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Sample records for achieving optimal results

  1. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  2. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  3. Optimism versus Pessimism and Academic Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates three central theories of optimism-pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories--outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention--may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a…

  4. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  5. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as needed to…

  6. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  7. Achieving optimal SERS through enhanced experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Heidi; Westley, Chloe; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the current limitations surrounding surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is the perceived lack of reproducibility. SERS is indeed challenging, and for analyte detection, it is vital that the analyte interacts with the metal surface. However, as this is analyte dependent, there is not a single set of SERS conditions that are universal. This means that experimental optimisation for optimum SERS response is vital. Most researchers optimise one factor at a time, where a single parameter is altered first before going onto optimise the next. This is a very inefficient way of searching the experimental landscape. In this review, we explore the use of more powerful multivariate approaches to SERS experimental optimisation based on design of experiments and evolutionary computational methods. We particularly focus on colloidal‐based SERS rather than thin film preparations as a result of their popularity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Thin sheets achieve optimal wrapping of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Joseph; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Santangelo, Christian; Russell, Thomas; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    A liquid drop can wrap itself in a sheet using capillary forces [Py et al., PRL 98, 2007]. However, the efficiency of ``capillary origami'' at covering the surface of a drop is hampered by the mechanical cost of bending the sheet. Thinner sheets deform more readily by forming small-scale wrinkles and stress-focussing patterns, but it is unclear how coverage efficiency competes with mechanical cost as thickness is decreased, and what wrapping shapes will emerge. We place a thin (~ 100 nm) polymer film on a drop whose volume is gradually decreased so that the sheet covers an increasing fraction of its surface. The sheet exhibits a complex sequence of axisymmetric and polygonal partially- and fully- wrapped shapes. Remarkably, the progression appears independent of mechanical properties. The gross shape, which neglects small-scale features, is correctly predicted by a simple geometric approach wherein the exposed area is minimized. Thus, simply using a thin enough sheet results in maximal coverage.

  9. Using Attitudinal Questionnaires to Achieve Benefits Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaarde, Henry P.; Gardner, Reed M.; Menlove, Ron L.

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of complex hospital medical and management information systems presents many complex methodological and logistical problems. Many studies, best characterized as outcome or summative evaluations, customarily document failures and successes associated with system implementation. We approach system implementation as an indeterminable process and evaluation as a management tool that can provide essential and timely feedback to both system developers and users. This paper discusses our ongoing and formative evaluation study of the transplacement of the HELP system from the LDS hospital in Salt Lake City to the McKay-Dee Hospital in Ogden, Utah. Surveys of future system users did not show any significant differences between three major groups of respondents (physicians, nurses, and staff) in terms of preferences for user education methods. The results of our work suggest that a formative evaluation study can facilitate system adoption and utilization without compromising concurrent needs of scientific objectivity.

  10. Results of scientific achievements for production

    SciTech Connect

    Primachenko, V.V.

    1988-07-01

    During recent years the Aluminosilicate Refractory Laboratory of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute for Refractories together with refractory, metallurgical, and other plants has solved a number of problems on the technology and service of refractories. This paper reviews those achievements. A method for producing refractories, vibrocasting, was developed and was found to increase labor productivity by two or three times. The properties of vibrocast refractory parts and materials are discussed and compared to those of pressed and pneumatically rammed refractories. A number of new high-quality forms of refractory production were introduced for fused mullite and heat-resistant mullite-corundum refractories. Increasing the service life of coke oven doors by using an unreinforced block liner and mechanizing their installation and removal was also discussed. The economic savings obtained via these and other developments are cited.

  11. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  12. Translational geroscience: emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Melov, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed "optimal longevity"-to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe astranslational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  13. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  14. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  15. Optimal achieved blood pressure in acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Wang, Xia; Woodward, Mark; Robinson, Thompson; Stapf, Christian; Parsons, Mark; Lavados, Pablo M.; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering according to baseline BP levels and optimal achieved BP levels in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: INTERACT2 was an open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial in 2,839 patients with ICH within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic BP (SBP) (150–220 mm Hg) who were allocated to receive intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg within 1 hour, with lower limit of 130 mm Hg for treatment cessation) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) BP-lowering treatment. Outcome was physical function across all 7 levels of the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Results: Analysis of the randomized comparisons showed that intensive BP lowering produced comparable benefits on physical function at 90 days in 5 subgroups defined by baseline SBP of <160, 160–169, 170–179, 180–189, and ≥190 mm Hg (p homogeneity = 0.790). Analyses of achieved BP showed linear increases in the risk of physical dysfunction for achieved SBP above 130 mm Hg for both hyperacute (1–24 hours) and acute (2–7 days) phases while modest increases were also observed for achieved SBP below 130 mm Hg. Conclusions: Intensive BP lowering appears beneficial across a wide range of baseline SBP levels, and target SBP level of 130–139 mm Hg is likely to provide maximum benefit in acute ICH. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that the effect of intensive BP lowering on physical function is not influenced by baseline BP. PMID:25552575

  16. Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

  17. Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was two-fold: to demonstrate a general construct of schools called academic optimism and to show it was related to student achievement in urban elementary schools, even controlling for socioeconomic factors, and school size. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 99 urban elementary schools in Texas…

  18. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  19. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  20. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  1. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  2. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  3. Multidisciplinary optimization for engineering systems: Achievements and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The currently common sequential design process for engineering systems is likely to lead to suboptimal designs. Recently developed decomposition methods offer an alternative for coming closer to optimum by breaking the large task of system optimization into smaller, concurrently executed and, yet, coupled tasks, identified with engineering disciplines or subsystems. The hierarchic and non-hierarchic decompositions are discussed and illustrated by examples. An organization of a design process centered on the non-hierarchic decomposition is proposed.

  4. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  5. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches. PMID:22427982

  6. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  7. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  8. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  13. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  14. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  15. Achieving optimal gingival esthetics around restored natural teeth and implants. Rationale, concepts, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bichacho, N

    1998-10-01

    The role of prosthetic restorations in the final appearance of the surrounding soft tissues has long been recognized. Innovative prosthodontic concepts as described should be used to enhance the biologic as well as the esthetic data of the supporting tissues, in natural teeth and implants alike. Combined dental treatment modalities of different kinds (i.e., orthodontics, periodontal treatment) are often required for optimal results. Meticulous care and attention to the delicate soft tissues should be given throughout all phases of the treatment, with a view to achieving a functional, healthy, and esthetic oral environment. PMID:9891656

  16. Appendix: Results obtained to date. [integrated multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Nixon, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization procedures are described for the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines. Progress is reported in the areas of aerodynamic performance optimization, dynamic optimization, optimum placement of tuning masses for vibration reduction, and structural optimization. Selected results from these activities are highlighted in this appendix.

  17. Manufacturing of glassy thin shell for adaptive optics: results achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutriquet, F.; Rinchet, A.; Carel, J.-L.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.; Geyl, R.; Marque, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glassy thin shells are key components for the development of adaptive optics and are part of future & innovative projects such as ELT. However, manufacturing thin shells is a real challenge. Even though optical requirements for the front face - or optical face - are relaxed compared to conventional passive mirrors, requirements concerning thickness uniformity are difficult to achieve. In addition, process has to be completely re-defined as thin mirror generates new manufacturing issues. In particular, scratches and digs requirement is more difficult as this could weaken the shell, handling is also an important issue due to the fragility of the mirror. Sagem, through REOSC program, has recently manufactured different types of thin shells in the frame of European projects: E-ELT M4 prototypes and VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT DSM).

  18. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  19. Achieving optimal aesthetics for direct and indirect restorations with microhybrid composite resins.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Wynn H

    2005-04-01

    In aesthetic dentistry, material science has played a key role in the development of natural-appearing restorations. Despite the progress, there have been challenges in achieving a harmonious integration of direct and indirect posterior restorations. Although porcelain restorations provide natural aesthetics, ceramics cannot be applied via direct techniques. Consequently, composite resins are valuable alternatives for conservative posterior restorations. In addition, because of their differing physical and optical properties, optimal aesthetic blending with porcelain and resin cannot be routinely achieved. This article explores the potential of composite resins as a direct and indirect restorative option in achieving the most favorable natural blend in the posterior region. PMID:15974036

  20. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  1. Executive functioning in individuals with a history of ASDs who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Rosenthal, Michael; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Tyson, Katherine; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is examined among children and adolescents once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria. These individuals have average social and language skills, receive minimal school support and are considered to have achieved "optimal outcomes" (OOs). Since residual impairments in these individuals might be expected in deficits central to autism, and in developmentally advanced skills, EF was examined in 34 individuals who achieved OOs, 43 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. Groups were matched on age (M = 13.49), gender, and nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) but differed on verbal IQ (VIQ; HFA < TD, OO). On direct assessment, all three groups demonstrated average EF; however, the OO and HFA groups exhibited more impulsivity and less efficient planning and problem-solving than the TD group, and more HFA participants exhibited below average inhibition than did OO and TD participants. Parent-report measures revealed average EF among the OO and TD groups; however, the OO group exhibited more difficulty than the TD group on set-shifting and working memory. HFA participants demonstrated more difficulty on all parent-reported EF domains, with a clinical impairment in attention-shifting. Results suggest that EF in OO appears to be within the average range, even for functions that were impaired among individuals with HFA. Despite their average performance, however, the OO and TD groups differed on measures of impulsivity, set-shifting, problem-solving, working memory, and planning, suggesting that the OO group does not have the above-average EF scores of the TD group despite their high-average IQs. PMID:23731181

  2. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part 1 - A Framework for Surface Mesh Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-01-18

    Structured mesh quality optimization methods are extended to optimization of unstructured triangular, quadrilateral, and mixed finite element meshes. N"ew interpretations of well-known nodally-bssed objective functions are made possible using matrices and matrix norms. The matrix perspective also suggests several new objective functions. Particularly significant is the interpretation of the Oddy metric and the Smoothness objective functions in terms of the condition number of the metric tensor and Jacobian matrix, respectively. Objective functions are grouped according to dimensionality to form weighted combinations. A simple unconstrained local optimum is computed using a modiiied N-ewton iteration. The optimization approach was implemented in the CUBIT mesh generation code and tested on several problems. Results were compared against several standard element-based quaIity measures to demonstrate that good mesh quality can be achieved with nodally-based objective functions.

  3. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  4. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  5. Impact of optimization conditions on the result at optimizing illumination and mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Koichiro; Mikami, Koji; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akiyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Illumination for SRAM device pattern with peripheral circuit is optimized applying OPC during optimization. At first the memory cell is targeted, next library patterns that represent the peripheral circuit are added as the targets one by one, and it is investigated how the optimized illumination varies. As optimized targets ILS and dose-focus window are used. For the case of ILS the optimized illumination shapes become milder as more patterns are evaluated and the OPC result becomes weaker correspondingly. For the case of window the tendency is similar but not so intense. The illuminations optimized by ILS and window are different. The optimized illuminations by optical and resist simulation are a little different. As practical application illumination defined by functions such as annular is evaluated, where the information of actual scanners are applied. At first 1/4 divided polarization plate is used instead of tangential polarization. Secondly illumination is searched in the solution space that consists of hardware design instead of numerical expression. By introducing the information the optimized illuminations are varied. From these results it turns out that the optimization tool should handle the information of actual scanners properly. And we have developed the solution tool (k1-TUNE).

  6. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  7. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    PubMed

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    To provide the most efficient conditions for spin decoupling with least RF power, master calibration curves are provided for the maximum centerband amplitude, and the minimum amplitude for the largest cycling sideband, resulting from STUD+ adiabatic decoupling applied during a single free induction decay. The principal curve is defined as a function of the four most critical experimental input parameters: the maximum amplitude of the RF field, RFmax, the length of the sech/tanh pulse, Tp, the extent of the frequency sweep, bwdth, and the coupling constant, Jo. Less critical parameters, the effective (or actual) decoupled bandwidth, bweff, and the sech/tanh truncation factor, beta, which become more important as bwdth is decreased, are calibrated in separate curves. The relative importance of nine additional factors in determining optimal decoupling performance in a single transient are considered. Specific parameters for efficient adiabatic decoupling can be determined via a set of four equations which will be most useful for 13C decoupling, covering the range of one-bond 13C1H coupling constants from 125 to 225 Hz, and decoupled bandwidths of 7 to 100 kHz, with a bandwidth of 100 kHz being the requirement for a 2 GHz spectrometer. The four equations are derived from a recent vector model of adiabatic decoupling, and experiment, supported by computer simulations. The vector model predicts an inverse linear relation between the centerband and maximum sideband amplitudes, and it predicts a simple parabolic relationship between maximum sideband amplitude and the product JoTp. The ratio bwdth/(RFmax)2 can be viewed as a characteristic time scale, tauc, affecting sideband levels, with tauc approximately Tp giving the most efficient STUD+ decoupling, as suggested by the adiabatic condition. Functional relationships between bwdth and less critical parameters, bweff and beta, for efficient decoupling can be derived from Bloch-equation calculations of the inversion profile

  8. Performance as a Function of Resultant Achievement Motivation (Perceived Ability) and Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    1974-01-01

    Data confirmed Kukla's attributional theory of performance. When a task is perceived to be difficult, high resultant achievers perform better than low resultant achievers, whereas the low motive group proves to be superior to the high group when the task is perceived as easy. (Author/RK)

  9. On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

    We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

  10. Two- and Three-Year Achievement Results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul; Stringfield, Sam; Wang, L. Weiping; Alberg, Marty

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student achievement, using a value-added testing technique, after 3 years of Memphis Restructuring Initiative. Findings show positive achievement gains in reform schools compared to demographically similar control schools, though strength of gains varied by type of reform and community poverty levels. (Contains…

  11. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  12. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  13. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  14. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective. PMID:25969321

  15. Reversible Masking Using Low-Molecular-Weight Neutral Lipids to Achieve Optimal-Targeted Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Nancy Smyth; Senzer, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous injection of therapeutics is required to effectively treat or cure metastatic cancer, certain cardiovascular diseases, and other acquired or inherited diseases. Using this route of delivery allows potential uptake in all disease targets that are accessed by the bloodstream. However, normal tissues and organs also have the potential for uptake of therapeutic agents. Therefore, investigators have used targeted delivery to attempt delivery solely to the target cells; however, use of ligands on the surface of delivery vehicles to target specific cell surface receptors is not sufficient to avoid nonspecific uptake. PEGylation has been used for decades to try to avoid nonspecific uptake but suffers from many problems known as “The PEGylation Dilemma.” We have solved this dilemma by replacing PEGylation with reversible masking using low-molecular-weight neutral lipids in order to achieve optimal-targeted delivery solely to target cells. Our paper will focus on this topic. PMID:22655199

  16. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology. PMID:27162367

  17. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. I: Design and Hypotheses; IV: Results and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph, done in Helsinki, Finland, contains the first and fourth sections dealing with design, hypotheses, results, and discussion, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of…

  18. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  19. Intelligent controller for optimized sootblowing. Phase 2 results

    SciTech Connect

    Bangham, M.; Patton, J.; Abeledo, H.; Liberatore, I.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes results generated during Phase 2 of a Small-business Technology Transfer (STTR) project entitled Intelligent Controller for Optimized Sootblowing (ICOS), funded by the US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by DHR Technologies, a Division of OAO Technologies Solutions, Inc. (DHR) and the Operations Research Department at the George Washington University (GWU), with support from Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Brandon Shores Station Unit No. 1 (BSU1). The objective of the project is to advance the state-of-the-art in automated sootblowing control for large coal-fired utility boilers. The results of the Phase 2 study suggest that the maximum possible efficiency improvement, which could potentially be gained at a large coal-fired unit using an optimized sootblowing controller, is on the order of about 60--80 Btu/kWh, depending on load. An improvement of this magnitude, which translates into yearly fuel savings of about $700,000 for a large unit, could potentially be attained at a poorly operated unit. At a well-run unit, such as BGE's Brandon Shores Unit No. 1, the potential savings are more modest, about 10 Btu/kWh. For BSU1, this potential improvement equates to fuel savings of about $60,000 per year.

  20. The Study of Student Achievement as a Result of Modification of Certain Identifiable Teacher Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widell, Waldo R.; And Others

    This study found no significant difference in student achievement as a result of change in identified teacher behaviors in an American History course. The behaviors were those identified in the Stanford Teacher Competence Appraisal Guide. Behavior change was effected through the use of a microteaching teach-reteach cycle with feedback from…

  1. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  2. Academic abilities in children and adolescents with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to as having achieved "optimal outcomes." Performance of 32 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes, 41 high-functioning individuals with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (high-functioning autism), and 34 typically developing peers was compared on measures of decoding, reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and written expression. Groups were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal IQ; however, the high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower than the optimal outcome and typically developing groups on verbal IQ. All three groups performed in the average range on all subtests measured, and no significant differences were found in performance of the optimal outcome and typically developing groups. The high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower on subtests of reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving than the optimal outcome group. These findings suggest that the academic abilities of individuals who achieved optimal outcomes are similar to those of their typically developing peers, even in areas where individuals who have retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnoses exhibit some ongoing difficulty. PMID:24096312

  3. Role of well-being therapy in achieving a balanced and individualized path to optimal functioning.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Chiara; Fava, Giovanni A

    2012-01-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), based on Ryff's conceptual model, has been developed and tested in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life and a sense of self-determination. A decreased vulnerability to depression, mood swings and anxiety has been demonstrated after WBT in high-risk populations. School interventions based on the principles of WBT have been found to yield both promotion of well-being and decrease of distress compared with control groups. The differential technical characteristics and indications of WBT are described, with a special reference to the promotion of an individualized and balanced path to achieve optimal human functioning, avoiding the polarities in positive psychological dimensions. PMID:22570318

  4. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) suggest that Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO group exhibited minimal residual RRBs at the time of the study. All OO participants were reported to have at least one RRB in early childhood and almost 90% met the RRB cutoff for ASD in early childhood, but RRBs were not more present in the OO than the TD group at the time of the study. History of RRBs in the HFA and OO groups differed only in oversensitivity to noise and insistence on sameness. Reports of current behavior indicated that RRB’s had almost totally disappeared in the OO group. Thus, although RRB’s were present in the OO group in childhood, they resolved along with social and communication deficits. PMID:25030967

  5. Multislit optimized spectrometer: flight-like environment test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, William S.; Valle, Tim; Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Spuhler, Peter; Hardesty, Chuck; Staples, Conor

    2014-09-01

    The NASA ESTO funded Multislit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS) Instrument Incubator Program advances a spatial multiplexing spectrometer for coastal ocean remote sensing from laboratory demonstration to flight-like environment testing. The multiple slit design reduces the required telescope aperture leading to mass and volume reductions over conventional spectrometers when applied to the GEO-CAPE oceans mission. This paper discusses the performance and characterization of the MOS instrument from laboratory and thermal vacuum testing. It also presents the current technology readiness level and possible future applications. Results of an ocean color data product simulation study using flight-like performance data from MOS are also covered. The MOS instrument implementation for GEO-CAPE provides system benefits that may lead to measurable cost savings and reductions in risks while meeting its science objectives.

  6. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches. PMID:15759749

  7. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  8. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  9. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  10. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. his energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft rev...

  11. The ventriloquist effect results from near-optimal bimodal integration.

    PubMed

    Alais, David; Burr, David

    2004-02-01

    Ventriloquism is the ancient art of making one's voice appear to come from elsewhere, an art exploited by the Greek and Roman oracles, and possibly earlier. We regularly experience the effect when watching television and movies, where the voices seem to emanate from the actors' lips rather than from the actual sound source. Originally, ventriloquism was explained by performers projecting sound to their puppets by special techniques, but more recently it is assumed that ventriloquism results from vision "capturing" sound. In this study we investigate spatial localization of audio-visual stimuli. When visual localization is good, vision does indeed dominate and capture sound. However, for severely blurred visual stimuli (that are poorly localized), the reverse holds: sound captures vision. For less blurred stimuli, neither sense dominates and perception follows the mean position. Precision of bimodal localization is usually better than either the visual or the auditory unimodal presentation. All the results are well explained not by one sense capturing the other, but by a simple model of optimal combination of visual and auditory information. PMID:14761661

  12. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  13. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  14. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  15. Academic Optimism and Collective Responsibility: An Organizational Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jason H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct of academic optimism and its relationship with collective responsibility in a sample of Taiwan elementary schools. The construct of academic optimism was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and the whole structural model was tested with a structural equation modeling analysis. The data were…

  16. Optimizing light availability for forages in silvopastoral systems: Modeled results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopastoral management optimizes the biophysical interactions between pasture species, trees, and grazing animals to increase the production efficiency and sustainability of the entire system. Synchronizing light availability for forage production with grazing animal production requirements requi...

