing through the application of severe plastic deformation can reduce the grain size to the nanometer range and this provides a potential for achieving good superplastic elongations. The superplastic data available to date are examined in this review and a comparison is made between the behaviour of HEAs and conventional superplastic alloys.

  10. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  11. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  12. Highly sensitive detection using microring resonator and nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougot-Robin, K.; Hoste, J. W.; Le Thomas, N.; Bienstman, P.; Edel, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing physical and biological scientists is the accurate detection and identification of single molecules in free-solution environments. The ability to perform such sensitive and selective measurements opens new avenues for a large number of applications in biological, medical and chemical analysis, where small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations are the norm. Access to information at the single or few molecules scale is rendered possible by a fine combination of recent advances in technologies. We propose a novel detection method that combines highly sensitive label-free resonant sensing obtained with high-Q microcavities and position control in nanoscale pores (nanopores). In addition to be label-free and highly sensitive, our technique is immobilization free and does not rely on surface biochemistry to bind probes on a chip. This is a significant advantage, both in term of biology uncertainties and fewer biological preparation steps. Through combination of high-Q photonic structures with translocation through nanopore at the end of a pipette, or through a solid-state membrane, we believe significant advances can be achieved in the field of biosensing. Silicon microrings are highly advantageous in term of sensitivity, multiplexing, and microfabrication and are chosen for this study. In term of nanopores, we both consider nanopore at the end of a nanopipette, with the pore being approach from the pipette with nanoprecise mechanical control. Alternatively, solid state nanopores can be fabricated through a membrane, supporting the ring. Both configuration are discussed in this paper, in term of implementation and sensitivity.

  13. Heterogeneity in High Math Achievement across Schools: Evidence from the American Mathematics Competitions. NBER Working Paper No. 18277

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Glenn; Swanson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores differences in the frequency with which students from different schools reach high levels of math achievement. Data from the American Mathematics Competitions is used to produce counts of high-scoring students from more than two thousand public, coeducational, non-magnet, non-charter U.S. high schools. High-achieving students…

  14. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  15. The role of shaping in achieving high performance in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.

    1994-10-01

    Experiments to study the effect of plasma shape on performance show that the high performance levels characteristic of VH-mode plasmas are only obtained for high triangularity ({delta}). A characteristic difference in central heating efficiency is observed when high and low {delta} plasmas are compared. The authors find this difference to correlate well with the attainment of Mercier stability. The core plasma for the high {delta} cases achieves Mercier stability when q{sub 0} rises above a critical value which depends on {delta}, providing direct access to the second-stable regime. Other attributes of the VH-mode commence after a delay. The rise in q{sub 0} is attributable to the radial gradients in the neutral beam and bootstrap current sources. Simulation indicates that such plasmas would persist for many seconds if the rise in density could be controlled, maintaining a centrally peaked neutral beam deposition profile.

  16. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  17. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  18. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  19. Nutrition and education. II. Educational achievement and nutrient intake of Chilean elementary and high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Marambio, M; Ballester, D; Zacarías, I; Aguayo, M

    1991-12-01

    The interrelationships between educational achievement (EA) and nutrient intake were investigated in 550 Chilean adolescent schoolers graduating from elementary and high school. The random sample included schoolers from both educational levels (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1), and from high, medium, and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1). Standard procedures for 24-hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO Pattern. EA was measured by means of the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school, respectively. In elementary school graduates, results showed a significant and positive correlation between EA (AEP) and energy, protein, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, calcium and vitamin A intake (Multiple r = 0.456 p less than 0.01; r2 = 0.208). The School Feeding Program beneficiaries who belonged to the low SES presented the lowest EA (AEP) together with a deficient nutrient intake, especially for energy, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A and calcium, at the same time that they registered the lowest values for those anthropometric parameters, indicators of past nutrition, that is to say height-for-age, weight-for-age, head circumference-for-age and a higher upper-to-lower segment ratio, as compared with non-beneficiaries from the same SES and with those from the higher strata. In high-school graduates, EA (AAT) was found to be significantly and positively correlated with protein, calcium, riboflavin and iron intake (Multiple r = 0.438 p less than 0.001; r2 = 0.192). Nevertheless, these interrelationship are strongly related to SES and sex. Results showed that educational achievement (EA) is significantly and positively associated with nutrient intake, this fact being important for educational planning related to the School Feeding Program.

