Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Dietz, Vance; Eggers, Rudolf; Maher, Christopher; Olaniran, Marianne; Sandhu, Hardeep; Vandelaer, Jos
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, the number of polio endemic countries has declined from 125 to 3 in 2013. Despite this remarkable achievement, ongoing circulation of wild poliovirus in polio-endemic countries and the increase in the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, especially those caused by type 2, is a cause for concern. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP) was developed and includes 4 objectives: detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission, containment and certification, legacy planning, and a renewed emphasis on strengthening routine immunization (RI) programs. This is critical for the phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine, beginning with the type 2 component, and the introduction of a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine into RI programs. This objective has inspired renewed consideration of how the GPEI and RI programs can mutually benefit one another, how the infrastructure from the GPEI can be used to strengthen RI, and how a strengthened RI can facilitate polio eradication. The PEESP is the first GPEI strategic plan that places strong and clear emphasis on the necessity of improving RI to achieve and sustain global polio eradication.
Salmerón García, Francisco; Portela Moreira, Agustín; Soler Soneira, Marta; López Hernández, Susana; Chamorro Somoza Díaz-Sarmiento, María; Pérez González, Isabel; Rubio Gómez, María Isabel; Pérez González, Alicia; Sagredo Rodríguez, Ana; Ruiz Antúnez, Sol; Timón Jiménez, Marcos; Frutos Cabanillas, Gloria
Vaccination against polio generates herd immunity (both with the attenuated (OPV) and inactivated (IPV) vaccines) and this will allow the eradication of the disease. The OPV vaccine produces 2-4 polio cases per cohort of one million children and therefore IPV is used in countries that can afford its cost (about 15 times more expensive than OPV). In 1988 the World Health Assembly established the polio eradication goal as "interruption of wild poliovirus transmission". If the elimination of wild poliovirus were achieved, the use of OPV will produce annually between 250 and 500 cases of polio in the world. From 1999, it was clear that eradication would require ending of immunization with OPV. On the 25th of January, 2013 it is approved the plan for the eradication and containment of all polioviruses, wild or not, so that no child suffers paralytic poliomyelitis. The most important landmarks include the lack of wild polio cases after 2014, the introduction of at least one dose of IPV in all immunization programs and to cease the type 2 OPV vaccination by the end of 2016 and to stop the use of the oral bivalent vaccine in 2019. To achieve all this, a complex scientific work and economic solidarity will be required.
Toole, Michael J
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.
Even if wild poliovirus persists in one country only, global polio eradication cannot be achieved, because of the risk of exportation of wild virus to other countries. Among the countries where polio cases are still occurring, India happens to be the largest country. India cannot become polio free unless Uttar Pradesh and Bihar become polio free. There was a quick decline in polio incidence in some states in India, while other states reported decline slowly, but, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have never been polio free since the polio eradication programme was launched in 1995. Despite increase in number of pulse polio immunization (PPI) rounds since year 2000 and introduction of monovalent polio vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) in Uttar Pradesh in 2005, there has been no respite in polio incidence in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Lately, majority of polio cases being reported from other states are occurring in migrant population from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and also molecular study shows that polioviruses being detected in other states have origin in Uttar Pradesh or Bihar. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a new vaccine or strategy specifically for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham
Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, 4 years after the country established its national polio eradication program. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, have left Somalia vulnerable to 2 imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005-2007, resulting in >200 cases of paralytic polio, whereas the second, which began in 2013, is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous, but the country's polio program has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive lifesaving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia's polio-free status will depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability.
Cochi, Stephen L; Hegg, Lea; Kaur, Anjali; Pandak, Carol; Jafari, Hamid
The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goals and priorities. The primary goals of this process, known as polio legacy transition planning, are both to protect a polio-free world and to ensure that investments in polio eradication will contribute to other health goals after polio is completely eradicated. The initiative is engaged in an extensive transition process of consultations and planning at the global, regional, and country levels. A successful completion of this process will result in a well-planned and -managed conclusion of the initiative that will secure the global public good gained by ending one of the world's most devastating diseases and ensure that these investments provide public health benefits for years to come.
Thacker, Naveen; Yewale, Vijay N; Pathak, Ashish
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPE I), since its launch in 1988 has achieved more than 99% reduction in polio cases globally, using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Currently only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) have not been able to stop transmission of wild poliovirus (wPV). In this article, we discuss some of the challenges faced by these two countries. The lessons learnt from the tremendous public health success stories of India and Nigeria are also highlighted. Reintroduction of wPV in the polio-free areas remains a valid risk globally and some recent examples are discussed. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the most accepted risk-mitigation strategy to secure a polio-free world from both wPV and circulating vaccine derived poliomyelitis (VDPV). The challenges related to switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV and introduction of IPV in 156 countries using trivalent OPV, are also highlighted.
Paudel, Krishna P; Hampton, Lee M; Bohara, Rajendra; Rai, Indra K; Anaokar, Sameer; Swift, Rachel D; Cochi, Stephen
Abstract Problem Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. Approach In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal’s polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government immunization policies, helped launch vaccination campaigns, and trained government staff in reporting practices and vaccine management. Local setting Nepal eliminated indigenous polio in 2000, and controlled outbreaks caused by polio importations between 2005 and 2010. Relevant changes In 2014, the surveillance activities had expanded to 299 sites, with active surveillance for measles, rubella and neonatal tetanus, including weekly visits from 15 surveillance medical officers. Sentinel surveillance for Japanese encephalitis consisted of 132 sites. Since 2002, staff from the eradication programme have helped to introduce six new vaccines and helped to secure funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Staff have also assisted in responding to other health events in the country. Lesson learnt By expanding the activities of its polio eradication programme, Nepal has improved its surveillance and immunization systems and increased vaccination coverage of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Continued donor support, a close collaboration with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, and the retention of the polio eradication programme’s skilled workforce were important for this expansion. PMID:28250536
Although the 99% decrease seen in global polio incidence between 1988 and 2000 represented remarkable progress towards polio eradication, tackling the last 1% of polio has proved tantalizingly difficult. Pockets of endemic transmission currently persist both on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan and in northern Nigeria. These pockets have permitted the reinfection of countries that were previously polio-free. Global strategic plans for polio eradication set out the activities, resources and financing needed to overcome the managerial, technical and security challenges faced by those tasked with the interruption of poliovirus transmission. However, polio eradication also depends on the less tangible but equally important human qualities of energy, realism, articulacy, determination, imagination, collaboration, adaptability, tactical awareness, innovation, openness and nimbleness (the initial letters of which give the acronym "ERADICATION"). By paying attention to these human qualities, the stakeholders involved may be more likely to achieve global polio eradication.
Abstract Although the 99% decrease seen in global polio incidence between 1988 and 2000 represented remarkable progress towards polio eradication, tackling the last 1% of polio has proved tantalizingly difficult. Pockets of endemic transmission currently persist both on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan and in northern Nigeria. These pockets have permitted the reinfection of countries that were previously polio-free. Global strategic plans for polio eradication set out the activities, resources and financing needed to overcome the managerial, technical and security challenges faced by those tasked with the interruption of poliovirus transmission. However, polio eradication also depends on the less tangible but equally important human qualities of energy, realism, articulacy, determination, imagination, collaboration, adaptability, tactical awareness, innovation, openness and nimbleness (the initial letters of which give the acronym “ERADICATION”). By paying attention to these human qualities, the stakeholders involved may be more likely to achieve global polio eradication. PMID:23599552
Wagner, Bradley G; Earn, David J D
Poliomyelitis vaccination via live Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) suffers from the inherent problem of reversion: the vaccine may, upon replication in the human gut, mutate back to virulence and transmissibility resulting in circulating vaccine derived polio viruses (cVDPVs). We formulate a general mathematical model to assess the impact of cVDPVs on prospects for polio eradication. We find that for OPV coverage levels below a certain threshold, cVDPVs have a small impact in comparison to the expected endemic level of the disease in the absence of reversion. Above this threshold, the model predicts a small but significant endemic level of the disease, even where standard models predict eradication. In light of this, we consider and analyze three alternative eradication strategies involving a transition from continuous OPV vaccination to either continuous Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), pulsed OPV vaccination, or a one-time IPV pulse vaccination. Stochastic modeling shows continuous IPV vaccination is effective at achieving eradication for moderate coverage levels, while pulsed OPV is effective if higher coverage levels are maintained. The one-time pulse IPV method may also be a viable strategy, especially in terms of the number of vaccinations required and time to eradication, provided that a sufficiently large pulse is practically feasible. More investigation is needed regarding the frequency of revertant virus infection resulting directly from vaccination, the ability of IPV to induce gut immunity, and the potential role of spatial transmission dynamics in eradication efforts.
Cochi, Stephen L; Freeman, Andrew; Guirguis, Sherine; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, Bruce
The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication. During >25 years of operations, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has mobilized and trained millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers; accessed households untouched by other health initiatives; mapped and brought health interventions to chronically neglected and underserved communities; and established a standardized, real-time global surveillance and response capacity. It is important to document the lessons learned from polio eradication, especially because it is one of the largest ever global health initiatives. The health community has an obligation to ensure that these lessons and the knowledge generated are shared and contribute to real, sustained changes in our approach to global health. We have summarized what we believe are 10 leading lessons learned from the polio eradication initiative. We have the opportunity and obligation to build a better future by applying the lessons learned from GPEI and its infrastructure and unique functions to other global health priorities and initiatives. In so doing, we can extend the global public good gained by ending for all time one of the world's most devastating diseases by also ensuring that these investments provide public health dividends and benefits for years to come.
Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.
Baron, Emmanuel; Magone, Claire
The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was aimed to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, however, polio eradication is still not in sight even in 2010, over 10 years after the initial target date. In 2010, indigenous transmission of wild polioviruses has been interrupted throughout the world except four countries, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Despite the intense use of monovalent oral polio vaccines, type 1 and type 3 wild polioviruses still circulate in the four remaining polio-endemic countries, and multiple importations of wild polioviruses have also occurred extensively from Nigeria and India to a number of previously polio-free countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Furthermore, the emergence of type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses has raised concerns about low level of immunity against type 2 poliovirus in some polio-endemic areas like Nigeria and India. On the other hand, operational improvements in 2009 were reported in high-risk states in northern Nigeria and transmission of type 1 and type 3 polioviruses in Nigeria is markedly declining from 2009 to 2010. Moreover, bivalent oral polio vaccine containing Sabin 1 and Sabin 3 strains has been introduced in 2010 as a promising tool to improve and simplify the supplemental immunization activities in high-risk areas. Although there was no apparent decline in the annual number of polio cases in 2000-2009 globally, it would be critical to review our experience during "the lost decade of global polio eradication" to move forward into the final stage of global polio eradication.
Ganapathiraju, Pavan V; Morssink, Christiaan B; Plumb, James
In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with the goal of eradicating polio by the year 2000. After 25 years, several dynamics still challenge this large public health campaign with new cases of polio being reported annually. We examine the roots of this initiative to eradicate polio, its scope, the successes and setbacks during the last 25 years and reflect on the current state of affairs. We examine the social and political factors that are barriers to polio eradication. Options are discussed for solving the current impasse of polio eradication: using force, respecting individual freedoms and gaining support from those vulnerable to fundamentalist 'propaganda'. The travails of the GPEI indicate the need for expanding the Convention on the Rights of the Child to address situations of war and civic strife. Such a cultural and structural reference will provide the basis for global stakeholders to engage belligerent local actors whose local political conflicts are barriers to the eradication of polio. Disregard for these actors will result in stagnation of polio eradication policy, delaying eradication beyond 2018.
Since the beginning of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) have been drastically reduced, with only 74 cases reported in 2 endemic countries in 2015. The current limited PV transmission suggests that we are in the endgame of the polio eradication program. However, specific challenges have emerged in the endgame, including tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in biorisk management of PV. To overcome these challenges, several PV studies have been implemented in the eradication program. Some of the responses to the emerging challenges in the polio endgame might be valuable in other infectious diseases eradication programs. Here, I will review challenges that confront the polio eradication program and current research to address these challenges.
Mayer, Bryan T; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Henry, Christopher J; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Ionides, Edward L; Koopman, James S
Polio eradication is on the cusp of success, with only a few regions still maintaining transmission. Improving our understanding of why some regions have been successful and others have not will help with both global eradication of polio and development of more effective vaccination strategies for other pathogens. To examine the past 25 years of eradication efforts, we constructed a transmission model for wild poliovirus that incorporates waning immunity (which affects both infection risk and transmissibility of any resulting infection), age-mediated vaccination rates, and transmission of oral polio vaccine. The model produces results consistent with the 4 country categories defined by the Global Polio Eradication Program: elimination with no subsequent outbreaks; elimination with subsequent transient outbreaks; elimination with subsequent outbreaks and transmission detected for more than 12 months; and endemic polio transmission. Analysis of waning immunity rates and oral polio vaccine transmissibility reveals that higher waning immunity rates make eradication more difficult because of increasing numbers of infectious adults, and that higher oral polio vaccine transmission rates make eradication easier as adults become reimmunized. Given these dynamic properties, attention should be given to intervention strategies that complement childhood vaccination. For example, improvement in sanitation can reduce the reproduction number in problematic regions, and adult vaccination can lower adult transmission.
Patel, Manish; Menning, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Pankaj
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988, the number of polio-endemic countries has decreased from 125 to 2 (Afghanistan and Pakistan). To secure the gains and to address the remaining challenges, the GPEI developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018 (the Plan), endorsed by all Member States at the WHA in May 2013. One of the major elements that distinguishes this Plan from previous GPEI strategies is the approach to ending all polioviruses, both wild and vaccine-derived. Overall, the Plan outlines four main objectives: (1) to stop all wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission; (2) to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), withdraw all oral polio vaccines (OPV), and strengthen immunization systems in countries with weak immunization systems and strong polio infrastructure; (3) to certify all regions as polio-free and safely contain all poliovirus stocks; (4) and to mainstream the investment in polio eradication to benefit other priority public health initiatives for years to come. Implementing the Plan and meeting the milestones in a timely manner will help to ensure that that the world remains permanently polio-free.
Gentile, Ángela; Abate, Héctor
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018. The Plan has four objectives: 1) Detect and interrupt all poliovirus transmission and maintain surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in children < 15 years. 2) Strengthen immunization systems and withdraw oral polio vaccine by the first trimester of 2016. Replace the trivalent oral polio vaccine with the bivalent oral vaccine, containing serotypes 1 and 3, and introduce the inactivated polio vaccine in all immunization schedules to maintain immunity against poliovirus type 2. 3) Contain poliovirus and certify interruption of transmission. 4) Plan the exploitation of the fight against polio and its impact on public health. The plan is expected to reach its goals by 2018; all use of the oral polio vaccine will be interrupted thereafter. Change in immunization schedules will require pediatricians to provide advice and guidance to families depending on the varied situations of everyday practice.
John, T Jacob
Pioneering research has been conducted in India during the past five decades, comprehensively covering epidemiology of poliovirus infection and of polio, efficacy and effectiveness of oral and inactivated polio vaccines (OPV, IPV) as well as pathogenesis of wild and vaccine polioviruses. It was estimated, based on epidemiology data, that India had a very heavy burden of polio, with average 500-1000 cases per day. Prevention was an urgent need, but OPV showed unacceptably low vaccine efficacy (VE) for poliovirus types 1 and 3. Having learned that response to sequential doses followed arithmetic pattern and not prime-boost principle, multiple doses were tested and found to be a simple intervention to increase VE. Eventually this knowledge became critical for polio eradication. Indian research demonstrated that monovalent OPV (mOPV) had nearly three timed higher VE than trivalent OPV (tOPV). Eventually, mOPV type 1 became essential to interrupt wild type 1 infection in many locations where the VE of tOPV was very low. Indian research pointed to the epidemiologic importance of direct person-to-person spread of wild polio viruses and the need and potential of IPV to prevent and control polio. Research on vaccine responses led to the understanding that OPV would become wild-like through back mutations and to the definition of eradication as interrupting transmission of both wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses. By asking and answering the right questions insequence, Indian polio research presaged and guided polio eradication.
Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia
Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World.
Rodríguez-Álvarez, Mauricio; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Cervantes-Rosales, Rocío; Ponce de León-Rosales, Samuel
Eradication of poliomyelitis seems to be more feasible than ever. During recent years the strategy has reached milestone goals, faced new challenges, and re-configured by itself. In this text we describe the current situation of the polio eradication efforts worldwide and present an analysis of the potential implications and needs regarding vaccination in the coming years.
Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A
This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance.
Banerjee, K.; Hlady, W. G.; Andrus, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Abeykoon, P.
Poliomyelitis surveillance in India previously involved the passive reporting of clinically suspected cases. The capacity for detecting the disease was limited because there was no surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In October 1997, 59 specially trained Surveillance Medical Officers were deployed throughout the country to establish active AFP surveillance; 11,533 units were created to report weekly on the occurrence of AFP cases at the district, state and national levels; timely case investigation and the collection of stool specimens from AFP cases was undertaken; linkages were made to support the polio laboratory network; and extensive training of government counterparts of the Surveillance Medical Officers was conducted. Data reported at the national level are analysed and distributed weekly. Annualized rates of non-polio AFP increased from 0.22 per 100,000 children aged under 15 years in 1997 to 1.39 per 100,000 in 1999. The proportion of cases with two adequate stools collected within two weeks of the onset of paralysis increased from 34% in 1997 to 68% in 1999. The number of polio cases associated with the isolation of wild poliovirus decreased from 211 in the first quarter of 1998 to 77 in the first quarter of 1999. Widespread transmission of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 persists throughout the country; type 2 occurs only in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In order to achieve polio eradication in India during 2000, extra national immunization days and house-to-house mopping-up rounds should be organized. PMID:10812728
Hagan, José E; Wassilak, Steven G F; Craig, Allen S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Quddus, Arshad
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has been interrupted in all but three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No WPV type 2 cases have been detected worldwide since 1999, and the last WPV type 3 case was detected in Nigeria in November 2012; since 2012, only WPV type 1 has been detected. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), usually type 2, continues to cause cases of paralytic polio in communities with low population immunity. In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared global polio eradication "a programmatic emergency for global public health", and in 2014, WHO declared the international spread of WPV to previously polio-free countries to be "a public health emergency of international concern". This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2014-2015 and updates previous reports. In 2014, a total of 359 WPV cases were reported in nine countries worldwide. Although reported WPV cases increased in Pakistan and Afghanistan, cases in Nigeria decreased substantially in 2014, and encouraging progress toward global WPV transmission interruption has occurred. Overcoming ongoing challenges to interruption of WPV transmission globally will require sustained programmatic enhancements, including improving the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to interrupt transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and to prevent WPV exportation to polio-free countries.
Smith, Joseph; Leke, Rose; Adams, Anthony; Tangermann, Rudolf H.
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, considerable progress has been made towards interrupting the transmission of wild poliovirus globally. A formal process for the certification of polio eradication was established on the basis of experience gained during smallpox eradication. Independent groups of experts were designated at the global, regional, and country levels to conduct the process. The main requirements for the global certification of the eradication of wild poliovirus are the absence of wild poliovirus, isolated from suspect polio cases, healthy individuals, or environmental samples, in all WHO regions for a period of at least three years in the presence of high-quality, certification-standard surveillance and the containment of all wild poliovirus stocks in laboratories. Three WHO regions--the Region of the Americas (1994), Western Pacific Region (2000), and European Region (2002)--have already been certified free of indigenous wild poliovirus. Eradication and certification activities are progressing well in the three endemic regions (African, Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia). Several challenges remain for the certification of polio eradication: the need for even closer coordination of certification activities between WHO regions, the verification of laboratory containment, the development of an appropriate mechanism to verify the absence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses in the future, and the maintenance of polio-free status in certified regions until global certification. PMID:15106297
Khan, M Mahmud; Ehreth, Jennifer
Pre-vaccination polio incidence rates in USA and Italy were used to predict the cases that would have occurred in the world for the years 1970-2050 in the absence of immunization. Globally, polio program will cost about US dollars 67 billion if vaccination is discontinued after 2010. The medical care cost savings achieved will be more than US dollars 128 billions, implying that polio eradication activities actually pay for itself in the longer run. In addition to the cost savings, the program will prevent 855000 deaths, 4 million paralysis cases and 40 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) over the years 1970-2050.
Parker, Edward PK; Molodecky, Natalie A; Pons-Salort, Margarita; O’Reilly, Kathleen M; Grassly, Nicholas C
The polio eradication endgame aims to bring transmission of all polioviruses to a halt. To achieve this aim, it is essential to block viral replication in individuals via induction of a robust mucosal immune response. Although it has long been recognized that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is incapable of inducing a strong mucosal response on its own, it has recently become clear that IPV may boost immunity in the intestinal mucosa among individuals previously immunized with oral poliovirus vaccine. Indeed, mucosal protection appears to be stronger following a booster dose of IPV than oral poliovirus vaccine, especially in older children. Here, we review the available evidence regarding the impact of IPV on mucosal immunity, and consider the implications of this evidence for the polio eradication endgame. We conclude that the implementation of IPV in both routine and supplementary immunization activities has the potential to play a key role in halting poliovirus transmission, and thereby hasten the eradication of polio. PMID:26159938
Aylward, R. Bruce; Linkins, Jennifer
Between 1988 and 2004, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative grew to become the largest international health effort in history, operating in every country of the world. An estimated 10 million health workers and volunteers have been engaged in implementing the necessary polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) on a recurring basis, and at least 35,000 well-trained workers have been conducting polio surveillance. A combination of task simplification, technological innovations and adaptation of strategies to fit local circumstances has allowed the Initiative to use a wide range of workers and volunteers, from both inside and outside the health sector, to deliver the polio vaccine during SIAs and to monitor progress in virtually every area of every country, regardless of the health infrastructure, conflict, geography and/or culture. This approach has required sustained political advocacy and mass community mobilization, together with strong management and supervisory processes. Non-monetary incentives, reimbursement of costs and substantial technical assistance have been essential. Given the unique features of eradication programmes in general, and polio eradication in particular, the implications of this approach for the broader health system must continue to be studied if it is to be replicated for the delivery and monitoring of other interventions. PMID:15868017
Sutter, Roland W; Platt, Lauren; Mach, Ondrej; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, R Bruce
Polio eradication requires the removal of all polioviruses from human populations, whether wild poliovirus or those emanating from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 provides a framework for interruption of wild poliovirus transmission in remaining endemic foci and lays out a plan for the new polio end game, which includes the withdrawal of Sabin strains, starting with type 2, and the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, for risk mitigation purposes. This report summarizes the rationale and evidence that supports the policy decision to switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV and to introduce 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine into routine immunization schedules, and it describes the proposed implementation of this policy in countries using trivalent OPV.
Orenstein, Walter A
The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. This plan was endorsed in November 2012 by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization of the World Health Organization and published by the World Health Organization in April 2013. As a key component of the plan, it will be necessary to stop oral polio vaccine (OPV) use globally to achieve eradication, because the attenuated viruses in the vaccine rarely can cause polio. The plan includes procedures for elimination of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). cVDPVs can proliferate when vaccine viruses are transmitted among susceptible people, resulting in mutations conferring both the neurovirulence and transmissibility characteristics of wild polioviruses. Although there are 3 different types of wild poliovirus strains, the polio eradication effort has already resulted in the global elimination of type 2 poliovirus for more than a decade. Type 3 poliovirus may be eliminated because the wild type 3 poliovirus was last detected in 2012. Thus, of the 3 wild types, only wild type 1 poliovirus is still known to be circulating and causing disease. OPV remains the key vaccine for eradicating wild polioviruses in polio-infected countries because it induces high levels of systemic immunity to prevent paralysis and intestinal immunity to reduce transmission. However, OPV is a rare cause of paralysis and the substantial decrease in wild-type disease has resulted in estimates that the vaccine is causing more polio-related paralysis annually in recent years than the wild virus. The new endgame strategic plan calls for stepwise removal of the type 2 poliovirus component from trivalent oral vaccines, because type 2 wild poliovirus appears to have been eradicated (since 1999) and yet is the main cause of cVDPV outbreaks and approximately 40% of vaccine-associated paralytic
Pirio, Gregory Alonso; Kaufmann, Judith
This study draws lessons from the resource mobilization experiences of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). As the GPEI launched its eradication effort in 1988, it underestimated both the difficulty and the costs of the campaign. Advocacy for resource mobilization came as an afterthought in the late 1990s, when achieving eradication by the target date of 2000 began to look doubtful. The reality of funding shortfalls undercutting eradication leads to the conclusion that advocacy for resource mobilization is as central to operations as are scientific and technical factors.
Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Singh, Prem; Trivedi, Geetali
In 2009, India contributed to over half the global cases of poliomyelitis. Many believed that India would be the last country to be polio free. India proved them wrong and was certified polio free in 2014. In January 2016, India celebrated 5 years of being polio free. One of the major reasons behind the interruption of polio transmission in the Polio endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar was the deployment of Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). A three tiered structure, the 7300 strong SMNet is now the gold standard in public health communication. It mobilizes communities by spearheading civil society participation; and works at district, block and community levels. The SMNet's social mobilization has evolved into an accelerated approach for achieving results with principles of mobilization at its core. The SMNet targets resistance to polio immunization through a multipronged approach by using local religious leaders, community influencers, interpersonal communication, counseling, mothers meetings, announcements from religious institutions and rallies. The success of the SMNet has been its ability to identify and convert resistant families into advocates for polio immunization. Deeply respected in the community, the SMNet mobilizers (98 percent of whom are women) are themselves models for gender empowerment. The SMNet model shows how mobilization techniques can be harnessed for short term and long term goals and can be replicated in other health programs to achieve the same results as were achieved for Polio.
The polio eradication initiative, created after the World Health Assembly resolved, in 1988, to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000, has made remarkable progress. From 1988 through 2000, the number of countries where polio was endemic decreased from >125 to 20, and the estimated number of polio cases decreased from 350,000 to <3500, for a percentage decrease of >99%. Wild-type 2 poliovirus has not been detected worldwide since October 1999, despite improving surveillance. The major focus of the eradication effort is to complete the task of stopping wild-type poliovirus transmission. Given the rapid progress made toward this goal, planning for the posteradication era has begun in earnest (1) to minimize the risk of reintroduction of virus into the population from laboratory stocks or long-term carriers, and (2) to prevent vaccine-derived polioviruses from circulating and causing outbreaks. This report summarizes the current thinking about these "endgame" issues, as put forth by the World Health Organization's technical advisory body for the initiative, the Technical Consultative Group on the Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis.