  17. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  18. Assessment of the Optimal Stimulus Pattern to Achieve Rapid Dorsal Hippocampal Kindling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Fatemeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although hippocampus is the most famous brain area involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal kindling (HK) develops very slowly. Hence, rapid kindling is usually preferred to the traditional kindling and it is widely used. In this article we aimed at finding the optimal stimulus pattern, which yields the fastest HK rate. Methods: Stimulus patterns with different duration (2, 3, 5 and 10 s) and inter-train interval (ITI) (5, 10 and 30 min) as well as number of trains in 24 h (8 and 12) were exerted to rats’ dorsal hippocampus. The stimuli were continued until appearance of 3 consecutive generalized seizures or maximum 7 days stimulations. Results: While the protocol with train duration of 10 s and ITI of 30 min caused the fastest kindling rate and the most growth of afterdischarges, the protocol with train duration of 5 s and ITI of 5 min was the most time-consuming protocol among protocols tested. Discussion: Rapid HK develops with a time course of days compared to weeks in traditional kindling. Train duration and inter-train interval are key factors for rapid HK. Among the patterns, 12 trains/24h of 50Hz monophasic square wave with 10 s duration and 30 min interval between trains, is the best stimulus pattern for eliciting rapid dorsal HK. PMID:27307955

  19. Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  20. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  1. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  2. Results from D-T Experiments on TFTR and Implications for Achieving an Ignited Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J. and the TFTR Group

    1998-07-14

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain for achieving a magnetic fusion energy reactor. In this paper, the implications of the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  3. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. Optimal Experience and Reading Achievement in Virtual Environments among College Level Developmental Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study the potential for developmental readers to experience optimal experience (flow) within the multi-user virtual environment, "Second Life," was examined. In an educational context, "Second Life" provided a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery and creativity. The communicative, social…

  6. Application of ant colony optimization to optimal foragaing theory: comparison of simulation and field results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) refers to the family of algorithms inspired by the behavior of real ants and used to solve combinatorial problems such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP).Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) is an evolutionary principle wherein foraging organisms or insect parasites seek ...

  7. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  8. The Value of Methodical Management: Optimizing Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saby, Linnea

    2016-01-01

    As science progresses, making new discoveries in radio astronomy becomes increasingly complex. Instrumentation must be incredibly fine-tuned and well-understood, scientists must consider the skills and schedules of large research teams, and inter-organizational projects sometimes require coordination between observatories around the globe. Structured and methodical management allows scientists to work more effectively in this environment and leads to optimal science output. This report outlines the principles of methodical project management in general, and describes how those principles are applied at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia.

  9. Achieving Optimal Self-Adaptivity for Dynamic Tuning of Organic Semiconductors through Resonance Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic. PMID:27403886

  10. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

  11. A Study of the Generalizability of the Results of a Standardized Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelavin, Sol H.; Barker, Pierce

    A standardized achievement testing program was begun in Alum Rock, California in the fall of 1972 as part of an evaluation of an Educational Voucher Demonstration. During each of the first three years of the demonstration both the form of test administration and the particular level of the standardized achievement test that a student is assigned…

  12. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  13. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  14. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W.; Batha, S.

    1998-07-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  15. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  16. Optimization and testing results of Zr-bearing ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Yang, Ying; Tyburska-Puschel, Beata; Sridharan, K.

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. Ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels are important structural materials for nuclear reactors due to their advantages over other applicable materials like austenitic stainless steels, notably their resistance to void swelling, low thermal expansion coefficients, and higher thermal conductivity. However, traditional FM steels exhibit a noticeable yield strength reduction at elevated temperatures above ~500°C, which limits their applications in advanced nuclear reactors which target operating temperatures at 650°C or higher. Although oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have shown excellent high-temperature performance, their extremely high cost, limited size and fabricability of products, as well as the great difficulty with welding and joining, have limited or precluded their commercial applications. Zirconium has shown many benefits to Fe-base alloys such as grain refinement, improved phase stability, and reduced radiation-induced segregation. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of a new generation of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys to be fabricated using conventional

  17. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of adolescent students in Japan: results from the TIMSS 1999 assessment.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2005-12-01

    A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores. PMID:16512286

  18. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brenda C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2003-09-01

    Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n-3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA. Thus, total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:12936959

  19. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  20. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  1. Some Results and Comments on Using Latent Structure Models to Measure Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1980-01-01

    Technical problems in achievement testing associated with using latent structure models to estimate the probability of guessing correct responses by examinees is studied; also the lack of problems associated with using Wilcox's formula score. Maximum likelihood estimates are derived which may be applied when items are hierarchically related.…

  2. Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

  3. Influences on Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Results from Uganda and More Industrialized Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    Findings in industrialized countries, such as those of Jencks and Coleman, indicate that socioeconomic status has a strong influence on academic achievement and that school effects are of lesser importance. This study of socioeconomic influences and school influences on the performance of 23,615 Ugandan children taking the Primary Leaving…

  4. Usage of Computers and Calculators and Students' Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the facts obtained from TIMSS 2003 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). This international comparative study, which includes 47 participant countries worldwide, explores dependence between eighth grade students' achievement in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and geography, and basic…

  5. BOY SCOUT 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE: OUTCOME RESULTS OF A TROOP & INTERNET INTERVENTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A Boy Scout Five-A-Day Achievement Badge program (SAD), with both troop and Internet-based activities was developed and implemented, and its effect on fruit-juice (FJ) and low-fat vegetable (LV) consumption and psychosocial mediators evaluated. Methods: The nine-week program included 20 ...

  6. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  7. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  8. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  9. Dose selection for optimal treatment results and avoidance of complications.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hisato; Nakayama, Satoshi; Shuto, Takashi; Asada, Hiroyuki; Inomori, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    What is the optimal treatment for metastatic brain tumors (MBTs)? We present our experience with gamma knife (GK) treatments for patients with five or more MBTs. Our new formula for predicting patient survival time (ST), which was derived by combining tumor control probability (TCP) calculated by Colombo's formula and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimated by Flickinger's integrated logistic formula, was also evaluated. ST=a*[(C-NTCP)*TCP]+b; a, b, C: const. Forty-one patients (23 male, 18 female) with more than five MBTs were treated between March 1992 and February 2000. The tumors originated in the lung in 15 cases, in the breast in 8. Four patients had previously undergone whole brain irradiation (WBI). Ten patients were given concomitant WBI. Thirteen patients had additional extracranial metastatic lesions. TCP and NTCP were calculated using Excel add-in software. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate correlations between certain variables and ST. The independent variables evaluated were patient factors (age in years and performance status), tumor factors (total volume and number of tumors in each patient), treatment factors (TCP, NTCP and marginal dose) and the values of (C-NTCP)*TCP. Total tumor number was 403 (median 7, range 5-56). The median total tumor volume was 9.8 cm3 (range 0.8-111.8 cm3). The marginal dose ranged from 8 to 22 Gy (median 16.0Gy), TCP from 0.0% to 83% (median 15%) and NTCP from 0.0% to 31% (median 6.0%). (0.39-NTCP)*TCP ranged from 0.0 to 0.21 (median 0.055). Follow-up was 0.2 to 26.2 months, with a median of 5.4 months. Multiple-sample tests revealed no differences in STs among patients with MBTs of different origins (p=0.50). The 50% STs of patients with MBTs originating from the breast, lung and other sites were 5.9, 7.8 and 3.5 months, respectively. Only TCP and (0.39-NTCP)*TCP were statistically significant covariates (p=0.014, 0.001, respectively), and the latter was a more important predictor of

  10. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  11. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  12. Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  13. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  14. Simple improvement in the technique of hysterosalpingography achieving optimal imaging and avoiding possible complications

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, Y.; Navot, D.; Lax, E.

    1985-10-01

    A simple technique is reported in which oil-soluble contrast media (OSCM) are used with hysterosalpingography to investigate infertility in women due to uterine and tubal pathology. The advantages of OSCM as compared with water-soluble contrast media (WSCM) are described. Complications caused by intravasation of the OSCM into lymph vessels and veins are avoided by clearing the media at the end of the procedure. This also results in the immediate spread of the contrast media in the pelvic cavity with the result that delayed radiographs become superfluous and the radiation dose to the genitals is reduced. 4 references, 2 figures.

  15. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics. PMID:9368124

  16. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  17. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  18. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 11909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  19. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  20. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  1. Is the Presence of a Results-Oriented Professional Learning Community Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between teacher collaboration practices known as working as a professional learning community (PLC) and student performance. Through a review of the current literature, an operational framework of PLCs was developed that distinguished results-oriented from inquiry-oriented PLCs. The study considered the…

  2. Student Achievement in Private Schools: Results From NAEP 2000-2005. NCES 2006-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report is the first to focus on private school students' performance on NAEP assessments. It provides results in reading, mathematics, science, and writing in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Specifically, it focuses on the three private school types that combined enroll the greatest proportion of private school students (Catholic, Lutheran, and…

  3. "STEPS" Avionics for Exploration Systems the Achieved Results and the Next "STEPS-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Andrea; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Gaia, Enrico; Paccagnini, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the STEPS project reached results in the avionics domains like: vision-based GNC for Mars Descent & Landing, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on perception, 3D map reconstruction and path planning; Mobility & Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous & Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System;; novel Design & Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. This paper presents also the STEPS 2 project that started January 2013 and is aimed at improving the development of the most promising technologies, selected from the results of the first STEP phase, and addressing the needs of the exploration missions as defined in the 2012 ministerial conference, with the ultimate goal of an in-flight validation within next five years.

  4. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  5. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  6. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  7. The South America VLF Network - SAVNET: Achievements, Latest Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present recent results obtained by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET). The use of the VLF technique by tracking subionospheric propagation anomalies appears as a very promising tool to study various aspects of Space Weather disturbances. On long timescales it is possible to indirectly monitor the solar Lyman-alpha radiation along the solar cycles. Short time phenomena like solar explosive events can be observed with 100% probability, even for the small intensity events. The effect of high-energy precipitating solar particles can be tracked in the low ionosphere. The same technique is also relevant to study the ionospheric perturbations caused by geomagnetic storms on typical timescales of a day to few days. Extra solar and terrestrial high-energy phenomena are naturally detected in the very sensitive low ionospheric plasma, as Gamma-ray bursts and Soft Gamma-ray repeaters. Finally, the remote sensing of the low ionosphere is also used to search for seismic-electromagnetic effects prior to Earthquakes. At the present time, SAVNET is composed of nine (9) tracking receiver stations in Brazil, Peru, Argentina and Mexico. In this presentation we will describe our future plans for expanding the array. Eastern Europe, Ecuador and Asia are good host candidates to participate in these forthcoming activities. The array expansion is necessary to improve the probability detection of very high-energy remote phenomena, and to demonstrate that these processes of great astrophysical importance can be easily detected using a cheap and simple technique.

  8. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  9. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  10. Safety Observations Achieve Results

    2000-01-16

    The SOAR web application provides a multi-checklist capability where focused observations can be created to address risk-likely work environments, tasks, etc. The SOAR web application has numerous reports to sort the data by key word, multiple factors (i.e., location, team, behavior, checklist, work environment, etc.), and the highest frequency of behaviors and error-likely predecessors, etc. Other performance indicators are also provided.

  11. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  12. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  13. Optimal SNR exposure time for speckle imaging: experimental results with frequency-dependent detector noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, David W.; Suzuki, Andrew H.; von Bokern, Mark A.; Keating, Donna D.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1994-06-01

    We review recent arguments for using increased spectral bandwidth and exposure times to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of speckle imaging estimators and discuss the tradeoff between camera exposure time and the number of data frames collected when observing time is fixed. We compare experimental results with a previously-derived expression for optimal exposure time and find reasonable agreement after accounting for frequency-dependent camera noise.

  14. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  15. Reducing the Academic Risks of Over-Optimism: The Longitudinal Effects of Attributional Retraining on Cognition and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Tara L.; Ruthig, Joelle C.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    Although optimism is generally regarded as a positive dispositional characteristic, unmitigated optimism can be problematic. The adaptiveness of overly optimistic expectations in novel or unfamiliar settings is questionable because individuals have little relevant experience on which to base such expectations. In this four-phase longitudinal…

  16. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  17. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  18. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  20. From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blazewicz, Marek; Hinder, Ian; Koppelman, David M.; Brandt, Steven R.; Ciznicki, Milosz; Kierzynka, Michal; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik; Tao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, the Chemora framework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretizationmore » is based on higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.« less

  1. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  2. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  3. Classroom Instruction and Science Achievement in Japan, Hong Kong, and Chinese Taipei: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study represents the most comprehensive international assessment of educational contexts and student achievement yet conducted. As part of the examination of the effects of contextual factors on student achievement, a model was constructed that considered the effects of variables such as…

  4. Academic Abilities in Children and Adolescents with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…

  5. Neural network boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability with TVA Kingston Unit 3 low NOx optimization test results

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.M.; Schroech, K.A.; Hou, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires utilities to reduce NOx emission. NOx emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NOx burners. Boiler tuning for NOx control can be used as an alternative to low NOx burner installation. Specifically in tangentially-fired boilers, boiler tuning can be very effective in NOx reduction. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at TVA`s Kingston Unit 3 tangentially coal-fired furnace for NOx reduction. With a well-organized test plan, the optimized solution was reached with 16 tests at each test series load level. SOAP will be used for other plant equipment or system optimization, such as pulverizer performance, combustion system optimization, compared thermal performance design, and boiler tube leak detection and allocation.

  6. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  7. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  8. Some Results on the Analysis of Stochastic Processes with Uncertain Transition Probabilities and Robust Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Keyong Li; Seong-Cheol Kang; I. Ch. Paschalidis

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates stochastic processes that are modeled by a finite number of states but whose transition probabilities are uncertain and possibly time-varying. The treatment of uncertain transition probabilities is important because there appears to be a disconnection between the practice and theory of stochastic processes due to the difficulty of assigning exact probabilities to real-world events. Also, when the finite-state process comes as a reduced model of one that is more complicated in nature (possibly in a continuous state space), existing results do not facilitate rigorous analysis. Two approaches are introduced here. The first focuses on processes with one terminal state and the properties that affect their convergence rates. When a process is on a complicated graph, the bound of the convergence rate is not trivially related to that of the probabilities of individual transitions. Discovering the connection between the two led us to define two concepts which we call 'progressivity' and 'sortedness', and to a new comparison theorem for stochastic processes. An optimality criterion for robust optimal control also derives from this comparison theorem. In addition, this result is applied to the case of mission-oriented autonomous robot control to produce performance estimate within a control framework that we propose. The second approach is in the MDP frame work. We will introduce our preliminary work on optimistic robust optimization, which aims at finding solutions that guarantee the upper bounds of the accumulative discounted cost with prescribed probabilities. The motivation here is to address the issue that the standard robust optimal solution tends to be overly conservative.

  9. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  10. Crystallization Optimum Solubility Screening: using crystallization results to identify the optimal buffer for protein crystal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Bernard; Stevens, Raymond C.; Page, Rebecca

    2005-12-01

    It is shown how protein crystallization results can be used to identify buffers that improve protein solubility and, in turn, crystallization success. An optimal solubility screen is described that uses the results of crystallization trials to identify buffers that improve protein solubility and, in turn, crystallization success. This screen is useful not only for standard crystallization experiments, but also can easily be implemented into any high-throughput structure-determination pipeline. As a proof of principle, the predicted novel-fold protein AF2059 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, which was known to precipitate in most buffers and particularly during concentration experiments, was selected. Using the crystallization results of 192 independent crystallization trials, it was possible to identify a buffer containing 100 mM CHES pH 9.25 that significantly improves its solubility. After transferring AF2059 into this ‘optimum-solubility’ buffer, the protein was rescreened for crystal formation against these same 192 conditions. Instead of extensive precipitation, as observed initially, it was found that 24 separate conditions produced crystals and the exchange of AF2059 into CHES buffer significantly improved crystallization success. Fine-screen optimization of these conditions led to the production of a crystal suitable for high-resolution (2.2 Å) structure determination.

  11. Breast cancer early diagnosis experience in Florence: can a self referral policy achieve the results of service screening?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Paci, E; Zappa, M; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of a breast clinic on a specific target population and evaluate early diagnosis performance indicators for breast cancer in the presence of a self referral policy. DESIGN--Women living in Florence between 1980 and 1989 who had undergone mammography at a self referral breast clinic were studied. Main outcome measures were the use of mammography in relation to age, symptoms, and the interval between two subsequent tests, and early diagnosis performance indicators were the detection rate (DR), the prevalence/incidence ratio, and the proportion of early detected cancers. Performance indicators were compared with those from formal screening programmes. SETTING--Florence, Italy. PATIENTS--All mammograms performed at the clinic from 1980-89 in 40-69 year old women living in Florence were examined (n = 42,226). Records included the date of birth and of the examination, the reason for testing (asymptomatic/presence of pain/presence of symptoms other than pain), and the TNM classification for breast cancer cases. MAIN RESULTS--The total number of mammograms performed per annum increased by 70% over the decade, but much of this was routine repeat mammography (54.1% in 1989). Rates of first examinations in asymptomatic women increased in the second half of the decade from 17 per 1000 in 1985 to 31 per 1000 in 1989. Mammographic coverage decreased with increasing age from 12.6% in 40-49 year olds to 6.0% in 60-69 years old. Performance indicators of the activity in asymptomatic women were comparable with those expected in service screening. The proportion of not advanced cancers detected in asymptomatic women was 62.3% with a DR of 5.3 per 1000, and the average prevalence/incidence ratio was 2.9. CONCLUSIONS--High quality mammography performed in a breast clinic in self referred asymptomatic women can achieve as good results as a formal invitation screening service. Only a few of these women will benefit, but those who do are likely to be

  12. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    -faring countries and developing countries. A strategy has been presented by the Action Team in order to implement a strategy aimed at increasing again the impact of the various initiatives already going on. The promotion of the sharing of educational materials and information could be facilitated by a network of bodies in UN Member States, dedicated organizations and UN regional centres. This presentation will aim to show the current status of this issue and to present results already achieved and the way forward.

  13. The first result of an optical monitoring system for optimization of thermal spray droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Yamagata, Y.; Muraoka, K.

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the first experimental result of a simple but reliable optical monitoring system for optimization of thermal spray droplets. The system, which was used in the present experiment and the authors call as ``a pre-proto instrument'', consisted of a light collecting lens followed by a part for separating the light into two wavelengths, with the light of each wavelength guided into an avalanche photo-diode (APD) to be electronically detected. First, it was calibrated using a special purpose-built calibration system. Then, it was taken to a plasma spray gun for a field test, yielding a satisfactory first result. Based on this positive result, future plans of the project are discussed.

  14. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  15. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  16. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  17. Exploring the Achievement Gap between White and Minority Students in Texas: A Comparison of the 1996 and 2000 NAEP and TAAS Eighth Grade Mathematics Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.; Kester, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Compared scores for Texas eighth graders on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to study the achievement gap in mathematics in 1996 and 2000. Results show the likelihood of a ceiling effect impacting students' TAAS scores that created the illusion the achievement gap had narrowed.…

  18. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills, Test Results, and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1983-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report presents the 1983-84 summary achievement profiles of the 82 Portland, Oregon, elementary schools for use by school staffs, administrators, and the community for planning, goal setting, and evaluation. The profiles contain Portland Achievement Level Tests results plus data on the physical facility, school personnel, student enrollment,…

  19. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  20. First Results from Laser-Driven MagLIF Experiments on OMEGA: Optimization of Illumination Uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; Davies, J. R.; Fiksel, G.

    2015-11-01

    The physics principles of magnetic liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) are investigated on the Omega Laser Facility using 40 beams for compression and 1 beam for preheating a small (300- μm-radius, 1-mm-long) cylindrical plastic shell. Here we report of the first implosion experiments to optimize the illumination uniformity. These initial experiments do not include laser preheat. The beams in ring 3 and ring 4 around the symmetric axis are used to implode a cylindrical target. Beams in different rings illuminate the target surface with different incident angles, leading to different energy-coupling efficiencies. The beams in ring 3 have a shallower angle of incident than ring 4. When implosion velocities are compared for targets driven by either ring 3 or ring 4, we find that ring 3 couples ~ 40 % less kinetic energy than ring 4. One- and two-dimensional simulations using LILAC (1-D) and FLASH (2-D) are used to compare to the experimental results and to optimize the illumination uniformity. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and by DE-FG02-04ER54786 and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center).

  1. Optimization of MCAO performances: experimental results on ONERA laboratory MCAO bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costille, Anne; Petit, Cyril; Conan, Jean-Marc; Fusco, Thierry; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François

    2008-07-01

    Classic Adaptive Optics (AO) is now a proven technique to correct turbulence on earth based astronomical telescopes. The corrected field of view is however limited by the anisoplanatism effect. Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) aims at providing a wide field of view correction through the use of several deformable mirrors and of multi-guide-star wavefront sensing. However the performance optimization of such complex systems raises new questions in terms of calibration and control. We present our current developments on performance optimization of MCAO systems. We show that performance can be significantly improved with tomographic control based on Linear Quadratic Gaussian control, compared with more standard methods. An experimental demonstration of this new approach is going to be implemented on HOMER, the recent bench developed at ONERA devoted to MCAO laboratory research. We present here results in closed-loop in AO, GLAO and MCAO with an integrator control. This bench implements two deformable mirrors and a wide field Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor.