  20. Understanding the mathematics and science achievement and growth trajectories of high ability high school students using hierarchical linear modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen-Ferrer, Bellasanta

    2009-12-01

    This study used longitudinal data and individual, family, and academic-related matriculation variables to examine trends in initial status and growth trajectories in overall academics, mathematics, and science achievement among 224 high ability high school Asian students. Results indicate that females have an advantage in both initial status and growth rates in overall academics and science. None of the family variables entered in the models were found to be significantly related to overall academics grade point average. All available matriculation variables entered into the models explained less than or at most about half the variance in initial achievement status and growth rate in overall academics and science but not in mathematics. These results strongly imply that other factors, notably family and school and/or classroom-related variables, not measured by the ones used in the models could explain the expected variance in initial status and growth rate of the students especially in Mathematics.

  1. A high-Tc SQUID micro-detector with a high performance magnetic shield for contaminant detection in industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, H.; Hatsukade, Y.; Otani, T.; Suzuki, S.; Nagaishi, T.

    2007-11-01

    A high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system for the detection of magnetic foreign matter in industrial products was developed. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products such as lithium ion batteries. Metallic particles with outer dimensions less than 100 µm cannot be detected by conventional x-ray imaging. Therefore we developed a detection system based on a high-Tc SQUID microscope with a high performance magnetic shield. The use of SQUID microscopes with a 0.5 mm thick vacuum window was proposed. This design enables the SQUID to approach the object to be measured as close as 1 mm and enhances the sensitivity. A new magnetic shield with sleeves was carefully designed and built. As a result, we could successfully measure small particles sized 100 µm. This detection level was hard to achieve using a conventional x-ray detection method.

  2. High School Principal Instructional Leadership Behavior in High and Low Need and High and Low Achievement Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Theodore T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher perceptions of the ten specific principal instructional leadership behaviors of Hallinger's Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale as they relate to school need, school achievement, years of experience as a teacher, and years working with the current principal. This quantitative…

  3. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed.

  4. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  5. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  6. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, K; Alkaisi, M M

    2013-01-11

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF(3)/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min(-1) etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  7. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, K.; Alkaisi, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF3/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min-1 etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  8. Subpixel shift with Fourier transform to achieve efficient and high-quality image interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin-Sheng; Weinhous, Martin S.

    1999-05-01

    A new approach to image interpolation is proposed. Different from the conventional scheme, the interpolation of a digital image is achieved with a sub-unity coordinate shift technique. In the approach, the original image is first shifted by sub-unity distances matching the locations where the image values need to be restored. The original and the shifted images are then interspersed together, yielding an interpolated image. High quality sub-unity image shift which is crucial to the approach is accomplished by implementing the shift theorem of Fourier transformation. It is well known that under the Nyquist sampling criterion, the most accurate image interpolation can be achieved with the interpolating function (sinc function). A major drawback is its computation efficiency. The present approach can achieve an interpolation quality as good as that with the sinc function since the sub-unity shift in Fourier domain is equivalent to shifting the sinc function in spatial domain, while the efficiency, thanks to the fast Fourier transform, is very much improved. In comparison to the conventional interpolation techniques such as linear or cubic B-spline interpolation, the interpolation accuracy is significantly enhanced. In order to compensate for the under-sampling effects in the interpolation of 3D medical images owing to a larger inter-slice distance, proper window functions were recommended. The application of the approach to 2- and 3-D CT and MRI images produced satisfactory interpolation results.

  9. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  10. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society.