Morales, Michelle; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Wassilak, Steven G F
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission persists in only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) after the removal of Nigeria from the list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015.* Indigenous WPV type 2 has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated by the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in September 2015.(†) Since November 2012, when the last case of WPV type 3 was detected in Nigeria, WPV type 1 has been the sole circulating type of WPV (1). This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2015-2016 and updates previous reports (2). In 2015, 74 WPV cases were reported in two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan), a decrease of 79% from the 359 WPV cases reported in 2014 in nine countries; 12 WPV cases have been reported in 2016 (to date), compared with 23 during the same period in 2015 (3). Paralytic polio caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) remains a risk in areas with low oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage. Seven countries, including Pakistan, reported 32 cVDPV cases in 2015 (4). In four of these countries, ≥6 months have passed since the most recent case or isolate. One country (Laos) with VDPV transmission in 2015 has reported three additional cVDPV cases in 2016 to date. Encouraging progress toward polio eradication has been made over the last year; however, interruption of WPV transmission will require focus on reaching and vaccinating every missed child through high quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and cross-border coordination between Afghanistan and Pakistan (5,6).
Polio eradication programme was launched in India in 1995, and polio eradication was expected to occur by 2000. Remarkable decline in polio incidence occurred, but, polio was not eradicated. Majority of polio cases are occurring in two states viz., Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. It is also being observed that majority of polio cases had received many doses of polio vaccine. In 2005 monovalent OPV1 (mOPV1) and monovalent OPV3 (mOPV3) were also introduced in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, but, number of polio cases increased 10-fold in 2006. In 2007 number of vaccination rounds were increased to one round every month, but in 2007 number of polio cases increased further. In 2005 there were 66 polio cases whereas in 2006 and 2007 number of polio cases increased to 676 and 863, respectively. Some genetic factors in children from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar appear to be responsible for poor antibody generation by OPV. Some mutations in polio viruses may be responsible for development of resistance to antibodies generated by OPV and a reason for the recent steep rise in polio incidence since 2006. Because of these two factors, OPV cannot eradicate polio from India.
Porter, Kimberly A; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988 and have been successful in all but two of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Within these two regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean), three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). Outbreaks following importation of WPV from these countries occurred in the Horn of Africa, Central Africa, and in the Middle East during 2013-2014. The primary means of tracking polio is surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), the main symptom of polio, followed by testing of AFP patients' stool specimens for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). This is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for WPV and VDPV) (4). Both types of surveillance use genomic sequencing for characterization of poliovirus isolates to map poliovirus transmission and for identifying gaps in AFP surveillance by measuring genetic divergence between isolates. This report presents 2013 and 2014 poliovirus surveillance data, focusing primarily on the two WHO regions with endemic WPV transmission, and the 29 countries (African Region = 23; Eastern Mediterranean Region = six) with at least one case of WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) reported during 2010-2014. In 2013, 20 of these 23 African region countries met both primary surveillance quality indicators; in 2014, the number decreased to 15. In 2013, five of the six Eastern Mediterranean Region countries met the primary indicators, and in 2014, all six did. To complete and certify polio eradication, surveillance gaps must be identified and surveillance activities, including supervision, monitoring, and specimen collection, further strengthened.
Levitt, Alexandra; Diop, Ousmane M; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Paladin, Fem; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Burns, Cara C; Chenoweth, Paul J; Goel, Ajay; Wassilak, Steven G F
In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Polio cases are detected through surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and subsequent testing of stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) at WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance, testing sewage samples from selected sites for PVs. Virologic surveillance, including genomic sequencing to identify isolates by genotype and measure divergence between isolates, guides Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) activities by confirming the presence of PV, tracking chains of PV transmission, and highlighting gaps in AFP surveillance quality. This report provides AFP surveillance quality indicators at national and subnational levels during 2012-2013 for countries that experienced PV cases during 2009-2013 in the WHO African Region (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the remaining polio-endemic regions. It also summarizes the results of environmental surveillance and reviews indicators assessing the timeliness of reporting of PV isolation and of virus strain characterization globally. Regional-level performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation were met in five of six WHO regions in 2012 and 2013. Of 30 AFR and EMR countries that experienced cases of PV (wild poliovirus [WPV], circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV], or both) during 2009-2013, national performance indicator targets for AFP surveillance and collection of adequate specimens were met in 27 (90%) countries in 2012 and 22 (73%) in 2013. In 17 (57%) countries, ≥80% of the population lived in subnational areas meeting both AFP performance indicators in 2012, decreasing to 13 (43%) in 2013. To achieve polio eradication and certify interruption of PV transmission, intensive efforts to strengthen and maintain AFP surveillance are
Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose. PMID:21962145
Sutton, Brett; Canyon, Deon
Introduction: The eradication of a human infectious disease is a major challenge and, if achieved, represents a enormous achievement. This article explores the long and difficult journey towards eradication for polio and guinea worm. Methods: The authors reviewed the programmatic approaches taken in the eradication strategies for these two diseases and the unique socio-political contexts in which these strategies are couched. The epidemiology of the last 15 years is compared and contrasted. The specific challenges for both programs are outlined and some key elements for success are highlighted. Discussion: The success of these eradication programs is contingent upon many factors. Nothing is assured, and progress remains fragile and vulnerable to setbacks. Security must be ensured in guinea worm transmission areas in Africa and polio transmission areas in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Technical solutions alone cannot guarantee eradication. National leadership and continued international focus and support are necessary, today more than ever. The legacy of success would be extraordinary. It would reverberate to future generations in the same way that the eradication of smallpox does for this generation. PMID:26401418
Esteve-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Richardson López-Collada, Vesta L
Since the strategies to eradicate polio were implemented, the incidence of paralytic polio has dropped dramatically. Four main strategies have greatly contributed: a) High immunization coverage rate with oral polio vaccine (OPV), b) Supplementary immunization activities during the National Immunizations Days c) An effective epidemiological surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and d) Intensified immunization activities in high risk areas. Three countries remain polio endemic, nevertheless, any country has a potential risk of the virus importation from one of these endemic areas; an accidental release of poliovirus from a research or clinical laboratory, or from having a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in the environment. The present document aims to provide an historical background that made possible the disease elimination in Mexico. Moreover, we discuss the challenges that every country needs to face in order to achieve a polio-free world.
Arita, Isao; Nakane, Miyuki
The global polio eradication program, started in 1988, initially targeted the year 2000 for the worldwide elimination of the disease. Although poliovirus transmission has been markedly reduced, it has not been eliminated. As we enter the 20th year of the campaign, poliovirus continues to infect and cause paralysis in localized areas of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. To combat this scourge, the World Health Organization, together with other worldwide partners, has newly committed to worldwide eradication by 2009. It appears that the delay has been caused by a combination of the failure of globalization to deliver the prosperity it initially promised and technical problems specific to polio eradication. We hope that the world can reach zero level status for polio report, but verification would take many years and extended research due to the nature of poliovirus. We propose a scientific joint enterprise by which the polio endgame is accelerate, at the same time that a special immunization program against multiple other vaccine-preventable diseases is initiated. This newly organized collaborative effort, we believe, will maximize the benefits achieved by polio eradication and reduce childhood disease and deaths, namely achieve the Millennium Development Goal no. 4, in sub-Saharan Africa, the region that especially needs such action.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988 by the World Health Assembly to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV); completion of this initiative was declared a programmatic emergency of public health in January 2012. Polio cases are detected through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with linked stool specimens tested for polioviruses (PVs) at accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance findings are supplemented by testing sewage samples (environmental surveillance) collected at selected sites. Virologic data guide where targeted immunization activities should be conducted or improved. Key performance indicators are used to 1) monitor AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational levels to identify gaps where PV transmission could occur undetected; 2) provide evidence of where PV circulation has been interrupted; and 3) allow timely detection of an outbreak. Standardized surveillance indicators allow progress to be monitored over time and compared among countries. This report presents AFP surveillance performance indicators at national and subnational levels for countries affected by polio during 2011-2012, and trends in environmental surveillance, updating previous reports. In the 19 countries with transmission of PV (WPV and/or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV]) during 2011-2012, national performance indicator targets were met in 12 (63%) countries in 2011 and 13 (68%) countries in 2012. Seven countries (37%) in 2011 had ≥80% of the population living in areas meeting performance indicators, increasing to nine countries (47%) in 2012. Performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation and characterization were met in four of six World Health Organization (WHO) regions in 2011 and five regions in 2012. To achieve global polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve and maintain AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.
Snider, Cynthia J; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years (4,5). Stool specimens collected from children with AFP are tested for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). In selected locations, AFP surveillance is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for poliovirus) (6). Testing of stool and sewage samples includes genomic sequencing to characterize poliovirus isolates; results are used to map poliovirus transmission and identify gaps in AFP surveillance. This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2014 and 2015, focusing on the 20 countries in the African Region and six in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that reported a WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) case during 2011-2015, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, which were most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak.
Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C
As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.
Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao
A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.
Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J
To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46,437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere.
O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika
There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.
Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms.
Al-Awadi, Abdul Rahman; Karam, Marc V; Molyneux, David H; Breman, Joel G
Guinea worm disease is one of two diseases targeted for eradication, the other being polio. Since the late 1980s, the number of new cases per year has been reduced from approximately one million to some 25 000 in 2006. However, there was an increase from 2005 owing to improved surveillance in Sudan and problems in Ghana. The International Commission argues that more resources are required to ensure that the goal of eradication is completed. Elimination of transmission throughout Asia has now been confirmed and the disease is now confined to a small number of African countries requiring increased efforts to achieve the global goal.
Because of its unapparent infection and viral diversity, poliomyelitis is difficult infectious diseases to control globally. Nevertheless, effective vaccinations, global surveillance network, development of accurate viral diagnosis prompted the historical challenge, global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Wild polio viruses are now confined in four countries, Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, at the very end stage of this program, it has been stagnated because of various reasons. From this, we can learn good lessons to control other infectious diseases including measles, influenza and etc. To share the passion to eradicate miserable infectious disease, poliomyelitis is the key.
Okeibunor, Joseph C; Ota, Martin C; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Kouadio, Koffi I; Poy, Alain; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Moeti, Matshidiso R
The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses.
Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M.; Landis, R. Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A.; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D.; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A.; Pont, W. Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth
Background. After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Methods. Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Results. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. PMID:24690667
... aware they've been infected with polio. Nonparalytic polio Some people who develop symptoms from the poliovirus ... or legs Muscle weakness or tenderness Meningitis Paralytic polio In rare cases, poliovirus infection leads to paralytic ...
Chatterjee, Animesh; Vidyant, Sanjukta; Dhole, Tapan N
Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and has been reduced to near elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Nevertheless, effective vaccinations, global surveillance network, development of accurate viral diagnosis prompted the historical challenge, global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Environmental surveillance of poliovirus means monitoring of wild polio virus (WPV) and vaccine derived polio virus (cVDPV) circulation in human populations by examining environmental specimens supposedly contaminated by human feces. The rationale for surveillance is based on the fact that PV-infected individuals, whether presenting with disease symptoms or not, shed large amounts of PV in the feces for several weeks. As the morbidity: infection ratio of PV infection is very low, and therefore this fact contributes to the sensitivity of poliovirus surveillance, which under optimal conditions can be better than that of the standard acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included environmental surveillance of poliovirus in the new Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative for years 2010-2012 to be increasingly used in PV surveillance, supplementing AFP surveillance and the strategic advisory group of experts on immunization (SAGE) recommended a switch from tOPV-bOPV to remove the threat of cVDPV2 and to accelerate the elimination of WPV type 1 and 3 as bOPV is a more immunogenic vaccine and to introduce one dose of IPV in their vaccination schedule prior to OPV cessation.
Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.
This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
John, T Jacob; Vashishtha, Vipin M
India's success in eliminating wild polioviruses (WPVs) has been acclaimed globally. Since the last case on January 13, 2011 success has been sustained for two years. By early 2014 India could be certified free of WPV transmission, if no indigenous transmission occurs, the chances of which is considered zero. Until early 1990s India was hyperendemic for polio, with an average of 500 to 1000 children getting paralysed daily. In spite of introducing trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979, the burden of polio did not fall below that of the pre-EPI era for a decade. One of the main reasons was the low vaccine efficacy (VE) of tOPV against WPV types 1 and 3. The VE of tOPV was highest for type 2 and WPV type 2 was eliminated in 1999 itself as the average per-capita vaccine coverage reached 6. The VE against types 1 and 3 was the lowest in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where the force of transmission of WPVs was maximum on account of the highest infant-population density. Transmission was finally interrupted with sustained and extraordinary efforts. During the years since 2004 annual pulse polio vaccination campaigns were conducted 10 times each year, virtually every child was tracked and vaccinated - including in all transit points and transport vehicles, monovalent OPV types 1 and 3 were licensed and applied in titrated campaigns according to WPV epidemiology and bivalent OPV (bOPV, with both types 1 and 3) was developed and judiciously deployed. Elimination of WPVs with OPV is only phase 1 of polio eradication. India is poised to progress to phase 2, with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), switch from tOPV to bOPV and final elimination of all vaccine-related and vaccine-derived polioviruses. True polio eradication demands zero incidence of poliovirus infection, wild and vaccine.
Hussain, Rashid S.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Fruzzetti, Lina M.
Background Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity. Methods and Findings A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977. Conclusions Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India. Limitations This study is
John, T. Jacob; Vashishtha, Vipin M.
India's success in eliminating wild polioviruses (WPVs) has been acclaimed globally. Since the last case on January 13, 2011 success has been sustained for two years. By early 2014 India could be certified free of WPV transmission, if no indigenous transmission occurs, the chances of which is considered zero. Until early 1990s India was hyperendemic for polio, with an average of 500 to 1000 children getting paralysed daily. In spite of introducing trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979, the burden of polio did not fall below that of the pre-EPI era for a decade. One of the main reasons was the low vaccine efficacy (VE) of tOPV against WPV types 1 and 3. The VE of tOPV was highest for type 2 and WPV type 2 was eliminated in 1999 itself as the average per-capita vaccine coverage reached 6. The VE against types 1 and 3 was the lowest in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where the force of transmission of WPVs was maximum on account of the highest infant-population density. Transmission was finally interrupted with sustained and extraordinary efforts. During the years since 2004 annual pulse polio vaccination campaigns were conducted 10 times each year, virtually every child was tracked and vaccinated - including in all transit points and transport vehicles, monovalent OPV types 1 and 3 were licensed and applied in titrated campaigns according to WPV epidemiology and bivalent OPV (bOPV, with both types 1 and 3) was developed and judiciously deployed. Elimination of WPVs with OPV is only phase 1 of polio eradication. India is poised to progress to phase 2, with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), switch from tOPV to bOPV and final elimination of all vaccine-related and vaccine-derived polioviruses. True polio eradication demands zero incidence of poliovirus infection, wild and vaccine. PMID:23760372
Thompson, Kimberly M.
Drawing on over 20 years of experience modeling risks in complex systems, this talk will challenge SBP participants to develop models that provide timely and useful answers to critical policy questions when decision makers need them. The talk will include reflections on the opportunities and challenges associated with developing integrated models for complex problems and communicating their results effectively. Dr. Thompson will focus the talk largely on collaborative modeling related to global polio eradication and the application of system dynamics tools. After successful global eradication of wild polioviruses, live polioviruses will still present risks that could potentially lead to paralytic polio cases. This talk will present the insights of efforts to use integrated dynamic, probabilistic risk, decision, and economic models to address critical policy questions related to managing global polio risks. Using a dynamic disease transmission model combined with probabilistic model inputs that characterize uncertainty for a stratified world to account for variability, we find that global health leaders will face some difficult choices, but that they can take actions that will manage the risks effectively. The talk will emphasize the need for true collaboration between modelers and subject matter experts, and the importance of working with decision makers as partners to ensure the development of useful models that actually get used.
Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana
Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.
Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Garon, Julie; Seib, Katherine; Orenstein, Walter A
Live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) are the tools being used to achieve eradication of wild polio virus. Because OPV can rarely cause paralysis and generate revertant polio strains, IPV will have to replace OPV after eradication of wild polio virus is certified to sustain eradication of all polioviruses. However, uncertainties remain related to IPV's ability to induce intestinal immunity in populations where fecal-oral transmission is predominant. Although substantial effectiveness and safety data exist on the use and delivery of OPV and IPV, several new research initiatives are currently underway to fill specific knowledge gaps to inform future vaccination policies that would assure polio is eradicated and eradication is maintained.
Yehualashet, Yared G.; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G.; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G.; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter
Country Office team produced and submitted 102 grant reports and facilitated >20 joint project assessment exercises. Discussion. The polio program in Nigeria has achieved unprecedented gains, despite prevailing security and operational challenges, with no case of wild poliovirus infection since July 2014. Through rigorous, transparent, and accountable funds management practice, the WHO country office in Nigeria gained donors' confidence. The locally mobilized funds have made a remarkable contribution to the successful implementation of the strategies set out in the polio emergency plan. We face the challenges of a narrow donor-base, donor fatigue, and competition among other emerging agencies joining the polio eradication initiative efforts over the last few years. We actively engage the national authorities and partners for effective coordination of the polio eradication initiative program and harmonization of resources, using the existing platforms at national, state, and local levels. We recommend strengthening the local resource mobilization machinery and broadening the donor base, to support the polio endgame strategy. Such efforts should also be adopted to support routine immunization, introduction of new vaccines, and strengthening of health systems in the country as part of polio legacy planning. PMID:26912380
Olufowote, James Olumide
Successful global health initiatives are executed on the recognition that globalization involves simultaneous pulls between global unification and fragmentation. This article responds to the need for more understanding of the role of fragmentation in global health initiatives through analyses of 52 northern Nigerian newspaper reports of the 2003-2004 northern Nigerian stoppage of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. By 2009 the stoppage had resulted in an epidemic in Nigeria and polio importations in 20 previously polio-free countries. Findings pointed to beliefs in contemporary forms of Western control and abuse through global organizations (nongovernmental organizations and for-profits), understandings of the "philanthropy" of the West and global organizations as self-serving and malevolent, and doubts about the polio vaccine product.
Fine, P E; Carneiro, I A
The global poliomyelitis eradication initiative has been a tremendous success, with current evidence suggesting that wild poliovirus will cease to circulate anywhere in the world soon after the year 2000. As the goal of wild poliovirus eradication is approached, concern has been raised about the potential for persistent transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) viruses, as these viruses are known to revert toward wild-type neurovirulence. This paper has been extracted from a document prepared for the World Health Organization on the implications of OPV transmissibility for the strategy of stopping OPV vaccination after global eradication of wild polioviruses. The authors review the empirical evidence on OPV transmissibility available from household and community transmission studies and from mass-vaccination experiences. They then consider theoretical measures of transmissibility and persistence for wild and OPV viruses (secondary attack rate, basic reproduction number, and critical populations' size), to assess whether transmissibility of OPV viruses is sufficient to allow persistence of these viruses after cessation of vaccination. The findings indicate that OPV viruses could persist under various plausible circumstances, and that this potential should be a major consideration when planning the cessation of OPV vaccination.
Yehualashet, Yared G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Erbeto, Tesfaye; Onimisi, Anthony; Horton, Janet; Banda, Richard; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Ahmed, Haruna; Afolabi, Oluwole; Wadda, Alieu; Vaz, Rui G.; Nsubuga, Peter
Background. Following the 65th World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution on intensification of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the Nigerian government, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, implemented a number of innovative strategies to curb the transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) in the country. One of the innovations successfully implemented since mid 2012 is the WHO's engagement of surge capacity personnel. Methods. The WHO reorganized its functional structure, adopted a transparent recruitment and deployment process, provided focused technical and management training, and applied systematic accountability framework to successfully manage the surge capacity project in close collaboration with the national counterparts and partners. The deployment of the surge capacity personnel was guided by operational and technical requirement analysis. Results. Over 2200 personnel were engaged, of whom 92% were strategically deployed in 11 states classified as high risk on the basis of epidemiological risk analysis and compromised security. These additional personnel were directly engaged in efforts aimed at improving the performance of polio surveillance, vaccination campaigns, increased routine immunization outreach sessions, and strengthening partnership with key stakeholders at the operational level, including community-based organizations. Discussion. Programmatic interventions were sustained in states in which security was compromised and the risk of polio was high, partly owing to the presence of the surge capacity personnel, who are engaged from the local community. Since mid-2012, significant programmatic progress was registered in the areas of polio supplementary immunization activities, acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and routine immunization with the support of the surge capacity personnel. As of 19 June 2015, the last case of WPV was reported on 24 July 2014. The surge infrastructure has
de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias
Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.
Obregón, Rafael; Waisbord, Silvio
The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has been one of the most ambitious global health efforts in recent times. Social mobilization (SM) has been a strategic component of the PEI. Yet, a close-up analysis of SM dynamics seems to be lacking in the health communication literature. We examine critical aspects of the PEI experience in an attempt to move from dominant informational perspectives to a focus on emerging challenges in polio eradication efforts and new levels of complexity to SM. We examine available literature on communication and public health, available data on SM experiences that support polio eradication in Africa and Asia, and field work conducted by the authors where polio eradication efforts are ongoing. Our analysis suggests that (1) SM should not be casually approached as a top-down informational strategy to advance pre-established health goals; (2) centralized strategies hardly amount to SM; and (3) hybrid options that combine both activist and pragmatic SM are concrete possibilities for global health initiatives. In the context of renewed global democratization and persistent conflicts rooted in ethnicity, religion, and economics, it cannot be assumed that communities will either diligently espouse global goals or necessarily oppose them. Communication and SM strategies should rely on a clear understanding of the motives and agendas of involved actors. Resistance or opposition are important analytical dimensions as they may uncover new opportunities for effective health interventions. Further studies using these perspectives should be a priority for global health programs, including studies of the trust level, or lack thereof, among social actors.
Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts) and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. Results The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs), unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. Conclusion The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should be considered in
Owais, Aatekah; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Ali, Syed Asad; Zaidi, Anita K M
Since its inception in 1978, Pakistan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) has contributed significantly towards child health and survival in Pakistan. However, the WHO-estimated immunization coverage of 88% for 3 doses of Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine in Pakistan is likely an over-estimate. Many goals, such as polio, measles and neonatal tetanus elimination have not been met. Pakistan reported more cases of poliomyelits in 2011 than any other country globally, threatening the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Although the number of polio cases decreased to 58 in 2012 through better organized supplementary immunization campaigns, country-wide measles outbreaks with over 15,000 cases and several hundred deaths in 2012-13 underscore sub-optimal EPI performance in delivering routine immunizations. There are striking inequities in immunization coverage between different parts of the country. Barriers to universal immunization coverage include programmatic dysfunction at lower tiers of the program, socioeconomic inequities in access to services, low population demand, poor security, and social resistance to vaccines among population sub-groups. Recent conflicts and large-scale natural disasters have severely stressed the already constrained resources of the national EPI. Immunization programs remain low priority for provincial and many district governments in the country. The recent decision to devolve the national health ministry to the provinces has had immediate adverse consequences. Mitigation strategies aimed at rapidly improving routine immunization coverage should include improving the infrastructure and management capacity for vaccine delivery at district levels and increasing the demand for vaccines at the population level. Accurate vaccine coverage estimates at district/sub-district level and local accountability of district government officials are critical to improving performance and eradicating polio in Pakistan.
Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A
In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy.
Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier
There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.
Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Grover, Manoj; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet
Since the launch of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, disease burden has been reduced by more than 99% globally. Lately, India has witnessed a year without a case of poliomyelitis. It no longer stands endemic and is being regarded as a model for polio eradication efforts in other low income endemic countries: Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. The near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth new challenges of vaccine derived polio virus and need for newer strategies in oral poliomyelitis vaccine cessation preparatory phase. Stricter surveillance measures are needed to check for importations, any spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. No stone should be left unturned in this last ditch effort for extermination of polio virus form environmental circulation. India's battle against polio will be cited as the biggest public health achievement or the most expensive public health failure.
Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N
With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.
Khan, Tariq; Qazi, Javaria
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio completely by the year 2000 has been successful, except for three endemic and some non-endemic countries. Pakistan, one of the three endemic polio reservoirs, is posing a serious threat to the success of the initiative. Currently, the expanded programme on immunisation has been geared to win the race over polio virus in Pakistan. After the remarkable decrease in polio cases from 198 in 2011 to only 58 in 2012, Pakistan seemed to be at the verge of success. However, hurdles continue to retard the campaign. The war against terrorism, misconceptions about polio vaccine, religious misinterpretations, frustration among vaccinators, lack of awareness, social considerations, natural calamities, inaccessibility, and inefficient vaccines and so on are continually rupturing the foundations of the worldwide initiative in the country. Weak health management is found at the hub of majority of the challenges. Stricter policies, well managed and supervised plans and strategic actions, risk analysis and enhanced communication may help giving the final punch to polio virus in the country. Analysis suggested that there is some literature available on the challenges to polio elimination, yet there is not a single publication up to date that considers all the possible hurdles in a single manuscript. This paper sorts out the breaches that hamper the goal of eliminating polio from Pakistan. We have evaluated all the possible barriers and explained them with a perspective that will help develop area specific strategies against polio virus and thus eradicate polio virus from the world.
Waisbord, Silvio; Shimp, Lora; Ogden, Ellyn W; Morry, Chris
Communication is a critical component in assuring that children are fully immunized and that simultaneous immunity is attained and maintained across large geographic areas for disease eradication and control initiatives. If service delivery is of good quality and outreach to the population is active, effective communication--through advocacy, social mobilization, and program communication (including behavior change activities and interpersonal communication)--will assist in raising awareness, creating and sustaining demand, preventing or dispelling misinformation and doubts, encouraging acceptance of and participation in vaccination services, more rapid reporting of disease cases and outbreaks, and mobilizing financial resources to support immunization efforts. There is evidence of 12% to 20% or more increases in the absolute level of immunization coverage and 33% to 100% increases in relative coverage compared to baselines when communication is included as a key component of immunization strengthening. This article utilizes evidence from Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria to examine how the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has utilized monitoring and evaluation data to focus and improve the quality and impact of communication activities.
Hoekstra, E. J.; Chai, F.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, X. L.; Yu, J. J.; Bilous, J.
In 1996, China adopted a virological classification of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases for its surveillance system. Only AFP cases with wild poliovirus in stool specimens are confirmed as polio. Cases with adequate stool specimens that are negative for wild poliovirus are not counted. This paper describes a methodology to rule out poliomyelitis in AFP cases with inadequate stool specimens. National surveillance data were analysed using dot maps to detect clusters of AFP cases with high-risk factors for poliomyelitis. The surveillance system and vaccine coverage were assessed during field investigations. Four clusters of AFP cases were identified, but no poliomyelitis cases. Programmatic failures in the identified high-risk areas included low vaccination rates, poor stool specimen collection and inadequate AFP surveillance. Programme strategies were implemented to correct the identified failures. Use of this methodology provides strong evidence consistent with the absence of wild poliovirus in China. PMID:10812727
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule.
Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries.
Paralytic poliomyelitis is a disease that became a public health issue at the beginning of the twentieth century and was more or less eliminated in developed countries by the early 1970s. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative of WHO has now eradicated endemic polio from all but three countries although re-introductions occur. The progress in polio eradication is striking and has accelerated over the last few years. It is likely that it will be finally eradicated from the world soon, the looming issue will then be how to stop vaccinating or modify immunization programs safely so that poliomyelitis does not re-emerge. This review article discusses the history and pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. The progress made, and challenges in sustaining the eradication of this debilitating infectious disease are considered.
Dowdle, Walter R.; Gary, Howard E.; Sanders, Raymond; van Loon, Anton M.
The purpose of containment is to prevent reintroduction of wild polioviruses from laboratories into polio-free communities. In order to achieve global commitment to laboratory containment the rationale should be clear and compelling; the biosafety levels should be justified by the risks; and the objectives should be realistic. Absolute containment can never be assured. Questions of intentional or unintentional non-compliance can never be wholly eliminated. Effective laboratory containment is, however, a realistic goal. Prevention of virus transmission through contaminated laboratory materials is addressed by WHO standards for biosafety. The principal challenge is to prevent transmission through unrecognized infectious laboratory workers. Such transmission is possible only if the following conditions occur: infectious and potentially infectious materials carrying wild poliovirus are present in the laboratory concerned; a laboratory operation exposes a worker to poliovirus; a worker is susceptible to an infection that results in the shedding of poliovirus; and the community is susceptible to poliovirus infections. At present it is difficult to envisage the elimination of any of these conditions. However, the risks of the first three can be greatly reduced so as to create a formidable barrier against poliovirus transmission to the community. Final biosafety recommendations must await post-eradication immunization policies adopted by the international community. PMID:12075368
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S.; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Marreiros, Ana Carolina Cunha; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829
Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet
India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.
Levin, Ann; Ram, Sujata; Kaddar, Miloud
To determine if the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) affected financing of routine immunization programmes, we compared sources and uses of funds for routine immunization programmes and PEI activities in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco for the years 1993-98. We also examined funding trends for these years in these countries and assessed the effect of the initiative on the availability of specific resources in national immunization programmes, such as cold-chain equipment and personnel time spent on activities related to national immunization days and surveillance of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. We found that all three governments and the majority of donors and international organizations continued to fund routine immunization programmes at levels similar to those before the PEI. Trend analysis also indicated that financing for routine immunization in each of the countries continued to increase after the PEI was introduced. The results show that the PEI did not reduce funding for routine immunizations in these countries. PMID:12471404
An infectious disease will be eradicated only if it is eliminated everywhere, including in the hardest-to-reach, most vaccine-wary communities. If eradication is successful, it promises a dividend in the form of avoided infections and vaccinations. However, success is never certain unless and until eradication is achieved, and claiming the dividend means bearing the possibly great risk of re-emergence. Economic analysis of eradication evaluates these risks and rewards relative to the alternative of ‘optimal control’, and also exposes the incentives for achieving and capitalizing on eradication. Eradication is a ‘game’, because some countries may be willing to eliminate the disease within their borders only if assured that all others will eliminate the disease within their borders. International financing is also a game, because each country would rather free ride than contribute. Finally, for diseases such as polio, capitalizing on eradication is a game, for should any country continue to vaccinate in the post-eradication era using the live-attenuated polio vaccine, the countries that stop vaccinating will be exposed to the risk of vaccine-derived polioviruses. In the framework developed in this paper, eradication is a seductive goal, its attainment fraught with peril. PMID:23798697
Vashishtha, Vipin M; Kamath, Sachidanand
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries. With the advent of 'polio endgame', the focus has now shifted back to IPV. However, there are certain issues associated with global cessation of OPV use and universal implementation of IPV in routine immunization schedules across the globe that need to be dealt with some urgency, before proclaiming the global victory over polio.
Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman
Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio's historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio's seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing "disease of development" hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio's historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.
Groce, Nora Ellen; Banks, Lena Morgon; Stein, Michael Ashley
Excitement mounts as the global health and international development communities anticipate a polio-free world. Despite substantial political and logistical hurdles, only 223 cases of wild poliovirus in three countries were reported in 2012. Down 99% from the estimated 350,000 annual cases in 125 countries in 1988-this decline signals the imminent global eradication of polio. However, elimination of new polio cases should not also signal an end to worldwide engagement with polio. As many as 20 million continue to live with the disabling consequences of the disease. In developed countries where polio immunization became universal after dissemination of the polio vaccine in the 1950s, almost all individuals who have had polio are now above age 50. But in many developing countries where polio vaccination campaigns reached large segments of the population only after 1988, millions disabled by polio are still children or young adults. Demographically, this group is also different. After three decades of immunization efforts, those children unvaccinated in the late 1980s were more likely to be from poorer rural and slum communities and to be girls-groups not only harder to reach than more affluent members of the population but also individuals who, if they contract polio, are less likely to have access to medical and rehabilitation programs or education, job training, employment and social support services. The commitment to eradicate polio should not be considered complete while those living with the disabling sequelae of polio continue to live in poor health, poverty and social isolation. This paper reviews what is currently known about disabled survivors of polio and highlights areas of need in public health research, policy and programming. Based on a literature review, discussion and field observations, we identify continuing challenges posed by polio and argue that the attention, funding and commitment now being directed towards eradication be shifted to provide
... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...
Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N
Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication.
... the U.S. Polio Vaccination Polio Overview for Travelers File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...
Patti, A M
The recent epidemic of polio caused by the Wilde Virus which during last spring seriously hit Tagikistan, has now caused a crisis in the polio free situation of the European Region of the OMS. In addition, considering that there has been a sudden epidemic in Congo with a shift of the age of the first infection towards adolescents/adults and an unexpected death-to-case rate, it is worth reconsidering the risk of importing the Wild Virus into countries already polio-free. In consideration of the fact that Italy is a Country at high risk for importing polioviruses we analyzed the literature of the immunologic coverage of the virus in Italy, in order to verify the rationale for the administration of a fifth dose of polio vaccine to adolescents, what has already been introduced into the vaccination calendar in other European Countries such as United Kingdom, France and Germany.
Poliomyelitis is an acute paralytic disease caused by three poliovirus (PV) serotypes. Less than 1% of PV infections result in acute flaccid paralysis. The disease was controlled using the formalin-inactivated Salk polio vaccine (IPV) and the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV). Global poliomyelitis eradication was proposed in 1988 by the World Health Organization to its member states. The strategic plan established the activities required for polio eradication, certification for regions, OPV cessation phase and post-OPV phase. OPV is the vaccine of choice for the poliomyelitis eradication program because it induces both a systemic and mucosal immune response. The major risks of OPV vaccination are the appearance of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis cases (VAPP) and the emergence of Vaccine Derived Polioviruses strains. The supplementary immunization with monovalent strains of OPV type 1 or type 3 or with a new bivalent oral polio vaccine bOPV (containing type 1 and type 3 PV) has been introduced in those regions where the virus has been difficult to control. Most countries have switched the schedule of vaccination by using IPV instead of OPV because it poses no risk of vaccine-related disease. Until 2008, poliomyelitis was controlled in Romania, an Eastern European country, predominantly using OPV. The alternative vaccination schedule (IPV/OPV) was implemented starting in September 2008, while beginning in 2009, the vaccination was IPV only. The risk of VAPP will disappear worldwide with the cessation of use of OPV. The immunization for polio must be maintained for at least 5 to 10 years using IPV. PMID:24175215
P, Basavaraj; Singh, Shilpi; Singla, Ashish; Kundu, Hansa; Singh, Khushboo
Background: India has recently achieved the “Polio free status” by WHO with stringent efforts of the Health Ministry to control its spread. However, we should not forget the lessons learnt from the failure of National malaria eradication Programme and National Tuberculosis control Programme which creates a need to assess the probable barriers for the various National Health Programmes. The present article presents an overview of the Polio Eradication programme in India highlighting the lessons learnt from the past. Also, it evaluates the reality behind full participation of Pulse Polio Programme. Materials and Methods: The study results of a cross-sectional survey conducted with an aim to assess the probable reasons and barriers behind non compliance of Pulse Polio Programme among parents of children (1-5 yr of age) of Modinagar area have also been discussed. The survey instrument was a structured, 10 item, closed ended questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between proportions of individual responses for each question and multiple logistic regression was used to assess relation between socio demographic parameter and absence from Polio Ravivaar. Results: The study reveals a surprising 68% attendance of Pulse Polio programme which is far behind the desired goal. Most of the parents who did not attend polio ravivaar considered that there was no need for the repetition of Polio vaccine (76.9%) followed by their fear that the vaccine might get contaminated during transportation (74.5%). A significant positive association was found between older age group of the eligible children (4-5 yr, O.R.1.52), female gender, illiterate parents, distance of more than one km from residence to vaccination and lack of source of information (O.R. 1.47). Conclusion: Efforts should be done to investigate the probable reasons behind non compliance for various immunization programmes to analyse the current situation in detail and
... workers who might handle polio virus, and healthcare workers treating patients who could have polio. These higher-risk adults may need 1 to 3 doses of IPV, depending on how many doses they have had in the past.There are no known risks to getting IPV at the same time as other vaccines.
Methods for evaluating the impact of vertical programs on health systems: protocol for a study on the impact of the global polio eradication initiative on strengthening routine immunization and primary health care
Background The impact of vertical programs on health systems is a much-debated topic, and more evidence on this complex relationship is needed. This article describes a research protocol developed to assess the relationship between the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, routine immunization, and primary health care in multiple settings. Methods/Design This protocol was designed as a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, making use of comparative ethnographies. The study evaluates the impact of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative on routine immunization and primary health care by: (a) combining quantitative and qualitative work into one coherent study design; (b) using purposively selected qualitative case studies to systematically evaluate the impact of key contextual variables; and (c) making extensive use of the method of participant observation to create comparative ethnographies of the impact of a single vertical program administered in varied contexts. Discussion The study design has four major benefits: (1) the careful selection of a range of qualitative case studies allowed for systematic comparison; (2) the use of participant observation yielded important insights on how policy is put into practice; (3) results from our quantitative analysis could be explained by results from qualitative work; and (4) this research protocol can inform the creation of actionable recommendations. Here, recommendations for how to overcome potential challenges in carrying out such research are presented. This study illustrates the utility of mixed-methods research designs in which qualitative data are not just used to embellish quantitative results, but are an integral component of the analysis. PMID:22938708
Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek
Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan.
Vashisht, Neetu; Puliyel, Jacob
It was hoped that following polio eradication, immunisation could be stopped. However the synthesis of polio virus in 2002, made eradication impossible. It is argued that getting poor countries to expend their scarce resources on an impossible dream over the last 10 years was unethical. Furthermore, while India has been polio-free for a year, there has been a huge increase in non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP). In 2011, there were an extra 47,500 new cases of NPAFP. Clinically indistinguishable from polio paralysis but twice as deadly, the incidence of NPAFP was directly proportional to doses of oral polio received. Though this data was collected within the polio surveillance system, it was not investigated. The principle of primum-non-nocere was violated. The authors suggest that the huge bill of US$ 8 billion spent on the programme, is a small sum to pay if the world learns to be wary of such vertical programmes in the future.
The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America’s story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public–private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru’s Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements. PMID:25322297
Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan
The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek
Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.
Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel
In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.
A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206
Grassly, Nicholas C.
The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis. PMID:23798688
Grassly, Nicholas C
The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis.
Goodman, T.; Dalmiya, N.; de Benoist, B.; Schultink, W.
In 1988 the 41st World Health Assembly committed WHO to the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis by 2000 "in ways which strengthen national immunization programmes and health infrastructure". The successful use of polio National Immunization Days (NIDs) to deliver vitamin A is an example of how polio eradication can serve as a platform to address other problems of child health. Importantly, this integration is helping to achieve the World Summit for Children goal of eliminating vitamin A deficiency by the year 2000. It is estimated that between 140 million and 250 million preschool children are at risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. In 1998 more than 60 million children at risk received vitamin A supplements during polio national immunization days (NIDs). While food fortification and dietary approaches are fundamental to combating vitamin A deficiency, the administration of vitamin A supplements during NIDs helps raise awareness, enhance technical capacity, improve assessment and establish a reporting system. Moreover, polio NIDs provide an entry point for the sustainable provision of vitamin A supplements with routine immunization services and demonstrate how immunization campaigns can be used for the delivery of other preventive health services. PMID:10812726
Feng, Jie; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying
Although most Lyme disease patients can be cured with antibiotics doxycycline or amoxicillin using 2-4 week treatment durations, some patients suffer from persistent arthritis or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Why these phenomena occur is unclear, but possibilities include host responses, antigenic debris, or B. burgdorferi organisms remaining despite antibiotic therapy. In vitro, B. burgdorferi developed increasing antibiotic tolerance as morphology changed from typical spirochetal form in log phase growth to variant round body and microcolony forms in stationary phase. B. burgdorferi appeared to have higher persister frequencies than E. coli as a control as measured by SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability stain and microscope counting. To more effectively eradicate the different persister forms tolerant to doxycycline or amoxicillin, drug combinations were studied using previously identified drugs from an FDA-approved drug library with high activity against such persisters. Using a SYBR Green/PI viability assay, daptomycin-containing drug combinations were the most effective. Of studied drugs, daptomycin was the common element in the most active regimens when combined with doxycycline plus either beta-lactams (cefoperazone or carbenicillin) or an energy inhibitor (clofazimine). Daptomycin plus doxycycline and cefoperazone eradicated the most resistant microcolony form of B. burgdorferi persisters and did not yield viable spirochetes upon subculturing, suggesting durable killing that was not achieved by any other two or three drug combinations. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease, if persistent organisms or detritus are responsible for symptoms that do not resolve with conventional therapy. Further studies are needed to validate whether such combination antimicrobial approaches are useful in animal models and human infection. PMID:25806811
Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria.
Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Pande, Renuka
Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family. It finds a mention even in ancient Egyptian paintings and carvings. The clinical features are varied ranging from mild cases of respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and malaise to severe forms of paralysis. These have been categorized into inapparent infection without symptoms, mild illness (abortive poliomyelitis), aseptic meningitis (nonparalytic poliomyelitis), and paralytic poliomyelitis. This disease has been associated with crippling deformities affecting thousands of lives throughout the world. Only due to the perseverance and determination of great scientists in 1900s, the genomic structure of the virus and its pathogenesis could be elucidated. Contribution of Salk and Sabin in the form of vaccines-oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine-heralded a scientific revolution. In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) Region of The Americas was certified polio free followed by the WHO Western Pacific Region in 2000 and the WHO European Region in June 2002 of the 3 types of wild poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3). In 2013, only 3 countries remained polio endemic-Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Global eradication of polio is imperative else the threat of an outbreak will hover forever. Today, all the governments of the world in collaboration with WHO stand unified in their fight against poliomyelitis and the task when achieved will pave the way for eliminating other infections in future.
Polio is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The virus lives in an infected person's throat and intestines. It is most often spread by contact with the stool of an infected person. You can also get it from droplets ... the paralysis of polio. Some people who've had polio develop post- ...
Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community.
Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B
The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.
Tangermann, R. H.; Hull, H. F.; Jafari, H.; Nkowane, B.; Everts, H.; Aylward, R. B.
The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict. PMID:10812729
Kabir, Mahvish; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail
End Polio Pakistan program still has to overcome many hurdles; unfortunately on 8th February 2016 first polio case of the year has surfaced in Karachi. It seems that battle against polio demands little bit more conviction and motivation. WHO has set a goal of polio eradication in Pakistan till 2018, in order to evaluate the success of this target; polio eradication campaign in Pakistan has been analyzed in different perspectives. Our analysis indicated that major obstacles in eradication are low literacy rate, poor health infrastructure, lack of planning, natural disaster, economic crisis, counter insurgencies and almost no protection for polio health workers. WHO has allocated new funds to tackle this problem, now there is a need to spend this money more effectively; with proper planning and honest deployment of funds.
Clavijo, A; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Buzanovsky, L P; Martini, M; Pompei, J C; Cosivi, O
South America has a favourable position with respect to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) compared with other FMD-affected regions due to the elimination of endemic clinical presentation of the disease. South America has reached the final stage of control and aims to eradicate the disease in the region under the provisions of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of FMD 2011-2020 (PHEFA). This programme aims at bringing eradication to completion, thereby eliminating the pool of foot-and-mouth disease genotypes active in South America. This plan includes a regional political agreement that provides strategies and technical guidelines for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease from South America. It incorporates knowledge and experience regarding the disease's history and its connection with the different production systems, animal movement and trade. The Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center has led the control and eradication programmes, providing the framework for designing national and subregional programmes that have led to significant progress in controlling the disease in South America. The current situation is the result of several factors, including the proper implementation of a national control programmes, good veterinary infrastructure in most countries and public-private participation in the process of eradicating the disease. Notwithstanding the favourable health status, there are significant challenges for the goal of eradication. At this stage, South American countries should enhance their surveillance strategies particularly through the use of target or risk-based surveys that contribute to increase the degree of sensitivity in the search for viral circulation in the context of absence of clinical occurrence of FMD.
Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil; Kunwar, Abhishek
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries. A clearer picture is also needed on few operational issues, interference between polio vaccines and other EPI vaccines and products related to polio endgame. It is also extremely important to develop mechanisms to identify and manage long-term poliovirus excretors who may pose a risk of reintroduction into the population after global eradication of poliovirus.
Adams, Anthony; Boualam, Liliane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Gregory, Christopher; Jee, Youngmee; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge; Roesel, Sigrun
On 29 October 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the Western Pacific certified the WHO Western Pacific Region as free of indigenous wild poliovirus. This status has been maintained to date: wild poliovirus importations into Singapore (in 2006) and Australia (in 2007) did not lead to secondary cases, and an outbreak in China (in 2011) was rapidly controlled. Circulation of vaccine derived polioviruses in Cambodia, China and the Philippines was quickly interrupted. A robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system, including a multitiered polio laboratory network, has been maintained, forming the platform for integrating measles, neonatal tetanus, and other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and their respective control goals. While polio elimination remains one of the most important achievements in public health in the Western Pacific Region, extended delays in global eradication have, however, led to shifting and competing public health priorities among member states and partners and have made the region increasingly vulnerable.
Rasch, G; Schreier, E; Kiehl, W; Kurth, R
Poliomyelitis, an infectious disease with acute and persistent flaccid paralysis is caused by poliovirus (types 1, 2 or 3), an enterovirus. The infection is asymptomatic in 95% of infected subjects. Most of the paralytic cases occur in adolescents or adults in the course of polio type 1 infection. In the prevaccination era, in countries with poor hygienic conditions, infection in early childhood was common, mostly asymptomatic, and immunity in the population prevailed. In developed countries polio often struck adolescents and adults taking its toll in paralytic disease. The introduction of vaccination with the Salk vaccine (IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in the USA and in Europe in 1956 and with the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) developed by Sabin worldwide in the early sixties made it possible to control the epidemic in large geographic areas, but it could not eliminate the disease worldwide. Poliomyelitis is still endemic in Central Africa and in the Indian sub-continent. Acts of war led to the reduction in the vaccination rate in different geographic areas, and smaller epidemics with wild virus but also with reverted vaccine strains occurred. In some parts of the world the rate of vaccination also declined due to elimination of poliomyelitis, and it came to small epidemics of paralytic polio mainly caused by reverted vaccine strains circulating in the population. Reverted vaccine strains also remain a central problem in the eradication of poliomyelitis projected for 2005 by the World Health Organisation. A high vaccination rate, preferably with 3 doses of OPV in infancy or early childhood, and exact worldwide monitoring of cases is indispensable for the eradication. For the complete eradication of poliovirus the live vaccine OPV would have to be changed to an inactivated vaccine IPV worldwide. However, this is presently unachieveable, because of logistic problems and high costs.
Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Zakari, Furera; Damisa, Eunice; Idowu, Audu; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Hammanyero, Kulchumi; Nsubuga, Peter; Korir, Charles; Vaz, Rui G.
Background. The polio eradication initiative had major setbacks in 2003 and 2007 due to media campaigns in which renowned scholars and Islamic clerics criticized polio vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with journalists in 2007 to form the Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio (JAP), to develop communication initiatives aimed at highlighting polio eradication activities and the importance of immunization in northern Nigeria. Methods. We evaluated the impact of JAP activities in Kaduna State by determining the total number of media materials produced and the number of newspaper clips and bulletins published in support of polio eradication. We also determined the number of households in noncompliant communities that became compliant with vaccination during 2015 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) after JAP interventions and compared caregivers’ sources of information about SIAs in 2007 before and after the JAP was formed. Results. Since creation of the JAP, >500 reports have been published and aired, with most portraying polio vaccine positively. During June 2015 SIAs in high-risk wards of Kaduna STATE, JAP interventions resulted in vaccination of 5122 of 5991 children (85.5%) from noncompliant households. During early 2007, the number of caregivers who had heard about SIA rounds from the media increased from 26% in January, before the JAP was formed, to 33% in March, after the initiation of JAP activities. Conclusions. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. PMID:26721745
... first episode of polio. Currently, the most accepted theory regarding the cause of post-polio syndrome rests ... conserve your energy. Moving from one frame of mind to another can be difficult. Here are some ...
... has been eliminated worldwide, it's important to continue vaccinating kids against polio. Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD Date ... Meningitis Your Child's Immunizations: Polio Vaccine (IPV) Immunization Schedule Frequently Asked ...
Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M
We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293
Atwal, Anita; Giles, Amy; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Plastow, Nicola; Wilson, Lesley
The term Postpolio Syndrome (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life in polio survivors. Polio had been eradicated in the United Kingdom (UK) and most of Europe, although this is not the case in all countries. Research in this area has tended to focus upon the impact of polio and PPS on health status and functional health rather than its overall effect on people's lives. This study's two main aims were to explore the ways in which polio and PPS in the UK has affected the respondents' lives and to ascertain their views about how the quality of life could be improved. The two questions were as follows: (1) How has the health of people with polio and PPS affected their quality of life? (2) What would people with polio and PPS change to improve their quality of life? Deductive content analysis using existing qualitative data from a cross-sectional survey of 336 returned questionnaires from persons with polio and PPS was carried out. The average age of the participants was 54 years. Our research found that polio survivors valued social occupations and participation in family life. Our research has also shown that healthcare professionals still do not understand polio and PPS and this lack of understanding influences their clients' quality of life. Finances and accessibility of environments also influence participation in chosen occupations. Rehabilitation programmes for people with polio and PPS need to be targeted towards maintaining and improving accessible environments and participation in chosen occupations, and healthcare professionals need to ensure that persons with polio and PPS are referred to persons with specific expertise in this area.
... not included. Contact email@example.com. Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of ... Have you heard about the LATE EFFECTS OF POLIO? In the late 1970s, survivors of polio reported ...
Collett, Marc S; Neyts, Johan; Modlin, John F
Polio eradication is within sight. In bringing the world close to this ultimate goal, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has relied exclusively on the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as eradication nears, continued OPV use becomes less tenable due to the incidence of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in vaccine recipients and disease caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in contacts. Once wild poliovirus transmission has been interrupted globally, OPV use will stop. This will leave the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) as the only weapon to defend a polio-free world. Outbreaks caused by cVDPVs are expected post-OPV cessation, and accidental or deliberate releases of virus could also occur. There are serious doubts regarding the ability of IPV alone to control outbreaks. Here, we argue that antiviral drugs against poliovirus be added to the arsenal. Anti-poliovirus drugs could be used to treat the infected and protect the exposed, acting rapidly on their own to contain an outbreak and used as a complement to IPV. While there are no polio antiviral drugs today, the technological feasibility of developing such drugs and their probability of clinical success have been established by over three decades of drug development targeting the related rhinoviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Because of this history, there are known compounds with anti-poliovirus activity in vitro that represent excellent starting points for polio drug development. Stakeholders must come to understand the potential public health benefits of polio drugs, the feasibility of their development, and the relatively modest costs involved. Given the timelines for eradication and those for drug development, the time for action is now.
Njeru, Ian; Ajack, Yusuf; Muitherero, Charles; Onyango, Dickens; Musyoka, Johnny; Onuekusi, Iheoma; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas; Davis, Robert
Introduction Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign. A total of 90,157 children and 37,732 parents/guardians were sampled to determine the vaccination coverage and reasons for missed vaccination. Results The national vaccination coverage was 93% compared to 94% in the November 2014 campaign. The proportion of parents/guardians that belonged to Catholic Church was 31% compared to 7% of the children who were missed. Reasons for missed vaccination included house not being visited (44%), children not being at home at time of visit (38%), refusal by parents (12%), children being as leep (1%), and various other reasons (5%). Compared to the November 2014 campaign, the proportion of children who were not vaccinated due to parent's refusal significantly increased from 6% to 12% in August 2015. Conclusion The call for boycott did not affect the campaign significantly. However, if the call for boycott is repeated in future it could have some significant negative implication to polio eradication. It is therefore important to ensure that any vaccine safety issues are addressed accordingly. PMID:27642458
Bruce Aylward, R; Sutter, Roland W; Cochi, Steve L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Jafari, Hamid; Heymann, David
Inherent in the decision to launch the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988 was the expectation for many people that immunization against poliomyelitis would eventually simply stop, as had been the case with smallpox following its eradication in 1977. However, the strategies for managing the risks associated with a "polio-free" world must be continuously refined to reflect new developments, particularly in our understanding of the live polioviruses in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and in the international approach to managing potential biohazards. The most important of these developments has been the confirmation in 2000 that vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) can circulate and cause polio outbreaks, making the use of OPV after interruption of wild poliovirus transmission incompatible with a polio-free world. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to minimize the risks associated with eventual OPV cessation, centered on appropriate long-term biocontainment of poliovirus stocks (whether for vaccine production, diagnosis, or research), the controlled reintroduction of any live poliovirus vaccine (i.e., from an OPV stockpile), and appropriate use of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Although some aspects of this risk management strategy are still debated, there is wide agreement that no strategy would entirely eliminate the potential risks to a polio-free world. The current strategy for risk management in a polio-free world will continue to evolve with better characterization of these risks and the development of more effective approaches both to reduce those risks and to limit their consequences should they occur.
Deshpande, Jagdish; Ram, Madhav; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay
Accurate surveillance for polio is essential for eradication. Surveillance systems for polio has been developed under the guidance of the global polio eradication initiative. Surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis among children less than 15 years of age is a key component for a well functioning polio surveillance system. The surveillance system works through a network of surveillance medical officers, the responsibility of them lies in assisting the health services departments of all states and maintaining a network of acute flaccid paralysis reporting sites and rapidly investigating the cases. Surveillance activities begin when a child comes in contact with a healthcare provider who in turn informs the officer in charge of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. The goal of the polio network laboratories is to provide accurate and timely results of wild poliovirus detection in stool samples of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Strong linkages have been established between the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system and the laboratory network. Laboratories complete poliovirus isolation and if poliovirus is isolated, these are submitted for intratypic differentiations. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in India has demonstrated that the eradication activities implemented in India led to dramatic reduction and restriction in the number of cases and geographic spread of poliovirus transmission.
Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed
abstract Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic
Hawken, Jennifer; Troy, Stephanie B.
Poliomyelitis is nearing universal eradication; in 2011, there were 650 cases reported globally. When wild polio is eradicated, global oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation followed by universal use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is believed to be the safest vaccination strategy as IPV does not mutate or run the risk of vaccine derived outbreaks that OPV does. However, IPV is significantly more expensive than OPV. One strategy to make IPV more affordable is to reduce the dose by adding adjuvants, compounds that augment the immune response to the vaccine. No adjuvants are currently utilized in stand-alone IPV; however, several have been explored over the past six decades. From aluminum, used in many licensed vaccines, to newer and more experimental adjuvants such as synthetic DNA, a diverse group of compounds has been assessed with varying strengths and weaknesses. This review summarizes the studies to date evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjuvants used with IPV. PMID:23041122
Only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never experienced interruption of poliovirus transmission. Nigeria had the largest number of cases in 2006, accounting for 1,129 (56%) of the 2,002 cases reported globally. However, major innovations to the national polio-eradication program in Nigeria were initiated in 2006. These innovations, if sustained, should advance the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Nigeria (2006 population: 140 million) experienced a resurgence in wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission during 2003-2004 after a loss of public confidence in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and suspension of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in certain northern states. Subsequently, WPV spread within Nigeria and into 19 polio-free countries. Even after national SIAs recommenced, limited acceptance and ongoing operational problems resulted in low vaccination coverage and continued poliovirus transmission. The number of confirmed polio cases in Nigeria attributed to both WPV type 1 (WPV1) and type 3 (WPV3) increased from 782 in 2004 to 830 in 2005 and to 1,129 in 2006 (as of March 23, 2007). To increase the effectiveness of polio-eradication measures and community acceptance of vaccination, in 2006, health authorities in Nigeria introduced monovalent type 1 OPV (mOPV1) vaccine and changed the way SIAs were implemented. This report summarizes these new approaches and overall progress toward polio eradication in Nigeria during 2005-2006.
Fine, Paul E. M.; Oblapenko, George; Sutter, Roland W.
Now that the global eradication of wild poliovirus is almost within sight, planning for the post-certification era is becoming a priority issue. It is agreed that a stockpile of appropriate polio vaccines will need to be established, and a surveillance and response capacity will need to be maintained, in order to protect the world against any possible future outbreaks attributable either to the persistence of wild poliovirus or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) or to the unintentional or intentional release of poliovirus from a laboratory or vaccine store. Although it has been suggested that the stockpile should consist of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV), many questions remain concerning its nature, financing, management, and use--in particular, because of uncertainties over future national vaccination policies, and over the availability of different vaccines, after the certification of wild poliovirus eradication. There are further uncertainties concerning the possible role and efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) used either routinely or in outbreak control in low-hygiene settings, the potential for rapid geographical spread of polioviruses should an outbreak occur after certification, and the risks inherent in introducing additional oral polio vaccine (OPV) viruses into populations in which the vaccine coverage and prevalence of immunity have declined, and which may thus favour the spread of VDPVs. Given these important gaps in knowledge, no country should discontinue polio vaccination until a coordinated policy for the post-certification era has been developed and the recommended measures have been put in place. PMID:15106300
Birukila, Gerida; Babale, Sufiyan M; Epstein, Helen; Gugong, Victor; Anger, Robert; Corkum, Melissa; Jehoshaphat Nebanat, Albarka; Musoke, Fredrick; Alabi, Olaniran
Since 1997, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has sponsored regular door-to-door polio immunisation campaigns in northern Nigeria. On 30 July 2015, the country was finally declared poliofree, a hard won success. At various times, polio eradication has been threatened by rumours and community tensions. For example, in 2003, local Imams, traditional leaders and politicians declared a polio campaign boycott, due to the concerns about the safety of the polio vaccine. Although the campaigns resumed in 2004, many parents continued to refuse vaccination because of the persistence of rumours of vaccine contamination, and anger about the poor state of health services for conditions other than polio. To address this, UNICEF and Nigerian Government partners piloted two interventions: (1) mobile 'health camps' to provide ambulatory care for conditions other than polio and (2) an audiovisual clip about vaccine safety and other health issues, shareable on multimedia mobile phones via Bluetooth pairing. The mobile phone survey found that Bluetooth compatible messages could rapidly spread behavioural health messages in low-literacy communities. The health camps roughly doubled polio vaccine uptake in the urban ward where it was piloted. This suggests that polio eradication would have been accelerated by improving primary health care services.
Băicuş, Anda; Persu, Ana; Combiescu, Mariana; Aubert-Combiescu, A
Until 2008 poliomyelitis was controlled in Romania by predominantly using Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Sabin (OPV); the alternative vaccination schedule (IPV formalin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine/OPV) will be implemented starting September 2008. The vaccination coverage with 4 doses of TOPV (trivalent oral polio vaccine) in the first 14 months of life has been > 90% since 1980. In Romania, the risk of the Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis cases (VAPP) decreased from less than 2 VAPP cases/year in the 1995-2006 interval to 0 VAPP cases in 2007. The serological study was performed in 2006-2007 only in cases with pair serum samples from 28 acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases (age = 3 months - 14 years) and from 45 facial paralysis (FP) cases (age -6 months - 4 years 9 months). A high level of vaccinal coverage was shown for all poliovirus serotypes: >95% in AFP serum samples investigated; and for FP serum samples investigated the levels of antibodies against poliovirus (PV) serotypes were 98% for PV type 1; 87% for PV type 2: and 89% for PV type 3. If the European region is polio free since 2002, the risk of wild PV importation from endemic region remains present. The laboratory capacity for the fast detection and molecular investigations of the emergence of the new epidemic strains and a high level of population immunity must be maintained. A national seroprevalence study concerning all three PV serotypes must be performed.
Andre, McKenzie; Wolff, Chris G; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Chenoweth, Paul; Tallis, Graham; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Wassilak, Steven G F
Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began, the annual number of polio cases has decreased by >99%. Only three countries remain that have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2001, outbreaks have occurred in 31 formerly polio-free counties in Africa, with outbreaks in 25 countries caused by WPV originating in Nigeria (2-4). After the declaration of the World Health Assembly of polio eradication as a programmatic emergency in 2012, efforts to identify areas at high risk for importation-associated outbreaks and to reduce that risk have been intensified. This report updates the 2013 assessment of the risk for outbreaks attributable to importation of poliovirus in 33 countries in Africa, using indicators of childhood susceptibility to poliovirus and proximity to countries currently affected by polio . From January 2013 to August 12, 2014, outbreaks occurred in five African countries. Four of the five (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, and Somalia) have had recent transmission (cases within the previous 12 months). Based on the current risk assessment, 15 countries are considered to be at high risk for WPV outbreaks, five at moderate-to-high risk, seven at moderate risk, and six at low risk. In 15 of the 33 countries, less than half of the population resides in areas where surveillance performance indicators have met minimum targets. Enhanced, coordinated activities to raise childhood immunity are underway in 2014 to prevent additional WPV spread. Although substantial progress toward polio eradication has occurred in Nigeria, all African countries remain at risk for outbreaks as long as WPV continues to circulate anywhere on the continent.
In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared completion of polio eradication a public health emergency. However, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remains endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). In Nigeria, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program, under the umbrella of the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), has been developed to implement innovative strategies that address the remaining polio eradication challenges in Nigeria. One N-STOP initiative focuses on locating and vaccinating children aged<5 years in remote nomadic, scattered, and border populations in northern Nigeria, where low polio vaccination coverage likely contributes to ongoing WPV transmission. During August 2012-April 2013, N-STOP conducted field outreach activities that enumerated 40,212 remote settlements, including 4,613 (11.5%) settlements never visited by vaccination teams during previous polio supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). Enumeration resulted in documentation of 906,201 children aged<5 years residing in these settlements, including 53,738 (5.9%) who had never received polio vaccination, and in detection of 211 unreported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of illness in the 6 months before enumeration. Sustaining access to underserved populations in remote settlements in future SIAs will increase overall population immunity and should decrease WPV transmission. By providing a flexible and capable workforce consisting of Nigerian citizens, N-STOP is able to support evaluation and implementation of innovative polio eradication strategies in Nigeria while building local public health capacity with a potential to address other public health problems following the eradication of polio from Nigeria.
Shuaib, Faisal M; Musa, Philip F; Muhammad, Ado; Musa, Emmanuel; Nyanti, Sara; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Corkum, Melissa; Durojaiye, Modupeoluwa; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Sani, Samuel Usman; Dieng, Boubacar; Banda, Richard; Ali Pate, Muhammad
Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) have been credited with driving the recent successes achieved in the Nigeria polio eradication program. EOC concept was also applied to the Ebola virus disease outbreak and is applicable to a range of other public health emergencies. This article outlines the structure and functionality of a typical EOC in addressing public health emergencies in low-resource settings. It ascribes the successful polio and Ebola responses in Nigeria to several factors including political commitment, population willingness to engage, accountability, and operational and strategic changes made by the effective use of an EOC and Incident Management System. In countries such as Nigeria where the central or federal government does not directly hold states accountable, the EOC provides a means to improve performance and use data to hold health workers accountable by using innovative technologies such as geographic position systems, dashboards, and scorecards.
Poliovirus (PV), a member of the Enterovirus genus, is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. A study carried out between 2013-2014 on 30 serum samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, showed a protective antibody level of 90% against poliovirus Sabin strains type 1 and type 2 and of 88% against type 3. No PV strains were isolated from 2009 to 2015 in Romania. Maintaining a high vaccine coverage level against polio is mandatory until global polio eradication, especially as the risk of polio importation remains elevated in Romania.
Dietrich, Jes; Andreasen, Lars Vibe; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie
The development of new low cost inactivated polio virus based vaccines (IPV) is a high priority, and will be required to eradicate polio. In addition, such a vaccine constitutes the only realistic polio vaccine in the post-eradication era. One way to reduce the cost of a vaccine is to increase immunogenicity by use of adjuvants. The CAF01 adjuvant has previously been shown to be a safe and potent adjuvant with several antigens, and here we show that in mice IPV formulated with CAF01 induced increased systemic protective immunity measured by binding and neutralization antibody titers in serum. CAF01 also influenced the kinetics of both the cellular and humoral response against IPV to produce a faster, as well as a stronger, response, dominated by IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG2c isotypes as well as IPV specific T cells secreting IFN-γ/IL-2. Finally, as intestinal immunity is also a priority of polio vaccines, we present a vaccine strategy based on simultaneous priming at an intradermal and an intramuscular site that generate intestinal immune responses against polio virus. Taken together, the IPV-CAF01 formulation constitutes a new promising vaccine against polio with the ability to generate strong humoral and cellular immunity against the polio virus. PMID:24956110
Dietrich, Jes; Andreasen, Lars Vibe; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie
The development of new low cost inactivated polio virus based vaccines (IPV) is a high priority, and will be required to eradicate polio. In addition, such a vaccine constitutes the only realistic polio vaccine in the post-eradication era. One way to reduce the cost of a vaccine is to increase immunogenicity by use of adjuvants. The CAF01 adjuvant has previously been shown to be a safe and potent adjuvant with several antigens, and here we show that in mice IPV formulated with CAF01 induced increased systemic protective immunity measured by binding and neutralization antibody titers in serum. CAF01 also influenced the kinetics of both the cellular and humoral response against IPV to produce a faster, as well as a stronger, response, dominated by IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG2c isotypes as well as IPV specific T cells secreting IFN-γ/IL-2. Finally, as intestinal immunity is also a priority of polio vaccines, we present a vaccine strategy based on simultaneous priming at an intradermal and an intramuscular site that generate intestinal immune responses against polio virus. Taken together, the IPV-CAF01 formulation constitutes a new promising vaccine against polio with the ability to generate strong humoral and cellular immunity against the polio virus.
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Ryan, Michael J; Smith, Philip; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Farag, Noha; Haithami, Salah; Sharaf, Magdi; Jorba, Jaume C; Ehrhardt, Derek
As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4). The national governments of eight countries designated the outbreak a public health emergency and collaborated with partners in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to develop a multiphase outbreak response plan focused on improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance* and administering polio vaccines to >27 million children during multiple rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs).(†) Successful implementation of the response plan led to containment and interruption of the outbreak within 6 months of its identification. The concerted approach adopted in response to this outbreak could serve as a model for responding to polio outbreaks in settings of conflict and political instability.
Profiles the elaborate attempts by the Roosevelt White House to hide his disability from the public. Early in his career, polio resulted in Franklin Roosevelt being paralyzed from the waist down. Although never officially denied, the White House went to extraordinary lengths to keep this knowledge from the public. (MJP)
Biberi-Moroeanu, S; Munţiu, A; Stoiculescu, S
From 1982 to 1988 a serological survey was performed on 573 subjects aged 3-80 years in order to evaluate the polio immunity level of the population. The presence of neutralizing antibodies was tested using the types 1, 2 and 3 Sabin vaccine strains as well as a wild strain of poliovirus type 1 isolated in France in 1978. According to their birth date, the subjects were assigned to 4 groups. The differences between the groups consisted in the different vaccination history of the subjects as well as in their different opportunities of having been in contact with the past epidemics of poliomyelitis. The results obtained indicate a satisfactory polio immunity level in all the 4 groups: seropositives, 96.7%-98.9% for type 2, 91.8%-98.2% for type 1 (Sabin vaccine strain), 89.3%-96.6% for type 3 and 84.2%-96.4% for type 1 wild strain. The highest immunity levels were found in group D (children with recorded history of complete polio vaccination) and in group A (unvaccinated people but contemporary with the past polio epidemics). A special comment is made with respect to 14 subjects showing satisfactory antibody titres for all the three types of Sabin-vaccine strains but who have proved to be seronegative (less than 4) for the wild type 1 poliovirus strain.
Thacker, Naveen; Choudhury, Panna; Gargano, Lisa M; Weiss, Paul S; Pazol, Karen; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Bahl, Sunil; Jafari, Hamid S; Kumar, Amod; Arora, Manisha; Venczel, Linda; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B; Hughes, James M
Although India was removed from the list of polio endemic countries in January 2012, maintaining the focus on polio vaccination is critically important to prevent reintroduction of the virus. In 2009-2010, we conducted a study to assess the attitudes and practices of frontline health workers in India regarding polio immunization in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. More than 95% of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activists (ASHAs) agreed that polio supplementary immunization campaigns helped in increasing acceptance of all vaccines. The majority of ANMs (60-70%) and ASHAs (56-71%) believed that polio immunization activities benefitted or greatly benefitted other activities they were carrying out. Less than 5% of ANMs and ASHAs felt they were very likely to face resistance when promoting or administering polio vaccine. This study provides information that may be useful for programs in other countries for polio eradication and in India for measles elimination.
Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.
De Jesus, Nidia H
Poliomyelitis has afflicted humankind since antiquity, and for nearly a century now, we have known the causative agent, poliovirus. This pathogen is an enterovirus that in recent history has been the source of a great deal of human suffering. Although comparatively small, its genome is packed with sufficient information to make it a formidable pathogen. In the last 20 years the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has proven successful in greatly diminishing the number of cases worldwide but has encountered obstacles in its path which have made halting the transmission of wild polioviruses a practical impossibility. As we begin to realize that a change in strategy may be crucial in achieving success in this venture, it is imperative that we critically evaluate what is known about the molecular biology of this pathogen and the intricacies of its interaction with its host so that in future attempts we may better equipped to more effectively combat this important human pathogen. PMID:17623069
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Shukla, Hemant; Smith, Philip; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Martinez, Maureen; Jorba, Jaume C; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek
Only 74 cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) were reported globally in 2015, the lowest number of cases ever reported worldwide (1,2). All of the reported cases were WPV type 1 (WPV1), the only known WPV type still circulating; WPV type 2 has been eradicated, and WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012 (1). In 2015 in Afghanistan, WPV detection also declined from 2014, and trends observed in 2016 suggest that circulation of the virus is limited to a few localized areas. Despite the progress, there are concerns about the ability of the country's Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to meet the goal of interrupting endemic WPV transmission by the end of 2016 (3). The deteriorating security situation in the Eastern and Northeastern regions of the country considerably limits the ability to reach and vaccinate children in these regions. Furthermore, because of frequent population movements to and from Pakistan, cross-border transmission of WPV1 continues (4). Although the national PEI has taken steps to improve the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs),* significant numbers of children living in accessible areas are still being missed during SIAs, and routine immunization services remain suboptimal in many parts of the country. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2015‒August 2016 and updates previous reports (5,6). During 2015, a total of 20 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 28 cases in 2014; eight cases were reported during January‒August 2016, compared with nine cases reported during the same period in 2015. To achieve interruption of poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, it is important that the 2016-2017 National Emergency Action Plan(†) for polio eradication be systematically implemented, including 1) improving the quality of SIAs and routine immunization services, 2) ensuring ongoing dialogue between PEI leaders and local authorities, 3) adopting
Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S
This paper examines the impact of a community-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a community mobilization campaign for polio eradication in northern Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk communities in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of community misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647–2045, P = 0.001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0.001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6.2 (95% CI: −21 to 24, P = 0.353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the community. PMID:23265374
Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S
This paper examines the impact of a community-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a community mobilization campaign for polio eradication in northern Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk communities in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of community misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647-2045, P = 0·001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0·001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6·2 (95% CI: -21 to 24, P = 0·353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the community.
In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.
This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.
Anlar, O; Tombul, T; Arslan, S; Akdeniz, H; Caksen, H; Gundem, A; Akbayram, S
Five children with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), following a national oral polio vaccination campaign to eradicate disease, are reported. Clinical examination, cerebrospinal fluid and electromyographic findings conformed to the classical description of GBS. Four of them received therapeutic dose of intravenous immunoglobulin G. Two children succumbed to the disease. It was observed that the number of cases of GBS in children increased during the period of the oral polio vaccination campaign in Turkey, suggesting a causal relationship.
Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem
Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.
Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055
Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F
Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states.
Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P
The WHO global polio eradication initiative launched in 1988, by eradicating wild polio viruses, was to be completed in 2000. The initiative had not been implemented. Enormous work has resulted in a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases worldwide from 350,000 to 1,500-2,000 a year. However, the incidence of poliomyelitis does not and is unlikely to stop by the newly fix date--2013. The reason is that vaccine-derived polio viruses that are pathogenic in nature remain and long circulate in the earth. The circulation in human beings leads to the restoration of their neurovirulence and ability to induce severe paralytic diseases. In 1999 the WHO reported the global eradication of wild polio virus type 2 and therefore there should not be diseases caused by polio virus of this type. Nevertheless, the virus-induced diseases continue to emerge. About 300 cases of diseases induced by vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 had been notified by July 2009. At present, there is no way to eradicate all polio viruses worldwide so the case in point may be only to stop their transmission or minimize morbidity with on-going vaccination.
Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Hu, Ming-Luen; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yen, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chuah, Seng-Kee
This prospective study was to assess the efficacy of nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy as first-line H. pylori treatment and to determine the clinical factors influencing patient outcome. We enrolled 200 H. pylori-infected naïve patients. They were prescribed either a 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy group (EACM, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, metronidazole 500 mg twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) or a 7-day standard triple therapy group (EAC, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily). Follow-up studies to assess treatment responses were carried out 8 weeks later. The eradication rates attained by EACM and EAC groups were 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89.4%-98.3%) and 79.3% (95% CI = 70%-86.4%) in the per-protocol analysis (P < 0.001) and 88% (95% CI = 80.2%-93.0%) and 73% (95% I = 63.6%-80.3%) in the intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.007). Clarithromycin resistance, metronidazole resistance, and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the clinical factors influencing H. pylori eradication in EACM group. Clarithromycin resistance and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the influential factor for EAC treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy could achieve a grade "A" report card for first-line H. pylori treatment.
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Summary Over the past half-century, global use of highly effective vaccines against poliomyelitis brought this disease to the brink of elimination. Mounting evidence argues that a high level of population immunity must be maintained to preserve a polio-free status of the entire world after wild poliovirus circulation is stopped. Shifting factors in the risk-benefit-cost equation favor the creation of new poliovirus vaccines to be used in the foreseeable future. Genetically stable attenuated virus strains could be developed for an improved oral poliovirus vaccine, but proving their safety and efficacy would be impractical because of the enormous size of the clinical trials required. New versions of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) that could be used globally should be developed. An improved IPV must be efficacious, inexpensive, safe to manufacture, and easy to administer. Combination products containing IPV along with other protective antigens should become part of routine childhood immunizations around the world. PMID:19545205
Kennett, M; Stambos, V; Turnbull, A; Ibrahim, A; Kelly, H
Since 1994, as part of the global eradication of poliomyelitis, the Australian National Polio Reference Laboratory (NPRL) at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) has been responsible for virological testing to confirm the absence of poliomyelitis in Australia. Samples from patients with acute flaccid paralysis are transported to VIDRL for viral culture. Polio and enteroviruses are referred for intratypic differentiation as wild or Sabin (vaccine) strains. A total of 23 faecal specimens from 17 patients were processed for enterovirus culture in the period 1 July to 31 December 1999. Since 1995, 1,078 enterovirus isolates from six states have been tested for the presence of wild poliovirus. To date, 562 strains were confirmed as Sabin vaccine-like, one non Sabin-like strain was identical with a laboratory control virus and the other strains were non-polio enteroviruses or other viruses. A World Health Organization (WHO) workshop in diagnostic polio polymerase chain reaction techniques was held at VIDRL in November 1999. The laboratory was reaccredited as a regional polio reference laboratory for the WHO Western Pacific region and a national laboratory for Australia, the Pacific Island countries and Brunei Darussalam. Planning is proceeding for the polio-free certification and containment of laboratory stocks of wild poliovirus infectious materials in Australia.
Jafari, Hamid; Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sutter, Roland W; Bahl, Sunil; Verma, Harish; Ahmad, Mohammad; Kunwar, Abhishek; Vishwakarma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Jain, Shilpi; Estivariz, Concepcion; Sethi, Raman; Molodecky, Natalie A; Grassly, Nicholas C; Pallansch, Mark A; Chatterjee, Arani; Aylward, R Bruce
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is efficacious against paralytic disease, but its effect on mucosal immunity is debated. We assessed the efficacy of IPV in boosting mucosal immunity. Participants received IPV, bivalent 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), or no vaccine. A bOPV challenge was administered 4 weeks later, and excretion was assessed 3, 7, and 14 days later. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants completed the study. Any fecal shedding of poliovirus type 1 was 8.8, 9.1, and 13.5% in the IPV group and 14.4, 24.1, and 52.4% in the control group by 6- to 11-month, 5-year, and 10-year groups, respectively (IPV versus control: Fisher's exact test P < 0.001). IPV reduced excretion for poliovirus types 1 and 3 between 38.9 and 74.2% and 52.8 and 75.7%, respectively. Thus, IPV in OPV-vaccinated individuals boosts intestinal mucosal immunity.
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... statements/ipv.html CDC review information for the Polio VIS: Page last reviewed: July 20, 2016 Page ...
... there is no conclusive evidence to support the concept that post-polio syndrome is a reinfection of the poliovirus. As the first step in management ... Polio survivors should undergo a complete, general medical ...
Pogka, Vasiliki; Labropoulou, Stavroula; Emmanouil, Mary; Voulgari-Kokota, Androniki; Vernardaki, Alexandra; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mentis, Andreas F
In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. Between 2008 and 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from countries in which poliovirus is endemic, and in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study. No wild-type polioviruses were isolated during these 7 years of surveillance, although two imported vaccine polioviruses were detected. Enterovirus presence was recorded in 25.3 and 25.1% of stool and sewage water samples, respectively. Nonpolio enteroviruses isolated from stool samples belonged to species A, B, or C; coxsackievirus A24 was the most frequently identified serotype. Only enteroviruses of species B were identified in sewage water samples, including four serotypes of echoviruses and four serotypes of coxsackie B viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic relationships among virus isolates from sewage water samples and stool samples, which in most cases fell into the same cluster. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare enterovirus serotypes circulating in fecal specimens of healthy individuals and environmental samples, emphasizing the burden of enterovirus circulation in asymptomatic individuals at high risk. Given that Greece continues to receive a large number of short-term arrivals, students, migrants, and refugees from countries in which poliovirus is endemic, it is important to guarantee high-quality surveillance in order to maintain its polio-free status until global eradication is achieved.IMPORTANCE This article summarizes the results of supplementary poliovirus surveillance in Greece and the subsequent characterization of enteroviral circulation in human feces and the environment
Nathanson, Neal; Kew, Olen M
Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and been reduced to near-elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Epidemics of the disease appeared in the late 19th century in many European countries and North America, following which polio became a global disease with annual epidemics. During the period of its epidemicity, 1900-1950, the age distribution of poliomyelitis cases increased gradually. Beginning in 1955, the creation of poliovirus vaccines led to a stepwise reduction in poliomyelitis, culminating in the unpredicted elimination of wild polioviruses in the United States by 1972. Global expansion of polio immunization resulted in a reduction of paralytic disease from an estimated annual prevaccine level of at least 600,000 cases to fewer than 1,000 cases in 2000. Indigenous wild type 2 poliovirus was eradicated in 1999, but unbroken localized circulation of poliovirus types 1 and 3 continues in 4 countries in Asia and Africa. Current challenges to the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis include the continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs, reinfection of polio-free areas, outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, and persistent excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a few vaccinees with B-cell immunodeficiencies. Beyond the current efforts to eradicate the last remaining wild polioviruses, global eradication efforts must safely navigate through an unprecedented series of endgame challenges to assure the permanent cessation of all human poliovirus infections.
Thomassen, Yvonne E; van 't Oever, Aart G; Vinke, Marian; Spiekstra, Arjen; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M
The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production processes is necessary as the initial process development has been done decades ago. An up-to-date lab-scale version encompassing the legacy inactivated polio vaccine production process was set-up. This lab-scale version should be representative of the large scale, meaning a scale-down model, to allow experiments for process optimization that can be readily applied. Initially the separate unit operations were scaled-down at setpoint. Subsequently, the unit operations were applied successively in a comparative manner to large-scale manufacturing. This allows the assessment of the effects of changes in one unit operation to the consecutive units at small-scale. Challenges in translating large-scale operations to lab-scale are discussed, and the concessions that needed to be made are described. The current scale-down model for cell and virus culture (2.3-L) presents a feasible model with its production scale counterpart (750-L) when operated at setpoint. Also, the current scale-down models for the DSP unit operations clarification, concentration, size exclusion chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and inactivation are in agreement with the manufacturing scale. The small-scale units can be used separately, as well as sequentially, to study variations and critical product quality attributes in the production process. Finally, it is shown that the scale-down unit operations can be used consecutively to prepare trivalent vaccine at lab-scale with comparable characteristics to the product produced at manufacturing scale.