  2. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  3. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  4. Laser thermokeratoplasty: analysis of in-vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Geerling, Gerd; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koop, Norbert; Radt, Benno; Birngruber, Reginald

    1997-12-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. A cw mid-IR laser diode emitting at wavelengths around 1.86 micrometers was used to perform LTK on a first clinical trial. The coagulations were applied to the cornea by means of a specially designed focusing handpiece which was introduced into a corneal application mask fixed by a suction ring. Coagulation patterns consisting of 8 spots per ring were performed with a laser power between 100 - 150 mW and an irradiation time of 10 seconds both on single and on double rings. Significant refractive changes up to 19 D could initially be achieved followed by a strong regression within the first month. Three months post LTK, refractive changes achieved with the single and double ring have stabilized, yielding 1.2 and 1.8 D on the average, respectively. The method reveals only little adverse effects limited to the first days post-op. Force measurements were performed on corneal stripes, which were submerged for 10 s into an oil bath of constant temperature in order to investigate the absolute temperatures required for corneal collagen contraction. Only temperatures exceeding 90 degree(s)C induced a significant force. Analyzing the clinically used LTK parameters by temperature calculations revealed that only a small part of the heated stromal volume experienced sufficient high temperatures to induce significant collagen shrinkage.

  5. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes the missions and objectives of four newly-awarded Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers. There is also a description of how the projects fit together to meet solicitation research questions.

  6. Optimal estimation of tropospheric delay corrections to INSAR results from GPS observations based on SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaogang; Li, Derena; Liao, Mingsheng; Cheng, Liang

    2007-06-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been demonstrated useful for topographic mapping and surface deformation measurement. However, the atmospheric disturbance, especially the tropospheric heterogeneity, represents a major limitation to accuracy. It is usually difficult to accurately model and correct the atmospheric effects. Consequently, significant errors are often resulted in misinterpretation of InSAR results. The purpose of this paper is to seek to reduce the atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR using independent datasets, viz. Global Positioning System (GPS). A between-site and between-epoch double-differencing algorithm for the generation of tropospheric corrections to InSAR results based on GPS observations is applied. In order to correct the radar results on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) with adaptive parameters is introduced to regressively estimate tropospheric corrections over unknown points using the sparse GPS-derived corrections. The feasibility of applying SVM in troposphetic corrections estimation is examined by using data from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN). Cross-validation tests show that SVM method is more suitable than the conventional inverse distance weighted (IDW) method; it accounts for not only topography-dependent but also topography-independent atmospheric effects, so it seems optimal to estimate the tropospheric delay corrections of unknown pixels from GPS data.

  7. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  8. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  9. Optimization of self-coherent reflective PON to achieve a new record 42 dB ODN power budget after 100 km at 1.25 Gbps.

    PubMed

    Straullu, S; Forghieri, F; Ferrero, V; Gaudino, R

    2012-12-31

    We demonstrate a greater than 42 dB optical distribution network power budget in the upstream of a 1.25 Gbps self-coherent reflective PON after 100 km of installed fibers, using off-the-shelf optoelectronic components, improving our previous result by 4 dB. We discuss all system optimizations introduced in the setup in order to reach such a result, including 8B/10B high-pass filtering and Faraday rotation at the ONU. PMID:23388785

  10. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  11. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees. PMID:24812690

  12. Optimization Studies for the COBRA Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment and Results from a Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad Wayne

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature semiconductor detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of cadmium-116. While the experiment has produced globally competitive half-life limits with data from coplanar-grid CZT detectors, a future ton-scale iteration could set limits constraining the effective Majorana neutrino mass to less than 100 meV. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal CZT detector type for such an experiment. First, an overview of the relevant neutrino physics as well as an introduction to the COBRA experiment is presented. The performance characteristics and design criteria for CZT detectors are then covered, both in general and as they relate to COBRA. Simulations and prototype experiments have been performed using two of the detector design candidates. The method and results are discussed in detail. Finally, the prototype is compared with other CZT detector designs in the context of performance and scalability for a 420 kg COBRA experiment.

  13. Time-Domain Optimized Near-Field Estimator for Ultrasound Imaging: Initial Development and Results

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael A.; Walker, William F.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly four decades, adaptive beamforming (ABF) algorithms have been applied in RADAR and SONAR signal processing. These algorithms reduce the contribution of undesired off-axis signals while maintaining a desired response along a specific look direction. Typically, higher resolution and contrast is attainable using adaptive beamforming at the price of an increased computational load. In this paper, we describe a novel ABF designed for medical ultrasound, named the Time-domain Optimized Near-field Estimator (TONE). We performed a series of simulations using synthetic ultrasound data to test the performance of this algorithm and compared it to conventional, data independent, delay and sum beamforming (CBF) method. We also performed experiments using a Philips SONOS 5500 phased array imaging system. CBF was applied using the default parameters of the Philips scanner, whereas TONE was applied on per channel, unfocused data using an unfocused transmit beam. TONE images were reconstructed at a sampling of 67 µm laterally and 19 µm axially. The results obtained for a series of five 20-µm wires in a water tank show a significant improvement in spatial resolution when compared to CBF. We also analyzed the performance of TONE as a function of speed of sound errors and array sparsity, finding it robust to both. PMID:18270066

  14. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  15. Achieving Consensus for the Design and Delivery of an Online Intervention to Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Results From a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Some midwives are known to experience both professional and organizational sources of psychological distress, which can manifest as a result of the emotionally demanding midwifery work, and the traumatic work environments they endure. An online intervention may be one option midwives may engage with in pursuit of effective support. However, the priorities for the development of an online intervention to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress have yet to be explored. Objective The aim of this study was to explore priorities in the development of an online intervention to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. Methods A two-round online Delphi study was conducted. This study invited both qualitative and quantitative data from experts recruited via a scoping literature search and social media channels. Results In total, 185 experts were invited to participate in this Delphi study. Of all participants invited to contribute, 35.7% (66/185) completed Round 1 and of those who participated in this first round, 67% (44/66) continued to complete Round 2. Out of 39 questions posed over two rounds, 18 statements (46%) achieved consensus, 21 (54%) did not. Participants were given the opportunity to write any additional comments as free text. In total, 1604 free text responses were collected and categorized into 2446 separate statements of opinion, creating a total of 442 themes. Overall, participants agreed that in order to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress, online interventions should make confidentiality and anonymity a high priority, along with 24-hour mobile access, effective moderation, an online discussion forum, and additional legal, educational, and therapeutic components. It was also agreed that midwives should be offered a simple user assessment to identify those people deemed to be at risk of either causing harm to others or experiencing harm themselves, and direct them to

  16. Can electronic search engines optimize screening of search results in systematic reviews: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Margaret; Barrowman, Nicholas J; Moher, David; Clifford, Tammy J; Platt, Robert W; Morrison, Andra; Klassen, Terry P; Zhang, Li

    2006-01-01

    Background Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG® and Ovid™. Our objective is to test the ability of an Ultraseek® search engine to rank MEDLINE® records of the included studies of Cochrane reviews within the top half of all the records retrieved by the Boolean MEDLINE search used by the reviewers. Methods Collections were created using the MEDLINE bibliographic records of included and excluded studies listed in the review and all records retrieved by the MEDLINE search. Records were converted to individual HTML files. Collections of records were indexed and searched through a statistical search engine, Ultraseek, using review-specific search terms. Our data sources, systematic reviews published in the Cochrane library, were included if they reported using at least one phase of the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS), provided citations for both included and excluded studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a binary outcome measure. Reviews were selected if they yielded between 1000–6000 records when the MEDLINE search strategy was replicated. Results Nine Cochrane reviews were included. Included studies within the Cochrane reviews were found within the first 500 retrieved studies more often than would be expected by chance. Across all reviews, recall of included studies into the top 500 was 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in ranking when comparing included studies with just the subset of excluded studies listed as excluded in the published review. Conclusion The relevance ranking provided by the search engine was better than expected by chance and shows promise for the preliminary evaluation of large results from Boolean searches. A statistical search engine does not appear to be able to make fine discriminations concerning the relevance of bibliographic records that have

  17. The Contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on Children's Academic Achievement: Results from a Three Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…

  18. Preventing Underage Drinking: Using Getting to Outcomes with the SAMHSA Strategic Prevention Framework to Achieve Results. RAND Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Pamela; Chinman, Matthew; Wandersman, Abraham; Rosenbloom, David; Guckenburg, Sarah; Leis, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the United States: Alcohol is the primary contributor to the leading causes of death among adolescents. As a result, communitywide strategies to prevent underage drinking are more important than ever. Such strategies depend on the involvement and education of adolescents, parents, law enforcement …

  19. Urban Surface Network In Marseille: Network Optimization Using Numerical Simulations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeon, G.; Lemonsu, A.; Durand, P.; Masson, V.

    During the ESCOMPTE program (Field experiment to constrain models of atmo- spheric pollution and emissions transport) in Marseille between june and july 2001 an important device has been set up to describe the urban boundary layer over the built-up aera of Marseille. There was notably a network of 20 temperature and humid- ity sensors which has mesured the spatial and temporal variability of these parameters. Before the experiment the arrangement of the network had been optimized to get the maximum of information about these two varaibilities. We have worked on results of high resolution simulations containing the TEB scheme which represents the energy budgets associated with the gobal street geometry of the mesh. First, a qualitative analysis had enabled the identification of the characteristical phenomenons over the town of Marseille. There are narrows links beetween urban effects and local effects : marine advection and orography. Then, a quantitative analysis of the field has been developped. EOF (empirical orthogonal functions) have been used to characterised the spatial and temporal structures of the field evolution. Instrumented axis have been determined with all these results. Finally, we have choosen very carefully the locations of the instruments at the scale of the street to avoid that micro-climatic effects interfere with the meso-scale effect of the town. The recording of the mesurements, every 10 minutes, had started on the 12th of june and had finished on the 16th of july. We did not get any problem with the instrument and so all the period has been recorded every 10 minutes. The analysis of the datas will be led on different way. First, will be done a temporal study. We want to determine if the times when occur phenomenons are linked to the location in the town. We will interest particulary to the warming during the morning and the cooling during the evening. Then, we will look for correlation between the temperature and mixing ratio with the wind

  20. Teaser: Individualized benchmarking and optimization of read mapping results for NGS data.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Moritz; Rescheneder, Philipp; Schatz, Michael C; von Haeseler, Arndt; Sedlazeck, Fritz J

    2015-01-01

    Mapping reads to a genome remains challenging, especially for non-model organisms with lower quality assemblies, or for organisms with higher mutation rates. While most research has focused on speeding up the mapping process, little attention has been paid to optimize the choice of mapper and parameters for a user's dataset. Here, we present Teaser, a software that assists in these choices through rapid automated benchmarking of different mappers and parameter settings for individualized data. Within minutes, Teaser completes a quantitative evaluation of an ensemble of mapping algorithms and parameters. We use Teaser to demonstrate how Bowtie2 can be optimized for different data. PMID:26494581

  1. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  2. Focusing on Results: A Business Leader's Guide for Optimizing School-to-Careers Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Lindsay

    This document is intended to help business leaders to optimize school-to-career partnerships. The guide begins with a series of facts documenting the benefits of school-to-career partnerships and a brief introduction. The first section traces business involvement in education over the past 2 decades and explains how data analysis and a focus on…

  3. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  4. Social and Musical Objectives or Experiences School Music Teachers Anticipate Their Students Will Achieve as a Result of Attending a Summer Music Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…

  5. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  6. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  7. Mathematics Beliefs and Achievement of Elementary School Students in Japan and the United States: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between…

  8. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design - Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  9. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design: Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  10. Neuronal Tracing with Magnetic Labels: NMR Imaging Methods, Preliminary Results, and New Optimized Coils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pratik

    1992-01-01

    The investigations focussed on in vivo NMR imaging studies of magnetic particles with and within neural cells. NMR imaging methods, both Fourier transform and projection reconstruction, were implemented and new protocols were developed to perform "Neuronal Tracing with Magnetic Labels" on small animal brains. Having performed the preliminary experiments with neuronal tracing, new optimized coils and experimental set-up were devised. A novel gradient coil technology along with new rf-coils were implemented, and optimized for future use with small animals in them. A new magnetic labelling procedure was developed that allowed labelling of billions of cells with ultra -small magnetite particles in a short time. The relationships among the viability of such cells, the amount of label and the contrast in the images were studied as quantitatively as possible. Intracerebral grafting of magnetite labelled fetal rat brain cells made it possible for the first time to attempt monitoring in vivo the survival, differentiation, and possible migration of both host and grafted cells in the host rat brain. This constituted the early steps toward future experiments that may lead to the monitoring of human brain grafts of fetal brain cells. Preliminary experiments with direct injection of horse radish peroxidase-conjugated magnetite particles into neurons, followed by NMR imaging, revealed a possible non-invasive alternative, allowing serial study of the dynamic transport pattern of tracers in single living animals. New gradient coils were built by using parallel solid-conductor ribbon cables that could be wrapped easily and quickly. Rapid rise times provided by these coils allowed implementation of fast imaging methods. Optimized rf-coil circuit development made it possible to understand better the sample-coil properties and the associated trade -offs in cases of small but conducting samples.

  11. Optimized tracking of RF carriers with phase noise, including Pioneer 10 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to track very weak signals from distant spacecraft is limited by the phase instabilities of the received signal and of the local oscillator employed by the receiver. These instabilities ultimately limit the minimum loop bandwidth that can be used in a phase-coherent receiver, and hence limit the ratio of received carrier power to noise spectral density which can be tracked phase coherently. A method is presented for near real time estimation of the received carrier phase and additive noise spectrum, and optimization of the phase locked loop bandwidth. The method was used with the breadboard Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver to optimize tracking of very weak signals from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now more distant that the edge of the solar system. Tracking with bandwidths of 0.1 Hz to 1.0 Hz reduces tracking signal threshold and increases carrier loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) by 5 dB to 15 dB compared to the 3 Hz bandwidth of the receivers now used operationally in the DSN. This will enable the DSN to track Pioneer 10 until its power sources fails near the end of the century.

  12. Optimal fusion of antibody binding domains resulted in higher affinity and wider specificity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinhua; Kojima, Tomoki; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Antibody is a very important protein in biotechnological and biomedical fields because of its high affinity and specificity to various antigens. Due to the rise of human antibody therapeutics, its cost-effective purification is an urgent issue for bio-industry. In this study, we made novel fusion proteins PAxPG with a flexible (DDAKK)n linker between the two Ig binding domains derived from Staphylococcus protein A and Streptococcus protein G. The fusion proteins bound human and mouse IgGs and their fragments with up to 58-times higher affinity and wider specificity than the parental binding domains. Interestingly, the optimal linker for human Fab fragment was n = 4, which was close to the modeled distance between the termini of domains bound to heavy chain, implying increased avidity as a possible mechanism. For binding to Fc, the longest n=6 linker gave the highest affinity, implying longer interchain distance between the two binding sites. The novel fusion protein with optimized interdomain linker length will be a useful tool for the purification and detection of various IgGs including mouse IgG1 that binds only weakly to natural protein A. PMID:25910963

  13. Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment. Part 3: Formulation, results, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aero-assisted flight experiment (AFE) is investigated. The intent of this experiment is to simulate a GEO-to-LEO transfer, where GEO denotes a geosynchronous Earth orbit and LEO denotes a low Earth orbit. The trajectories of an AFE spacecraft are analyzed in a 3D-space, employing the full system of 6 ODEs describing the atmospheric pass. The atmospheric entry conditions are given, and the atmospheric exit conditions are adjusted in such a way that the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the atmospheric velocity depletion is such that, after exiting, the AFE spacecraft first ascends to a specified apogee and then descends to a specified perigee; and (2) the exit orbital plane is identical with the entry orbital plane. The final maneuver, not analyzed here, includes the rendezvous with and the capture by the space shuttle.

  14. Optimal results on TV bounds for scalar conservation laws with discontinuous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Shyam Sundar

    2015-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the total variation of the solution of scalar conservation law with discontinuous flux in one space dimension. One of the main unsettled questions concerning conservation law with discontinuous flux was the boundedness of the total variation of the solution near interface. In [1], it has been shown by a counter-example at T = 1, that the total variation of the solution blows up near interface, but in that example the solution become of bounded variation after time T > 1. So the natural question is what happens to the BV-ness of the solution for large time. Here we give a complete picture of the bounded variation of the solution for all time. For a uniform convex flux with only L∞ data, we obtain a natural smoothing effect in BV for all time t >T0. Also we give a counter-example (even for a BV data) to show that the assumptions which have been made are optimal.

  15. Achieving an Undetectable PSA After Radiotherapy for Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Outcome-Results of a Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas Lohm, Gunnar; Bottke, Dirk; Hoecht, Stefan; Miller, Kurt; Siegmann, Alessandra; Schostak, Martin; Neumann, Konrad; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is commonly used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Retrospective series have demonstrated biochemical response in approximately 60-75% of patients, but only a significantly lower rate of patients achieves a response with a decrease of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to a value below the limits of detectability. Therefore, long-term response at 10 years is only about 20-25% in all of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors with impact on achieving the undetectable PSA range after SRT and to define the role of this end point. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2004, 162 patients received SRT at the Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin. No patient had hormonal treatment before SRT and 90% of the patients (143) had a SRT dose of 66 Gy. We analyzed the impact of nine potential risk factors on achieving an undetectable PSA after RT and on biochemical relapse-free survival (bNED) after SRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 41.5 months and median PSA pre-RT was 0.33 ng/mL. Calculated bNED for 3.5 years was 54%. A total of 60% of the patients achieved an undetectable PSA after SRT. Univariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant predictors of biochemical progression after SRT: Gleason score (p = 0.01), PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.031), tumor stage (p = 0.047), and persistent detectable PSA after RT (p < 0.00005). In multivariate analysis, margin status (p = 0.017) and PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.002) were significant predictors of an undetectable PSA after SRT. The most significant independent predictor of bNED was 'PSA undetectable after RT' (p < 0.0005) with a hazard ratio of 8.4, thus leading to a calculated bNED at 3.5 years of 75% compared with only 18% for those patients, who did not achieve an undetectable PSA after SRT. The rate of severe Grade 3-4 side effects was below 2.5%. Conclusions: The study represents one of the largest retrospective

  16. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  17. Fast Filtration of Bacterial or Mammalian Suspension Cell Cultures for Optimal Metabolomics Results

    PubMed Central

    Bordag, Natalie; Janakiraman, Vijay; Nachtigall, Jonny; González Maldonado, Sandra; Bethan, Bianca; Laine, Jean-Philippe; Fux, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The metabolome offers real time detection of the adaptive, multi-parametric response of the organisms to environmental changes, pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modifications and thus rationalizes the optimization of cell cultures in bioprocessing. In bioprocessing the measurement of physiological intracellular metabolite levels is imperative for successful applications. However, a sampling method applicable to all cell types with little to no validation effort which simultaneously offers high recovery rates, high metabolite coverage and sufficient removal of extracellular contaminations is still missing. Here, quenching, centrifugation and fast filtration were compared and fast filtration in combination with a stabilizing washing solution was identified as the most promising sampling method. Different influencing factors such as filter type, vacuum pressure, washing solutions were comprehensively tested. The improved fast filtration method (MxP® FastQuench) followed by routine lipid/polar extraction delivers a broad metabolite coverage and recovery reflecting well physiological intracellular metabolite levels for different cell types, such as bacteria (Escherichia coli) as well as mammalian cells chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse myeloma cells (NS0).The proposed MxP® FastQuench allows sampling, i.e. separation of cells from medium with washing and quenching, in less than 30 seconds and is robustly designed to be applicable to all cell types. The washing solution contains the carbon source respectively the 13C-labeled carbon source to avoid nutritional stress during sampling. This method is also compatible with automation which would further reduce sampling times and the variability of metabolite profiling data. PMID:27438065

  18. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results.