    PubMed

    Izatt, Reed M; Izatt, Steven R; Bruening, Ronald L; Izatt, Neil E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-04-21

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling rates and improved processing of metals using conventional and green chemistry technologies. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low recycling rates of metals coupled with increasing demand for high-tech products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability, including projected use of urban mining, in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various government, industry, and public stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements, including use of molecular recognition, in selective metal separation technology, especially for metal recovery from dilute feed stocks is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  11. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  12. Achieving high and equitable coverage of adolescent HPV vaccine in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sinka, Katy; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Gordon, Ruth; Love, John; Potts, Alison; Donaghy, Martin; Robertson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The national immunisation records of over 220,000 girls offered vaccine in the routine or catch-up programme of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) programme in Scotland were analysed. Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to determine individual and organisational factors associated with uptake. Age, school year, school denomination, deprivation and, for school-leavers, mode of delivery were explored. Additional aggregate data were used to examine the effect of late uptake of missed doses in the routine vaccination programme. School-based delivery initially achieved over 80% uptake of complete courses in routine and catch-up age groups. Within this context of generally high coverage, there was an association between individual level deprivation and lower uptake, and a decline in in-year course completion over time. However, later uptake of missed doses in the following year substantially decreased these effects. There was no influence on uptake of the type of school (non-denominational/denominational). Vaccination of school-leavers in the catch-up campaign had lower coverage, with 50% starting and 30% completing the course in-year. There was no clear advantage of vaccination through general practice or through Board-run clinics in reaching this group. School-based vaccination can achieve high and equitable uptake of a multidose vaccine in a routine immunisation programme. Sustained high coverage with HPV vaccine across Scotland provides a stable platform for planning future strategies for cervical screening and understanding the impact of the vaccination at a population level.

  13. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  14. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  15. A new high school science program and its effect on student achievement in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Robert

    Student achievement in mathematics and science is a high educational priority worldwide. The American educational system is not meeting its objectives for these subjects: our students are performing below international standards. The problem is endemic, leading to the conclusion that it is structural. During the last seven years, I have led the creation and implementation of a program whose aim is to address this problem. The structure of this program stresses horizontal and vertical curriculum articulations in order to increase curriculum efficiency and meaningfulness to students. My first aim, in conducting this study, was to determine the program's effectiveness. Since this was a long term program created in a real world environment it would be difficult to use experimental or quasi-experimental analysis. However, I was able to develop a plausible argument for the effectiveness of the program by using two measures to create a baseline for student aptitude and three measures to determine student achievement. Together these showed that the school's students, while typical of those in New Jersey, achieved very positive results in mathematic and science. The likelihood that the new program was responsible for this was enhanced by the fact that the verbal and mathematical aptitudes of the students were comparable, but their achievement in areas outside mathematic and science were not exceptional. My second aim was to provide documentation so that the program could be replicated at other schools. This included the scope and sequence of the mathematics and science courses; the curricula of the physics courses; an explanation the pedagogical approach used in the physics courses, and sample chapters of a textbook being written to support the first year physic course. Whiles those documents supply a snapshot of the current state of the program; they are probably insufficient to replicate it. This would also require an understanding of the program's rationale. Towards this

  16. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification

    PubMed Central

    MULLER, CHANDRA; RIEGLE-CRUMB, CATHERINE; SCHILLER, KATHRYN S.; WILKINSON, LINDSEY; FRANK, KENNETH A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. Setting This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994–1995. Population/Participants/Subjects Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). Research Design Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students’ achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  17. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  18. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity.

  19. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students’ quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student’s GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  20. Mathematical and numerical models to achieve high speed with special-purpose parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-07-01

    One simulation facility that has been developed is the BNL Plant Analyzer, currently set up for BWR plant simulations at up to seven times faster than real-time process speeds. The principal hardware components of the BNL Plant Analyzer are two units of special-purpose parallel processors, the AD10 of Applied Dynamics International and a PDP-11/34 host computer. The AD10 is specifically designed for time-critical system simulations, utilizing the modern parallel processing technology with pipeline architecture. The simulator employs advanced modeling techniques and efficient integration techniques in conjunction with the parallel processors to achieve high speed performance.

  1. Multimode nondestructive detecting method for high-speed rail defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingjian; Cheng, Xingzhen; Wan, Guangnan; Liu, Ting; Fu, Ying; Wang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    It is very important to detect the surface defects of the high-speed rail for security concerns. A multimode detecting method, which integrates high resolution of optical image, high precision of photoacoustic detection and strong penetration of ultrasound detecting, is proposed for the rail defect detection. Utilizing the surface defect characteristics obtained from optical signal, the photoacoustic and ultrasound scanning region could be determined, and rail shallow and internal defect characteristics can be acquired subsequently. Eventually, fusing three modal signals mentioned above, the information of the entire rail defect, including type, extension trend and depth can be detected. It has been proved that the multimode method can improve the detecting efficiency, and enlarge the detection range in the meantime.