Estívariz, Concepción F; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Venczel, Linda; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Zingeser, James A; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Kew, Olen M; Berencsi, György; Csohán, Agnes
Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration. A confirmed VAPP case was defined as a diagnosis of paralytic poliomyelitis and residual paralysis at 60 days in a patient with an epidemiologic link to the vaccine. Archived poliovirus isolates were retested using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the viral protein 1 capsid region. This review confirmed 46 of 47 cases previously reported as VAPP. Three cases originally linked to monovalent OPV (mOPV) 3 and one case linked to mOPV1 presented after administration of bivalent OPV 1 + 3 (bOPV). The adjusted VAPP risk per million doses administered was 0.18 for mOPV1 (2 cases/11.13 million doses), 2.96 for mOPV3 (32 cases/10.81 million doses), and 12.82 for bOPV (5 cases/390,000 doses). Absence of protection from immunization with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or exposure to OPV virus from routine immunization and recent injections could explain the higher relative risk of VAPP in Hungarian children. In polio-endemic areas in which mOPV3 and bOPV are needed to achieve eradication, the higher risk of VAPP would be offset by the high risk of paralysis due to wild poliovirus and higher per-dose efficacy of mOPV3 and bOPV compared with trivalent OPV.
Edens, Chris; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi C; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Prausnitz, Mark R
The phased replacement of oral polio vaccine (OPV) with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is expected to significantly complicate mass vaccination campaigns, which are an important component of the global polio eradication endgame strategy. To simplify mass vaccination with IPV, we developed microneedle patches that are easy to administer, have a small package size, generate no sharps waste and are inexpensive to manufacture. When administered to rhesus macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent among monkeys vaccinated using microneedle patches and conventional intramuscular injection for IPV types 1 and 2. Serologic response to IPV type 3 vaccination was weaker after microneedle patch vaccination compared to intramuscular injection; however, we suspect the administered type 3 dose was lower due to a flawed pre-production IPV type 3 analytical method. IPV vaccination using microneedle patches was well tolerated by the monkeys. We conclude that IPV vaccination using a microneedle patch is immunogenic in rhesus macaques and may offer a simpler method of IPV vaccination of people to facilitate polio eradication.
Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014.
As the war against poliomyelitis continues, eradication efforts must now succeed in some countries which have been subjected to natural disasters and in others which are enduring manmade disasters. Subnational immunization days (SNIDs) were most recently conducted in northern Somalia in two 5-day rounds last November and December amid widespread popular and political support. While villages in the arid, drought-plagued country are often inaccessible, flooding from heavy rains was the only real problem encountered by the vaccination campaign. More than 90% of the estimated 375,000 children under age 5 years in the target area were vaccinated and given vitamin A. Careful advance preparations contributed to the campaign's success. A 7-day campaign in mid-February got oral polio vaccine to more than 330,000 children in southern Sudan. Maintaining the vaccine cold chain was the major operational challenge in this setting. To that end, all available means were used, including placing vaccines into running streams to keep them cool. The program in Sudan was coordinated by the UN's Operation Lifeline Sudan. Heat, armed conflict, lack of infrastructure, the need to reach more than 80% of the population by air, infectious diseases, drought, and hungry packs of hyenas were some of the obstacles to overcome. A second round of vaccination is planned for southern Sudan in mid March.
Lamina, S; Hanif, S
A total of 744 paralytic poliomyelitis patients (0-59 months old) were reviewed and results showed a critical and perpetual surge during 2003 (20.2%), 2004 (27.4%) and 2005 (41%). A slight male predominance (56%) was reported and a high incidence was reported in the low socioeconomic (68.3%) and urban setting (60.3%) groups. It was concluded that the polio eradication campaigning programmes in Nigeria had not been successful and that legislation on poliomyelitis was required.
The WHO officially certifies India and other countries of the South East Asian regions as free of guinea worm disease. The eradication was made possible through the efforts of the Indian government to launch a national guinea worm eradication program in 1983-84, and a sustained campaign at the grass-roots level by agencies such as the UN International Children's Fund and the WHO in collaboration with the government. The recognition was based on the report gathered by three members of the 4th International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication, who visited India in November 1999 and conducted an investigation in 62 villages in 5 states where the disease had been endemic. Also, the national eradication program had been evaluated 7 times and showed remarkable achievement.
Genital ulcers are important cofactors of HIV transmission in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. Chancroid is a common cause of genital ulcer in all 18 countries where adult HIV prevalence surpasses 8% and is rare in countries with low-level HIV epidemics. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative organism of chancroid, is biologically vulnerable and occupies a precarious epidemiological niche. Both simple, topical hygiene and male circumcision greatly reduce risk of infection and several classes of antibiotics--some of which can be administered in single-dose treatment regimens--provide rapid cure. H. ducreyi depends on sexual networks with high rates of partner change for its survival, thriving in environments characterized by male mobility and intensive commercial sex activity. Elimination of H. ducreyi infection from vulnerable groups results in disappearance of chancroid from the larger community. Once endemic in Europe and North America, chancroid began a steady decline early in the twentieth century, well before the discovery of antibiotics. Social changes--resulting in changing patterns of commercial sex--probably disrupted the conditions needed to sustain chancroid as an endemic disease. Sporadic outbreaks are now easily controlled when effective curative and preventive services are made available to sex workers and their clients. More recently, chancroid prevalence has declined markedly in countries such as the Philippines. Senegal, and Thailand, a development that may contribute to stabilization of the HIV epidemics in these countries. Eradication of chancroid is a feasible public health objective. Protecting sex workers and their clients from exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and improving curative services for STDs are among the proven strategies that could be employed. PMID:11584729
Breman, Joel G; de Quadros, Ciro A; Dowdle, Walter R; Foege, William H; Henderson, Donald A; John, T Jacob; Levine, Myron M
By examining the role research has played in eradication or regional elimination initiatives for three viral diseases--smallpox, poliomyelitis, and measles--we derive nine cross-cutting lessons applicable to malaria eradication. In these initiatives, some types of research commenced as the programs began and proceeded in parallel. Basic laboratory, clinical, and field research all contributed notably to progress made in the viral programs. For each program, vaccine was the lynchpin intervention, but as the programs progressed, research was required to improve vaccine formulations, delivery methods, and immunization schedules. Surveillance was fundamental to all three programs, whilst polio eradication also required improved diagnostic methods to identify asymptomatic infections. Molecular characterization of pathogen isolates strengthened surveillance and allowed insights into the geographic source of infections and their spread. Anthropologic, sociologic, and behavioural research were needed to address cultural and religious beliefs to expand community acceptance. The last phases of elimination and eradication became increasingly difficult, as a nil incidence was approached. Any eradication initiative for malaria must incorporate flexible research agendas that can adapt to changing epidemiologic contingencies and allow planning for posteradication scenarios.
... States. But it still occurs in other parts of the world. It would only take one person infected with ... polio vaccination, including: • people traveling to certain parts of the world, • laboratory workers who might handle polio virus, and • ...
Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Thompson, Kimberly M
Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio eradication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to provide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance, and other costs that require significant potential resource commitments. We estimate the costs of different potential policy portfolios for low-, middle-, and high-income countries to demonstrate the variability in these costs. We estimate that a global transition from routine immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would increase the costs of managing polio globally, although routine IPV use remains less costly than routine OPV use with supplemental immunization activities. The costs of surveillance and a stockpile, while small compared to routine vaccination costs, represent important expenditures to ensure adequate response to potential outbreaks. The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses highlight important uncertainty in the aggregated costs and demonstrates that the discount rate and uncertainty in price and administration cost of IPV drives the expected incremental cost of routine IPV vs. OPV immunization.
Dénes, Z; Varga, M
In developed countries as well as in Hungary polio virus related disease disappeared completely due to the extensive administering of vaccine. As a result, young and middle-aged doctors have no experience of encountering acute polio virus infection but instead they meet its resultant impairments and disabilities. Persons who had suffered the onset of poliomyelitis 3 or 4 decades earlier, may to develop a new set of symptoms and functional declines. The criteria for post-polio syndrome were identified and its impairments and disabilities were described. It is only within the last decade that the adaptive changes in muscular tissue, insufficiently compensed denervation, together with the effects of physiotherapy, have become better known. The aim of this paper is to review the present situation concerning the struggle for keeping the polio virus in check, to give a short summary of the post-polio syndrome and to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation.
Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Sutter, Roland W; Bruce Aylward, R; Watkins, Margaret; Gary, Howard; Alexander, James; Jafari, Hamid; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M
Decision analytic modeling of polio risk management policies after eradication may help inform decisionmakers about the quantitative tradeoffs implied by various options. Given the significant dynamic complexity and uncertainty involving posteradication decisions, this article aims to clarify the structure of a decision analytic model developed to help characterize the risks, costs, and benefits of various options for polio risk management after eradication of wild polioviruses and analyze the implications of different sources of uncertainty. We provide an influence diagram of the model with a description of each component, explore the impact of different assumptions about model inputs, and present probability distributions of model outputs. The results show that choices made about surveillance, response, and containment for different income groups and immunization policies play a major role in the expected final costs and polio cases. While the overall policy implications of the model remain robust to the variations of assumptions and input uncertainty we considered, the analyses suggest the need for policymakers to carefully consider tradeoffs and for further studies to address the most important knowledge gaps.
Afghanistan and Pakistan, two of the four remaining countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, represent one epidemiologic reservoir. During 2008, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3) using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Much of Afghanistan remained polio-free in 2008, with the exception of the conflict-affected South Region. In Pakistan, however, WPV transmission increased, particularly after WPV1 reintroduction into polio-free areas of Punjab Province. In total, 149 WPV cases (31 in Afghanistan and 118 in Pakistan) were confirmed in 2008, compared with 49 cases in 2007. Serious security problems in areas along the common border limited access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children in the two countries. In Pakistan, continued managerial and operational problems impeded full implementation of SIAs and adversely affected vaccination coverage in areas not affected by security problems. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January--December 2008. Further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan will require continued measures to overcome access problems in conflict-affected areas of both countries and improvements in the quality of SIAs and delivery of routine immunization services in Pakistan.
Oyero, O G; Adu, F D
Enteroviruses is one of the most common group of human pathogens, causing a wide range of acute symptoms involving the cardiac and skeletal muscles, central nervous system, pancreas,skin and mucous membranes. In spite of the success recorded in polio eradication globally, infections with other enteroviruses remain frequent and sometimes very serious, requiring hospitalization. In this study we determined the various circulating serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with a view to providing information on the activity of these viruses among the Nigerian children, who usually are the most affected. Stool samples were obtained from hospitalized children at two major secondary community hospitals in Ibadan and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases from 26 states ofNigeria. A presumptive identification of NPEVs was based on growth in RD cells. Isolates were identified by neutralization assay using sera obtained from the Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands. The problems associated with this assay prompted the use of genotypic method developed at the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA for the final identification of isolates. Neutralization assay identified the 138 isolates into echoviruses (43.5%), coxsackie B viruses (29.7%) and untypeable isolates (26.8%). Finally genotyping identified echoviruses (E3, E6, E7, E11, E12, E13, E14, E19, E20, E21, E24, E29, E30, E33), coxsackieviruses (CVA3, CVA4, CVA6, CVA17, CVB3, CVB5, CVB6) and enteroviruses (EV69, EV71). The causal association of isolates with different diseases was also established. Majority of the isolates belonged to the human enterovirus gropup B (HEV-B) specie, followed by 4 and 1 in the HEV-A and HEV-C species respectively. This study forms the basis of molecular epidemiology of NPEVs being established for the first time in Nigeria. The implication of the presence of neurotropic serotypes (E3, E6, E7, E11, E14, E20, E24, E29, E30, EV71, CVB3 and CVB5) is that AFP may
Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J
In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio.
Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J.
In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio. PMID:24294986
Curry, Dora Ward; Perry, Henry B; Tirmizi, Syed N; Goldstein, Allison L; Lynch, Meg C
Strengthening routine immunization is one of the four prongs of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Using data collected through 30-cluster sample household surveys of caretakers of children aged 12-23 months, this paper assessed the effectiveness of house-to-house visits on routine oral polio immunization completion, using simple frequency tables, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Logistic regression results demonstrated that children in households where the caregivers reported receiving a household visit by health workers were more likely to be fully immunized for polio through routine immunization than other children, although results were significant only after correcting for confounders. In Ethiopia and India, children of caregivers who remembered a house-to-house visit were significantly and positively associated with routine polio vaccination completion (OR = 2.2 and OR = 2.2 respectively). In Angola, the association was positive, though not significant (OR = 1.3). The evidence suggests that targeting high-risk areas for house-to-house visits played a role in increasing routine polio vaccination.
Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading
Periès, H; Cairncross, S
Little more than a decade ago, it was estimated that over three million cases of dracunculiasis occurred worldwide. Since then, the numbers have fallen dramatically, thanks to the water supply initiatives of the 1980s and, more recently, the national guinea worm eradication programmes implemented in a score of endemic countries. Hervé Periès and Sandy Cairncross discuss how eradication will require the containment of cases in the remaining endemic areas, together with the simultaneous strengthening of surveillance to permit the certification of eradication. This aim requires existing strategies to be adapted to maintain their efficacy and also to improve their sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Sudan with its civil war, and more than a hundred thousand reported cases, remains a major obstacle to rapid achievement of the goal.
Control and reduction of infectious diseases is a key to attaining the Millennium Development Goals. An important element of this work is the successful immunisation, especially in resource-poor countries. Mass immunisation, most intensively in the case of eradication, depends on a combination of reliable demand (e.g. public willingness to comply with the vaccine protocol) and effective supply (e.g. robust, generally state-led, vaccine delivery). This balance of compliance and enforceability is, quintessentially, socio-political in nature - conditioned by popular perceptions of disease and risk, wider conditions of economic development and poverty, technical aspects of vaccine delivery, and the prevailing international norms regarding power relations between states and peoples. In the past 100 years, three out of six disease eradication programmes have failed. The explanations for failure have focused on biotechnical and managerial or financial issues. Less attention is paid to socio-political aspects. Yet socio-political explanations are key. Eradication is neither inherently prone to failure, nor necessarily doomed in the case of polio. However, eradication, and similar mass immunisation initiatives, which fail to address social and political realities of intervention may be. A comparison of the smallpox and polio eradication programmes illustrates the importance of disease-specific socio-political analysis in programme conceptualisation, design, and management.
Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world.
Of the four countries worldwide where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, Pakistan and Afghanistan are considered a single epidemiologic block. Use of intense poliomyelitis eradication measures, including close coordination between the two countries and increased use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines (mOPVs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3), has reduced WPV transmission to historically low levels. However, despite these efforts, in 2007 both types of WPV continued to circulate in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ongoing conflicts and security concerns in remote areas with rugged terrain limit access to children and decrease vaccination coverage from routine and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in border areas of both countries where WPV transmission is endemic. In other WPV-endemic areas of Pakistan, where security and access concerns do not exist, operational problems in implementing SIAs resulted in inadequate vaccination of children, which failed to interrupt WPV transmission. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan during January-December 2007 (data as of March 22, 2008). Further progress toward polio eradication will require continued measures to address security concerns in portions of both countries and problems with implementing SIAs in secure areas of Pakistan.
Differences in background characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved sustained virologic response with interferon-free versus interferon-based therapy and the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma after eradication of hepatitis C virus in Japan.
Toyoda, H; Tada, T; Takaguchi, K; Senoh, T; Shimada, N; Hiraoka, A; Michitaka, K; Ishikawa, T; Kumada, T
We compared the background characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), that is sustained virologic response (SVR), with interferon (IFN)-based versus IFN-free antiviral therapy in Japan. In addition, we used a previously reported risk assessment model to compare the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after SVR by treatment type. Pretreatment characteristics of 1533 patients who achieved SVR with IFN-based therapy and 1086 patients with IFN-free therapy from five institutions across Japan were compared. The risk of HCC after SVR was assessed based on pretreatment characteristics, and the incidence of HCC after SVR was estimated in both groups. Age and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were higher, platelet count was lower, and liver fibrosis was more advanced in patients who achieved SVR with IFN-free therapy compared with IFN-based therapy. The incidence of HCC after SVR in the IFN-free group was estimated to be more than twofold higher than in the IFN-based therapy group (7.29% vs. 3.09%, and 6.23% vs. 3.01% when excluding patients who have underwent curative treatment for HCC). There are large differences in pretreatment characteristics between patients who achieved SVR with IFN-based and IFN-free therapies in Japan, which are associated with differential risk of HCC after SVR. These differences can influence the incidence of HCC after SVR and should be taken into consideration when comparing IFN-based and IFN-free therapies in terms of hepatocarcinogenesis suppression with HCV eradication.
Müller, O; Jahn, A; Razum, O
The World Health Organisation initiated the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1988. With the large-scale application of routine and mass vaccinations in children under the age of 5 years, polio disease has become restricted to only 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria) by today. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, increasing numbers of secondary polio epidemics have been observed which were triggered through migration, political turmoil and weak health systems. In addition, there emerged serious technical (e. g., back-mutations of oral vaccine virus to wild virus) and socio-political (refusal of vaccinations in Muslim populations of Nigeria and Pakistan) problems with the vaccination in the remaining endemic countries. It thus appears questionable if the current eradiation initiative will reach its goal in the foreseeable future.
Bruce-Chwatt, Leonard J.
Relatively little is known outside the USSR about the past history of malaria in that country, the contribution of its scientists to malaria research, the recent progress of Soviet malariology, or the achievements of the Soviet Union in the eradication of malaria. These achievements are of particular interest because the general strategy of malaria eradication in the USSR has many technical, administrative, and economic and social features not seen elsewhere. PMID:13805136
Vaz, Rui G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Komkech, William; Ekundare-Famiyesin, Olubowale O.; Onyibe, Rosemary; Abidoye, Sunday; Nsubuga, Peter; Maleghemi, Sylvester; Hannah-Murele, Bolatito; Tegegne, Sisay G.
Background. The current West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. On 20 July 2014, a sick individual flew into Lagos, Nigeria, from Monrovia, Liberia, setting off an outbreak in Lagos and later in Port Harcourt city. The government of Nigeria, supported by the World Health Organization and other partners, mounted a response to the outbreak relying on the polio program experiences and infrastructure. On 20 October 2014, the country was declared free of EVD. Methods. We examined the organization and operations of the response to the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria and how experiences and support from the country's polio program infrastructure accelerated the outbreak response. Results. The deputy incident manager of the National Polio Emergency Operations Centre was appointed the incident manager of the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EEOC), the body that coordinated and directed the response to the EVD outbreak in the country. A total of 892 contacts were followed up, and blood specimens were collected from 61 persons with suspected EVD and tested in designated laboratories. Of these, 19 (31%) were positive for Ebola, and 11 (58%) of the case patients were healthcare workers. The overall case-fatality rate was 40%. EVD sensitization and training were conducted during the outbreak and for 2 months after the outbreak ended. The World Health Organization deployed its surveillance and logistics personnel from non–Ebola-infected states to support response activities in Lagos and Rivers states. Conclusions. The support from the polio program infrastructure, particularly the coordination mechanism adopted (the EEOC), the availability of skilled personnel in the polio program, and lessons learned from managing the polio eradication program greatly contributed to the speedy containment of the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria. PMID:26908718
Brown, Michael C; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Dobrikov, Mikhail I; Walton, Ross W; Gemberling, Sarah L; Nair, Smita K; Desjardins, Annick; Sampson, John H; Friedman, Henry S; Friedman, Allan H; Tyler, Douglas S; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias
Recently, the century-old idea of targeting cancer with viruses (oncolytic viruses) has come of age, and promise has been documented in early stage and several late-stage clinical trials in a variety of cancers. Although originally prized for their direct tumor cytotoxicity (oncolytic virotherapy), recently, the proinflammatory and immunogenic effects of viral tumor infection (oncolytic immunotherapy) have come into focus. Indeed, a capacity for eliciting broad, sustained antineoplastic effects stemming from combined direct viral cytotoxicity, innate antiviral activation, stromal proinflammatory stimulation, and recruitment of adaptive immune effector responses is the greatest asset of oncolytic viruses. However, it also is the source for enormous mechanistic complexity that must be considered for successful clinical translation. Because of fundamentally different relationships with their hosts (malignant or not), diverse replication strategies, and distinct modes of tumor cytotoxicity/killing, oncolytic viruses should not be referred to collectively. These agents must be evaluated based on their individual merits. In this review, the authors highlight key mechanistic principles of cancer treatment with the polio:rhinovirus chimera PVSRIPO and their implications for oncolytic immunotherapy in the clinic.
Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea
The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…
Shirato, Haruko; Someya, Yuichi; Ochiai, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Motohide; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakabayashi, Kengo; Ouchi, Yasumitsu; Ota, Yoshihiro; Tano, Yoshio; Abe, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Shudo; Wakita, Takaji
As one aspect of its campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged development of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) derived from the Sabin strains (sIPV) as an option for an affordable polio vaccine, especially in low-income countries. The Japan Poliomyelitis Research Institute (JPRI) inactivated three serotypes of the Sabin strains and made sIPV preparations, including serotypes 1, 2 and 3 D-antigens in the ratio of 3:100:100. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, assessed the immunogenic stability of these sIPV preparations in a rat potency test, according to an evaluation method recommended by the WHO. The immunogenicity of the three serotypes was maintained for at least 4 years when properly stored under -70°C. Based on these data, the sIPV preparations made by JPRI have been approved as national reference vaccines by the Japanese national control authority and used for the quality control of the tetracomponent sIPV-containing diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis combination vaccines that were licensed for a routine polio immunization in Japan.
Limia Sánchez, Aurora
Poliomyelitis was considered an important event for the public health since the end of XIX century when this disease became epidemic. As soon as vaccines were available member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the European Region started to implement vaccination programmes against polio with an important impact in the incidence in this disease. In May 1988, the World Health Assembly resolution for the global eradication of poliomyelitis was adopted and the mechanisms to oversee the progress in the different WHO Regions were established. This article briefly reviews the history of polio in the WHO European Region, the process for certification and maintenance, the strategies for eradication and the current situation in the European Region and globally. The European Region was certified polio-free in 2002. Nevertheless, there are still three endemic countries in the world, some others use live attenuated vaccines as well as countries in the Horn of Africa are recently suffering the reintroduction of wild poliovirus. Considering these circumstances, the risk of reintroduction of poliovirus and the generation of outbreaks in the European Region exists, therefore high vaccination coverage against polio and good quality surveillance systems are needed to be guaranteed in every member state.
Pastuszak, Żanna; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam
Post-polio syndrome occurs 30-40 years after polio virus infection. The main symptoms of PPS are slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia. In 90% of patients the main symptom is fatigue that leads to physical and mental activity deterioration. The cause of disease remains unknown. Probably it is an effect of motoneurons damage during acute virus polio infection, their overloading and degeneration of remaining ones. In this study we described a case of man who developed PPS 36 years after Heine-Medin disease. The main symptom was intensification of right limb paresis and muscle atrophy. In electromyography there were damage features of muscle clinically affected and unaffected. Changes in lifestyle made possible to continue occupational activity.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries.
Calabrese, Edward J.
The production of the Salk vaccine polio virus by monkey kidney cells was generated using the synthetic tissue culture medium, Mixture 199. In this paper’s retrospective assessment of this process, it was discovered that Mixture 199 was modified by the addition of ethanol to optimize animal cell survival based on experimentation that revealed a hormetic-like biphasic response relationship. This hormesis-based optimization procedure was then applied to all uses of Mixture 199 and modifications of it, including its application to the Salk polio vaccine during preliminary testing and in its subsequent major societal treatment programs. PMID:22423232
Cochi, S L; Sutter, R W; Aylward, R B
One of the challenges of the polio eradication initiative over the next few years will be the formulation of an optimal strategy for stopping poliovirus vaccination after global certification of polio eradication has been accomplished. This strategy must maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. A number of strategies are currently under consideration, including: (i) synchronized global discontinuation of use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); (ii) regional or subregional coordinated OPV discontinuation; and (iii) moving from trivalent to bivalent or monovalent OPV. Other options include moving from OPV to global use of IPV for an interim period before cessation of IPV use (to eliminate circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus, if necessary) or development of new OPV strains that are not transmissible. Each of these strategies is associated with specific advantages (financial benefits for OPV discontinuation) and disadvantages (cost of switch to IPV) and inherent uncertainties (risk of continued poliovirus circulation in certain populations or prolonged virus replication in immunodeficient persons). An ambitious research agenda addresses the remaining questions and issues. Nevertheless, several generalities are already clear. Unprecedented collaboration between countries, regions, and indeed the entire world will be required to implement a global OPV discontinuation strategy Regulatory approval will be needed for an interim bivalent OPV or for monovalent OPV in many countries. Manufacturers will need sufficient lead time to produce sufficient quantities of IPV Finally, the financial implications for any of these strategies need to be considered. Whatever strategy is followed it will be necessary to stockpile supplies of a poliovirus-containing vaccine (most probably all three types of monovalent OPV), and to develop contingency plans to respond should an outbreak of polio occur after stopping vaccination.
... Siegel, MD Rush University Medical Center 1725 W Harrison St Ste 1106 Chicago, IL 60612-3841 312- ... Michigan Post-Polio Support Group Ethel Jean Iutzi Harrison 989-539-3781, firstname.lastname@example.org Lansing Area ...
Minor, Philip D
Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation. Wild type 2 virus has not caused a case since 1999 and type 3 since 2012 and eradication seems near. However most infections are entirely silent so that sophisticated environmental surveillance may be needed to ensure that the virus has been eradicated, and the live vaccine can sometimes revert to virulent circulating forms under conditions that are not wholly understood. Cessation of vaccination is therefore an increasingly important issue and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is playing a larger part in the end game.
Since 2012, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has been limited to three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 37 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 80 cases in 2011; nine WPV1 cases were confirmed during January-September, 2013, compared with 26 WPV1 cases during the same period in 2012. Since November 2012, no WPV1 cases have been reported from the Southern Region, previously the main WPV reservoir in Afghanistan; all nine polio cases in 2013 were in the Eastern Region and caused by WPV1 that originated in Pakistan. From October 2012 to March 2013, 14 polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were detected in the Southern Region. During 2012-2013, strategies to improve supplemental immunization activity (SIA)§ effectiveness in 11 low-performing districts (LPDs) in the Southern Region included increasing staff and supervisory training, implementing short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) campaigns, placing transit vaccination teams at the borders of districts inaccessible because of insecurity, and establishing permanent polio vaccination teams to vaccinate children quarterly. From March 2012 to August 2013, the percentage of children unreached during SIAs declined by 43% in the Southern Region but increased by 122% in the Eastern Region. Despite ongoing challenges, the government of Afghanistan continues to expand the application of innovative solutions to reach unvaccinated children in accessible and inaccessible districts.