    PubMed

    Mut-Salud, Nuria; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Garrido, Jose Manuel; Carrasco, Esther; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous) or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous). In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency. PMID:26682013

  19. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results

    PubMed Central

    Mut-Salud, Nuria; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Garrido, Jose Manuel; Carrasco, Esther; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous) or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous). In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency. PMID:26682013

  20. Optimizing healthcare at the population level: results of the improving cardiovascular outcomes in Nova Scotia partnership.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna; Johnstone, David; Nemis-White, Joanna; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Disease management is increasingly considered a valid strategy in the chronic care of our aging patient populations with multiple diseases. The Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) project examined whether a community-oriented health management partnership would lead to enhanced care and improved outcomes across an entire healthcare system. ICONS was a prospective cohort study, with baseline and repeated measurements of care and outcomes fed back to all project partners, along with other interventions aimed at optimizing care; preceding interval cohorts served as controls to post-intervention cohorts. The setting was the province of Nova Scotia, whose population is approximately 950,000. All 34,060 consecutive adult patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA) or congestive heart failure (CHF) October 1997-March 2002 were included. Interventions were a combination of serial audits and feedbacks of practices and outcomes, web-based publication of findings, newsletter-based education and reminders, physician small-group workshops, pharmacy monitoring and compliance programs, care maps, algorithms, discharge forms and patient information cards. Rates of use of evidence-based marker therapies were the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included one-year, all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization. Evidence-based prescription practices, for all target diseases, continuously and markedly improved over time. At the population level, there were no changes in one-year mortality for any disease state, although use of proven therapies predicted survival at the individual level throughout the five-year period for all disease states. Rates of re-hospitalization decreased significantly for all disease states over the course of ICONS; but most traditional positive and negative predictors of this outcome, like advanced age and use of proven therapies, respectively, were not predictive. ICONS

  1. Development of a method of robust rain gauge network optimization based on intensity-duration-frequency results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebbi, A.; Bargaoui, Z. K.; da Conceição Cunha, M.

    2013-10-01

    Based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, fitted in several locations of a given area, a robust optimization approach is proposed to identify the best locations to install new rain gauges. The advantage of robust optimization is that the resulting design solutions yield networks which behave acceptably under hydrological variability. Robust optimization can overcome the problem of selecting representative rainfall events when building the optimization process. This paper reports an original approach based on Montana IDF model parameters. The latter are assumed to be geostatistical variables, and their spatial interdependence is taken into account through the adoption of cross-variograms in the kriging process. The problem of optimally locating a fixed number of new monitoring stations based on an existing rain gauge network is addressed. The objective function is based on the mean spatial kriging variance and rainfall variogram structure using a variance-reduction method. Hydrological variability was taken into account by considering and implementing several return periods to define the robust objective function. Variance minimization is performed using a simulated annealing algorithm. In addition, knowledge of the time horizon is needed for the computation of the robust objective function. A short- and a long-term horizon were studied, and optimal networks are identified for each. The method developed is applied to north Tunisia (area = 21 000 km2). Data inputs for the variogram analysis were IDF curves provided by the hydrological bureau and available for 14 tipping bucket type rain gauges. The recording period was from 1962 to 2001, depending on the station. The study concerns an imaginary network augmentation based on the network configuration in 1973, which is a very significant year in Tunisia because there was an exceptional regional flood event in March 1973. This network consisted of 13 stations and did not meet World Meteorological

  2. Mapping soil texture classes and optimization of the result by accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Pásztor, László

    2014-05-01

    There are increasing demands nowadays on spatial soil information in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. The GlobalSoilMap.net (GSM) project aims to make a new digital soil map of the world using state-of-the-art and emerging technologies for soil mapping and predicting soil properties at fine resolution. Sand, silt and clay are among the mandatory GSM soil properties. Furthermore, soil texture class information is input data of significant agro-meteorological and hydrological models. Our present work aims to compare and evaluate different digital soil mapping methods and variables for producing the most accurate spatial prediction of texture classes in Hungary. In addition to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System as our basic data, digital elevation model and its derived components, geological database, and physical property maps of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System have been applied as auxiliary elements. Two approaches have been applied for the mapping process. At first the sand, silt and clay rasters have been computed independently using regression kriging (RK). From these rasters, according to the USDA categories, we have compiled the texture class map. Different combinations of reference and training soil data and auxiliary covariables have resulted several different maps. However, these results consequentially include the uncertainty factor of the three kriged rasters. Therefore we have suited data mining methods as the other approach of digital soil mapping. By working out of classification trees and random forests we have got directly the texture class maps. In this way the various results can be compared to the RK maps. The performance of the different methods and data has been examined by testing the accuracy of the geostatistically computed and the directly classified results. We have used the GSM methodology to assess the most predictive and accurate way for getting the best among the

  3. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  4. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) - Optimization of preflight algorithms based on flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.; Henry, M. W.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure model algorithm results were tested against other sources of air data, in particular, the Shuttle Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). The algorithm basis was also tested through a comparison of flight-measured pressure distribution vs the wind tunnel database. It is concluded that the successful flight of SEADS and the subsequent analysis of the data shows good agreement between BET and SEADS air data.

  5. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem®) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed

  6. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  7. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  8. H-infinity optimization of a variant design of the dynamic vibration absorber—Revisited and new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Y. L.; Wong, W. O.

    2011-08-01

    The H∞ optimum parameters of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) with ground-support are derived to minimize the resonant vibration amplitude of a single degree-of-freedom (sdof) system under harmonic force excitation. The optimum parameters which are derived based on the classical fixed-points theory and reported in literature for this non-traditional DVA are shown to be not leading to the minimum resonant vibration amplitude of the controlled mass. A new procedure is proposed for the H∞ optimization of such a dynamic vibration absorber. A new set of optimum tuning frequency and damping of the absorber is derived, thereby resulting in lower maximum amplitude responses than those reported in the literature. The proposed optimized variant DVA is also compared to a ground-hooked damper of the same damping capacity of the damper in the DVA. It is proved that the proposed optimized DVA has better suppression of the resonant vibration amplitude of the controlled system than both the traditional DVA and also the ground-hooked damper if the proposed design procedure of the variant DVA is followed.

  9. Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nordin, N. H. Diyana

    2015-03-01

    Harvesting energy from the surroundings has become a new trend in saving our environment. Among the established ones are solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric generators which have successfully grown in meeting the world's energy demand. However, for low powered electronic devices; especially when being placed in a remote area, micro scale energy harvesting is preferable. One of the popular methods is via vibration energy scavenging which converts mechanical energy (from vibration) to electrical energy by the effect of coupling between mechanical variables and electric or magnetic fields. As the voltage generated greatly depends on the geometry and size of the piezoelectric material, there is a need to define an optimum shape and configuration of the piezoelectric energy scavenger. In this research, mathematical derivations for unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester are presented. Simulation is done using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics software to study the effect of varying the length and shape of the beam to the generated voltage. Experimental results comparing triangular and rectangular shaped piezoelectric beam are also presented.

  10. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design Using Classical and Optimal Techniques with Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  12. Development of a method of robust rain gauge network optimization based on intensity-duration-frequency results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebbi, A.; Bargaoui, Z. K.; da Conceição Cunha, M.

    2012-12-01

    Based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, a robust optimization approach is proposed to identify the best locations to install new rain gauges. The advantage of robust optimization is that the resulting design solutions yield networks which behave acceptably under hydrological variability. Robust optimisation can overcome the problem of selecting representative rainfall events when building the optimization process. This paper reports an original approach based on Montana IDF model parameters. The latter are assumed to be geostatistical variables and their spatial interdependence is taken into account through the adoption of cross-variograms in the kriging process. The problem of optimally locating a fixed number of new monitoring stations based on an existing rain gauge network is addressed. The objective function is based on the mean spatial kriging variance and rainfall variogram structure using a variance-reduction method. Hydrological variability was taken into account by considering and implementing several return periods to define the robust objective function. Variance minimization is performed using a simulated annealing algorithm. In addition, knowledge of the time horizon is needed for the computation of the robust objective function. A short and a long term horizon were studied, and optimal networks are identified for each. The method developed is applied to north Tunisia (area = 21 000 km2). Data inputs for the variogram analysis were IDF curves provided by the hydrological bureau and available for 14 tipping bucket type rain gauges. The recording period was from 1962 to 2001, depending on the station. The study concerns an imaginary network augmentation based on the network configuration in 1973, which is a very significant year in Tunisia because there was an exceptional regional flood event in March 1973. This network consisted of 13 stations and did not meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommendations for the minimum

  13. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  14. [OPTIMIZATION OF THE SURGICAL TREATMENT RESULTS IN CONOTRUNCAL CARDIAC FAILURES IN LARGE AORTO-PULMONARY COLLATERAL ARTERIES].

    PubMed

    Bablyak, O D

    2015-09-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 83 patients, suffering conotruncal cardiac failures and large aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries, were analyzed. In 2007 - 2014 yrs a radical correction of the failure (RCF) was performed in 53 (64%) of them. RCF was achieved, using three surgical approaches. The algorithm of a surgical approach choice was introduced, guaranteeing the operation time shortening and artificial blood circulation application, have improved the course of early postoperative period. It was proved, that improvement of surgical results is possible, if a correct surgical tactic choosed and surgical approaches rationally applied. PMID:26817084

  15. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. PMID:26466749

  16. Effects of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes care: results of the OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Kostapanos, Michael S.; Moulis, Alexandros; Nikas, Nikos; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of benchmarking on the quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) care in Greece. Methods: The OPTIMISE (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment) study [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00681850] was an international multicenter, prospective cohort study. It included physicians randomized 3:1 to either receive benchmarking for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment targets (benchmarking group) or not (control group). The proportions of patients achieving the targets of the above-mentioned parameters were compared between groups after 12 months of treatment. Also, the proportions of patients achieving those targets at 12 months were compared with baseline in the benchmarking group. Results: In the Greek region, the OPTIMISE study included 797 adults with T2DM (570 in the benchmarking group). At month 12 the proportion of patients within the predefined targets for SBP and LDL-C was greater in the benchmarking compared with the control group (50.6 versus 35.8%, and 45.3 versus 36.1%, respectively). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No difference between groups was noted in the percentage of patients achieving the predefined target for HbA1c. At month 12 the increase in the percentage of patients achieving all three targets was greater in the benchmarking (5.9–15.0%) than in the control group (2.7–8.1%). In the benchmarking group more patients were on target regarding SBP (50.6% versus 29.8%), LDL-C (45.3% versus 31.3%) and HbA1c (63.8% versus 51.2%) at 12 months compared with baseline (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Benchmarking may comprise a promising tool for improving the quality of T2DM care. Nevertheless, target achievement rates of each, and of all three, quality indicators were suboptimal, indicating there are still unmet needs in the management of T2DM. PMID:26445642

  17. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  18. Effects of a Universally Free, In-Classroom School Breakfast Program: Results from the Second Year of the Maryland Meals for Achievement Evaluation. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, J. Michael; Rankin, Emunah; Feeney, Kelly; Kenney, Leigh; Kleinman, Ron

    Noting that many children in the United States are not well nourished despite the recent economic boom, the state of Maryland began the Maryland Meals for Achievement (MMFA) program, a demonstration project to see if providing a classroom breakfast free to all students can improve student nutrition and academic achievement. This interim report…

  19. Large-Scale Student Assessment Studies Measure the Results of Processes of Knowledge Acquisition: Evidence in Support of the Distinction between Intelligence and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Brunner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the relatively high intercorrelations observed between mathematics achievement, reading achievement, and cognitive ability, it has recently been claimed that student assessment studies (e.g., TIMSS, PISA) and intelligence tests measure a single cognitive ability that is practically identical to general intelligence. The present article uses…

  20. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  2. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  3. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  4. Optimum Cycle Length and Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel; Phase II: Results Achievable with Enrichments Greater than 5 w/o

    SciTech Connect

    J. Secker, et al

    2002-09-30

    The report evaluates increasing enrichment to achieve lower fuel cycle costs. Increasing enrichment 6 w/o does not reach the optimum point. Further increase is possible before the optimum will be reached.

  5. Optimized filtering of regional and teleseismic seismograms: results of maximizing SNR measurements from the wavelet transform and filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C.; Dowla, F.

    1997-07-15

    Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, bearing estimation

  6. Sub-optimal achievement of guideline-derived lipid goals in management of diabetes patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, despite high use of evidence-based therapies.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Akosah, Kwame O; Simpson, Allan G; Barbieri, Kirk E; Megginson, Gregory C; Goldberg, Randal I; Beller, George A

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend aggressive goals for lipid and blood pressure reduction for high risk patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic coronary disease. However, it remains unclear how many patients achieve treatment goals versus the number of people merely placed on treatment. We conducted an observational study in an academic cardiology clinic. A total of 926 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and concomitant diabetes mellitus met criteria. Mean age was 68.4 ± 10.2, 65.6% were male, and 86.8% were Caucasian. By the last visit a high percentage of patients were receiving recommended medications. Mean LDL-cholesterol achieved was 80.4 mg/dl with 40.9% reaching ≤ 70 mg/dl, and 61.7% reaching SBP ≤ 130 mmHg. Many patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are prescribed recommended medications; however, few achieve guidelines-specified therapeutic goals for LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure. Studies evaluating performance improvement should include percentage of patients reaching treatment goals. Mechanisms underlying the treatment gap need to be identified and addressed. PMID:22234950

  7. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  8. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  9. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Student Motivation for Learning Mathematics and Achievement Linked with School Contexts: Results from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation were as follows: (1) application of quantitative methods to large-scale databases, (2) investigation of relationships between student mathematics achievement and student motivational attitudes for learning mathematics at the macro level (i.e., national level) and at the micro level (i.e., student level), (3)…

  10. Coping Styles and Achievement: A Cross-National Study of School Children. Volume I of V Volumes: The Theory, Design, and Validation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.

    This study undertook to develop an improved conceptual system for explaining effective behavior; to build reliable measures of the components of that behavior; to develop and apply the measures internationally; and to validate the measures and concepts against objective criteria of achievement. An eight-nation team defined three sets of components…

  11. Principal Perceptions and Student Achievement in Reading in Korea, Mexico, and the United States: Educational Leadership, School Autonomy, and Use of Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.; Backhoff, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study compared PISA 2009 student reading literacy scores with principal perceptions across three countries with varying levels of student performance: Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Seventy-five countries participated in PISA 2009, which measured 15-year-old children's reading achievement and principal perceptions. The study…

  12. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  13. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  14. Illinois Community College System Selected Programs and Services for Underrepresented Groups. Focus Area: Academic Achievement Promoting Positive Results and Highlighting Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Through the Underrepresented Groups Report, community colleges have an opportunity to report on initiatives and strategies aimed at increasing participation and achievement among individuals with Disabilities, Women, and Minorities. Underrepresented Groups Report production is an important annual statutory responsibility (Public Act 85-283) for…

  15. Low-level laser therapy of acute and chronic pain: results of the trials and light delivery optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Elena V.; Roeva, Tatiana

    2003-09-01

    The work presents the results of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) of two groups of volunteers with a variety of conditions performed with a GaAs-system. The volunteers were randomly selected among the patients who were usually treated by conventional therapy that included massage and acupuncture needles. The LLLT was proposed to the first group as extension of conventional treatment. The second group underwent only the LLLT. The effectiveness of the therapy was graded under four categories. Short-term and long-term side effects as well as conditions responding only to LLLT were recorded. The successful treatments were up to 70% for both groups, which coincided with the result of the control group treated by the conventional therapy. For optimization of the light delivery, the spatial maps of the absorbed dose in a homogeneous medium, both in the proximity of the light source and at a distance from it, were compared for collimated and divergent light beams using a reduced variance Monte-Carlo code.

  16. Flight Test Results of an Angle of Attack and Angle of Sideslip Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Marie-Michele; Martos, Borja; Foster, John V.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a joint partnership between the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) and the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), research on advanced air data calibration methods has been in progress. This research was initiated to expand a novel pitot-static calibration method that was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. Subscale flight tests demonstrated small 2-s error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. Recent UTSI full scale flight tests have shown airspeed calibrations with the same accuracy or better as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accepted GPS 'four-leg' method in a smaller test area and in less time. The current research was motivated by the desire to extend this method for inflight calibration of angle of attack (AOA) and angle of sideslip (AOS) flow vanes. An instrumented Piper Saratoga research aircraft from the UTSI was used to collect the flight test data and evaluate flight test maneuvers. Results showed that the output-error approach produces good results for flow vane calibration. In addition, maneuvers for pitot-static and flow vane calibration can be integrated to enable simultaneous and efficient testing of each system.

  17. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part II - A Framework for Volume Mesh Optimization and the Condition Number of the Jacobian Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-03-26

    Three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral and hexahedral finite element mesh optimization is studied from a theoretical perspective and by computer experiments to determine what objective functions are most effective in attaining valid, high quality meshes. The approach uses matrices and matrix norms to extend the work in Part I to build suitable 3D objective functions. Because certain matrix norm identities which hold for 2 x 2 matrices do not hold for 3 x 3 matrices. significant differences arise between surface and volume mesh optimization objective functions. It is shown, for example, that the equivalence in two-dimensions of the Smoothness and Condition Number of the Jacobian matrix objective functions does not extend to three dimensions and further. that the equivalence of the Oddy and Condition Number of the Metric Tensor objective functions in two-dimensions also fails to extend to three-dimensions. Matrix norm identities are used to systematically construct dimensionally homogeneous groups of objective functions. The concept of an ideal minimizing matrix is introduced for both hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Non-dimensional objective functions having barriers are emphasized as the most logical choice for mesh optimization. The performance of a number of objective functions in improving mesh quality was assessed on a suite of realistic test problems, focusing particularly on all-hexahedral ''whisker-weaved'' meshes. Performance is investigated on both structured and unstructured meshes and on both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Although several objective functions are competitive, the condition number objective function is particularly attractive. The objective functions are closely related to mesh quality measures. To illustrate, it is shown that the condition number metric can be viewed as a new tetrahedral element quality measure.

  18. A dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth-disease: II. Model results and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mimako; Carpenter, Tim E; Dickey, Bradley F; Howitt, Richard E

    2007-05-16

    A dynamic optimization model was used to search for optimal strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the three-county region in the Central Valley of California. The model minimized total regional epidemic cost by choosing the levels of depopulation of diagnosed herds, preemptive depopulation, and vaccination. Impacts of limited carcass disposal capacity and vaccination were also examined, and the shadow value, the implicit value of each capacity, was estimated. The model found that to control FMD in the region, (1) preemptive depopulation was not optimal, (2) vaccination, if allowed, was optimal, reducing total cost by 3-7%, (3) increased vaccination capacity reduced total cost up to US$119 per dose, (4) increased carcass disposal capacity reduced total cost by US$9000-59,400 per head with and without vaccination, respectively, and (5) dairy operations should be given preferential attention in allocating limited control resources. PMID:17280730

  19. Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Keith B.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2010-07-01

    The MMT observatory has recently implemented and tested an optimal wavefront controller for the NGS adaptive optics system. Open loop atmospheric data collected at the telescope is used as the input to a MATLAB based analytical model. The model uses nonlinear constrained minimization to determine controller gains and optimize the system performance. The real-time controller performing the adaptive optics close loop operation is implemented on a dedicated high performance PC based quad core server. The controller algorithm is written in C and uses the GNU scientific library for linear algebra. Tests at the MMT confirmed the optimal controller significantly reduced the residual RMS wavefront compared with the previous controller. Significant reductions in image FWHM and increased peak intensities were obtained in J, H and K-bands. The optimal PID controller is now operating as the baseline wavefront controller for the MMT NGS-AO system.

  20. Dynamic regime marginal structural mean models for estimation of optimal dynamic treatment regimes, Part II: proofs of results.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Liliana; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Robins, James M

    2010-01-01

    In this companion article to "Dynamic Regime Marginal Structural Mean Models for Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Part I: Main Content" [Orellana, Rotnitzky and Robins (2010), IJB, Vol. 6, Iss. 2, Art. 7] we present (i) proofs of the claims in that paper, (ii) a proposal for the computation of a confidence set for the optimal index when this lies in a finite set, and (iii) an example to aid the interpretation of the positivity assumption. PMID:20405047

  1. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Cohen, Myron S.; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN) programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake. Methods Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites—a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO). Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis. Results In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD) 28.5 (± 6.0) years, most were single (82.0%) and closeted gays (66.7%). The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2%) had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5%) and mobile phone numbers (77.7%). The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4%) for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6%) for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or public STD clinic. Conclusions Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation. PMID:27462724

  2. Optimization of evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, C. A.; Bradley, C. C.; Hulet, R. G.

    1997-05-01

    Recent experiments have used forced evaporative cooling to produce Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases. The evaporative cooling process can be optimized to provide the maximum phase-space density with a specified number of atoms remaining. We show that this global optimization is approximately achieved by locally optimizing the cooling efficiency at each instant. We discuss how this method can be implemented, and present the results for our 7Li trap. The predicted behavior of the gas is found to agree well with experiment.

  3. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Wang, Zhiheng; Sampson, John H.; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen; Hoang, Jenny K.; Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  4. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  5. STEPS: A Grid Search Methodology for Optimized Peptide Identification Filtering of MS/MS Database Search Results

    SciTech Connect

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Sandoval, John D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-03-01

    For bottom-up proteomics there are a wide variety of database searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid search approach for determining optimal database filtering criteria in shotgun proteomics data analyses that is easily adaptable to any search. Systematic Trial and Error Parameter Selection - referred to as STEPS - utilizes user-defined parameter ranges to test a wide array of parameter combinations to arrive at an optimal "parameter set" for data filtering, thus maximizing confident identifications. The benefits of this approach in terms of numbers of true positive identifications are demonstrated using datasets derived from immunoaffinity-depleted blood serum and a bacterial cell lysate, two common proteomics sample types.