  2. High-Collection-Efficiency Fluorescence Detection Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisco, Thomas; Cazorla, Maria; Swanson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A new fluorescence cell has been developed for the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of formaldehyde. The cell is used to sample a flow of air that contains trace concentrations of formaldehyde. The cell provides a hermetically sealed volume in which a flow of air containing formaldehyde can be illuminated by a laser. The cell includes the optics for transmitting the laser beam that is used to excite the formaldehyde and for collecting the resulting fluorescence. The novelty of the cell is its small size and simple design that provides a more robust and cheaper alternative to the state of the art. Despite its simplicity, the cell provides the same sensitivity to detection as larger, more complicated cells.

  3. Achieving high mass-throughput of therapeutic proteins through parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Basha, Jonida; Lacasse, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Parvovirus retentive filters that assure removal of viruses and virus-like particles during the production of therapeutic proteins significantly contribute to total manufacturing costs. Operational approaches that can increase throughput and reduce filtration area would result in a significant cost savings. A combination of methods was used to achieve high throughputs of an antibody or therapeutic protein solution through three parvovirus retentive filters. These methods included evaluation of diatomaceous earth or size-based prefilters, the addition of additives, and the optimization of protein concentration, temperature, buffer composition, and solution pH. An optimum temperature of 35°C was found for maximizing throughput through the Virosart CPV and Viresolve Pro filters. Mass-throughput values of 7.3, 26.4, and 76.2 kg/m(2) were achieved through the Asahi Planova 20N, Virosart CPV, and Viresolve Pro filters, respectively, in 4 h of processing. Mass-throughput values of 73, 137, and 192 kg/m(2) were achieved through a Millipore Viresolve Pro filter in 4.0, 8.8, and 22.1 h of processing, respectively, during a single experiment. However, large-scale parvovirus filtration operations are typically controlled to limit volumetric throughput to below the level achieved during small-scale virus spiking experiments. The virus spike may cause significant filter plugging, limiting throughput. Therefore newer parvovirus filter spiking strategies should be adopted that may lead to more representative viral clearance data and higher utilization of large-scale filter capacity.

  4. Achieving High Contrast for Exoplanet Imaging with a Kalman Filter and Stroke Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Carlotti, A.; Vanderbei, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    High contrast imaging requires focal plane wavefront control and estimation to correct aberrations in an optical system; non-common path errors prevent the use of conventional estimation with a separate wavefront sensor. The High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (HCIL) at Princeton has led the development of several techniques for focal plane wavefront control and estimation. In recent years, we developed a Kalman filter for optimal wavefront estimation. Our Kalman filter algorithm is an improvement upon DM Diversity, which requires at least two images pairs each iteration and does not utilize any prior knowledge of the system. The Kalman filter is a recursive estimator, meaning that it uses the data from prior estimates along with as few as one new image pairs per iteration to update the electric field estimate. Stroke minimization has proven to be a feasible controller for achieving high contrast. While similar to a variation of Electric Field Conjugation (EFC), stroke minimization achieves the same contrast with less stroke on the DMs. We recently utilized these algorithms to achieve high contrast for the first time in our experiment at the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our HCIT experiment was also the first demonstration of symmetric dark hole correction in the image plane using two DMs--this is a major milestone for future space missions. Our ongoing work includes upgrading our optimal estimator to include an estimate of the incoherent light in the system, which allows for simultaneous estimation of the light from a planet along with starlight. The two-DM experiment at the HCIT utilized a shaped pupil coronagraph. Those tests utilized ripple style, free-standing masks etched out of silicon, but our current work is in designing 2-D optimized reflective shaped pupils. In particular, we have created several designs for the AFTA telescope, whose pupil presents major hurdles because of its atypical pupil obstructions. Our

  5. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  6. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  7. Quantum witness of high-speed low-noise single-photon detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Huang, Kun; Liang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Xueshun; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10⁻³ per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime.