Pliaka, Vaia; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Markoulatos, Panayotis
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 with the aim to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis. Two effective vaccines are available: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, OPV has been used instead of IPV in most countries due to several economic and biological advantages. However, in rare cases, the live-attenuated Sabin strains of OPV revert to neurovirulence and cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in vaccinees or lead to emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains. Attenuating mutations and recombination events have been associated with the reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. The substitution of OPV with an improved new-generation IPV and the availability of new specific drugs against polioviruses are considered as future strategies for outbreak control and the eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). By January 2012, indigenous WPV transmission had been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. However, importation of WPV caused outbreaks in 29 and reestablished transmission in four, previously polio-free African countries during 2003-2011. Transmission after WPV importation is considered reestablished when it continues for ≥ 12 months; in Chad, transmissions of WPV type 3 (WPV3) and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reestablished. WPV3 was imported from Nigeria in 2007 and continued to circulate; the latest reported WPV3 case occurred on March 10, 2011. Transmission of WPV1 continued after a WPV1 case was imported from Nigeria in September 2010; the latest reported WPV1 occurred on June 14, 2012. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Chad during January 2011-August 2012, as of October 2, 2012. Five WPV1 cases were reported during January-August 2012, compared with 111 WPV1 cases and three WPV3 cases reported during the same period in 2011. Five circulating type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases occurred during July-August 2012. Current progress suggests that Chad could interrupt reestablished WPV transmission in 2012, although limitations in surveillance hamper the ability to detect ongoing transmission. Furthermore, with ongoing endemic WPV transmission in Nigeria, Chad remains at risk for new WPV importations. Efforts to strengthen surveillance and enhance routine and campaign immunization performance will need to continue in Chad to ensure interruption of reestablished WPV transmission, limit circulation after any WPV importation, and interrupt transmission of cVDPV.
Yang, Chunting; Shi, Huiying; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Yanwen; Xu, Honglin
Poliovirus transmission is controlled globally through world-wide use of a live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the imminence of global poliovirus eradication calls for a switch to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Given the limited manufacturing capacity and high cost of IPV, this switch is unlikely in most developing and undeveloped countries. Adjuvantation is an effective strategy for antigen sparing. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) for an experimental IPV produced from Sabin strains of poliovirus. Our results showed that CpG-ODN, alone or in combination with alum, can significantly enhance both the humoral and cellular immune responses to IPV in mice, and, consequently, the antigen dose could be reduced substantially. Therefore, our study suggests that the global use of IPV could be facilitated by using CpG-ODN or other feasible adjuvants.
Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian
Nowadays, polio survivors aged under 60 years are non-native Swedes which pose new aspects and challenges to a post-polio outpatient clinic. To analyze the medical data, walking aids, occupational, and family situation in non-native polio survivors aged less than 60 years at a Swedish post-polio outpatient clinic. Retrospective data analysis. Data were retrieved from medical records at the post-polio outpatient clinic. Actual age, age at acute polio infection, walking capacity, pain, concomitant diseases, working and family situation, and ethnical origin were analyzed. Data are presented in numbers and percentage. 153 patients were included. Mean age was 45 (17-60) years, and mean age at acute polio infection was 2 (0-12) years. Paresis of the lower extremities was the most common disability. 10 % were wheelchair dependent. Pain occurred in 70 % with a mean intensity of 55 measured with the visual analog scale. Hypertension was the most common concomitant disease. Half of the polio survivors were working at least part time, and roughly half were singles. Data were comparable with data earlier published in Swedish native polio survivors. Non-native polio survivors aged under 60 years showed similarities in age at acute polio infection, paresis, prevalence, and intensity of pain when compared with native Swedish polio survivors. They were, however, younger, and were less often working and married/cohabitants than native Swedish polio survivors. The results of this study underline the importance of social and vocational rehabilitation tailoring rehabilitation suitable for polio survivors with a foreign background.
Norris, Alison; Hachey, Kevin; Curtis, Andrew; Bourdeaux, Margaret
Background Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question. Methods We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices) and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004–2009. Results We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010–0.0404). Conclusions The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio. PMID:26958854
Mazzucco, Rupert; Dieckmann, Ulf; Metz, Johan A J
Despite modern medical interventions, infectious diseases continue to generate huge socio-economic losses. The benefits of eradicating a disease are therefore high. While successful with smallpox and rinderpest, many other eradication attempts have failed. Eradications require huge and costly efforts, which can be sustained only if sufficient progress can be achieved. While initial successes are usually obtained more easily, progress often becomes harder as a disease becomes rare in the eradication endgame. A long eradication tail of slowly decreasing incidence levels can frustrate eradication efforts, as it becomes unclear whether progress toward eradication is still being made and how much more needs to be invested to push the targeted disease beyond its extinction threshold. Realistic disease dynamics are complicated by evolutionary responses to interventions and by interactions among different temporal and spatial scales. Models accounting for these complexities are required for understanding the shapes of eradication tails. In particular, such models allow predicting how hard or costly eradication will be, and may even inform in which manner progress has to be assessed during the eradication endgame. Here we outline a general procedure by analyzing the eradication tails of generic SIS diseases, taking into account two major ingredients of realistic complexity: a group-structured host population in which host contacts within groups are more likely than host contacts between groups, and virulence evolution subject to a trade-off between host infectivity within groups and host mobility among groups. Disentangling the epidemiological, evolutionary, and economic determinants of eradication tails, we show how tails of different shapes arise depending on salient model parameters and on how the extinction threshold is approached. We find that disease evolution generally extends the eradication tail and show how the cost structure of eradication measures plays a key
Schito, Marco; Hanna, Debra; Zumla, Alimuddin
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10.4 million people died of tuberculosis (TB) in 2015, and the disease is now the number one cause of death from a preventable infectious disease worldwide. A bold vision is needed from global leaders to end the TB epidemic and plans to this end have been proposed. However enthusiasm must be matched by tangible and achievable goals based on the science and available funding. In order to reach the target and goals set by the WHO End TB Strategy, the challenges for TB eradication need to be addressed. In order to achieve the targets, several areas need to be bolstered, including the requirement to better identify and treat existing drug-susceptible cases and diagnose all the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Although treatment is available for most TB patients, stock-outs and other delays are problematic in some settings, resulting in ongoing transmission, especially for the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Despite the fact that a majority of multidrug-resistant cases are linked to treatment, the cure rate is only 50%, which highlights the need for safer, shorter, and more efficacious drug regimens that are more tolerable to patients. Prospects for a more efficacious vaccine are limited, with no correlates of protection identified; thus the availability of a vaccine by 2025 is highly improbable. Support for instituting infection control methods should be prioritized to subvert transmission while patients seek treatment and care. Finally, more adequate financial mechanisms should be instituted to reduce patient expenditures and support national TB programs. Moreover, funding to support basic science, drug development, clinical trials, vaccine development, diagnostics, and implementation research needs to be secured in order to reduce global TB incidence in the future.
Farag, Noha H; Alexander, James; Hadler, Stephen; Quddus, Arshad; Durry, Elias; Wadood, Mufty Zubair; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek
In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. Afghanistan and Pakistan are two of the three remaining countries (the other is Nigeria) where circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2013-August 2014. In Afghanistan, 14 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 37 cases in 2012; nine cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with six cases during the same period in 2013. In Pakistan, 93 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 58 cases in 2012; 170 cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with 33 cases during the same period in 2013. All WPV cases reported during January 2013-August 2014 were WPV type 1 (WPV1). Vaccination campaigns have been banned since June 2012 in specific areas in Pakistan, where an estimated 300,000 children aged <5 years reside and where 69% of WPV cases have occurred in 2014. To accomplish the objectives of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 both countries should continue to negotiate access of vaccinators to insecure and temporarily inaccessible areas, improve immunization program performance to reach more children in accessible areas, and ensure that political and health leaders at all levels are fully committed to the program, including being committed to providing financial resources needed to fully implement all the recommendations of external technical advisory groups. Both countries should also continue to strengthen cross-border collaboration to improve surveillance and case detection, coordinate outbreak response, and maximize vaccination coverage of children moving between the two countries.
The care of patients with post-polio syndrome ought to be carried out by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, including medical professionals, specialists of rehabilitation, psychologists and social workers. Many therapeutic strategies might be employed to reduce the late effects of polio. Today, the management of post-polio syndrome is based on non-pharmacological intervention, including lifestyle modification, decrease of physical activity, rest periods during the day and an individually tailored training program.
Hennessey, Karen; Schluter, W William; Wang, Xiaojun; Boualam, Liliane; Jee, Youngmee; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge; Roesel, Sigrun; Diorditsa, Sergey; Ehrenberg, John
Accelerated disease control goals have long been appreciated for their role in galvanizing commitment and bringing a sense of urgency for disease prevention. WHO's Western Pacific Region has 14 on-going communicable disease reduction goals including 1 targeting eradication, 10 targeting elimination, and 3 control initiatives. These goals cover mother-to-child transmission of HIV, congenital syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, five parasitic diseases and four vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). The initiatives have distinct objectives, approaches, and means in which to measure achievement of the goals. Given the long history and experience with VPD initiatives in the Western Pacific Region, this manuscript focuses on the Region's following initiatives: (1) smallpox eradication, (2) polio eradication, (3) measles elimination, (4) maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE), and (5) hepatitis B control. There is good consistency across the Region's VPD initiatives yet a pattern of more robust and representative data requirements, stricter evaluation criteria, and more formal evaluation bodies are linked to the intensity of the goal - with eradication being the peak. On the other end of this spectrum, the Regional hepatitis B control initiative has established efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring impact and evaluating if the goals have been met. Even within the confines of VPD initiatives there are some deviations in use of terminology and comparisons across other disease control initiatives in the Region are provided.
In 1875 M. Raymond described a progressive muscle wasting and weakness in 3 individuals survivors of childhood acute poliomyelitis. Jean-Martin Charcot suggested that the initial injury should let these guys neurons more sensitive to develop posterior spinal diseases and new weakness was the result of overuse of the affected muscles. In 1979, after the publication of the description given by a 57 year old patient on motor difficulties that developed after suffering of polio in childhood, there was a very significant increase of comments of other individuals with similar symptoms, reaching wedged in the 80s the term of post-polio syndrome. The term is reserved for describing the development of new neurological symptoms, especially for the development of muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and new muscle fatigue not explained by other medical causes, and appear after more than 15 years of infection acute. Is estimated to affect 20 to 85% of individuals with a history of polio in childhood. In 2000 first described the diagnostic criteria. This syndrome determines a change in the functional abilities. Its pathogenesis is unknown, may be associated with aging. It could also be due to an inflammatory persistent or be influenced by genetic factors. There is no effective drug treatment, so I can only recommend symptomatic and moderate muscle training.
Genêt, F; Schnitzler, A; Mathieu, S; Autret, K; Théfenne, L; Dizien, O; Maldjian, A
Polio survivors are aging and facing multiple pathologies. With age, walking becomes more difficult, partly due to locomotor deficits but also as a result of weight gain, osteoarticular degeneration, pain, cardiorespiratory problems or even post polio syndrome (PPS). These additional complications increase the risk of falls in this population where the risk of fractures is already quite high. The key joint is the knee. The muscles stabilizing this joint are often weak and patients develop compensatory gait strategies, which could be harmful to the locomotor system at medium or long term. Classically, knee recurvatum is used to lock the knee during weight bearing; however, if it exceeds 10 degrees , the knee becomes unstable and walking is unsafe. Thus, regular medical monitoring is necessary. Orthoses play an important role in the therapeutic care of polio survivors. The aim is usually to secure the knee, preventing excessive recurvatum while respecting the patient's own gait. Orthoses must be light and pressure-free if they are to be tolerated and therefore effective. Other joints present fewer problems and orthoses are rarely indicated just for them. The main issue lies in the prior evaluation of treatments' impact. Some deformities may be helpful for the patients' gait and, therefore, corrections may worsen their gait, especially if a realignment of segments is attempted. It is therefore essential to carefully pre-assess any change brought to the orthoses as well as proper indications for corrective surgery. In addition, it is essential for the patient to be monitored by a specialized team.
Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sabitu, Kabir; Nguku, Patrick; Abanida, Emmanuel; Sheidu, Sadik; Dalhat, Mahmood; Dankoli, Raymond; Gidado, Saheed; Suleiman, Idris
Introduction Nigeria, the only African country endemic for wild poliovirus, adopted Immunization Plus Days (IPD) to eradicate polio. Refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) by heads of households is a significant challenge. In Sokoto state, we determined characteristics of heads of households refusing OPV during IPD in 2011. Methods To evaluate reasons for refusals, we conducted a case control study among heads ofhouseholds accepting or refusing OPV vaccine. Noncompliant households were defined as households refusing OPV vaccination in last three rounds of IPDs while compliant households were those accepting vaccination. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to the heads of households to obtain information on socio-demographics, media habits, and knowledge of IPD. Results Of the 121 (60 cases and 61 controls) interviews, 88 (73%) were from Sokoto north. Noncompliant heads of households were more likely to lack tertiary education (OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.6 - 9.2), believe that OPV is not safe (OR = 22, 95% CI, 7.1 - 76), lack access to functional radio (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.4 - 15) and television (OR = 9.4, 95% CI, (1.9 - 63) andget information about IPD from town announcers (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.3 - 12). Conclusion We conclude that noncompliant heads of households compared to compliant heads of households had low level of education, lacked knowledge of immunization, and had negative attitude towards OPV. They get information about OPV from town announcers and lacked access to functional radio and television. We recommended training of town announcers in polio communication and use of key communication messages preceding every round of IPD. PMID:25328629
Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.
Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…
Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya
Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services.
Shuaibu, Faisal M; Birukila, Gerida; Usman, Samuel; Mohammed, Ado; Galway, Michael; Corkum, Melissa; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Wa Nganda, Gatei; Vertefeuille, John; Chavez, Anna; Meleh, Sule; Banda, Richard; Some, Almai; Mshelia, Hyelni; Umar, Al-Umra; Enemaku, Ogu; Etsano, Andrew
The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685,674 children in Borno and 113,774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608,964 and for Yobe 111,570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas.
Garon, Julie; Seib, Katherine; Orenstein, Walter A; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Chang Blanc, Diana; Zaffran, Michel; Patel, Manish
Globally, polio cases have reached an all-time low, and type 2 poliovirus (one of three) is eradicated. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the primary tool, however, in rare cases, OPV induces paralysis. In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed the phased withdrawal of OPV and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into childhood routine immunization schedules. Type 2 OPV will be withdrawn through a globally synchronized "switch" from trivalent OPV (all three types) to bivalent OPV (types 1 and 3). The switch will happen in 155 OPV-using countries between April 17(th) and May 1(st), 2016. Planned activities to reduce type 2 outbreak risks post-switch include the following: tOPV campaigns to increase type 2 immunity prior to the switch, monovalent OPV2 stockpiling to respond to outbreaks should they occur, containment of both wild and vaccine type 2 viruses, enhanced acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and environmental surveillance, outbreak response protocols, and ensured access to IPV and bivalent OPV.
Wilson, Daniel J
In this paper, I explore the kinds of psychological trauma experienced by polio patients in the mid-twentieth century in the United States. I argue that the trauma was the result of the experience of sudden paralysis, the conditions under which patients were treated, and the expectations for rehabilitation derived from the psychosocial context of the period. Psychiatric and psychological counseling in hospitals was only beginning to be offered in this period, and most polio patients received little or no counseling or assistance in dealing with their psychological problems. Contemporary psychological studies suggest that many polio patients suffered from psychological problems but that they were relatively mild. However, compared with the many studies of the physical problems of polio patients, there were relatively few studies of the psychological issues associated with the disease. The narratives and memoirs of polio survivors vividly testify to the psychological burden they experienced as patients during both the acute phase of the illness and during rehabilitation.
Wood, D. J.; Sutter, R. W.; Dowdle, W. R.
Since 1988 reported polio cases worldwide have declined by about 85% and the number of known or suspected polioendemic countries has decreased from over 120 to less than 50. With eradication of poliomyelitis approaching, issues potentially affecting when and how vaccination against poliovirus can be stopped become extremely important. Because of the potential risks and benefits inherent in such a decision, the best available science, a risk-benefit analysis, contingency plans, a stock pile of poliovirus vaccines, and the endorsement by the global policy-making committees will all be needed before vaccination can be discontinued. The scientific basis for stopping polio immunization has been reviewed by WHO. This Round Table article summarizes the current state of knowledge, provides an update on the processes and timelines for certification, containment, and stopping vaccination, and highlights some of the unanswered scientific questions that will be addressed by further research. These include whether transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could be sustained so that poliomyelitis could re-emerge in a future unvaccinated population and whether prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus from individuals with immune deficiencies could be a mechanism through which this could occur. PMID:10812731
Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne
Introduction Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in sewage drains covering a significant population of Dakar. Methods From April 2007 to May 2013, 271 specimens of raw sewage were collected using the grab method in 6 neighborhoods of Dakar. Samples were processed to extract and concentrate viruses using polyethylene glycol and Dextran (two-phase separation method). Isolation of enteroviruses was attempted in RD, L20B and Hep2 cell lines. Polioviruses were identified by RT-PCR and Elisa. Non Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) were identified by RT-PCR and microneutralisation tests. Results Polioviruses and NPEVs were respectively detected in 34,3% and 42,8% sewage samples. No wild poliovirus neither circulating vaccine-derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) was detected. Neutralization assays have identified 49 non polio enteroviruses that were subsequently classified in 13 serotypes belonging to HEV-A (22, 4%), HEV-B (12, 24%), HEV-C (26, 53%) and HEV-D (6, 12%) species. Conclusion This study is the first documentation of enteroviruses environmental detection in Senegal. It shows the usefulness of environmental surveillance for indirect monitoring of the circulation and distribution of enteroviruses in the community. PMID:25848458
Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Hibi, Toshifumi
Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.
Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL
06/26/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S4641-4642; text as passed Senate: CR S4642) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Xu, Wenbo; Zhang, Yong
Stool specimens were collected from children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and their contacts, and viral isolation was performed according to standard procedures. If the specimens tested positive for poliovirus, then intratypic differentiation (ITD) methods were performed on the viral isolates to determine whether the poliovirus isolates were wild or of vaccine origin, these include a poliovirus diagnostic ITD real-time PCR method and a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) screening real-time PCR method.Viral RNA was extracted from the poliovirus isolates by using the QIAamp Mini Viral RNA Extraction Kit (Qiagen) and was used for RT-PCR amplification by the standard method. The entire VP1 region of the poliovirus isolates was amplified by RT-PCR with primers that flanked the VP1-coding region. After purification of the PCR products by the QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen), the amplicons were bidirectionally sequenced with the ABI PRISM 3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). A neurovirulence test of polioviruses isolates was carried out using PVR-Tg21 mice that expressed the human poliovirus receptor (CD155). And the temperature sensitivities of polioviruses isolates were assayed on monolayer RD cells in 24-well plates as described.
Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takeshi
A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors. PMID:27069705
Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young
Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.
Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho
Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487
Farbu, E; Rekand, T; Aarli, J A; Gilhus, N E
243 patients were diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis (polio) in Western Norway between 1950 and 1954; 186 were paralytic and 57 non-paralytic. This study examines how polio influenced their education, employment, profession, annual income, marital status and energy for leisure activities. 149 of the patients identified were alive and 98 of the matched controls responded to a questionnaire. Education length did not differ between acute paralytic polio patients, acute non-paralytic polio patients and controls. Fifty percent of the patients with residual weakness and 77 % of the patients with normal muscle power were employed, against 73 % of the controls (P=0.014). A higher proportion of patients without motor deficits had manual work than those with weakness or controls (P=0.002). There was no significant association between severity of weakness and education, employment and profession. Physical ability had been an important factor for the choice of education and profession for all the polio patients, but not for controls (P < 0.001). Annual income did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Residual weakness increased the chance of being single (P=0.023), although as many as 79% had married. 53 % of the patients with weakness claimed that fatigue prevented hobbies, compared wich 31% of the other patients and only 16% of the controls (P < 0.001). There was no significant association between severity of weakness and fatigue. In conclusion, the polio patients are generally well educated, provide their own income and marry. However, their polio has influenced choice of education and profession, and polio patients with persisting weakness differ from controls and polio patients without motor deficits regarding employment and marital status.
Marsden, Matthew D; Zack, Jerome A
Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents.
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Poinar, H; Kuch, M; Pääbo, S
It has been suggested that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and thus the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it causes, was inadvertently introduced to humans by the use of an oral polio vaccine (OPV) during a vaccination campaign launched by the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA, in the Belgian Congo in 1958 and 1959. The "OPV/AIDS hypothesis" suggests that the OPV used in this campaign was produced in chimpanzee kidney epithelial cell cultures rather than in monkey kidney cell cultures, as stated by H. Koprowski and co-workers, who produced the OPV. If chimpanzee cells were indeed used, this would lend support to the OPV/AIDS hypothesis, since chimpanzees harbor a simian immunodeficiency virus, widely accepted to be the origin of HIV-1. We analyzed several early OPV pools and found no evidence for the presence of chimpanzee DNA; by contrast, monkey DNA is present.
Perng, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Iliadou, Anastasia; Villamor, Eduardo
Prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions is related to increased adult mortality in regions where infections are highly prevalent, yet there is little evidence of the impact of perinatal conditions on the risk of severe infections throughout life. Using prospectively collected data from 21 604 like-sexed Swedish twins of known zygosity born in 1926-1958, we examined the risk of polio in relation to perinatal characteristics using cohort and nested co-twin case-control analyses. Polio incidence was determined through an interview in 1998, and linkage with the Swedish national inpatient and death registries. There were 133 cases of polio. In the cohort analysis, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were positively associated with polio risk. After adjustment for sex, birth year, gestational age at birth and within-twin pair correlations, twins of shortest length (<44 cm) had a 67% ([95% CI: 6%, 88%]; P=0.04) lower risk of polio compared with the reference group (47-49 cm). After additional adjustment for birth length, every 100-g increase in birthweight was related to a 34% increased risk of polio ([95% CI: -1%, 82%]; P=0.06), and every 10-mm increase in head circumference was related to a 17% greater risk of polio ([95% CI: 5%, 31%]; P=0.004). In co-twin control analyses among 226 disease-discordant twins, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were 0.3 cm (P=0.19), 84 g (P=0.07) and 3 mm (P=0.08) higher in cases than controls, respectively. Similar associations were observed among monozygotic (n=84) and dizygotic (n=142) twins. These findings suggest that early intrauterine growth restriction may be inversely related to the incidence of polio.
Nijsten, Dre; Carrillo-Santisteve, P; Miglietta, A; Ruitenberg, J; Lopalco, P L
The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A systematic review of the literature on polio seroprevalence studies, complemented by the analysis of available vaccine coverage data, has been carried out with the aim of assessing the level of protection against polio in the European population. A total of 52 studies, with data from 14 out of the 31 EU/EEA countries, were included in the analysis. This systematic review shows that, overall, seroprevalence for PV1 and PV3 is high in most countries, although seroimmunity gaps have been detected in several birth cohorts. In particular, relatively low immunity status was found in some countries for individuals born in the 60's and 70's. Discrepancies between reported vaccination coverage and immunity levels have been also highlighted. Countries should make sure that their population is being vaccinated for polio to reduce the risk of local poliovirus transmission in case of importation. Moreover, assessing immunity status should be priority for those traveling to areas where wild polioviruses are still circulating.
The outcome of paralytic polio was believed to be a stable neurological state. Now, it is established that polio has an additional, slowly progressive phase, called post-polio syndrome (PPS) that develops 30-40 years after the acute poliomyelitis in 25-80% of paralytic and about 40% of nonparalytic polio survivors. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and usually include muscle weakness, fatigue and muscle or joint pain. Some patients suffer from muscular atrophy, respiratory insufficiency, dysphagia, sleep disturbances or cold intolerance. The etiopathogenesis of PPS is unclear and many factors, such as dysfunction of the surviving motor units, aging, defects of neuromuscular transmission, persistence of viral infection and immunological mechanisms, are considered.
Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.
not be rejected out of hand. The successful boll weevil eradication program shows that sea lamprey eradication might be achievable.
Thwaites, C. L.; Loan, H. T.
Introduction The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated. To reduce the number of cases of tetanus efforts are focussed on prevention using vaccination and post-exposure wound care. Sources of data Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases; World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund publications. Areas of agreement The maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination initiative has resulted in significant reductions in mortality from neonatal tetanus throughout the world. Areas of controversy Although there are few data available it is likely that large numbers of children and adults, particularly men, remain unprotected due to lack of booster immunization. Areas timely for developing research It remains unclear how HIV and malaria affect both responses to vaccination and transplacental transfer of antibodies or how this might affect timing of vaccination doses. PMID:26598719
Pastuszak, Żanna; Stępień, Adam; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Piusińska-Macoch, Renata; Galbarczyk, Dariusz; Rolewska, Agnieszka
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors. That constellation of symptoms was called post-polio syndrome (PPS). PPS frequency among people after paralytic and nonparalytic polio infectious is ranged from 30% to 80%. Fatigue that leads to physical and mental activity deterioration is another important symptom that is observed in 90% of patients with PPS. Etiology of disease remains elusive. Probably it is an effect of spine frontal horns motoneurons damage during acute virus polio infection that leads to overloading and degeneration of remaining ones. The most important risk factors of PPS are female sex and respiratory symptoms during acute polio infection. Electromyography is an important part of PPS diagnostic process. Electrophysiological abnormalities are seen in clinically affected and unaffected muscles. The most frequent are fasciculations and fibrillations during rest activity, extension of motor unit area, time duration and amplitude. In this study we described three cases of people who developed PPS years after Haine-Medine disease and correlation between their EMG results and clinical status. We also analyzed electromyography results both after one month since first PPS signs occurred as well as after few years. Presentation of dynamic changes in EMG was the most important aim of that study.
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of polio vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - March 2016, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record . This position paper on polio vaccines replaces the 2014 WHO position paper . The position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV) . Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This position paper reflects the global switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV which took place in April 2016. Recommendations on the use of polio vaccines have been discussed on multiple occasions by SAGE, most recently in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html.
Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine, Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger, Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; de Soárez, Patricia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the “National Immunization Days”, during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of “National Immunization Days” carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one “National Immunization Day” was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011. PMID:25741645
Samame, G. E.