  6. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  7. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Optimization of Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization in solid-state fermentation and use of the resulting product as a P fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; da Silva, Nina Morena Rêgo Muniz; Anastácio, Thalita Cardoso; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Ribeiro, José Ivo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2015-01-01

    A biotechnological strategy for the production of an alternative P fertilizer is described in this work. The fertilizer was produced through rock phosphate (RP) solubilization by Aspergillus niger in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) with sugarcane bagasse as substrate. SSF conditions were optimized by the surface response methodology after an initial screening of factors with significant effect on RP solubilization. The optimized levels of the factors were 865 mg of biochar, 250 mg of RP, 270 mg of sucrose and 6.2 ml of water per gram of bagasse. At this optimal setting, 8.6 mg of water-soluble P per gram of bagasse was achieved, representing an increase of 2.4 times over the non-optimized condition. The optimized SSF product was partially incinerated at 350°C (SB-350) and 500°C (SB-500) to reduce its volume and, consequently, increase P concentration. The post-processed formulations of the SSF product were evaluated in a soil–plant experiment. The formulations SB-350 and SB-500 increased the growth and P uptake of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) when compared with the non-treated RP. Furthermore, these two formulations had a yield relative to triple superphosphate of 60% (on a dry mass basis). Besides increasing P concentration, incineration improved the SSF product performance probably by decreasing microbial immobilization of nutrients during the decomposition of the remaining SSF substrate. The process proposed is a promising alternative for the management of P fertilization since it enables the utilization of low-solubility RPs and relies on the use of inexpensive materials. PMID:26112323

  10. Optimization of Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization in solid-state fermentation and use of the resulting product as a P fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; da Silva, Nina Morena Rêgo Muniz; Anastácio, Thalita Cardoso; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Ribeiro, José Ivo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2015-11-01

    A biotechnological strategy for the production of an alternative P fertilizer is described in this work. The fertilizer was produced through rock phosphate (RP) solubilization by Aspergillus niger in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) with sugarcane bagasse as substrate. SSF conditions were optimized by the surface response methodology after an initial screening of factors with significant effect on RP solubilization. The optimized levels of the factors were 865 mg of biochar, 250 mg of RP, 270 mg of sucrose and 6.2 ml of water per gram of bagasse. At this optimal setting, 8.6 mg of water-soluble P per gram of bagasse was achieved, representing an increase of 2.4 times over the non-optimized condition. The optimized SSF product was partially incinerated at 350°C (SB-350) and 500°C (SB-500) to reduce its volume and, consequently, increase P concentration. The post-processed formulations of the SSF product were evaluated in a soil-plant experiment. The formulations SB-350 and SB-500 increased the growth and P uptake of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) when compared with the non-treated RP. Furthermore, these two formulations had a yield relative to triple superphosphate of 60% (on a dry mass basis). Besides increasing P concentration, incineration improved the SSF product performance probably by decreasing microbial immobilization of nutrients during the decomposition of the remaining SSF substrate. The process proposed is a promising alternative for the management of P fertilization since it enables the utilization of low-solubility RPs and relies on the use of inexpensive materials. PMID:26112323

  11. High-Dose Continuous Oxacillin Infusion Results in Achievement of Pharmacokinetics Targets in Critically Ill Patients with Deep Sternal Wound Infections following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  12. High-dose continuous oxacillin infusion results in achievement of pharmacokinetics targets in critically ill patients with deep sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nesseler, Nicolas; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  13. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan UsingOptimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2006-06-16

    This research demonstrates economically optimal distributedenergy resource (DER) system choice using the DER choice and operationsoptimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer AdoptionModel (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installedequipment given prevailing utility tariffs and fuel prices, siteelectrical and thermal loads (including absorption cooling), and a menuof available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeitidealized, that shows how site useful energy loads can be served atminimum cost. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examinedand DER-CAM is applied to select the economically optimal DER system foreach. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductionsare evaluated. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbonemissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savingswere most noticeable in the prototype sports facility, followed by thehospital, hotel, and office building. Results show that DER with combinedheat and power equipment is a promising efficiency and carbon mitigationstrategy, but that precise system design is necessary. Furthermore, aJapan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffsrelevant to DER installation is presented.

  14. Achieving Optimal Enrollments and Tuition Revenues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihlanfeldt, William

    A modern marketing approach to student recruitment is offered as a means of facilitating institutional planning, enhancing communication with prospective students, improving enrollment forecasting, and eliminating unexpected shortfalls in tuition income. Marketing is distinguished from mere salesmanship and discussed in a practical program of…

  15. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  16. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  18. Minor counterclockwise rotation of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) as derived from paleomagnetic results achieved in hematite-bearing Lower Triassic sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Ludwiniak, Mirosław; Rubinkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Paleomagnetic studies accompanied with tectonic fieldworks have been carried out within hematite-bearing Lower Triassic red beds from the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) in order to determine tectonic rotations of regional scale. The studied rocks contain primary remanent magnetization recorded by hematite and display both polarities. The obtained inclination is slightly lower than expected for stable Europe, which could imply either minor latitudinal separation or come from the inclination error. The results from six sampling sites representing rocks situated in autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement and inclined only during the Neogene uplift imply 19° counterclockwise rotation. Considering the tectonic position of the studied rocks, this rotation could be attributed to the entire Tatra Block. In turn, results from rocks tilted in two tectonic events: during Late Cretaceous compression and further in Neogene uplift requires double tectonic correction as normal unfolding procedure results in spurious declination. It is suggested that the latter mechanism together with local rotations of allochthonous nappes may explain part of variable rotations reported in previous paleomagnetic studies of Mesozoic rocks from the Central Western Carpathians.

  19. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles.

    PubMed

    McLean, Sionnadh Mairi; Booth, Andrew; Gee, Melanie; Salway, Sarah; Cobb, Mark; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Nancarrow, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and rescheduling of unwanted appointments. "Reminder plus", which provides additional information beyond the reminder function may be more effective than simple reminders (ie, date, time, place) at reducing non-attendance at appointments in particular circumstances. We identified six areas of inefficiency which indicate that reminder systems are being used sub-optimally. Unless otherwise indicated, all patients should receive a reminder to facilitate attendance at their health care appointment. The choice of reminder system should be tailored to the individual service

  20. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Sionnadh Mairi; Booth, Andrew; Gee, Melanie; Salway, Sarah; Cobb, Mark; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Nancarrow, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and rescheduling of unwanted appointments. “Reminder plus”, which provides additional information beyond the reminder function may be more effective than simple reminders (ie, date, time, place) at reducing non-attendance at appointments in particular circumstances. We identified six areas of inefficiency which indicate that reminder systems are being used sub-optimally. Unless otherwise indicated, all patients should receive a reminder to facilitate attendance at their health care appointment. The choice of reminder system should be tailored to the individual

  1. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  2. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  3. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Optimal design of plate-fin heat exchangers by particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, M.; Darus, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    This study explores the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for optimization of a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger. Minimization total annual cost is the target of optimization. Seven design parameters, namely, heat exchanger length at hot and cold sides, fin height, fin frequency, fin thickness, fin-strip length and number of hot side layers are selected as optimization variables. A case study from the literature proves the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in case of achieving more accurate results.

  5. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  6. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data: School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for 61 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, and one special program school in the Portland School District for the 1986-87 school year. Twelve different grade-level configurations are represented, from pre-kindergarten to grade 12. Tests are designed to be administered in accordance…

  7. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  8. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  14. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

  15. Radiolabeling optimization and characterization of (68)Ga labeled DOTA-polyamido-amine dendrimer conjugate - Animal biodistribution and PET imaging results.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Aanchal; Singh, Baljinder; Panwar Hazari, Puja; Schultz, Michael K; Parmar, Ambika; Kumar, Pardeep; Sharma, Sarika; Dhawan, Devinder; Kumar Mishra, Anil

    2015-11-01

    The present study describes the optimization of (68)Ga radiolabeling with PAMAM dendrimer-DOTA conjugate. A conjugate (PAMAM-DOTA) concentration of 11.69µM, provided best radiolabeling efficiency of more than 93.0% at pH 4.0, incubation time of 30.0min and reaction temperature ranging between 90 and 100°C. The decay corrected radiochemical yield was found to be 79.4±0.01%. The radiolabeled preparation ([(68)Ga]-DOTA-PAMAM-D) remained stable (radiolabeling efficiency of 96.0%) at room temperature and in serum for up to 4-h. The plasma protein binding was observed to be 21.0%. After intravenous administration, 50.0% of the tracer cleared from the blood circulation by 30-min and less than 1.0% of the injected activity remained in blood by 1.0h. The animal biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tracer excretes through the kidneys and about 0.33% of the %ID/g accumulated in the tumor at 1h post injection. The animal organ's biodistribution data was supported by animal PET imaging showing good 'non-specific' tracer uptake in tumor and excretion is primarily through kidneys. Additionally, DOTA-PAMAM-D conjugation with αVβ3 receptors targeting peptides and drug loading on the dendrimers may improve the specificity of the (68)Ga labeled product for imaging and treating angiogenesis respectively. PMID:26232562

  16. Principal results of the Japanese trial to assess optimal systolic blood pressure in elderly hypertensive patients (JATOS).

    PubMed

    2008-12-01

    The benefits of lowering a systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg in elderly hypertension remain controversial. This study is a prospective, randomized, open-label study with blinded assessment of endpoints to compare the 2-year effect of strict treatment to maintain systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg with that of mild treatment to maintain systolic blood pressure below 160 but at or above 140 mmHg in elderly hypertensive patients. Patients with essential hypertension (65-85 years old, with a pretreatment systolic blood pressure of above 160 mmHg) were randomly assigned to receive strict treatment (n=2,212) or mild treatment (n=2,206). The baseline drug was efonidipine hydrochloride, a long-acting calcium antagonist. The primary endpoint was the combined incidence of cardiovascular disease and renal failure, and the secondary endpoints were total deaths and any safety problems. Although final blood pressures (systolic/diastolic) were significantly lower in the strict-treatment group compared with the mild-treatment group (135.9/74.8 vs. 145.6/78.1 mmHg; p<0.001), the incidence of the primary endpoint was similar in the two groups (86 patients in each group; p=0.99). Total deaths were 54 in the strict-treatment group vs. 42 in the mild-treatment group (p=0.22), and treatment was withdrawn because of adverse events in 36 patients in each group (p=0.99). An interaction between age and treatment for the primary endpoints (p=0.03) was seen. Complex clinical features associated with aging seem to have obscured the difference in effect between the two treatments. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal treatment strategy for hypertension in the elderly. PMID:19139601

  17. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  18. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  19. Thermoacoustic Refrigerator's Stack Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fawal, Mawahib Hassan; Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Yaacob, Mohd. Shafik; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2010-06-01

    The standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator, which uses sound generation to transfer heat, was developed rapidly during the past four decades. It was regarded as a new, promising and environmentally benign alternative to conventional compression vapor refrigerators, although it was not competitive regarding the coefficient of performance (COP) yet. Thus the aim of this paper is to enhance thermoacoustic refrigerator's stack performance through optimization. A computational optimization procedure of thermoacoustic stack design was fully developed. The procedure was designed to achieve optimal coefficient of performance based on most of the design and operating parameters. Cooling load and acoustic power governing equations were set assuming the linear thermoacoustic theory. Lagrange multipliers method was used as an optimization technique tool to solve the governing equations. Numerical analyses results of the developed design procedure are presented. The results showed that the stack design parameters are the most significant parameters for the optimal overall performance. The coefficient of performance obtained increases by about 48.8% from the published experimental optimization methods. The results are in good agreement with past established studies.

  20. Factors Associated With Optimal Long-Term Cosmetic Results in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Balloon-Based Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A.; Keisch, Martin; Shah, Chirag; Goyal, Sharad; Khan, Atif J.; Beitsch, Peter D.; Lyden, Maureen; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months for early-stage breast cancer patients treated with Mammosite balloon-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,440 patients (1,449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with balloon-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good (E/G) or fair/poor (F/P). Follow-up was evaluated at 36 and 72 months to establish long-term cosmesis, stability of cosmesis, and factors associated with optimal results. Results: The percentage of evaluable patients with excellent/good (E/G) cosmetic results at 36 months and more than 72 months were 93.3% (n = 708/759) and 90.4% (n = 235/260). Factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months included: larger skin spacing (p = 0.04) and T1 tumors (p = 0.02). Using multiple regression analysis, the only factors predictive of worse cosmetic outcome at 72 months were smaller skin spacing (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.99) and tumors greater than 2 cm (OR, 4.96, CI, 1.53-16.07). In all, 227 patients had both a 36-month and a 72-month cosmetic evaluation. The number of patients with E/G cosmetic results decreased only slightly from 93.4% at 3 years to 90.8% (p = 0.13) at 6 years, respectively. Conclusions: APBI delivered with balloon-based brachytherapy produced E/G cosmetic results in 90.4% of cases at 6 years. Larger tumors (T2) and smaller skin spacing were found to be the two most important independent predictors of cosmesis.

  1. Controlled and Uncontrolled Subject Descriptions in the CF Database: A Comparison of Optimal Cluster-Based Retrieval Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted on the cystic fibrosis (CF) database, a subset of MEDLINE, that investigated clustering structure and the effectiveness of cluster-based retrieval as a function of the exhaustivity of the uncontrolled subject descriptions. Results are compared to calculations for controlled descriptions based on Medical Subject Headings…

  2. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  3. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  4. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  5. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  6. Methods to optimize selective hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Thomas M.; Bailey, Christopher A.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2003-07-01

    Laser immunotherapy, a novel therapy for breast cancer, utilizes selective photothermal interaction to raise the temperature of tumor tissue above the cell damage threshold. Photothermal interaction is achieved with intratumoral injection of a laser absorbing dye followed by non-invasive laser irradiation. When tumor heating is used in combination with immunoadjuvant to stimulate an immune response, anti-tumor immunity can be achieved. In our study, gelatin phantom simulations were used to optimize therapy parameters such as laser power, laser beam radius, and dye concentration to achieve maximum heating of target tissue with the minimum heating of non-targeted tissue. An 805-nm diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) were used to achieve selective photothermal interactions in a gelatin phantom. Spherical gelatin phantoms containing ICG were used to simulate the absorption-enhanced target tumors, which were embedded inside gelatin without ICG to simulate surrounding non-targeted tissue. Different laser powers and dye concentrations were used to treat the gelatin phantoms. The temperature distributions in the phantoms were measured, and the data were used to determine the optimal parameters used in selective hyperthermia (laser power and dye concentration for this case). The method involves an optimization coefficient, which is proportional to the difference between temperatures measured in targeted and non-targeted gel. The coefficient is also normalized by the difference between the most heated region of the target gel and the least heated region. A positive optimization coefficient signifies a greater temperature increase in targeted gelatin when compared to non-targeted gelatin, and therefore, greater selectivity. Comparisons were made between the optimization coefficients for varying laser powers in order to demonstrate the effectinvess of this method in finding an optimal parameter set. Our experimental results support the proposed use of an optimization

  7. Risk modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. H.; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-09-01

    Risk management is very important in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model has been used in portfolio optimization to minimize the investment risk. The objective of the mean-variance model is to minimize the portfolio risk and achieve the target rate of return. Variance is used as risk measure in the mean-variance model. The purpose of this study is to compare the portfolio composition as well as performance between the optimal portfolio of mean-variance model and equally weighted portfolio. Equally weighted portfolio means the proportions that are invested in each asset are equal. The results show that the portfolio composition of the mean-variance optimal portfolio and equally weighted portfolio are different. Besides that, the mean-variance optimal portfolio gives better performance because it gives higher performance ratio than the equally weighted portfolio.

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  10. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Josiński, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Switoński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  11. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  12. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  13. Evaluation of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells for the in vitro detection of sensitizers: Results of a ring study in five laboratories.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hendrik; Gerlach, Silke; Spieker, Jochem; Ryan, Cindy; Bauch, Caroline; Mangez, Claire; Winkler, Petra; Landsiedel, Robert; Templier, Marie; Mignot, Aurelien; Gerberick, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Aeby, Pierre; Schepky, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive have introduced a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after March 2013. We have developed and optimized a stable and reproducible in vitro protocol based on human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells to assess the sensitization potential of chemicals. To evaluate the transferability and the predictivity of this PBMDCs based test protocol, a ring study was organized with five laboratories using seven chemicals with a known sensitization potential (one none-sensitizer and six sensitizers, including one pro-hapten). The results indicated that this optimized test protocol could be successfully transferred to all participating laboratories and allowed a correct assessment of the sensitization potential of the tested set of chemicals. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in the toolbox of in vitro methods for the evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:25868915

  14. Portfolio optimization with mean-variance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoe, Lam Weng; Siew, Lam Weng

    2016-06-01

    Investors wish to achieve the target rate of return at the minimum level of risk in their investment. Portfolio optimization is an investment strategy that can be used to minimize the portfolio risk and can achieve the target rate of return. The mean-variance model has been proposed in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model is an optimization model that aims to minimize the portfolio risk which is the portfolio variance. The objective of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using the mean-variance model. The data of this study consists of weekly returns of 20 component stocks of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI). The results of this study show that the portfolio composition of the stocks is different. Moreover, investors can get the return at minimum level of risk with the constructed optimal mean-variance portfolio.

  15. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  16. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  17. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  18. DSP code optimization based on cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengfa; Li, Chengcheng; Tang, Bin

    2013-03-01

    DSP program's running efficiency on board is often lower than which via the software simulation during the program development, which is mainly resulted from the user's improper use and incomplete understanding of the cache-based memory. This paper took the TI TMS320C6455 DSP as an example, analyzed its two-level internal cache, and summarized the methods of code optimization. Processor can achieve its best performance when using these code optimization methods. At last, a specific algorithm application in radar signal processing is proposed. Experiment result shows that these optimization are efficient.

  19. A Method for the Design and Development of Medical or Health Care Information Websites to Optimize Search Engine Results Page Rankings on Google

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Niamh Maria; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. Objective This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). Methods A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. Results The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on Google SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. Conclusions The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website, along with assessment of readability of the material to be used. This may ensure that the website performs better on Google searches. The tool can also be used retrospectively to make improvements to existing websites, thus, potentially enabling better Google search result positions without incurring the costs associated with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) professionals or paid promotion. PMID:23981848

  20. Optimal site-centered electronic structure basis set from a displaced-center expansion: Improved results via a priori estimates of saddle points in the density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-09-01

    Site-centered, electronic-structure methods use an expansion inside nonoverlapping “muffin-tin” (MT) spheres plus an interstitial basis set. As the boundary separating the more spherical from nonspherical density between atoms, the “saddle-point” radii (SPR) in the density provide an optimal spherical region for expanding in spherical harmonics, as used in augmented plane wave, muffin-tin orbital, and multiple-scattering [Korringa, Kohn, and Rostoker (KKR)] methods. These MT-SPR guarantee unique, convex Voronoi polyhedra at each site, in distinction to Bader topological cells. We present a numerically fast, two-center expansion to find SPR a priori from overlapping atomic charge densities, valid also for disordered alloys. We adopt this MT-SPR basis for KKR in the atomic sphere approximation and study (dis)ordered alloys with large differences in atomic size (fcc CoPt and bcc CrW). For this simple and unique improvement, we find formation energies and structural parameters in strikingly better agreement with more exact methods or experiment, and resolve issues with former results.

  1. Flight Test Results of a GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization for a Light Twin-Engine Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Kiszely, Paul; Foster, John V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), a novel pitot-static calibration method was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for subscale aircraft while flying within confined test areas. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. This method has been demonstrated in subscale flight tests and has shown small 2- error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. The current research was motivated by the desire to further evaluate and develop this method for full-scale aircraft. A goal of this research was to develop an accurate calibration method that enables reductions in test equipment and flight time, thus reducing costs. The approach involved analysis of data acquisition requirements, development of efficient flight patterns, and analysis of pressure error models based on system identification methods. Flight tests were conducted at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) utilizing an instrumented Piper Navajo research aircraft. In addition, the UTSI engineering flight simulator was used to investigate test maneuver requirements and handling qualities issues associated with this technique. This paper provides a summary of piloted simulation and flight test results that illustrates the performance and capabilities of the NASA calibration method. Discussion of maneuver requirements and data analysis methods is included as well as recommendations for piloting technique.