  8. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  9. Important learning factors in high- and low-achieving students in undergraduate biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Knudson, Duane

    2017-07-21

    The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence. Partial correlations controlling for all other variables in the study, confirmed previous studies that students' grade point average (p < 0.01), interest in biomechanics, (p < 0.05), and physics credits passed (p < 0.05) are factors uniquely associated with learning biomechanics concepts. Students' confidence when encountering difficult biomechanics concepts was also significantly (p < 0.05) associated with final grade. There were significant differences between top 15% and bottom 15% achievers on these variables (p < 0.05), as well as on readings completed, work to pay for college per week, and learning epistemology. Consequently, instructors should consider strategies to promote students' interest in biomechanics and confidence in solving relevant professional problems in order to improve learning for both low- and high-ability students.

  10. In Situ Formation of Microfibrillar Crystalline Superstructure: Achieving High-Performance Polylactide.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhai; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Jianfeng; Wu, Hong; Guo, Shaoyun; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jiang; Shen, Jiabin; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Ying

    2017-08-09

    As a biobased and biodegradable polyester, polylactide (PLA) is widely applied in disposable products, biomedical devices, and textiles. Nevertheless, due to its inherent brittleness and inferior strength, simultaneously reinforcing and toughening of PLA without sacrificing its biodegradability is highly desirable. In this work, a robust assembly consisting of compact and well-ordered microfibrillar crystalline superstructure (FCS) surrounded by slightly oriented amorphism, is achieved by a combined external force field. Unlike the classic crystalline superstructures such as shish-kebabs, cylindrites, and lamellae, the newfound FCS with diameter of about 100 nm and length of several tens of micrometers is aggregated with well-aligned crystalline nanofibers. FCS can serve as discontinuous fiber to self-reinforce the amorphous PLA; more importantly, FCS can also act as rivets to pin the propagating fibrillar crazes leading to the formation of dense fibrillar crazes during stretching, which dissipates much energy and translates the failure of PLA from brittle to ductile. Consequently, PLA with FCS exhibits exceptionally simultaneous enhancement in ductility, strength, and stiffness, outperforming normal PLA with increments of 728, 55, and 70% in elongation at break, strength, and modulus, respectively. Therefore, FSC exhibits competitive advantages in achieving high-performance PLA even for other semicrystalline polymers. More significantly, this newfound crystalline superstructure (FCS) provides a new structural model to establish the correlation between structure and performance.

  11. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    PubMed

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  12. What makes a good program? A case study of a school admitting high academic achievers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching Man

    2008-10-10

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored the administration and implementation of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum) of the Project P.A.T.H.S. The case study method was used to explore perceptions of the teachers and the project coordinator of program effectiveness, and to identify various factors for program success. A school admitting high academic achievers was selected, and site visits, as well as individual and focus group interviews, were conducted with the program coordinator, social worker, and course teachers. The results suggested that clear vision and program goals, high quality of curriculum, helpful leadership, positive teacher attitude, and strong administrative support are factors for program success. Analyzing the data enables the researchers to understand the characteristics of a successful program as well as the interplay among factors for producing success.

  13. Minute Current Detection during Anodic Oxidation by Atomic Force Microscope At High Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Hiromi; Ando, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    The faradaic current during anodic oxidation has been detected using an atomic force microscope with intent to study the meniscus formation process and the oxidation mechanism. The faradaic current is of the order of pA for a Si sample, which is at the same level as the leakage current noise; there are problems in detecting, such as sensitivity limits and poor reproducibility. These problems occurred due to high humidity. We could overcome these problems by hermetically sealing the entire electronic parts in the unit to avoid the humidity effects and achieved the detection of a minute current of the sub-pA order even at high humidity.

  14. Improving production of 11C to achieve high specific labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio, E.; García, O.; Trindade, V.; Buccino, P.; Giglio, J.; Balter, H.; Engler, H.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular imaging is usually based on the recognition by the radiopharmaceuticals of specific sites which are present in limited number or density in the cells or biological tissues. Thus is of high importance to label the radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity to be able to achieve a high target to non target ratio. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air containing 98,88% of 12C and 1,12% 13C compete with 11CO2 produced at the cyclotron. In order to minimize the presence of these isotopes along the process of irradiation, transferring and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, we applied this method: previous to the irradiation the target was 3-4 times flushed with He (5.7) as a cold cleaning, followed by a similar conditioning of the line, from the target up to the module, and finally a hot cleaning in order to desorb 12CO2 and 13CO2, this was performed by irradiation during 1 min at 5 uA (3 times). In addition, with the aim of improving quality of gases in the target and in the modules, water traps (Agilent) were incorporated in the inlet lines of the target and modules. Target conditioning process (cold and hot flushings) as well as line cleaning, allowing the desorption of unlabelled CO2, together with the increasing of gas purity in the irradiation and in the synthesis, were critical parameters that enable to achieve 11C-radiopharamaceuticals with high specific activity, mainly in the case of 11C-PIB.

  15. High Energy Electron Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) balloon-borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons. The instrument was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN H2 bean-dine in September of 1999. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well.

  16. A Highly Sensitive Potentiometric Strip-Test for Detecting High Charge Density Impurities in Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjea; Gwon, Kihak; Shin, Jae Ho; Nam, Hakhyun; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Cha, Geun Sig

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) became a matter of grave concern in the medical field after many fatal responses to OSCS tainted heparin products occurred during the 2007 – 2008 period. Even though standard lab-based analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) have proven useful for monitoring the OSCS content in heparin products, an easy-to-use, quick, portable, and cost-efficient method is still needed for on-site monitoring during and after the heparin production. In this report, a disposable strip-type electrochemical polyion sensor is described for detection of low levels of OSCS contamination in heparin. A magnetic actuator is incorporated into this simple electrode-based microfluidic device in order to create the mixing effect necessary to achieve equilibrium potential changes of the sensor within a microfluidic channel. The planar membrane electrode detector within the sample channel is prepared with a tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC)-doped PVC membrane essentially equivalent to previously reported polyanion-sensitive electrodes. When the concentration of heparin applied to the single-use strip device is 57 mg/mL (in only 20 μl of sample), the same concentration recommended in the NMR analysis protocol for detecting OSCS in heparin, the detection limit is 0.005 wt% of OSCS, which is ca. 20 times lower than the reported detection limit of the NMR method. PMID:21500820

  17. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  18. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  19. Detecting Dual AGN at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in most, if not all, galaxies, along with observations of galaxy mergers, suggests that pairs of SMBHs should exist for some time in the merger remnant. Observational evidence for these systems at kpc-scale separations (i.e. dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectral and morphological selections. I discuss observations of CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35), a candidate dual AGN at z=1.175, and put its properties, including significant obscuration, within the context of other candidate/confirmed dual AGN at lower redshifts. Though dual AGN are expected to be more common at higher redshifts, they are more difficult to detect. Furthermore, adding to the difficulties of detection are a number of other physical mechanisms which can mimic the spectroscopic signature of two Type 2 AGN. In particular, I will discuss the possibility of strong outflows from an AGN. These outflow phenomena can be an important feedback mechanism in galaxies and are apparently common in AGN, making them a viable alternative to the dual AGN scenario. Based on our candidate's luminosity and emission line intensities, we find that an outflow is a possibility. If this is the case, such an outflow would be especially strong and has implications for AGN feedback in galaxies. However, the dual AGN scenario cannot be ruled out, and at z=1.175, the two putative AGN could potentially be resolved with Chandra. Other candidate dual AGN at similar redshifts and with significant obscuration could also be confirmed this way. This research was sponsored by the Strategic University Research Partnership Program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Arkansas NASA EPSCoR program.

  20. Metallic Contaminant Detection System for Industrial Products by High TC SQUID Magnetic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Otani, Takeyoshi; Suzuki, Shuichi

    High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system for detection of magnetic foreign matter in industrial products was developed. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products, such as lithium ion batteries. The outer dimension of metallic particles less than 100 microns cannot be detected by conventional X-ray imaging. Therefore, we developed a detection system based on high-Tc SQUID microscopes with a high-performance magnetic shield. Using SQUID microscopes with a 0.5 mm-thick vacuum window was proposed. This design enables the SQUID to approach an object to be measured as close as 1 mm and enhances the sensitivity. A new magnetic shield with sleeves was carefully designed and built. As a result, we could successfully measure a small iron particle with 100 μm. This detection level was hard to achieve by conventional X-ray detection methods.