  2. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  3. Achieving Anterior Aesthetics in a Full-Arch Implant Case.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Dino

    2016-01-01

    The proper approach to achieving the best possible smile for any aesthetic case must start with a full-smile analysis. Only when the practitioner determines the ideal final position of the teeth can the restorative phase begin. In this case, using provisional restorations and a transferable wax-up resulted in a final restoration that yielded optimal aesthetics, excellent function, and a very satisfied patient. PMID:26846060

  4. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  5. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  6. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  7. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  8. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  9. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  10. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  11. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  12. Linear antenna array optimization using flower pollination algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Prerna; Kothari, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is a new nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm used to solve multi-objective optimization problems. The aim of this paper is to introduce FPA to the electromagnetics and antenna community for the optimization of linear antenna arrays. FPA is applied for the first time to linear array so as to obtain optimized antenna positions in order to achieve an array pattern with minimum side lobe level along with placement of deep nulls in desired directions. Various design examples are presented that illustrate the use of FPA for linear antenna array optimization, and subsequently the results are validated by benchmarking along with results obtained using other state-of-the-art, nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and cat swarm optimization. The results suggest that in most cases, FPA outperforms the other evolutionary algorithms and at times it yields a similar performance. PMID:27066339

  13. Estimating Optimal Dose of Twice-Weekly Gemcitabine for Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Mature Results of GEMRT-01 Phase I Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Francoise; Bossard, Nadine; Ychou, Marc; Chauffert, Bruno; Wautot, Virginie

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To accurately determine the maximal tolerated dose, feasibility, and antitumor activity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy including twice-weekly gemcitabine in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were included in this Phase I trial. Radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 50 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy with twice-weekly gemcitabine was administered during the 5 weeks of radiotherapy, from an initial dose of 30 mg/m{sup 2}. The gemcitabine doses were escalated in 10-mg/m{sup 2} increments in a three-plus-three design, until dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Results: A total of 35 patients were included in the trial. The feasibility of chemoradiotherapy was high, because all the patients received the planned total radiation dose, and 26 patients (74%) received {>=}70% of the planned chemotherapy dose. The mean total delivered dose of gemcitabine was 417 mg/m{sup 2} (i.e., 77% of the prescribed dose). The maximal tolerated dose of twice-weekly gemcitabine was 70 mg/m{sup 2}. Of the 35 patients, 13 had a partial response (37%) and 21 had stable disease (60%). Overall, the median survival and the 6-, 12-, and 18-month survival rates were 10.6 months and 82%, 31%, and 11%, respectively. Survival was significantly longer in patients with an initial performance status of 0 or 1 (p = .004). Conclusion: Our mature data have indicated that gemcitabine doses can be increased {<=}70 mg/m{sup 2}, when delivered twice-weekly with concurrent radiotherapy. This combination shows promises to achieve better recurrence-free and overall survival. These results will serve as a basis for further implementation of the multimodal treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

  14. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  15. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  16. Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.

    1993-01-01

    Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.

  17. Maximizing overall liking results in a superior product to minimizing deviations from ideal ratings: an optimization case study with coffee-flavored milk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    In just-about-right (JAR) scaling and ideal scaling, attribute delta (i.e., “Too Little” or “Too Much”) reflects a subject’s dissatisfaction level for an attribute relative to their hypothetical ideal. Dissatisfaction (attribute delta) is a different construct from consumer acceptability, operationalized as liking. Therefore, we hypothesized minimizing dissatisfaction and maximizing liking would yield different optimal formulations. The objective of this research was to compare product optimization strategies, i.e. maximizing liking vis-à-vis minimizing dissatisfaction. Coffee-flavored dairy beverages (n = 20) were formulated using a fractional mixture design that constrained the proportions of coffee extract, milk, sucrose, and water. Participants (n = 388) were randomly assigned to one of three research conditions, where they evaluated 4 of the 20 samples using an incomplete block design. Samples were rated for overall liking and for intensity of the attributes sweetness, milk flavor, thickness and coffee flavor. Where appropriate, measures of overall product quality (Ideal_Delta and JAR_Delta) were calculated as the sum of the absolute values of the four attribute deltas. Optimal formulations were estimated by: a) maximizing liking; b) minimizing Ideal_Delta; or c) minimizing JAR_Delta. A validation study was conducted to evaluate product optimization models. Participants indicated a preference for a coffee-flavored dairy beverage with more coffee extract and less milk and sucrose in the dissatisfaction model compared to the formula obtained by maximizing liking. That is, when liking was optimized, participants generally liked a weaker, milkier and sweeter coffee-flavored dairy beverage. Predicted liking scores were validated in a subsequent experiment, and the optimal product formulated to maximize liking was significantly preferred to that formulated to minimize dissatisfaction by a paired preference test. These findings are consistent with the view

  18. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  1. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  2. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  3. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  4. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  18. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  19. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  20. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  3. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved dragline productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.

  4. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  5. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  6. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  7. Wing planform optimization via an adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoviriyakit, Kasidit

    This dissertation focuses on the problem of wing planform optimization for transonic aircraft based on flow simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) combined with an adjoint-gradient based numerical optimization procedure. The adjoint method, traditionally used for wing section design has been extended to cover planform variations and to compute the sensitivities of the structural weight of both the wing section and planform variations. The two relevant disciplines accounted for are the aerodynamics and structural weight. A simplified structural weight model is used for the optimization. Results of a variety of long range transports indicate that significant improvement in both aerodynamics and structures can be achieved simultaneously. The proof-of-concept optimal results indicate large improvements for both drag and structural weight. The work is an "enabling step" towards a realistic automated wing designed by a computer.

  8. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  9. Dynamic optimization of a copolymerization reactor using tabu search.

    PubMed

    Anand, P; Rao, M Bhagvanth; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2015-03-01

    A novel multistage dynamic optimization strategy based on meta-heuristic tabu search (TS) is proposed and evaluated through sequential and simultaneous implementation procedures by applying it to a semi-batch styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymerization reactor. The adaptive memory and responsive exploration features of TS are exploited to design the dynamic optimization strategy and compute the optimal control policies for temperature and monomer addition rate so as to achieve the desired product quality parameters expressed in terms of single and multiple objectives. The dynamic optimization results of TS sequential and TS simultaneous implementation strategies are analyzed and compared with those of a conventional optimization technique based on iterative dynamic programming (IDP). The simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of TS for optimal control of transient dynamic systems. PMID:25466914

  10. CEBAF accelerator achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Y.C. Chao, M. Drury, C. Hovater, A. Hutton, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, C. Reece, M. Tiefenback

    2011-06-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  11. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  12. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  13. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  14. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  15. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  16. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  17. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  18. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  19. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  20. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  1. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  2. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  3. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  4. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  5. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  6. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  7. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  8. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  9. Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine and compared to earlier methods. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.

  10. Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.

  11. Optimizing Stability in Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye; Hao, Jiandong; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing stability of femoral neck fracture fixation is important in obtaining a successful outcome. The mechanical problems and strategies for achieving optimal stability differ depending on patients' age and degree of osteoporosis. Femoral neck fractures in younger adults usually result from high-energy trauma and have a vertical fracture pattern. Strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include placing additional screws at right angles to the fracture plane and medial buttress plate augmentation. In elderly patients, screw position relative to the intact cortical femoral neck bone is of critical importance. Additional strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include the concept of length stable fixation, use of adjunctive calcium phosphate cement, and use of novel fixed angle fixation implants. PMID:26488776

  12. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  13. [Exploring an optimal approach to the use of oral hypoglycemic agents based on CGM results: implications for combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    In the treatment of type 2 diabetes aimed at prevention of cardiovascular events impacting the prognosis of affected patients, it is critically important not only to lower HbAlc values but to find a way to improve postprandial hyperglycemia without causing hypoglycemia thus minimizing drastic glycemic variations or to maintain favorable glycemic control with daily glycemic variations in mind. In other words, it is no longer adequate to emphasize quantitative reductions in HbAlc as in conventional therapeutic approaches but qualitative glycemic control that takes daily glycemic variations into account is becoming of increasing importance to the management of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the 6 oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) classes currently available for clinical use, i.e., biguanides (BGs), thiazolidinediones (TZDs), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas (SUs), fast-acting insulin secretagogues (glinides) and DPP-4 inhibitors, appear to vary from class to class or even from agent from agent within a class in regard to their impact on daily glycemic variations. In our CMG-based study of their impact on glycemic variations, it was demonstrated that BGs and TZDs improve hyperglycemia during nighttime and before breakfast more effectively than they do postprandial glycemic excursions; that, of the insulin secretagogues, glinides reduce daily glycemic variations as do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, while SUs do not affect them very much; and that DPP-4 inhibitors lower not only mean glucose levels which are deemed equivalent to HbAlc values but also narrow the range of glycemic variations. Thus, OHAs can be broadly classified into those that primarily reduce 24-hour mean glucose levels as equivalent to HbAlc values and those that primarily narrow the range of glycemic variations. Therefore, with either of these agents as monotherapy, it is next to impossible to achieve reductions in HbAlc with a narrow range of glycemic variations, and combination therapy

  14. Optimization and visualization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ligand‐based virtual screening plays a fundamental part in the early drug discovery stage. In a virtual screening, a chemical library is searched for molecules with similar properties to a query molecule by means of a similarity function. The optimal assignment of chemical graphs has proven to be a valuable similarity function for many cheminformatic tasks, such as virtual screening. The optimal assignment assumes all atoms of a query molecule to be equally important, which is not realistic depending on the binding mode of a ligand. The importance of a query molecule’s atoms can be integrated in the optimal assignment by weighting the assignment edges. We optimized the edge weights with respect to the virtual screening performance by means of evolutionary algorithms. Furthermore, we propose a visualization approach for the interpretation of the edge weights. Results We evaluated two different evolutionary algorithms, differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, for their suitability for optimizing the assignment edge weights. The results showed that both optimization methods are suited to optimize the edge weights. Furthermore, we compared our approach to the optimal assignment with equal edge weights and two literature similarity functions on a subset of the Directory of Useful Decoys using sophisticated virtual screening performance metrics. Our approach achieved a considerably better overall and early enrichment performance. The visualization of the edge weights enables the identification of substructures that are important for a good retrieval of ligands and for the binding to the protein target. Conclusions The optimization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods is a valuable approach for ligand‐based virtual screening experiments. The approach can be applied to any similarity function that employs the optimal assignment method, which includes a variety of similarity measures that have proven to be valuable in various

  15. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  16. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  17. Challenged Schools, Remarkable Results: Three Lessons from California's Highest Achieving High Schools. A Report on Findings from Year Two of the California Best Practices Study Conducted by Springboard Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Ida

    2005-01-01

    In the year 1998, California began a massive experiment that focused on testing students and holding teachers and administrators accountable for results. The goal: dramatic, system-wide improvement. Schools' performance began to be measured using California's Academic Performance Index (API). In 2001, with passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB),…

  18. Denver airport pumping systems achieve optimal [Delta] T's

    SciTech Connect

    Mannion, G.F.; Krist, G.D. )

    1994-07-01

    This article describes how the pumping and generating systems at the new Denver Airport operate efficiently with the user loops in the buildings producing design temperature rise at all load levels. Fifteen miles east of Denver's Stapleton International Airport lies the newly completed Denver International Airport (DIA)--the world's largest and most high-tech airport. Besides being one of the largest construction projects in the works, it has many of the latest technical innovations available. Of particular interest to the HVAC industry is the design of the heating and cooling water systems. These systems provide environmental cooling and heating water to the three concourses, the airport office building, and the main terminal. The mechanical engineers for the project were all from the Denver area. The central plant design was the work of Behrent Engineering Co.; the three concourses were designed by Swanson-Rink Associates; and the main terminal and administrative office building were designed by Abeyta Engineering Consultants. The overall system concept was developed during the initial design phase by engineers from these firms, members of the DIA staff, and application engineers from several manufacturers.

  19. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  20. Minimum time optimal synthesis for two level quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Albertini, Francesca; D’Alessandro, Domenico

    2015-01-15

    For the time optimal problem of an invariant system on SU(2), with two independent controls and a bound on the norm of the control, the extremals of the Pontryagin maximum principle are explicit functions of time. We use this fact here to perform the optimal synthesis for these systems, i.e., to find all time optimal trajectories. Although the Lie group SU(2) is three dimensional, time optimal trajectories can be described in the unit disk of the complex plane. We find that a circular trajectory separates optimal trajectories that reach the boundary of the unit disk from the others. Inside this separatrix circle, another trajectory (the critical trajectory) plays an important role in that all optimal trajectories end at an intersection with this curve. The results allow us to find the minimum time needed to achieve a given evolution of a two level quantum system.

  1. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; TANG,J.

    2001-06-18

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed.

  2. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  3. A competitive swarm optimizer for large scale optimization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Jin, Yaochu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a novel competitive swarm optimizer (CSO) for large scale optimization is proposed. The algorithm is fundamentally inspired by the particle swarm optimization but is conceptually very different. In the proposed CSO, neither the personal best position of each particle nor the global best position (or neighborhood best positions) is involved in updating the particles. Instead, a pairwise competition mechanism is introduced, where the particle that loses the competition will update its position by learning from the winner. To understand the search behavior of the proposed CSO, a theoretical proof of convergence is provided, together with empirical analysis of its exploration and exploitation abilities showing that the proposed CSO achieves a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Despite its algorithmic simplicity, our empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CSO exhibits a better overall performance than five state-of-the-art metaheuristic algorithms on a set of widely used large scale optimization problems and is able to effectively solve problems of dimensionality up to 5000. PMID:24860047

  4. Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.

  5. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  7. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  8. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  9. Optimal refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures T h and T c, respectively (θ ≡ T c/T h < 1). The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by [formula: see text] (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency [formula: see text]. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ → 1. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for ln n > 1. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζ CA and converges to it for n > 1. PMID:20866207

  10. Effect of course coordinator behavior and motivation on students’ achievement: Results from five curriculum blocks of two undergraduate student cohorts at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alwan, Ibrahim; Baig, Lubna Ansari; Badri, Motasim; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; Alyousif, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between students’ perception of course/block coordinators performance and attributes with students’ assessment scores in respective courses. Methods: This retrospective data based study was conducted at the College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences (KSAU-HS). It was started in March 2013 and completed in June 2013 after the graduation of the fourth cohort. Exam score of 3rd and 4th cohort of students from the courses taught in the last two years of medical school were correlated with faculty and block evaluation done by the students. Scores from mid-block MCQs, portfolio scores, OSCEs and end-of-block MCQs were obtained. Results: The Mean scores of all the assessments for all five blocks were not significantly different for both batches. There was significant difference between block coordinators for students’ score on portfolio, midterm exam and the final written exam. The students’ Score in OSCE had significantly strong correlation with quality of station monitors, coverage of content and flow between stations. Student’s perception of the commitment and motivation of the coordinator was strongly correlated with block organization, availability of clinical cases, performance of block coordinator, cooperation with students, and organization of clinical activities. Conclusions: Block coordinator’s motivation and commitment affects quality of block organization and student`s success. Faculty training programs should include block management competencies and components identified through self-determination theory for improving the intrinsic motivation for students success. PMID:26101511

  11. Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

  12. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-12-15

    An empirical model for predicting pressure drop across a cyclone, developed by Dirgo (1988), is presented. The model was developed through a statistical analysis of pressure drop data for 98 cyclone designs. This model is used with the efficiency model of Iozia and Leith (1990) to develop an optimization curve which predicts the minimum pressure drop on the dimension ratios of the optimized cyclone for a given aerodynamic cut diameter, d{sub 50}. The effect of variation in cyclone height, cyclone diameter, and flow on the optimization is determined. The optimization results are used to develop a design procedure for optimized cyclones. 33 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Analysis and optimization of thermal stratification and self-pressurization effects in liquid hydrogen storage systems -- Part 2: Model results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Gursu, S.; Veziroglu, T.N. . Clean Energy Research Inst.); Sherif, S.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sheffield, J.W. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1993-09-01

    Three models capable of predicting the phenomena of thermal stratification and self-pressurization in liquid hydrogen storage systems were presented in Part 1 of this paper. In order to be able to evaluate the performance of the different pressure rise models, the results are compared with experimental data obtained from different tests. The set of experimental data obtained from the Plum Brook B-2 test, in the NASA-Lewis Research Center, represents a very accurately instrumented and closely controlled experimental work performed on the liquid hydrogen storage tank. Another set of data is taken from the experimental study conducted again in the NASA-Lewis Research Center to obtain a correlating parameter which relates the rate of pressure rise to the volume of spherical liquid hydrogen tank. In this paper model results are presented and discussed and general conclusions are reached.

  14. A sparse superlinearly convergent SQP with applications to two-dimensional shape optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Anitescu, M.

    1998-04-15

    Discretization of optimal shape design problems leads to very large nonlinear optimization problems. For attaining maximum computational efficiency, a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm should achieve superlinear convergence while preserving sparsity and convexity of the resulting quadratic programs. Most classical SQP approaches violate at least one of the requirements. We show that, for a very large class of optimization problems, one can design SQP algorithms that satisfy all these three requirements. The improvements in computational efficiency are demonstrated for a cam design problem.

  15. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  18. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  19. Optimization of space trusses on vector multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Adeli, H.; Hsu, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical optimization of space trusses in a vector/parallel processing environment is the subject of this paper. Parallel processing is achieved through microtasking and the use of the CRAY CFT77 compiler directives. Speed-up results are presented for four space-truss examples. It is concluded that the speedup due to microtasking is improved substantially with an increase in the size of the problem.

  20. NEMO Oceanic Model Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epicoco, I.; Mocavero, S.; Murli, A.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-04-01

    NEMO is an oceanic model used by the climate community for stand-alone or coupled experiments. Its parallel implementation, based on MPI, limits the exploitation of the emerging computational infrastructures at peta and exascale, due to the weight of communications. As case study we considered the MFS configuration developed at INGV with a resolution of 1/16° tailored on the Mediterranenan Basin. The work is focused on the analysis of the code on the MareNostrum cluster and on the optimization of critical routines. The first performance analysis of the model aimed at establishing how much the computational performance are influenced by the GPFS file system or the local disks and wich is the best domain decomposition. The results highlight that the exploitation of local disks can reduce the wall clock time up to 40% and that the best performance is achieved with a 2D decomposition when the local domain has a square shape. A deeper performance analysis highlights the obc_rad, dyn_spg and tra_adv routines are the most time consuming routines. The obc_rad implements the evaluation of the open boundaries and it has been the first routine to be optimized. The communication pattern implemented in obc_rad routine has been redesigned. Before the introduction of the optimizations all processes were involved in the communication, but only the processes on the boundaries have the actual data to be exchanged and only the data on the boundaries must be exchanged. Moreover the data along the vertical levels are "packed" and sent with only one MPI_send invocation. The overall efficiency increases compared with the original version, as well as the parallel speed-up. The execution time was reduced of about 33.81%. The second phase of optimization involved the SOR solver routine, implementing the Red-Black Successive-Over-Relaxation method. The high frequency of exchanging data among processes represent the most part of the overall communication time. The number of communication is

  1. [Results of Investigation of MRSA Susceptibility to Vancomycin in Clinical Units of Large Multifunctional Hospital and Recommendations on Optimization of Antibacterial Therapy of Staphylococcal Infection].

    PubMed

    Verikovsky, V A; Minakov, O E; Denisova, O I; Bondarenko, E V

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of MRSA and MRSE isolates in various units of the Voronezh Regional Hospital was investigated by the results of the local microbiological monitoring for 2014. The maximum position of MRSA was recorded in the ICU (38 to 75% of the strains). The MRSA strains were characterized by higher methicillin resistance, mainly from the cardiosurgical units (60 to 91% of the isolates). The use of the E-test for MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin allowed to estimate the validity of the use of various antibiotics active against MRSA in the treatment of inpatients and to reduce the risk of ineffective therapy. PMID:27141645

  2. Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students' achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-10-01

    Achievement goal theory assumes that self-instrumental (mastery) achievement goals are associated with academic achievement, whereas social-instrumental (performance) goals are not. However, research on Asian students shows that both mastery and performance-approach goals are positively related to achievement; possibly because achievement motivation in Asian cultures is socially oriented and not individually oriented. The current study explored the structure of the social and individual achievement motivation orientations, and how these achievement orientations and achievement goals were related to achievement of Filipino university students. The results showed two dimensions of social-oriented achievement motivations-parent-oriented and teacher-oriented motivations-and two dimensions of individual-oriented achievement motivations-personal performance standards and personal goal choice. However, these achievement motivation orientations were not associated with achievement. Instead mastery and performance-approach goals were both positively associated with academic achievement, personal performance standards, and parent-oriented achievement motivation. PMID:22022793

  3. The Effect of Optimally Timed Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment on Length of Hospital Stay in Moderate and Late Preterm Infants: Results from a RCT

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolorusso, Gianfranco; Cerritelli, Francesco; Accorsi, Alessandro; Lucci, Chiara; Tubaldi, Lucia; Lancellotti, Jenny; Barlafante, Gina; Renzetti, Cinzia; D'Incecco, Carmine; Perri, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Little research has been conducted looking at the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on preterm infants. Aim of the Study. This study hypothesized that osteopathic care is effective in reducing length of hospital stay and that early OMT produces the most pronounced benefit, compared to moderately early and late OMT. A secondary outcome was to estimate hospital cost savings by the use of OMT. Methods. 110 newborns ranging from 32- to 37-week gestation were randomized to receive either OMT or usual pediatric care. Early, moderately early, and late OMT were defined as <4, <9, and <14 days from birth, respectively. Result. Hospital stay was shorter in infants receiving late OMT (−2.03; 95% CI −3.15, −0.91; P < 0.01) than controls. Subgroup analysis of infants receiving early and moderately early OMT resulted in shorter LOS (early OMT: −4.16; −6.05, −2.27; P < 0.001; moderately early OMT: −3.12; −4.36, −1.89; P < 0.001). Costs analysis showed that OMT significantly produced a net saving of €740 (−1309.54, −170.33; P = 0.01) per newborn per LOS. Conclusions. This study shows evidence that the sooner OMT is provided, the shorter their hospital stay is. There is also a positive association of OMT with overall reduction in cost of care. PMID:25506381

  4. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications. PMID:26274112

  5. Optimized P2A for reporter gene insertion into Nipah virus results in efficient ribosomal skipping and wild-type lethality.

    PubMed

    Park, Arnold; Yun, Tatyana; Hill, Terence E; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Juelich, Terry L; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of reporter genes within virus genomes is an indispensable tool for interrogation of virus biology and pathogenesis. In previous work, we incorporated a fluorophore into a viral ORF by attaching it to the viral gene via a P2A ribosomal skipping sequence. This recombinant Nipah virus, however, was attenuated in vitro relative to WT virus. In this work, we determined that inefficient ribosomal skipping was a major contributing factor to this attenuation. Inserting a GSG linker before the P2A sequence resulted in essentially complete skipping, significantly improved growth in vitro, and WT lethality in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time a recombinant virus of Mononegavirales with integration of a reporter into a viral ORF has been compared with the WT virus in vivo. Incorporating the GSG linker for improved skipping efficiency whenever functionally important is a critical consideration for recombinant virus design. PMID:26781134

  6. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  7. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa

    2015-12-01

    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  8. Dynamic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  9. A new paradigm in optimal missile guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert W.

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation investigates advanced concepts in terminal missile guidance. The terminal phase of missile guidance usually lasts less than ten seconds and calls for very accurate maneuvering to ensure intercept. Technological advancements have produced increasingly sophisticated threats that greatly reduce the effectiveness of traditional approaches to missile guidance. Because of this, terminal missile guidance is, and will remain, an important and active area of research. The complexity of the problem and the desire for an optimal solution has resulted in researchers focusing on simplistic, usually linear, models. The fruit of these endeavors has resulted in some of the world's most advanced weapons systems. Even so, the resulting guidance schemes cannot possibly counter the evolving threats that will push the system outside the linear envelope for which they were designed. The research done in this dissertation greatly extends previous research in the area of optimal missile guidance. Herein it is shown that optimal missile guidance is fundamentally a pairing of an optimal guidance strategy and an optimal control strategy. The optimal guidance strategy is determined from a missile's information constraints, which are themselves largely determined from the missile's sensors. The optimal control strategy is determined by the missile's control constraints, and works to achieve a specified guidance strategy. This dichotomy of missile guidance is demonstrated by showing that missiles having different control constraints utilize the same guidance strategy so long as the information constraints are the same. This concept has hitherto been unrecognized because of the difficulty in developing an optimal control for the nonlinear set of equations that result from control constraints. Having overcome this difficulty by indirect means, evidence of the guidance strategy paradigm emerged. The guidance strategy paradigm is used to develop two advanced guidance laws. The new

  10. Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu

    2002-10-07

    The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer, indicate less retardation than predicted from laboratory batch measurements.

  11. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  12. Simultaneous optimization of loading pattern and burnable poison placement for PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Alim, F.; Ivanov, K.; Yilmaz, S.

    2006-07-01

    To solve in-core fuel management optimization problem, GARCO-PSU (Genetic Algorithm Reactor Core Optimization - Pennsylvania State Univ.) is developed. This code is applicable for all types and geometry of PWR core structures with unlimited number of fuel assembly (FA) types in the inventory. For this reason an innovative genetic algorithm is developed with modifying the classical representation of the genotype. In-core fuel management heuristic rules are introduced into GARCO. The core re-load design optimization has two parts, loading pattern (LP) optimization and burnable poison (BP) placement optimization. These parts depend on each other, but it is difficult to solve the combined problem due to its large size. Separating the problem into two parts provides a practical way to solve the problem. However, the result of this method does not reflect the real optimal solution. GARCO-PSU achieves to solve LP optimization and BP placement optimization simultaneously in an efficient manner. (authors)

  13. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  14. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  15. Development of a Yellow Flag Assessment Tool for Orthopaedic Physical Therapists: Results From the Optimal Screening for Prediction of Referral and Outcome (OSPRO) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Trevor A; Beneciuk, Jason M; Bialosky, Joel E; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Dai, Yunfeng; Wu, Samuel S; George, Steven Z

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement, cross-sectional. Background Pain-associated psychological distress adversely influences outcomes for patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, assessment of pain-associated psychological distress (ie, yellow flags) is not routinely performed in orthopaedic physical therapy practice. A standardized yellow flag assessment tool will better inform treatment decision making related to psychologically informed practice. Objectives To describe the development of a concise, multidimensional yellow flag assessment tool for application in orthopaedic physical therapy clinical practice. Methods A 136-item yellow flag item bank was developed from validated psychological questionnaires across domains related to pain vulnerability (negative mood, fear avoidance) and resilience (positive affect/coping). Patients seeking physical therapy with neck, back, knee, or shoulder pain completed the item bank. Iterative statistical analyses determined minimal item sets meeting thresholds for identifying elevated vulnerability or low resilience (ie, upper or lower quartile, as indicated). Further item reduction yielded a concise yellow flag assessment tool to assess 11 psychological constructs measuring pain-associated psychological distress. Correlations between the assessment tool and individual psychological questionnaires were measured and compared between anatomical regions. Concurrent validity was assessed by determining variance explained in pain and disability scores by the assessment tool. Results Subjects with elevated vulnerability and decreased resilience were identified with a high degree of accuracy (minimum of 85%) using a 17-item tool. Correlations were moderate to high between the 17-item tool and individual psychological questionnaires, with no significant differences in correlations between different anatomical regions. Shorter 10- and 7-item versions of the assessment tool allow clinicians the flexibility to assess for yellow flags

  16. Optimal medical therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome: 18-month follow-up results at a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hee Ja; Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a fatal cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque erosion or rupture and formation of coronary thrombus. The latest guidelines for ACS recommend the combined drug regimen, comprising aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, and statin, at discharge after ACS treatment to reduce recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine prescription patterns of secondary prevention drugs in Korean patients with ACS after hospital discharge, to access the appropriateness of secondary prevention drug therapy for ACS, and to evaluate whether to persistently use discharge medications for 18 months. Methods This study was retrospectively conducted with the patients who were discharged from the tertiary hospital, located in South Korea, after ACS treatment between September 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected through electronic medical record. Results Among 3,676 patients during the study period, 494 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The regimen of aspirin + clopidogrel + β-blocker + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker + statin was prescribed to 374 (75.71%) patients with ACS at discharge. Specifically, this regimen was used in 177 (69.69%) unstable angina patients, 44 (70.97%) non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, and 153 (85.96%) ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared with the number of ACS patients with all five guideline-recommended drugs at discharge, the number of ACS patients using them 12 (n=169, 34.21%) and 18 (n=105, 21.26%) months after discharge tended to be gradually decreased. Conclusion The majority of ACS patients in this study received all five guideline-recommended medications at discharge from the hospital. However, the frequency of using all of them had been gradually decreased 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after

  17. Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

  18. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  19. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  20. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  1. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  2. Methodology on zoom system design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Quanxin; Liu, Hua

    2008-03-01

    For aim to establish effective methodology in research to design and evaluate on typical zoom sensor system, to satisfy the system requirements and achieve an advanced characteristics. Some methods about system analysis, especially task principle and key technique of core system, are analyzed deeply. Base on Gaussian photonics theory, zoom system differential equation, solves vector space distribution and integrated balance algorithm on global optimization system is studied. Dominate configuration of new idea system design and optimization, with which consecutive zoom and diffractive module equipped by great format photonics device, is established. The results of evaluated on a kind of typical zoom sensor system is presented, and achieves remarkable advantages on some criterions, such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Spot Diagram (RMS) and Point Spread Function (PSF) etc., and in volume, weight, system efficiency and otherwise.

  3. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  4. Critical Pedagogy for Transformative Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This essay critically highlights the main features of a study that attaches importance to the concepts of time and optimism and their effects on the achievement and goals of high and low achievers in a North American and a Brazilian context. The focus on the time factor that serves as a leitmotif throughout the study gives this work its…

  5. Genetic algorithms optimization of photonic crystal fibers for half diffraction angle reduction of output beam.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jyun-Hong; Cai, Dong-Po; Tsai, Ya-Lun; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we optimize the structure of the photonic crystal fibers by using genetic algorithms to provide strong light confinement in fiber and small half diffraction angle of output beam. Furthermore, this article shows the potentials of this study, such as optimizing three purposes at the same time and the arbitrary structure design is achieved. We report two optimized results obtained by different optimization conditions. The results show that the half diffraction angle of the output beam of the photonic crystal fibers can be reduced. PMID:25321728

  6. Optimally Scaled H(sub infinity) Full Information Control Synthesis with Real Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Gary J.; Lind, Rick; Packard, Andy

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to synthesize optimal controllers for the scaled H(sub infinity). full information problem with real and complex uncertainty. The control problem is reduced to a linear matrix inequality which can be solved via a finite dimensional convex optimization. This technique is compared with the optimal scaled H(sub infinity). full information with only complex uncertainty and D - K iteration control design to synthesize controllers for a missile autopilot. Directly including real parametric uncertainty into the control design results in improved robust performance of the missile autopilot. The controller synthesized via D - K iteration achieves results similar to the optimal designs.

  7. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  8. Parametric Design Optimization By Integrating CAD Systems And Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, M.; Olabi, A. G.

    2009-11-01

    Designing a cost effective product in minimum time is a complex process. In order to achieve this goal the requirement of optimum designs are becoming more important. One of the time consuming factor in the design optimization cycle is the modifications of Computer Aided Design (CAD) model after optimization. In conventional design optimization techniques the design engineer has to update the CAD model after receiving optimum design from optimization tools. It is worthwhile using parametric design optimization process to minimize the optimization cycle time. This paper presents a comprehensive study to integrate the optimization parameters between CAD system and optimization tools which were driven from a single user environment. Finally, design optimization of a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) cylinder was implemented as case study. In this case study the optimization tools were fully integrated with CAD system, therefore, all the deliverables including; part design, drawings and assembly can be automatically updated after achieving the optimum geometry having minimum volume and satisfying all imposed constraints.

  9. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  10. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  11. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  12. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    Using analysis of variance and regression techniques, the authors analyzed the results of 40 studies that were conducted between 1953 and 1976 and contained 232 correlations between various measures of motivation and achievement. The motivation variables were restricted to students' achievement motivation, locus-of-control perceptions, and general…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  20. Smoothers for Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo

    1996-01-01

    We present a multigrid one-shot algorithm, and a smoothing analysis, for the numerical solution of optimal control problems which are governed by an elliptic PDE. The analysis provides a simple tool to determine a smoothing minimization process which is essential for multigrid application. Numerical results include optimal control of boundary data using different discretization schemes and an optimal shape design problem in 2D with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  1. MPQC: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sarje, Abhinav; Williams, Samuel; Bailey, David

    2012-11-30

    MPQC (Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry) is a widely used computational quantum chemistry code. It is capable of performing a number of computations commonly occurring in quantum chemistry. In order to achieve better performance of MPQC, in this report we present a detailed performance analysis of this code. We then perform loop and memory access optimizations, and measure performance improvements by comparing the performance of the optimized code with that of the original MPQC code. We observe that the optimized MPQC code achieves a significant improvement in the performance through a better utilization of vector processing and memory hierarchies.

  2. The least square optimization in image mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-dong; Yang, Yong-yue

    2015-02-01

    Image registration has been a hot research spot in the computer vision technology and image processing. Image registration is one of the key technologies in image mosaic. In order to improve the accuracy of matching feature points, this paper put forward the least square optimization in image mosaic based on the algorithm of matching similarity of matrices. The correlation coefficient method of matrix is used for matching the module points in the overlap region of images and calculating the error between matrices. The error of feature points can be further minimized by using the method of least square optimization. Finally, image mosaic can be achieved by the two pair of feature points with minimized residual sum of squares. The experimental results demonstrate that the least square optimization in image mosaic can mosaic images with overlap region and improve the accuracy of matching feature points.

  3. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations. PMID:27627325

  4. A unified framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-07-01

    MPEG-4 supports object-level video coding. It is a challenge to design an optimal bit allocation strategy which considers not only how to distribute bits among multiple video objects (MVO's) but also how to achieve optimization between the texture and shape information. In this paper, we present a uniform framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation in MPEG-4. We combine the rate-distortion (R-D) models for the texture and shape information of arbitrarily shaped video objects to develop the joint texture-shape rate-distortion models. The dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to optimize the bit allocation for the multiple video objects. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed joint texture-shape optimization algorithm outperforms the MPEG-4 verification model on the decoded picture quality.

  5. Performance optimization of web-based medical simulation.

    PubMed

    Halic, Tansel; Ahn, Woojin; De, Suvranu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for performance optimization of multimodal interactive web-based medical simulation. A web-based simulation framework is promising for easy access and wide dissemination of medical simulation. However, the real-time performance of the simulation highly depends on hardware capability on the client side. Providing consistent simulation in different hardware is critical for reliable medical simulation. This paper proposes a non-linear mixed integer programming model to optimize the performance of visualization and physics computation while considering hardware capability and application specific constraints. The optimization model identifies and parameterizes the rendering and computing capabilities of the client hardware using an exploratory proxy code. The parameters are utilized to determine the optimized simulation conditions including texture sizes, mesh sizes and canvas resolution. The test results show that the optimization model not only achieves a desired frame per second but also resolves visual artifacts due to low performance hardware. PMID:23400151

  6. Tool support for software lookup table optimization

    PubMed Central

    Strout, Michelle Mills; Bieman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific applications are performance-limited by expressions that repeatedly call costly elementary functions. Lookup table (LUT) optimization accelerates the evaluation of such functions by reusing previously computed results. LUT methods can speed up applications that tolerate an approximation of function results, thereby achieving a high level of fuzzy reuse. One problem with LUT optimization is the difficulty of controlling the tradeoff between performance and accuracy. The current practice of manual LUT optimization adds programming effort by requiring extensive experimentation to make this tradeoff, and such hand tuning can obfuscate algorithms. In this paper we describe a methodology and tool implementation to improve the application of software LUT optimization. Our Mesa tool implements source-to-source transformations for C or C++ code to automate the tedious and error-prone aspects of LUT generation such as domain profiling, error analysis, and code generation. We evaluate Mesa with five scientific applications. Our results show a performance improvement of 3.0 × and 6.9 × for two molecular biology algorithms, 1.4 × for a molecular dynamics program, 2.1 × to 2.8 × for a neural network application, and 4.6 × for a hydrology calculation. We find that Mesa enables LUT optimization with more control over accuracy and less effort than manual approaches. PMID:24532963

  7. Tool support for software lookup table optimization.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Strout, Michelle Mills; Bieman, James M

    2011-12-01

    A number of scientific applications are performance-limited by expressions that repeatedly call costly elementary functions. Lookup table (LUT) optimization accelerates the evaluation of such functions by reusing previously computed results. LUT methods can speed up applications that tolerate an approximation of function results, thereby achieving a high level of fuzzy reuse. One problem with LUT optimization is the difficulty of controlling the tradeoff between performance and accuracy. The current practice of manual LUT optimization adds programming effort by requiring extensive experimentation to make this tradeoff, and such hand tuning can obfuscate algorithms. In this paper we describe a methodology and tool implementation to improve the application of software LUT optimization. Our Mesa tool implements source-to-source transformations for C or C++ code to automate the tedious and error-prone aspects of LUT generation such as domain profiling, error analysis, and code generation. We evaluate Mesa with five scientific applications. Our results show a performance improvement of 3.0 × and 6.9 × for two molecular biology algorithms, 1.4 × for a molecular dynamics program, 2.1 × to 2.8 × for a neural network application, and 4.6 × for a hydrology calculation. We find that Mesa enables LUT optimization with more control over accuracy and less effort than manual approaches. PMID:24532963

  8. Tool Support for Software Lookup Table Optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilcox, Chris; Strout, Michelle Mills; Bieman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of scientific applications are performance-limited by expressions that repeatedly call costly elementary functions. Lookup table (LUT) optimization accelerates the evaluation of such functions by reusing previously computed results. LUT methods can speed up applications that tolerate an approximation of function results, thereby achieving a high level of fuzzy reuse. One problem with LUT optimization is the difficulty of controlling the tradeoff between performance and accuracy. The current practice of manual LUT optimization adds programming effort by requiring extensive experimentation to make this tradeoff, and such hand tuning can obfuscate algorithms. In this paper we describe a methodology andmore » tool implementation to improve the application of software LUT optimization. Our Mesa tool implements source-to-source transformations for C or C++ code to automate the tedious and error-prone aspects of LUT generation such as domain profiling, error analysis, and code generation. We evaluate Mesa with five scientific applications. Our results show a performance improvement of 3.0× and 6.9× for two molecular biology algorithms, 1.4× for a molecular dynamics program, 2.1× to 2.8× for a neural network application, and 4.6× for a hydrology calculation. We find that Mesa enables LUT optimization with more control over accuracy and less effort than manual approaches.« less

  9. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  10. Determinants of Education Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Charles; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A model is tested of the determinants of educational attainment among peasants on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, involving family background, personal characteristics (including IQ), and years of schooling available. Results indicate that the model explains much of the variance in educational attainment, and that IQ is only a minor determinant. (RW)

  11. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  12. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  13. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  14. Design optimization of long period waveguide grating devices for refractive index sensing using adaptive particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semwal, Girish; Rastogi, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Grating assisted surface plasmon resonance waveguide grating has been designed and optimized for the sensing application. Adaptive particle swarm optimization in conjunction with derivative free method for mode computation has been used for design optimization of LPWG sensor. Effect of metal thickness and cladding layer thickness on the core mode and surface plasmon mode has been analyzed in detail. Results have been utilized as benchmarks for deciding the bounds of these variables in the optimization process. Two waveguides structures have been demonstrated for the grating assisted surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor. The sensitivity of the designed sensors has been achieved 3.5×104 nm/RIU and 5.0×104 nm/RIU with optimized waveguide and grating parameters.

  15. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

    2011-01-17

    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  16. Grey Relational Analyses for Multi-Objective Optimization of Turning S45C Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. H. A.; Azmi, A. I.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of performance characteristics in turning process can be achieved through selection of proper machining parameters. It is well known that many researchers have successfully reported the optimization of single performance characteristic. Nevertheless, the multi-objective optimization can be difficult and challenging to be studied due to its complexity in analysis. This is because an improvement of one performance characteristic may lead to degradation of other performance characteristic. As a result, the study of multi-objective optimization in CNC turning of S45C carbon steel has been attempted in this paper through Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method. Through this methodology, the multiple performance characteristics, namely; surface roughness, material removal rate (MRR), tool wear, and power consumption; can be optimized simultaneously. It appears from the experimental results that the multiple performance characteristics in CNC turning was achieved and improved through the methodology employed.

  17. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  18. Search-based optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ward C.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of determining the minimum cost hypothetical ancestral sequences for a given cladogram is known to be NP-complete (Wang and Jiang, 1994). Traditionally, point estimations of hypothetical ancestral sequences have been used to gain heuristic, upper bounds on cladogram cost. These include procedures with such diverse approaches as non-additive optimization of multiple sequence alignment, direct optimization (Wheeler, 1996), and fixed-state character optimization (Wheeler, 1999). A method is proposed here which, by extending fixed-state character optimization, replaces the estimation process with a search. This form of optimization examines a diversity of potential state solutions for cost-efficient hypothetical ancestral sequences and can result in greatly more parsimonious cladograms. Additionally, such an approach can be applied to other NP-complete phylogenetic optimization problems such as genomic break-point analysis. c2003 The Willi Hennig Society. Published by Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  19. Search-based optimization.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Ward C

    2003-08-01

    The problem of determining the minimum cost hypothetical ancestral sequences for a given cladogram is known to be NP-complete (Wang and Jiang, 1994). Traditionally, point estimations of hypothetical ancestral sequences have been used to gain heuristic, upper bounds on cladogram cost. These include procedures with such diverse approaches as non-additive optimization of multiple sequence alignment, direct optimization (Wheeler, 1996), and fixed-state character optimization (Wheeler, 1999). A method is proposed here which, by extending fixed-state character optimization, replaces the estimation process with a search. This form of optimization examines a diversity of potential state solutions for cost-efficient hypothetical ancestral sequences and can result in greatly more parsimonious cladograms. Additionally, such an approach can be applied to other NP-complete phylogenetic optimization problems such as genomic break-point analysis. PMID:14531408

  20. Optimally Squeezed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    We consider optimally spin-squeezed states that maximize the sensitivity of the Ramsey spectroscopy, and for which the signal to noise ratio scales as the number of particles N. Using the variational principle we prove that these states are eigensolutions of the Hamiltonian H(λ)=λ S_z^2-S_x, and that, for large N, the states become equivalent to the quadrature squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We present numerical results that illustrate the validity of the equivalence. We also present results of spin squeezing via atom-field interactions within the context of the Tavis-Cummings model. An ensemble of N two-level atoms interacts with a quantized cavity field. For all the atoms initially in their ground states, it is shown that spin squeezing of both the atoms and the field can be achieved provided the initial state of the cavity field has coherence between number states differing by 2. Most of the discussion is restricted to the case of a cavity field initially in a coherent state, but initial squeezed states for the field are also discussed. An analytic solution is found that is valid in the limit that the number of atoms is much greater than unity. References: A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev A, 68, 013807 (2003); Claudiu Genes, P. R. Berman, and A. G. Rojo Phys. Rev. A 68, 043809 (2003).

  1. Design optimization of flattop interleaver and its dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Lit, J W Y

    2007-05-14

    The objective of this paper is to present a general strategy for design optimization of flattop interleavers, and dispersion compensation for the interleavers, in order to achieve superior optical performance. The interleaver is formed by two multi-cavity Gire-Tournois etalons (MC-GTE) in a Michelson Interferometer (MI). An interleaver that has m cavities in one etalon and n cavities in the other is called an mn-GTE interleaver. Our optimization strategy exploits the general flattop condition and the technique of ripple equalization. Any mn-GTE interleaver may be optimized. The spectral performance can be greatly improved by the optimization process. As an illustration, we present a comprehensive analysis for a 11-GTE and a 21-GTE interleaver. The analytical expressions for flattop conditions, peak and trough positions are derived for optimization. The optimal performance of the interleavers can be controlled by the reflection coefficients and the parameters m and n. To achieve low-dispersion mn-GTE flattop interleavers, we propose to use one additional MC-GTE as a dispersion compensator to compensate for the chromatic dispersion. The analytical expressions of group delays and chromatic dispersions for an MC-GTE interleaver are derived. The optimization strategy of dispersion-ripple equalization is explained. The results show that the dispersion performance can be tailored by changing the reflection coefficients of the MC-GTE, and the dispersion and bandwidth can be enhanced by increasing the number of cavities of the MC-GTE. PMID:19546950

  2. Dose-mass inverse optimization for minimally moving thoracic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Moros, E. G.

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade, several different radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation and optimization schemes have been proposed as viable approaches, aiming for dose escalation or an increase of healthy tissue sparing. In particular, it has been argued that dose-mass plan evaluation and treatment plan optimization might be viable alternatives to the standard of care, which is realized through dose-volume evaluation and optimization. The purpose of this investigation is to apply dose-mass optimization to a cohort of lung cancer patients and compare the achievable healthy tissue sparing to that one achievable through dose-volume optimization. Fourteen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient plans were studied retrospectively. The range of tumor motion was less than 0.5 cm and motion management in the treatment planning process was not considered. For each case, dose-volume (DV)-based and dose-mass (DM)-based optimization was performed. Nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT was used, with all of the optimization parameters kept the same between DV and DM optimizations. Commonly used dosimetric indices (DIs) such as dose to 1% the spinal cord volume, dose to 50% of the esophageal volume, and doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung volumes were used for cross-comparison. Similarly, mass-based indices (MIs), such as doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung masses, 1% of spinal cord mass, and 33% of heart mass, were also tallied. Statistical equivalence tests were performed to quantify the findings for the entire patient cohort. Both DV and DM plans for each case were normalized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescribed dose. DM optimization resulted in more organs at risk (OAR) sparing than DV optimization. The average sparing of cord, heart, and esophagus was 23, 4, and 6%, respectively. For the majority of the DIs, DM optimization resulted in lower lung doses. On average, the doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung were lower by approximately 3 and 4%, whereas lung

  3. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  4. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  5. A Numerical Optimization Approach for Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Garg, Devendra P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a method to tune fuzzy controllers using numerical optimization. The main attribute of this approach is that it allows fuzzy logic controllers to be tuned to achieve global performance requirements. Furthermore, this approach allows design constraints to be implemented during the tuning process. The method tunes the controller by parameterizing the membership functions for error, change-in-error and control output. The resulting parameters form a design vector which is iteratively changed to minimize an objective function. The minimal objective function results in an optimal performance of the system. A spacecraft mounted science instrument line-of-sight pointing control is used to demonstrate results.

  6. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  7. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  8. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  9. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  10. An intellignet controller for optimized sootblowing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, D.; Bangham, M.; Gratcheva, K.

    1996-05-01

    Efficiency losses of over 200 Btu/KWH have been attributed to sub-optimal control of sootblowers in coal-fired boilers, frequently accounting for over 80% of the controllable losses. For a 500 MW power plant, this translates into yearly costs of over $1 M. The primary impediment to sootblowing optimization to date has been the difficulty associated with modeling the relationship between sootblowing, and boiler efficiency. New advances in neural network technology now provide an attractive approach to address this issue. This paper presents results to date of a project currently under way at DHR Technologies, Inc. (DHR), George Washington University (GWU), and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE), with funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an Intelligent Controller for Optimized Sootblowing (ICOS). The ICOS system combines a neural network-based process model with an optimization algorithm to provide automated, optimized control of steam or compressed air sootblowers for fossil utility boilers. In Phase I of the project, the proposed optimization approach was tested and validated using data from BGE`s Brandon Shores Station. Phase I quantified the expected savings of the controller and verified the effectiveness of the proposed technical approach. In Phase II, the control algorithm will be incorporated into DHR`s TOPAZ{trademark} optimization system and interfaced with Brandon Shore`s Diamond Power sootblowing controller, and will be demonstrated and tested for closed-loop, optimal sootblowing control. The savings achieved through use of the ICOS controller during testing will also be quantified.

  11. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction. PMID:15521514

  12. Dispositional Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  13. Flight plan optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaseelan, Anoop; Adistambha, Keyne D.

    2015-05-01

    Fuel cost accounts for 40 percent of the operating cost of an airline. Fuel cost can be minimized by planning a flight on optimized routes. The routes can be optimized by searching best connections based on the cost function defined by the airline. The most common algorithm that used to optimize route search is Dijkstra's. Dijkstra's algorithm produces a static result and the time taken for the search is relatively long. This paper experiments a new algorithm to optimize route search which combines the principle of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. The experimental results of route search, presented are shown to be computationally fast and accurate compared with timings from generic algorithm. The new algorithm is optimal for random routing feature that is highly sought by many regional operators.

  14. An integrated control/structure design method using multi-objective optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sandeep; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1991-01-01

    The benefits are demonstrated of a multiobjective optimization based control structure integrated design methodology. An application of the proposed CSI methodology to the integrated design of the Spacecraft COntrol Lab Experiment (SCOLE) configuration is presented. Integrated design resulted in reducing both the control performance measure and the mass. Thus, better overall performance is achieved through integrated design optimization. The mutliobjective optimization approach used provides Pareto optimal solutions by unconstrained minimization of a differentiable KS function. Furthermore, adjusting the parameters gives insight into the trade-offs involved between different objectives.

  15. Determination of cycle configuration of gas turbines and aircraft engines by an optimization procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuijikawa, Y.; Nagaoka, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analyses and optimization of simple and sophisticated cycles, particularly for various gas turbine engines and aero-engines (including the scramjet engine) to achieve maximum performance. The optimization of such criteria as thermal efficiency, specific output, and total performance for gas turbine engines, and overall efficiency, nondimensional thrust, and specific impulse for aero-engines has been performed by the optimization procedure with the multiplier method. Comparison of results with analytical solutions establishes the validity of the optimization procedure.

  16. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  17. Multidisciplinary Aerospace Systems Optimization: Computational AeroSciences (CAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, S.; Sobieski, Jaroslaw S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes a method for performing optimization of a system whose analysis is so expensive that it is impractical to let the optimization code invoke it directly because excessive computational cost and elapsed time might result. In such situation it is imperative to have user control the number of times the analysis is invoked. The reported method achieves that by two techniques in the Design of Experiment category: a uniform dispersal of the trial design points over a n-dimensional hypersphere and a response surface fitting, and the technique of krigging. Analyses of all the trial designs whose number may be set by the user are performed before activation of the optimization code and the results are stored as a data base. That code is then executed and referred to the above data base. Two applications, one of the airborne laser system, and one of an aircraft optimization illustrate the method application.

  18. Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

  19. Coil optimization for electromagnetic levitation using a genetic like algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Z. L.; Tackes, C.; LeSar, R.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2013-06-01

    The technique of electromagnetic levitation (EML) provides a means for thermally processing an electrically conductive specimen in a containerless manner. For the investigation of metallic liquids and related melting or freezing transformations, the elimination of substrate-induced nucleation affords access to much higher undercooling than otherwise attainable. With heating and levitation both arising from the currents induced by the coil, the performance of any EML system depends on controlling the balance between lifting forces and heating effects, as influenced by the levitation coil geometry. In this work, a genetic algorithm is developed and utilized to optimize the design of electromagnetic levitation coils. The optimization is targeted specifically to reduce the steady-state temperature of the stably levitated metallic specimen. Reductions in temperature of nominally 70 K relative to that obtained with the initial design are achieved through coil optimization, and the results are compared with experiments for aluminum. Additionally, the optimization method is shown to be robust, generating a small range of converged results from a variety of initial starting conditions. While our optimization criterion was set to achieve the lowest possible sample temperature, the method is general and can be used to optimize for other criteria as well.

  20. Robust optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Mohan, Radhe

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is highly sensitive to range uncertainties and uncertainties caused by setup variation. The conventional inverse treatment planning of IMPT optimized based on the planning target volume (PTV) is not often sufficient to ensure robustness of treatment plans. In this paper, a method that takes the uncertainties into account during plan optimization is used to mitigate the influence of uncertainties in IMPT. Methods: The authors use the so-called ''worst-case robust optimization'' to render IMPT plans robust in the face of uncertainties. For each iteration, nine different dose distributions are computed--one each for {+-} setup uncertainties along anteroposterior (A-P), lateral (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, for {+-} range uncertainty, and the nominal dose distribution. The worst-case dose distribution is obtained by assigning the lowest dose among the nine doses to each voxel in the clinical target volume (CTV) and the highest dose to each voxel outside the CTV. Conceptually, the use of worst-case dose distribution is similar to the dose distribution achieved based on the use of PTV in traditional planning. The objective function value for a given iteration is computed using this worst-case dose distribution. The objective function used has been extended to further constrain the target dose inhomogeneity. Results: The worst-case robust optimization method is applied to a lung case, a skull base case, and a prostate case. Compared with IMPT plans optimized using conventional methods based on the PTV, our method yields plans that are considerably less sensitive to range and setup uncertainties. An interesting finding of the work presented here is that, in addition to reducing sensitivity to uncertainties, robust optimization also leads to improved optimality of treatment plans compared to the PTV-based optimization. This is reflected in reduction in plan scores and in the lower normal tissue doses for the

  1. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  2. Introduction of digital soil mapping techniques for the nationwide regionalization of soil condition in Hungary; the first results of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Dobos, Endre

    2014-05-01

    Due to the former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. Present soil data requirements are mainly fulfilled with these available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable imperfection as for the accuracy and reliability of the delivered products. With a recently started project (DOSoReMI.hu; Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) we would like to significantly extend the potential, how countrywide soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil related maps which fulfil optimally the national and international demands from points of view of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. The spatial resolution of the targeted countrywide, digital, thematic maps is at least 1:50.000 (approx. 50-100 meter raster resolution). DOSoReMI.hu results are also planned to contribute to the European part of GSM.net products. In addition to the auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. In our paper we will present the first results. - Regression kriging (RK) has been used for the spatial inference of certain quantitative data, like particle size distribution components, rootable depth and organic matter content. In the course of RK-based mapping spatially segmented categorical information provided by the SMUs of Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) has been also used in the form of indicator variables. - Classification and regression trees (CART) were

  3. Optimization of Electrical Energy Production by using Modified Differential Evolution Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotic, Arnel

    The dissertation addressed the optimization of electrical energy production from hydro power plants and thermal power plants. It refers to short-term optimization and presents a complex optimization problem. The complexity of the problem arises from an extensive number of co-dependent variables and power plant constraints. According to the complexity of the problem, the differential evolution algorithm known as the successful and robust optimization algorithm was selected as an appropriate algorithm for optimization. The performance of this differential evolution algorithm is closely connected with a control parameters' set and its capabilities being inter alia improved by the algorithm's parallelization. The capabilities of achieving a global optimal solution within the optimization of electrical energy production are improved by the proposed modified differential evolution algorithm with new parallelization mode. This algorithm's performance is also improved by its proposed dynamic population size throughout the optimization process. In addition to achieving better optimization results in comparison with the classic differential evolution algorithm, the proposed dynamic population size reduces convergence time. The improvements of this algorithm presented in the dissertation, besides power plant models mostly used in scientific publications, were also tested on the power plant models represented by real parameters'. The optimization of electrical energy from hydro and thermal power plants is followed by certain criteria; satisfying system demand, minimizing usage of water quantity per produced electrical energy unit, minimizing or eliminating water spillage, satisfying the final reservoir states of hydro power plants and minimizing fuel costs and emissions of thermal power plants.

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  5. Application of genetic algorithm on optimization of laser beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Lin, Chia-Te

    2015-06-15

    This study proposes a newly developed optimization method for an aspherical lens system employed in a refractive laser beam shaping system, which performs transformations on laser spots such that they are transformed into flat-tops of any size. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) with multipoint search is proposed as the optimization method, together with macro language in optical simulation software, in order to search for ideal and optimized parameters. In comparison to a traditional two-dimensional (2D) computational method, using the one-dimensional (1D) computation for laser beam shaping can search for the optimal solution approximately twice as fast (after experiments). The optimal results show that when the laser spot shrinks from 3 mm to 1.07 mm, 88% uniformity is achieved, and when the laser spot increases from 3 mm to 5.273 mm, 90% uniformity is achieved. The distances between the lenses for both systems described above are even smaller than the thickness for the first lens, enabling us to conclude that our design objectives of extra light and slimness in the system are achieved. PMID:26193566

  6. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  7. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  8. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  9. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  10. Optimal soaring by a small autonomous glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Jason A.

    Extending the flight time of an autonomous unmanned air vehicle by soaring is considered. A suboptimal controller is developed and successful static soaring is demonstrated with a 6 degree of freedom glider model. Altitude gain rates of between ¼ and ½ m/s are achieved with this simple implementation. A hybrid optimal trajectory generation algorithm is developed and used to find optimal closed cycles in typical wind conditions using a point mass model. The algorithm is shown to be robust to a poor initial guess, with computational performance comparable to a common direct shooting algorithm. A receding horizon optimal controller strategy is investigated for the problem of autonomous soaring. An efficient Riccatti recursion algorithm is used to determine the next step in the Newton Iteration of the Non-Linear optimization problem. A real time strategy for optimal soaring is developed and shown to perform very well for a point mass model, resulting in repeatable trajectories with significant altitude gain. Sensitivity to errors including wind model errors is investigated. The real time algorithm was found to be insensitive to reasonable errors.

  11. Optimal tumor shrinkage predicts long-term outcome in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with target therapy: Result from 3 clinical trials of advanced NSCLC by 1 institution.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianwei; Hong, Shaodong; Sheng, Jin; Zhang, Zhonghan; Yang, Yunpeng; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hongyun

    2016-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used as standard therapies for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutation positive. Because these targeted therapies could cause tumor necrosis and shrinkage, the purpose of the study is to search for a value of optimal tumor shrinkage as an appropriate indicator of outcome for advanced NSCLC.A total of 88 NSCLC enrollees of 3 clinical trials (IRESSA registration clinical trial, TRUST study and ZD6474 study), who received Gefitinib (250 mg, QD), Erlotinib (150 mg, QD), and ZD6474 (100 mg, QD), respectively, during December 2003 and October 2007, were retrospectively analyzed. The response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) were used to identify responders, who had complete response (CR) or partial responses (PR) and nonresponders who had stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal tumor shrinkage as an indicator for tumor therapeutic outcome. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between responders and nonresponders stratified based on radiologic criteria.Among the 88 NSCLC patients, 26 were responders and 62 were nonresponders based on RECIST 1.0. ROC indicated that 8.32% tumor diameter shrinkage in the sum of the longest tumor diameter (SLD) was the cutoff point of tumor shrinkage outcomes, resulting in 46 responders (≤8.32%) and 42 nonresponders (≥8.32%). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that (1) the responders (≤8.32%) and nonresponders (≥ -8.32%) were significantly different in median PFS (13.40 vs 1.17 months, P < 0.001) and OS (19.80 vs 7.90 months, P < 0.001) and (2) -8.32% in SLD could be used as the optimal threshold for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 8.11, 95% CI, 3.75 to 17.51, P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 2.36, 95

  12. Progress on achieving the ICF conditions needed for high gain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1988-12-23

    Progress during the past two years has moved us much closer to demonstrating the scientific and technological requirements for high gain ICF in the laboratory. This progress has been made possible by operating at the third harmonic of 1..mu..m light which dramatically reduces concern about hot electrons and by advances in diagnostics such as 100 ps x-ray framing cameras which greatly increase the data available from each experiment. Making use of many of these new capabilities, major improvements in confinement conditions have been achieved for ICF implosions. In particular, in an optimized hohlraum on Nova, radiation driven implosions with convergence ratio in excess of 30 (volume compression /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 4/) have performed essentially as predicted by spherical implosion calculations. This paper presents these results as well as examples of advances in several other areas and discusses the implications for the future of ICF with lasers and heavy ion beam drivers. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  13. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  14. Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems, by solving constrained optimization problems with an algorithm based on that framework. The framework is ar. information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated optimization algorithm is a game in which agents control the variables of the optimization problem. They do this by jointly minimizing a Lagrangian of (the probability distribution of) their joint state. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in that Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, one that focuses the multi-agent system on the optimal pure strategy. We present computer experiments for the k-sat constraint satisfaction problem and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  15. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  16. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  17. Algorithms for bilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    General multilevel nonlinear optimization problems arise in design of complex systems and can be used as a means of regularization for multi-criteria optimization problems. Here, for clarity in displaying our ideas, we restrict ourselves to general bi-level optimization problems, and we present two solution approaches. Both approaches use a trust-region globalization strategy, and they can be easily extended to handle the general multilevel problem. We make no convexity assumptions, but we do assume that the problem has a nondegenerate feasible set. We consider necessary optimality conditions for the bi-level problem formulations and discuss results that can be extended to obtain multilevel optimization formulations with constraints at each level.

  18. Optimization of Our SC HTS Reluctance Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Setzer, M.; Söll, M.; Gawalek, W.; Gutt, A.; Kovalev, L.; Fisher, L.; Krabbes, G.; Freyhardt, H. C.

    2004-06-01

    Since several years we have successfully designed, built and tested at 77K several reluctance motors. YBCO bulk material has been incorporated into the rotor. Our latest results, based on the old design, will be published within the proceedings of the 8th VDI-Status-Seminar. The range of mechanical output power achieved is up to about 200 kW. All these motors have shown that a significant step in performance is obtained by using HTS bulk elements in the rotor, compared to the data of these test motors without superconductors. However, by now the motor parameters have been limited to certain values. In order to optimize this type of motor and to achieve increased output power and power density we have modified the design with several respects. This includes properties of the superconductor (critical current density raised by about 20%), the use of special soft magnetic material in the stator (increased saturation polarization), modified cut of the laminations (optimized for application at 77 K), and new geometry of the motor dimensions aimed at extremely high dynamics in order to adapt this motor to some special applications. With our present paper we present the results of this optimization which have brought the expected improvements and which are in excellent accordance with theory.

  19. Optimal Implementations for Reliable Circadian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival through synchronizing with the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. We find by using a phase model with multiple inputs that achieving the maximal limit of regularity and entrainability entails many inherent features of the circadian mechanism. At the molecular level, we demonstrate the role sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. At the behavioral level, the optimal phase-response curve inevitably contains a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. We reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments entrained by two types of periodic light pulses. Our results indicate that circadian clocks are designed optimally for reliable clockwork through evolution.

  20. Structural optimization of framed structures using generalized optimality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolonay, R. M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.; Tischler, V. A.; Canfield, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The application of a generalized optimality criteria to framed structures is presented. The optimality conditions, Lagrangian multipliers, resizing algorithm, and scaling procedures are all represented as a function of the objective and constraint functions along with their respective gradients. The optimization of two plane frames under multiple loading conditions subject to stress, displacement, generalized stiffness, and side constraints is presented. These results are compared to those found by optimizing the frames using a nonlinear mathematical programming technique.