This paper outlines the general administrative and therapeutic principles governing yaws eradication campaigns, with particular reference to the operational problems encountered in Haiti. The ways in which those problems were solved are described in the course of a relatively detailed account of the yaws eradication programme which began in that country in 1950 and which has now reached the end of the “mopping-up” phase. The author points out that lessons learnt in this mass treatment campaign can usefully be applied to eradication programmes against other diseases. PMID:13404466
Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Chih-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Hui
Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, are used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori worldwide. Many consensus guidelines recommend that the second-line rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication consists of a proton pump inhibitor, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. Unfortunately, quinolone is well associated with a risk of developing bacterial resistance. In this paper, we review quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens and the challenges that influence the efficacy of eradication. It is generally suggested that the use of levofloxacin should be confined to "rescue" therapy only, in order to avoid a further rapid increase in the resistance of H. pylori to quinolone. The impact of quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens on public health issues such as tuberculosis treatment must always be taken into account. Exposure to quinolone is relevant to delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the development of drug resistance. Extending the duration of treatment to 14 days improves eradication rates by >90%. Tailored therapy to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant strains can be done by culture-based and molecular methods to provide better eradication rates. Molecular methods are achieved by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of a gyrA mutation, which is predictive of treatment failure with quinolones-containing triple therapy.
Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropriate use, and serve the needs of other research scientists, public health specialists, and government officials. A competitive and collaborative framework will result in policy recommendations from multiple, independently derived models and model systems that share harmonized databases. As planned, modeling results will be produced in five priority areas: (1) strategic planning to determine where and when resources should be optimally allocated to achieve eradication; (2) management plans to minimize the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance; (3) impact assessments of new and needed tools to interrupt transmission; (4) technical feasibility assessments to determine appropriate combinations of tools, an associated set of target intervention coverage levels, and the expected timelines for achieving a set of goals in different socio-ecological settings and different health systems; and (5) operational feasibility assessments to weigh the economic costs, capital investments, and human resource capacities required. PMID:21283605
Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard
Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success. PMID:23798687
Srinivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M
The diagnosis of polio dependents on culturing the virus in stool samples of children with AFP. Using data obtained under the "Right to Information Act" of instances where only one of the two samples was positive for polio, it was possible to estimate the sensitivity of the system to detect cases of polio. The calculations suggest that there were 1625 (95% CI 1528 to 1725) cases of polio in India in 2006 rather than the 674 reported widely!
Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Zahra, Rabaab; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor
Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes and severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of non polio enteroviruses and their correlation with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The stool samples collected from these patients were used for isolation of non polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Out of 38 samples, 29 (76.3%) were successfully typed by microneutralization assay into eleven serotypes including echovirus (E)-3 (5.3%), E-7 (2.6%), E-11 (13.2%), E-12 (7.9%), E-13 (10.5%), E-20 (7.9%), E-27 (5.3%), E-29 (10.5%), E-30 (7.9%), E-33 (2.6%), coxsackievirus (CV) B5 (2.6%) and nine isolates (23.7%) remained untyped which were confirmed as NPEVs by real time RT-PCR. Complete VP1 genetic sequencing data characterized untypeable isolates into enterovirus B77 (EV-B77). Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these viruses into two new genotypes having high genetic diversity (at least 17.7%) with prototype. This study provides valuable information on extensive genetic diversity of EV-B77 genotypes. Although, its association with neurological disorder has not yet been known but isolation of nine EV-B77 viruses from AFP cases highlights the fact that they may have a contributing role in the etiology of AFP. In addition, it is needed to establish enterovirus surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities for early detection of NPEVs that may cause poliomyelitis like paralysis especially in the situation when we are at the verge of polio eradication.
Hsu, Christopher H; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Jamal; Jorba, Jaume; Sharif, Salmaan; Farag, Noha; Martinez, Maureen; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek
Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission continues. This report describes the activities, challenges, and progress toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2015-September 2016 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2015, a total of 54 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan, an 82% decrease from 2014. In 2016, 15 WPV1 cases had been reported as of November 1, representing a 61% decrease compared with the 38 cases reported during the same period in 2015 (Figure 1). Among the 15 WPV1 cases reported in 2016, children aged <36 months accounted for 13 cases; four of those children had received only a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Seven of the 15 WPV1 cases occurred in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), five in Sindh, two in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and one in Balochistan (3). During January-September 2016, WPV1 was detected in 9% (36 of 384) of environmental samples collected, compared with 19% (69 of 354) of samples collected during the same period in 2015. Rigorous implementation of the 2015-2016 National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) (4), coordinated by the National Emergency Operations Center (EOC), has resulted in a substantial decrease in overall WPV1 circulation compared with the previous year. However, detection of WPV1 cases in high-risk areas and the detection of WPV1 in environmental samples from geographic areas where no polio cases are identified highlight the need to continue to improve the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs),* immunization campaigns focused on vaccinating children with OPV outside of routine immunization services, and surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Continuation and refinement of successful program strategies, as outlined in the new 2016-2017 NEAP (5), with particular focus on identifying children missed by vaccination, community-based vaccination, and rapid response to virus
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askgaard, Dorthe; Skinhøj, Peter; Aaby, Peter
Although previous polio infection remains a considerable cause of long-term morbidity worldwide, few studies have examined the psychiatric consequences of poliomyelitis. The authors followed 4,660 polio patients hospitalized at the primary infectious disease hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1922 and 1954 as well as 19,017 age- and gender-matched Danes for psychiatric hospitalizations from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 1993. Incidence rates of all psychiatric disorders combined and of separate diagnostic groups of psychiatric diseases in the two cohorts were compared, yielding the incidence rate ratio, a measure of relative risk. Overall, polio patients had a 40% increased risk of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder (incidence rate ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 1.66). Apparently, the overall increased risk of psychiatric hospitalizations could not be confined to specific groups of psychiatric disorders but seemed to be explained by slightly increased risks of several different disorders, especially milder psychiatric disorders. Finally, psychiatric morbidity did not differ between paralytic and nonparalytic polio patients. History of hospitalization for polio might be associated with subsequent risk of hospitalization for psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanism for this association remains uncertain.
Swartz, T A; Green, M S; Handscher, R; Sofer, D; Cohen-Dar, M; Shohat, T; Habib, S; Barak, E; Dror, Z; Somekh, E; Peled-Leviathan, T; Yulzari, R; Libling, A; Mendelson, E; Shulman, L M
Intestinal immunity was studied in a polio-free community immunised with a combined enhanced inactivated/oral polio vaccine (EIPV/OPV) vaccination programme. Poliovirus excretion was evaluated in three groups of infants primed with a partial (2 EIPV+2 OPV) or complete (3 EIPV+3 OPV) dose schedule. Poliovirus replicated in the gut of 59.8-55.8% of infants in the three groups 7 days after administration of an additional OPV dose. Significant decreases in the percent of type-specific-virus excreters appeared after 14 and 21 days for serotypes 1 and 2, and after 21 and 28 days for serotype 3. The percent of excreters was inversely correlated with pre-challenge neutralising antibody (NA) titers (p<0.05). Intrafamilial virus transmission to mothers and siblings was minimal. The principal factor for interruption of disease and virus transmission in the community was a strong and persistent humoral immunity with immunological memory. A satisfactory level of family hygiene contributed towards breaking the chain of transmission of poliovirus to contacts.
Pastoret, P-P; Van Gucht, S; Brochier, B
Along with zoonotic influenza and antimicrobial resistance, rabies has been identified as a key One Health issue by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). It provides an excellent example of a disease that has an impact on public, animal and environmental health, and therefore benefits from a One Health approach to management. Regrettably, this zoonotic disease is still neglected despite the fact that, annually, it kills as many as 70,000 people worldwide (chiefly children in Asia and Africa), millions of dogs suffer and die, and the disease threatens some populations of endangered wildlife. This is particularly unfortunate, given that effective means of prevention exist. As Her Royal Highness Princess Haya of Jordan pointed out in a video to mark World Rabies Day on 28 September 2013, rabies is a serious world public health problem that is all too often underestimated and even neglected. Yet we know it can be eliminated. By combatting rabies at its source in animals and vaccinating 70% of dogs, we can eradicate it.
Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Sarnquist, Clea; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Nelson, Christine; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Holubar, Marisa; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne A.
Background. With wild poliovirus nearing eradication, preventing circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) by understanding oral polio vaccine (OPV) community circulation is increasingly important. Mexico, where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs) but where children receive inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of their primary regimen, provides a natural setting to study OPV community circulation. Methods. In total, 216 children and household contacts in Veracruz, Mexico, were enrolled, and monthly stool samples and questionnaires collected for 1 year; 2501 stool samples underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3. Results. OPV was detected up to 7 months after an NIW, but not at 8 months. In total, 35% of samples collected from children vaccinated the prior month, but only 4% of other samples, contained OPV. Although each serotype was detected in similar proportions among OPV strains shed as a result of direct vaccination, 87% of OPV acquired through community spread was serotype 2 (P < .0001). Conclusions. Serotype 2 circulates longer and is transmitted more readily than serotypes 1 or 3 after NIWs in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV. This may be part of the reason why most isolated cVDPV has been serotype 2. PMID:24367038
Mitjà, Oriol; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.W.; Funk, Sebastian
Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020. The mainstay of the eradication strategy is mass treatment followed by case finding. Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. The estimated number of cases arising from an index case (basic reproduction number [R0]) ranged from 1.08 to 3.32. To have 80% probability of achieving eradication, 8 rounds of treatment with 80% coverage were required at low estimates of R0 (1.45). This requirement increased to 95% at high estimates of R0 (2.47). Extending the treatment interval to 12 months increased requirements at all estimates of R0. At high estimates of R0 with 12 monthly rounds of treatment, no combination of variables achieved eradication. Models should be used to guide the scale-up of yaws eradication. PMID:27983500
Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C W; Funk, Sebastian
Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020. The mainstay of the eradication strategy is mass treatment followed by case finding. Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. The estimated number of cases arising from an index case (basic reproduction number [R0]) ranged from 1.08 to 3.32. To have 80% probability of achieving eradication, 8 rounds of treatment with 80% coverage were required at low estimates of R0 (1.45). This requirement increased to 95% at high estimates of R0 (2.47). Extending the treatment interval to 12 months increased requirements at all estimates of R0. At high estimates of R0 with 12 monthly rounds of treatment, no combination of variables achieved eradication. Models should be used to guide the scale-up of yaws eradication.
Brown, Alexandra E; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Nzioki, Michael M; Wadood, Mufti Z; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Quddus, Arshad; Walker, George; Sutter, Roland W
Monitoring the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is a key tool for polio eradication. Regular monitoring data, however, are often unreliable, showing high coverage levels in virtually all areas, including those with ongoing virus circulation. To address this challenge, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was introduced in 2009 as an additional tool to monitor SIA quality. Now used in 8 countries, LQAS provides a number of programmatic benefits: identifying areas of weak coverage quality with statistical reliability, differentiating areas of varying coverage with greater precision, and allowing for trend analysis of campaign quality. LQAS also accommodates changes to survey format, interpretation thresholds, evaluations of sample size, and data collection through mobile phones to improve timeliness of reporting and allow for visualization of campaign quality. LQAS becomes increasingly important to address remaining gaps in SIA quality and help focus resources on high-risk areas to prevent the continued transmission of wild poliovirus.
Small, Parker A., Jr.; Small, Natalie S.
Illustrates the complex interactions between disease, societal attitudes, and technology by looking at the history of smallpox. Describes one of mankind's most magnificent accomplishments--the eradication of smallpox from the earth. (JRH)
Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission” (VIMT), which includes not only “classical” transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented. PMID:21311586
Alonso, Pedro L.; Brown, Graham; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Binka, Fred; Chitnis, Chetan; Collins, Frank; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Greenwood, Brian; Hall, B. Fenton; Levine, Myron M.; Mendis, Kamini; Newman, Robert D.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Sinden, Robert; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel
The interruption of malaria transmission worldwide is one of the greatest challenges for international health and development communities. The current expert view suggests that, by aggressively scaling up control with currently available tools and strategies, much greater gains could be achieved against malaria, including elimination from a number of countries and regions; however, even with maximal effort we will fall short of global eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) complements the current research agenda—primarily directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality—with one that aims to identify key knowledge gaps and define the strategies and tools that will result in reducing the basic reproduction rate to less than 1, with the ultimate aim of eradication of the parasite from the human population. Sustained commitment from local communities, civil society, policy leaders, and the scientific community, together with a massive effort to build a strong base of researchers from the endemic areas will be critical factors in the success of this new agenda. PMID:21311579
Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of "vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission" (VIMT), which includes not only "classical" transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented.
Harrison, Tracie; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Scott, Tiffany; Choban, Robin
The purpose of this paper is to report the influence of gender on aging with childhood onset paralytic polio. The hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of gender was done using multiple qualitative interviews with 25 women, age 55 to 75 years of age, who had polio since before 14 years of age. We noted three themes: 1) The movement of her body, 2) Integrating body and gender, and 3) Gender discrepancies. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered expectations and the women’s bodies. PMID:21240713
Bakker, Wilfried A M; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van't Oever, Aart G; Westdijk, Janny; van Oijen, Monique G C T; Sundermann, Lars C; van't Veld, Peter; Sleeman, Eelco; van Nimwegen, Fred W; Hamidi, Ahd; Kersten, Gideon F A; van den Heuvel, Nico; Hendriks, Jan T; van der Pol, Leo A
Industrial-scale inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) production dates back to the 1960s when at the Rijks Instituut voor de Volksgezondheid (RIV) in Bilthoven a process was developed based on micro-carrier technology and primary monkey kidney cells. This technology was freely shared with several pharmaceutical companies and institutes worldwide. In this contribution, the history of one of the first cell-culture based large-scale biological production processes is summarized. Also, recent developments and the anticipated upcoming shift from regular IPV to Sabin-IPV are presented. Responding to a call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for new polio vaccines, the development of Sabin-IPV was continued, after demonstrating proof of principle in the 1990s, at the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI). Development of Sabin-IPV plays an important role in the WHO polio eradication strategy as biocontainment will be critical in the post-OPV cessation period. The use of attenuated Sabin strains instead of wild-type Salk polio strains will provide additional safety during vaccine production. Initially, the Sabin-IPV production process will be based on the scale-down model of the current, and well-established, Salk-IPV process. In parallel to clinical trial material production, process development, optimization and formulation research is being carried out to further optimize the process and reduce cost per dose. Also, results will be shown from large-scale (to prepare for future technology transfer) generation of Master- and Working virus seedlots, and clinical trial material (for phase I studies) production. Finally, the planned technology transfer to vaccine manufacturers in low and middle-income countries is discussed.
Gary, H E; Smith, B; Jenks, J; Ruiz, J; Sessions, W; Vinje, J; Sobsey, M
While oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been shown to be safe and effective, it has been observed that it can circulate within a susceptible population and revert to a virulent form. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) confers protection from paralytic disease, but provides limited protection against infection. It is possible, then, that an IPV-immunized population, when exposed to OPV, could sustain undetected circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus. This study examines the possibility of polio vaccine virus circulating within the United States (highly IPV-immunized) population that borders Mexico (OPV-immunized). A total of 653 stool and 20 sewage samples collected on the US side of the border were tested for the presence of poliovirus. All samples were found to be negative. These results suggest that the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus is low in fully immunized IPV-using populations in developed countries that border OPV-using populations.
Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V
Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.
de Quadros, Ciro A.
Measles is one of the most infectious diseases. Before measles vaccine was introduced, nearly everyone contracted the disease at some point in childhood. By the late 1980s, most countries had incorporated measles vaccine into their routine immunization programmes. Globally, about 800 000 children nevertheless still die from measles annually, half of them in Africa. Eradicating measles would therefore play an important role in improving children's survival. The 24th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 1994 established a goal of eradicating measles from the Americas. Progress to date has been remarkable and the disease is no longer endemic in the Americas, with most countries having documented interruption of transmission. As of November 2003, 12 months had elapsed since the last indigenous case was detected in Venezuela. This experience shows that measles transmission can be interrupted, and that this can be sustained over a long period of time. Global eradication is feasible if an appropriate strategy is implemented. Even under a new paradigm in which immunization is not discontinued after measles is eradicated, eradication will be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save the lives of almost one million children annually. A world free of measles by 2015 is not a dream. PMID:15042236
Sen. Kirk, Mark Steven [R-IL
02/06/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S833-834; text as passed Senate: CR S833-834) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
On, Arzu Yağız; Sungur, Ulaş
Background: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors decades after recovery from an initial acute attack. It is a well-known entity that limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors commonly demonstrate electromyography (EMG) evidence of prior polio. Although the diagnosis of PPS requires a remote history of acute paralytic polio, clinically unapparent damage caused by poliovirus can be associated with PPS later in life. Objective: To evaluate EMG abnormalities and late progressive symptoms in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical motor neuron involvement in those fulfilling criteria for PPS comparing to those without such symptoms. Materials and Methods: Clinical and EMG findings of 464 limbs in 116 polio survivors who had been admitted to our clinic were analyzed. Affection of the limbs by polio was classified based on the patient's self-report on remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis, muscle strength measured by manual muscle testing, and four-limb needle EMG. Results: Seventy-six of the patients (65.5%) met the criteria of PPS. Needle EMG studies revealed subclinical involvement in 122 out of 293 (42%) limbs with no history of remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis. Prevalence of subclinical involvement was found 47% in polio survivors who met the criteria of PPS compared to 33% in those without PPS (P = 0.013). Among the limbs that had developed new weakness in PPS patients, 33.5% had subclinical involvement. Discussion and Conclusion: Subclinical involvement is common in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, and this is especially present in those fulfilling criteria for PPS. New muscle weakness may develop in apparently nonaffected, subclinically involved muscles. Thus we believe that four-limb EMG studies should be performed in all polio survivors, especially in those with the symptoms of PPS. PMID:27011627
Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea
The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire,consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS, and three questions from the Visual Analog Scale questions on fatigue was sent to all 196 polio survivors at the Institute for Rehabilitation in Ljubljana. Responses were assessed in terms of Cronbach's a, item-to-total correlation, factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. Of the128 (65.3%) valid questionnaires returned, those presenting no missing values were used for subsequent analyses (n = 117). The FSS showed good internal consistency: Cronbach's a was greater than 0.95,item-to-total correlation ranged from 0.68 to 0.88. A reduction from seven to three rating categories was necessary to comply with criteria for correct category function. Item difficulty estimates spanned from – 0.91to + 1.09 logits. No item bias was found for sex and age.The internal consistency of FSS was high and its item separation reliability good, indicating a satisfactory replicability of item placement in other samples. In conclusion, Rasch analysis enabled us to confirm the validity of FSS (in its 8-item version, without item 1) as a measure of the severity and impact of physical symptoms of fatigue in polio survivors, so providing a useful starting point for further studies aimed at examining additional psychometric aspects and confirming the appropriateness of the simplification of its rating categories.
Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.
Although most of the U.S. Cotton Belt has achieved functional eradication of the boll weevil, certain areas of Texas as well as Northern Mexico still experience economic loss to this pest. Currently under active eradication, most of these areas are considered subtropical, where boll weevils can per...
Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous.
Micks, D. W.
In considerable areas now in or near the consolidation phase of malaria eradication, other vector-borne diseases present serious public health problems, even though not susceptible to control on the same world-wide scale as malaria. Several of these areas are already making plans for converting their malaria eradication services to vector control services. While it is possible to use essentially the same personnel and equipment, the methods must be adapted to the biology and habits of the vector. For a smooth and rapid transition, considerable advance planning is therefore needed—preferably well ahead of the consolidation phase. The author gives several examples of the need for flexibility in effecting the changeover and of the problems likely to arise after the completion of malaria eradication programmes. He recommends that epidemiological studies should be extended to vector-borne diseases other than malaria while eradication programmes are still in progress and that vector control programmes should be integrated into the basic health services of the country as soon as possible. He also underlines the importance of water management and other aspects of environmental sanitation in vector control programmes. PMID:20604169
To achieve the capability required by the Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) and to process the 14-track analog tapes supplied by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the existing Earth Resources Preprocessor Software Subsystem (ERPSS) was enhanced. A brief overview of the ERPSS is given along with descriptions of only those computer program components that were modified to meet the SEDS requirements.
García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-Merino, Enrique; Fresnadillo-Martínez, María José
Although the WHO original target date for the global eradication of poliomyelitis was the year 2000 -thanks to vaccination and institutional, public and private, resources for that purpose-, in 2013 the disease remained endemic in three countries, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria, and some cases were described in five others. The circulation of wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel, Gaza and the West Bank and the cases in Syria were a wakeup call, as at that time there were polioviruses derived from the oral vaccine that are still circulating among the human population and can cause the development of the disease. Travelling "from" and "to" endemic areas are factors to consider in poliovirus exportation and in its spread when it reaches areas with poor immunogenicity. Wars, terrorism, intolerance, lack of culture and proliferation of anti-vaccine groups and the rise of the anti-vaccination movement are important factors in the maintenance and expansion of the virus and in the "non-vaccination" against it. Based on the international situation to date, the Emergency Committee of WHO met in May 2014 to address the problem. It is still necessary to enhance the knowledge of the disease and its agent. In the first case to perform a differential diagnosis of flaccid paralysis and to continue vaccination programs, and in the second case to keep studying and looking for the poliovirus in environmental samples, which is a model for the study of many other viruses.
Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W
Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical
Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L.; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David CW; Asiedu, Kingsley B
Yaws is endemic in West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The WHO has launched a campaign based on mass treatment with azithromycin, to eradicate yaws by 2020. Progress has been made towards achieving this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in a number of countries including Ghana, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. There is a need to address gaps in knowledge to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to facilitate completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is required to assess the impact of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests in to different stages of the eradication campaign requires evaluation. Finally studies to inform the optimum mass treatment strategy for sustainably interrupting transmission must be conducted. PMID:26362174
Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David C W; Asiedu, Kingsley B
Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is needed to assess the effect of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests into different stages of the eradication campaign needs investigation. Finally, studies must be done to inform the optimum mass-treatment strategy for sustainable interruption of transmission.
In 1986, the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for the elimination of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), a parasitic infection in humans caused by Dracunculus medinensis. At the time, an estimated 3.5 million cases were occurring annually in 20 countries in Africa and Asia, and 120 million persons were at risk for the disease. Because of slow mobilization in countries with endemic disease, the 1991 WHA goal to eradicate dracunculiasis globally by 1995 was not achieved. In 2004, WHA established a new target date of 2009 for global eradication; despite considerable progress, that target date also was not met. This report updates both published and previously unpublished data and updates progress toward global eradication of dracunculiasis since January 2009. At the end of December 2009, dracunculiasis remained endemic in four countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, and Sudan). The number of indigenous cases of dracunculiasis worldwide had decreased 31%, from 4,613 in 2008 to 3,185 in 2009. Of the 766 cases that occurred during January--June 2010, a total of 745 (97%) were reported from 380 villages in Sudan. Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mali each are close to interrupting transmission, as indicated by the small and declining number of cases. The current target is to complete eradication in all four countries as quickly as possible. Insecurity (e.g., sporadic violence or civil unrest) in areas of Sudan and Mali where dracunculiasis is endemic poses the greatest threat to the success of the global dracunculiasis eradication program.
Bruno, R L
Nearly two-thirds of polio survivors report abnormal movements in sleep, with 52% reporting that their sleep is disturbed by these movements. Sleep studies were performed in seven polio survivors to document objectively abnormal movements in sleep. Two patients demonstrated generalized random myoclonus, with brief contractions and even ballistic movements of the arms and legs, slow repeated grasping movements of the hands, slow flexion of the arms, and contraction of the shoulder and pectoral muscles. Two other patients demonstrated periodic movements in sleep with muscle contractions and ballistic movements of the legs, two had periodic movements in sleep plus restless legs syndrome, and one had sleep starts involving only contraction of the arm muscles. Abnormal movements in sleep occurred in Stage II sleep in all patients, in Stage I in some patients, and could significantly disturb sleep architecture even though patients were totally unaware of muscle contractions. Poliovirus-induced damage to the spinal cord and brain is presented as a possible cause of abnormal movements in sleep. The diagnosis of post-polio fatigue, evaluation of abnormal movements in sleep, and management of abnormal movements in sleep using benzodiazepines or dopamimetic agents are described.
Okeibunor, Joseph; Gasasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Poy, Alain; Orkeh, Godwin; Shaba, Keith; Nshimirimana, Deo
This is a comparative analysis of independent monitoring data collected between 2010 and 2012, following the implementation of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in countries in the three sub regional blocs of World Health Organization in the African Region. The sub regional blocs are Central Africa, West Africa, East and Southern Africa. In addition to the support for SIAs, the Central and West African blocs, threatened with importation and re-establishment of polio transmission received intensive coordination through weekly teleconferences. The later, East and Southern African bloc with low polio threats was not engaged in the intensive coordination through teleconferences. The key indicator of the success of SIAs is the proportion of children missed during SIAs. The results showed that generally there was a decrease in the proportion of children missed during SIAs in the region, from 7.94% in 2010 to 5.95% in 2012. However, the decrease was mainly in the Central and West African blocs. The East and Southern African bloc had countries with as much as 25% missed children. In West Africa and Central Africa, where more coordinated SIAs were conducted, there were progressive and consistent drops, from close to 20-10% at the maximum. At the country and local levels, steps were undertaken to ameliorate situation of low immunization uptake. Wherever an area is observed to have low coverage, local investigations were conducted to understand reasons for low coverage, plans to improve coverage are made and implemented in a coordinated manner. Lessons learned from close monitoring of polio eradication SIAs are will be applied to other campaigns being conducted in the African Region to accelerate control of other vaccine preventable diseases including cerebrospinal meningitis A, measles and yellow fever.
The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer…
Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella
Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %.
Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra
Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.
Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Suk, Ki Tae; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Park, Cheol Hee; Baik, Il Hyun; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Bong; Kae, Sea Hyub; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Hak Yang
Background/Aims First-line therapies against Helicobacter pylori, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) plus two antibiotics, may fail in up to 20% of patients. 'Rescue' therapy is usually needed for patients who failed the first-line treatment. This study evaluated the eradication rate of bismuth-containing quadruple rescue therapy over a 1- or 2-week period. Methods We prospectively investigated 169 patients with a persistent H. pylori infection after the first-line triple therapy, which was administered from October 2008 to March 2010. The patients were randomized to receive a 1- or 2-week quadruple rescue therapy (pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d.). After the 'rescue' therapy, the eradication rate, compliance, and adverse events were evaluated. Results The 1-week group achieved 83.5% (71/85) and 87.7% (71/81) eradication rates in the intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses, respectively. The 2-week group obtained 87.7% (72/84) and 88.9% (72/81) eradication rate in the ITT and PP analyses, respectively. There was no significant difference in the eradication rate, patient compliance or rate of adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions One-week bismuth-containing quadruple therapy can be as effective as a 2-week therapy after the failure of the first-line eradication therapy. PMID:23170146
Zou, Li-Ping; Yang, Guang; Ding, Ying-Xue; Wang, Hang-Yan
During a two-decade battle against polio, the Chinese government has saved more than one million children from physical disability caused by wild poliovirus infection. Today, the Chinese government still faces an arduous task in (1) preventing the entry and transmission of wild poliovirus from surrounding polio-endemic countries, (2) finding and stopping the outbreak of polio caused by the recycling of vaccine-derived poliovirus, (3) reducing vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and (4) improving the State compensation system. The scientific monitoring system established in China and the immunity strategy implemented not only allow children in China to avoid lifelong disability or premature death due to polio infection, but also provide success stories for the World Health Organization that can be used for the specification of quality control indices for monitoring polio, classification and diagnosis criteria for acute flaccid paralysis cases, and identification and emergency treatment principles for imported wild poliovirus.
Albert B. Sabin, MD, developer of the oral polio vaccine, was also a major proponent of its use in annual vaccination campaigns aimed at the elimination of polio. Sabin argued that administering his vaccine simultaneously to every child in a country would break polio's chains of transmission. Although he was already promoting mass vaccination by the 1960s, Sabin's efforts expanded considerably when he became an adviser to groups fighting polio in the Americas in the 1980s. Sabin's experiences provide a window into both the formation of the coalition that eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and what can happen when biomedical researchers become public health policy advisers. Although the polio elimination coalition succeeded in part because member groups often accommodated each other's priorities, Sabin was often limited by his indifference to the interests of those he was advising and to the shortcomings of his vaccine.
Walker, Janiece L; Harrison, Tracie C
In this study we tested the Gendered Outcome Scale as a measure of gender satisfaction among 295 women aging with the disabling effects of paralytic polio. Principal components analysis, reliability analyses, and content validity were analyzed on the scale. The scale had a Cronbach's alpha of.90. Younger women had more gender satisfaction (r =.181, p <.01), and women who had greater disability had greater gender satisfaction. (r = -.127, p <.05). The results support that the scale is a valid and reliable measure for determing gender satisfaction. Further work is needed to test the scale in diversified samples.
Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.
OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post
Byun, Hyewon; Gou, Yongqiang; Zook, Adam; Lozano, Mary M.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a universally important process among eukaryotic cells. ERAD is necessary to preserve cell integrity since the accumulation of defective proteins results in diseases associated with neurological dysfunction, cancer, and infections. This process involves recognition of misfolded or misassembled proteins that have been translated in association with ER membranes. Recognition of ERAD substrates leads to their extraction through the ER membrane (retrotranslocation or dislocation), ubiquitination, and destruction by cytosolic proteasomes. This review focuses on ERAD and its components as well as how viruses use this process to promote their replication and to avoid the immune response. PMID:25071743
Oppel, Steffen; Beaven, Brent M; Bolton, Mark; Vickery, Juliet; Bodey, Thomas W
Non-native invasive mammal species have caused major ecological change on many islands. To conserve native species diversity, invasive mammals have been eradicated from several islands not inhabited by humans. We reviewed the challenges associated with campaigns to eradicate invasive mammals from islands inhabited by humans and domestic animals. On these islands, detailed analyses of the social, cultural, and economic costs and benefits of eradication are required to increase the probability of local communities supporting the eradication campaign. The ecological benefits of eradication (e.g., improvement of endemic species' probability of survival) are difficult to trade-off against social and economic costs due to the lack of a common currency. Local communities may oppose an eradication campaign because of perceived health hazards, inconvenience, financial burdens, religious beliefs, or other cultural reasons. Besides these social challenges, the presence of humans and domestic animals also complicates eradication and biosecurity procedures (measures taken to reduce the probability of unwanted organisms colonizing an island to near zero). For example, houses, garbage-disposal areas, and livestock-feeding areas can provide refuges for certain mammals and therefore can decrease the probability of a successful eradication. Transport of humans and goods to an island increases the probability of inadvertent reintroduction of invasive mammals, and the establishment of permanent quarantine measures is required to minimize the probability of unwanted recolonization after eradication. We recommend a close collaboration between island communities, managers, and social scientists from the inception of an eradication campaign to increase the probability of achieving and maintaining an island permanently free of invasive mammals.
Kargar, Mohammad; Sadeghipour, Sara; Nategh, Rakhshandeh
Background Enteroviruses can shed in feces for several weeks, so many excrete viruses can remain infectious for a long time in environment. Therefore, by detecting enteroviruses in environmental specimens and sewage, we can understand this virus circulation, the approximate ratio of contaminated persons in society and they are suitable indicators for environmental surveillance. Methods Since March 2006 to February 2007, 86 specimens from Sistan & Balouchestan,63 specimens from Tehran and 48 samples from Fars sewage disposal systems and surface water were collected by Grab Sample method and tested for enteroviruses directly by using two concentration methods: Pellet and Two-phase. Then Non-Polio Enteroviruses (NPEV) were serotyped by microneutralization method. Results Enteroviruses were isolated from 49(56.98%) of specimens in Sistan & Baluchestan,38(60.32%) in Tehran and 11(22.92%) in Fars. Besides, the majority of Non-Polio Enteroviruses related to Non-typable Enteroviruses (N.T.E.V), E11 (31.52%), COX-B (27.58%), E7 (17.73%) and E4 (21.67%). Conclusion Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring enteric virus circulation and assessing the extent or duration of epidemic non polioviruses in specific populations. The results of this research show the seasonal circulation of enteroviruses in different parts of Iran. PMID:19781063
Glomski, Matthew; Ohanian, Edward
Smallpox remains the only human disease ever eradicated. In this paper, we consider the mathematics behind control strategies used in the effort to eradicate smallpox, from the life tables of Daniel Bernoulli, to the more modern susceptible-infected-removed (SIR)-type compartmental models. In addition, we examine the mathematical feasibility of…
Recurrence of H pylori after eradication is rare in developed countries and more frequent in developing countries. Recrudescence (recolonization of the same strain within 12 mo after eradication) rather than reinfection (colonization with a new strain, more than 12 mo after eradication) is considered to be responsible for most of the cases. This observation was confirmed only in developed countries, while in developing countries a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a high rate of reinfection. The proportion of H pylori annual recurrence was 2.67% and 13.00% in developed and developing countries, respectively. Nested meta-analysis (only cases with a longer follow-up and a negative 13CUBT a year after eradication) revealed annual recurrence rate of 1.45% [relative risk (RR), 0.54] and 12.00% (RR, 0.92) in developed and developing countries, respectively. These findings support the notion that in developed countries many cases of recurrence are due to recrudescence within the first year after eradication, with a 46% drop in the recurrence rate after the first year post eradication, while in developing countries reinfection is more pronounced, and continue at the same rate since eradication. A different approach for follow-up after H pylori eradication is probably needed in patients of developing countries, since reinfection is highly prevalent. PMID:18330934
Breman, Joel G; Arita, Isao
Rigorous, independent, confirmation of disease eradication is necessary to assure credibility of the claimed accomplishment. The criteria and procedures for formal certification of global disease freedom are based on the biological and epidemiological features of the pathogen and its manifestations. Certification activities by previously endemic and at-risk countries include comprehensive documentation focusing on surveillance, reports of national independent review groups, and special field surveys. National and regional results are reviewed by authoritative International Commissions (ICs) which verify the findings by field visits. The ICs present their results to an independent WHO-convened group ("Global Commission" for smallpox), members of which participate in field visits. When fully satisfied, the Global Commission makes conclusions and recommendations to the World Health Assembly (WHA). Smallpox was confirmed eradicated in 1980 by the WHA less than three years after the last naturally occurring case was detected. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm) freedom has been certified in 187 countries. Regional commissions have certified the Americas, Asia, and Europe polio-free; however, re-establishment of endemic foci in countries previously declared disease-free has created special challenges for completing this program. Post-eradication activities require attention to surveillance, maximum security of the microbial agent, and essential research to assure maintenance of disease freedom.
Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie
Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world.
Bayerdörffer, E; Miehlke, S; Mannes, G A
Combined therapy with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and amoxicillin has become an important alternative in the treatment of ulcer disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Due to the high efficacy in eradicating H.pylori, missing resistance of H.pylori against amoxicillin and high tolerability and digestibility this regimen may be recommended for widespread routine use. In a randomized, double-blind multicenter trial an H.pylori eradication rate of over 90% has been achieved for the first time by dual therapy using a daily omeprazole dose of 120 mg (3x40 mg) in combination with 3 x 750 mg amoxicillin for 14 days, which is comparable with classical triple therapy containing bismuth and two antibiotics. On the basis of an "intention-to-treat-analysis" dual therapy of omeprazole 3x40 mg + 3x750 mg amoxicillin is considered at present to be the most effective regimen for the treatment of H.pylori-associated diseases.
Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi
From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.
Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi
From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199
Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world.
Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world. PMID:24151495
Borody, T J; Andrews, P; Fracchia, G; Brandl, S; Shortis, N P; Bae, H
Triple therapy has been recommended as the most effective treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Despite achieving a comparatively high eradication result, however, around 10% of patients still fail to be cured. Omeprazole can enhance efficacy of single and double antibiotic protocols and is particularly effective when combined with clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole. This study examined the effect of combining triple therapy with omeprazole. A prospective, randomised, unblinded, single centre trial was carried out on consecutive patients with symptoms of dyspepsia and H pylori infection confirmed by rapid urease test, microbiological culture, and histological assessment. Patients were given a five times/day, 12 day course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate chewable tablets (108 mg), tetracycline HCl (250 mg), and metronidazole (200 mg) with either 20 mg omeprazole twice daily (triple therapy+omeprazole) or 40 mg famotidine (triple therapy+famotidine) at night. Compliance and side effects were determined using a standard questionnaire form. One hundred and twenty five of 165 triple therapy+omeprazole patients and 124 of 171 triple therapy+famotidine patients returned for rebiopsy four weeks after completion of treatment. Significantly more triple therapy+omeprazole patients achieved eradication 122 of 125 (97.6%) as assessed by negative urease test, culture, and histological assessment, when compared with 110 of 124 (89%) triple therapy+famotidine patients (p = 0.006; chi 2). There were 30 triple therapy+omeprazole (24%) and 26 triple therapy+famotidine (21%) patients with de novo metronidazole resistant H pylori included in the study. Side effects were mild and infrequent and were comparable in both groups, although pain in duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and oesophagitis patients seemed to subside earlier in those taking omeprazole. Compliance (>95% of drugs taken) was achieved by 98% of patients of both groups. A 12 days regimen of triple therapy with
Visser, Benjamin Jelle
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-Saharan African countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a 25-year old campaign to rid the world of Guinea Worm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries. During the 19th and 20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much of Southern Asia and the African continent. The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by ≥99%, from the 3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in 1986 in Africa to only 1,797 cases reported in 2010 reported in only five countries (Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia, Chad and Ghana) and Asia free of the disease. This achievement is unique in its kind--the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible--and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs. Most efforts need to be taken in two countries, South Sudan (comprising 94% or 1,698 out of 1,797 of the cases reported world-wide in 2010) and Mali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outside Mali's borders. All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy. Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.
Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R
Since the seminal review by Ralph Muller about Dracunculus and dracunculiasis in this serial publication in 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Carter Center forged, during the 1980s, a coalition of organizations to support a campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis. Eighteen of 20 countries were known in 1986 to have endemic dracunculiasis, i.e., Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. Transmission of the disease in Yemen was documented in 1995, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Central African Republic endemic in 1995. As of the end of 2004, a total of 16026 cases of dracunculiasis were reported from 12 endemic countries (91% of these cases were reported from Ghana and Sudan, combined), a reduction greater than 99% from the 3.5 million cases of dracunculiasis estimated in 1986 to occur annually; the number of endemic villages has been reduced by >91%, from the 23475 endemic villages in 1991; disease transmission has been interrupted in 9 of the 20 endemic countries; and WHO has certified 168 countries free of dracunculiasis, including Pakistan (1996), India (2000), Senegal and Yemen (2004). Asia is now free of dracunculiasis.
Pethe, V P
This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.
Chaudhry, Imtiaz A
Trachoma remains the leading cause of preventable corneal blindness in developing countries. The disease is contracted in early childhood by repeated infection of the ocular surface by C. trachomatis. Initial clinical manifestation is a follicular conjunctivitis which if not treated on timely basis, may lead to conjunctival and eyelid scarring that may eventually result in corneal scarring and loss of vision. Over the past two decades, a remarkable reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma has occurred due to the World Health Organization's (WHOs) program GET 2020 for the elimination of trachoma with adoption of the SAFE strategy incorporating Surgery, Antibiotic treatment, Facial cleanliness and Environmental hygiene. However, patients who already had infection at young age may present with adnexal-related complications of trachomatous scarring that may cause corneal scarring and visual loss. These patients may present with evidence of trichiasis/entropion as well as eyelid retraction. Lacrimal complications may include nasolacrimal-duct obstruction, dacryocystitis and canaliculitis requiring intervention. In addition to the increased risk for corneal scarring, trichiasis/entropion may further increase the risks for microbial keratitis in patients who may have unrecognized dacryocystitis and canaliculitis. Female patients may have more trachomtous-related complications and may present at an early age. Available evidence indicates that SAFE strategy may be effective and on the right track towards achieving GET 2020 goal for the eradication of trachoma.
Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.
A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.
Zhu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jia-Bao
This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage) and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost. PMID:27313655
Frimpong, Jemima A; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Asuming, Patrick; Touré, Hamadassalia; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Abachie, Thomas; Guidetti, Flavia
Abstract Objective To determine participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in sub-Saharan Africa among users and non-users of routine immunization services and among users who were compliant or non-compliant with the routine oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) immunization schedule. Methods Data were obtained from household-based surveys in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan African countries. Routine immunization service users were children (aged < 5 years) who had ever had a health card containing their vaccination history; non-users were children who had never had a health card. Users were considered compliant with the OPV routine immunization schedule if, by the SIA date, their health card reflected receipt of required OPV doses. Logistic regression measured associations between SIA participation and use of both routine immunization services and compliance with routine OPV among users. Findings Data from 21 SIAs conducted between 1999 and 2010 in 15 different countries met inclusion criteria. Overall SIA participation ranged from 70.2% to 96.1%. It was consistently lower among infants than among children aged 1–4 years. In adjusted analyses, participation among routine immunization services users was > 85% in 12 SIAs but non-user participation was > 85% in only 5 SIAs. In 18 SIAs, participation was greater among users (P < 0.01 in 16, 0.05 in 1 and < 0.10 in 1) than non-users. In 14 SIAs, adjusted analyses revealed lower participation among non-compliant users than among compliant users (P < 0.01 in 10, < 0.05 in 2 and < 0.10 in 2). Conclusion Large percentages of children participated in SIAs. Prior use of routine immunization services and compliance with the routine OPV schedule showed a strong positive association with SIA participation. PMID:22807595
Zullo, Angelo; Severi, Carola; Vannella, Lucy; Hassan, Cesare; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Annibale, Bruno
Helicobacter pylori eradication rate following standard triple therapy is decreasing. Identification of predictive factors of therapy success would be useful for H. pylori management in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different gastritis patterns on the efficacy of the currently suggested 14-day triple therapy regimen. One-hundred and seventeen, consecutive, non-ulcer dyspeptic patients, with H. pylori infection diagnosed at endoscopy, were enrolled. All patients received a 14-day, triple therapy with lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1 g, all given twice daily. Bacterial eradication was assessed with (13)C-urea breath test 4-6 weeks after completion of therapy. H. pylori infection was cured in 70.1% at ITT analysis and 83.7% at PP analysis. The eradication rate tended to be lower in patients with corpus-predominant gastritis as compared to those with antral-predominant gastritis at both ITT (66.1 vs 74.5%) and PP (80.4 vs 87.2%) analyses. The multivariate analysis failed to identify factors associated with therapy success. However, 14-day triple therapy does not achieve acceptable H. pylori cure rate in Italy, and should be not recommended in clinical practice.
Lin, Y.E.; Vidic, R.D.; Stout, J.E.; Yu, V.L.
The presence of Legionella pneumophila in water distribution systems has been epidemiologically linked to hospital-acquired Legionnaires` disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of copper and silver ions for inactivation of Legionella pneumophila. Experimental results showed that L. pneumophila was completely inactivated at copper concentration of 0.1 mg/L within the period of 2.5 hours while 6-log reduction requires a Ct value of 0.8 mg/L*hour. On the other hand, more than 24 hours was required to completely eradicate L. pneumophila at the highest silver ion concentration (0.08 mg/L) tested and only 4-log reduction is observed for Ct value of 0.8 mg/L*hour. The effective synergism of these ions in eradicating L. pneumophila was observed for copper concentrations of 0.05 and silver concentration of 0.04 mg/L. One approach for the control of L. pneumophila in water distribution systems is to initiate copper/silver ion concentrations at 0.4/0.04 mg/L to achieve complete eradication of L. pneumophila already present in the water distribution system (as established in previous studies) followed by a lower residual (0.05/0.04 mg/L) protection against L. pneumophila in the incoming water.
Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024
Smith, Kendall A.
One of the most celebrated achievements of immunology and modern medicine is the eradication of the dreaded plague smallpox. From the introduction of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner, to its popularization by Louis Pasteur, to the eradication effort led by Donald Henderson, this story has many lessons for us today, including the characteristics of the disease and vaccine that permitted its eradication, and the obviousness of the vaccine as a vector for other intractable Infectious diseases. The disease itself, interpreted in the light of modern molecular immunology, is an obvious immunopathological disease, which occurs after a latent interval of 1-2 weeks, and manifests as a systemic cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) syndrome. The vaccine that slayed this dragon was given the name vaccinia, and was thought to have evolved from cowpox virus, but is now known to be most closely related to a poxvirus isolated from a horse. Of interest is the fact that of the various isolates of orthopox viruses, only variola, vaccinia and monkeypox viruses can infect humans. In contrast to the systemic disease of variola, vaccinia only replicates locally at the site of inoculation, and causes a localized DTH response that usually peaks after 7-10 days. This difference in the pathogenicity of variola vs. vaccinia is thought to be due to the capacity of variola to circumvent innate immunity, which allows it to disseminate widely before the adaptive immune response occurs. Thus, the fact that vaccinia virus is attenuated compared to variola, but is still replication competent, makes for its remarkable efficacy as a vaccine, as the localized infection activates all of the cells and molecules of both innate and adaptive immunity. Accordingly vaccinia itself, and not modified replication incompetent vaccina, is the hope for use as a vector in the eradication of additional pathogenic microbes from the globe. PMID:23760373
Smith, Kendall A
One of the most celebrated achievements of immunology and modern medicine is the eradication of the dreaded plague smallpox. From the introduction of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner, to its popularization by Louis Pasteur, to the eradication effort led by Donald Henderson, this story has many lessons for us today, including the characteristics of the disease and vaccine that permitted its eradication, and the obviousness of the vaccine as a vector for other intractable Infectious diseases. The disease itself, interpreted in the light of modern molecular immunology, is an obvious immunopathological disease, which occurs after a latent interval of 1-2 weeks, and manifests as a systemic cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) syndrome. The vaccine that slayed this dragon was given the name vaccinia, and was thought to have evolved from cowpox virus, but is now known to be most closely related to a poxvirus isolated from a horse. Of interest is the fact that of the various isolates of orthopox viruses, only variola, vaccinia and monkeypox viruses can infect humans. In contrast to the systemic disease of variola, vaccinia only replicates locally at the site of inoculation, and causes a localized DTH response that usually peaks after 7-10 days. This difference in the pathogenicity of variola vs. vaccinia is thought to be due to the capacity of variola to circumvent innate immunity, which allows it to disseminate widely before the adaptive immune response occurs. Thus, the fact that vaccinia virus is attenuated compared to variola, but is still replication competent, makes for its remarkable efficacy as a vaccine, as the localized infection activates all of the cells and molecules of both innate and adaptive immunity. Accordingly vaccinia itself, and not modified replication incompetent vaccina, is the hope for use as a vector in the eradication of additional pathogenic microbes from the globe.
In 1986, the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for the elimination of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), a parasitic infection in humans caused by Dracunculus medinensis. At the time, an estimated 3.5 million cases were occurring annually in 20 countries in Africa and Asia, and 120 million persons were at risk for the disease. Because of slow mobilization in countries with endemic disease, the 1991 WHA goal to eradicate dracunculiasis globally by 1995 was not achieved. In 2004, WHA established a new target date of 2009 for global eradication; despite considerable progress, that target date also was not met. This report updates published and previously unpublished data and describes progress towards global eradication of dracunculiasis since January 2010. The number of indigenous cases of dracunculiasis worldwide decreased 44%, from 3,185 cases in 2009 to 1,793 in 2010. As of June 2011, dracunculiasis remained endemic in three countries (Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan). Of the 814 cases that occurred during January-June 2011, a total of 801 (98%) were reported from 358 villages in South Sudan. By October 2010, Ghana had gone 12 months without an indigenous case, thereby interrupting transmission; Ethiopia and Mali are close to interrupting transmission, as indicated by the small and declining numbers of cases in these two countries. An outbreak of 10 cases was discovered in Chad in 2010. The current target is to interrupt transmission in the remaining countries as soon as possible. Insecurity (e.g., sporadic violence or civil unrest) in areas of South Sudan and Mali, where dracunculiasis is endemic, poses the greatest threat to the success of the global dracunculiasis eradication campaign.
Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne
Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738
Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Mahmud, Nadim; Lee, Yu-Jin; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Flaster, Harry; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne
During replication, oral polio vaccine (OPV) can revert to neurovirulence and cause paralytic poliomyelitis. In individual vaccinees, it can acquire specific revertant point mutations, leading to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). With longer replication, OPV can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), which causes poliomyelitis outbreaks similar to those caused by wild poliovirus. After wild poliovirus eradication, safely phasing out vaccination will likely require global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) until cessation of OPV circulation. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given biannually during national immunization days (NIDs), provides a natural setting to study the duration of OPV circulation in a population primarily vaccinated with IPV. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect and distinguish revertant and nonrevertant OPV serotype 1 (OPV-1), OPV-2, and OPV-3 from RNA extracted directly from stool and sewage. Stool samples from 124 children and 8 1-liter sewage samples from Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, collected 6 to 13 weeks after a NID were analyzed. Revertant OPV-1 was found in stool at 7 and 9 weeks, and nonrevertant OPV-2 and OPV-3 were found in stool from two children 10 weeks after the NID. Revertant OPV-1 and nonrevertant OPV-2 and -3 were detected in sewage at 6 and 13 weeks after the NID. Our real-time PCR assay was able to detect small amounts of OPV in both stool and sewage and to distinguish nonrevertant and revertant serotypes and demonstrated that OPV continues to circulate at least 13 weeks after a NID in a Mexican population routinely immunized with IPV. PMID:21411577
Koopman, J S; Henry, C J; Park, J H; Eisenberg, M C; Ionides, E L; Eisenberg, J N
Waning immunity could allow transmission of polioviruses without causing poliomyelitis by promoting silent circulation (SC). Undetected SC when oral polio vaccine (OPV) use is stopped could cause difficult to control epidemics. Little is known about waning. To develop theory about what generates SC, we modeled a range of waning patterns. We varied both OPV and wild polio virus (WPV) transmissibility, the time from beginning vaccination to reaching low polio levels, and the infection to paralysis ratio (IPR). There was longer SC when waning continued over time rather than stopping after a few years, when WPV transmissibility was higher or OPV transmissibility was lower, and when the IPR was higher. These interacted in a way that makes recent emergence of prolonged SC a possibility. As the time to reach low infection levels increased, vaccine rates needed to eliminate polio increased and a threshold was passed where prolonged low-level SC emerged. These phenomena were caused by increased contributions to the force of infection from reinfections. The resulting SC occurs at low levels that would be difficult to detect using environmental surveillance. For all waning patterns, modest levels of vaccination of adults shortened SC. Previous modeling studies may have missed these phenomena because (1) they used models with no or very short duration waning and (2) they fit models to paralytic polio case counts. Our analyses show that polio case counts cannot predict SC because nearly identical polio case count patterns can be generated by a range of waning patterns that generate different patterns of SC. We conclude that the possibility of prolonged SC is real but unquantified, that vaccinating modest fractions of adults could reduce SC risk, and that joint analysis of acute flaccid paralysis and environmental surveillance data can help assess SC risks and ensure low risks before stopping OPV.
To, Milton; Peterson, Clark W. H.; Roberts, Melissa A.; Counihan, Jessica L.; Wu, Tiffany T.; Forster, Mercedes S.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Olzmann, James A.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates the folding, maturation, and deployment of the secretory proteome. Proteins that fail to achieve their native conformation are retained in the ER and targeted for clearance by ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a sophisticated process that mediates the ubiquitin-dependent delivery of substrates to the 26S proteasome for proteolysis. Recent findings indicate that inhibition of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases with triacsin C, a fatty acid analogue, impairs lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis and ERAD, suggesting a role for LDs in ERAD. However, whether LDs are involved in the ERAD process remains an outstanding question. Using chemical and genetic approaches to disrupt diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)–dependent LD biogenesis, we provide evidence that LDs are dispensable for ERAD in mammalian cells. Instead, our results suggest that triacsin C causes global alterations in the cellular lipid landscape that disrupt ER proteostasis by interfering with the glycan trimming and dislocation steps of ERAD. Prolonged triacsin C treatment activates both the IRE1 and PERK branches of the unfolded protein response and ultimately leads to IRE1-dependent cell death. These findings identify an intimate relationship between fatty acid metabolism and ER proteostasis that influences cell viability. PMID:27881664
Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J
People who inject drugs (PWID) represent the core of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in many countries and HCV-related disease burden continues to rise. There are compelling data demonstrating that with the appropriate programs, treatment for HCV infection among PWID is successful, with responses to therapy similar those observed in large randomized controlled trials in non-PWID. However, assessment and treatment for HCV infection lags far behind the numbers who could benefit from therapy, related to systems-, provider- and patient-related barriers to care. The approaching era of interferon-free directly acting antiviral therapy has the potential to provide one of the great advances in clinical medicine. Simple, tolerable and highly effective therapy will likely address many of these barriers, thereby enhancing the numbers of PWID cured of HCV infection. This commentary will consider why we should strive for the eradication of HCV infection among PWID, whether eradication of HCV infection among PWID is feasible, components that would be needed to achieve eradication of HCV infection in PWID, potential settings and strategies required to establish programs targeted towards eradicating HCV infection among PWID and the feasibility of eradication versus elimination of HCV infection among PWID. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication."
Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Townsend, D.R.
Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.
Dogra, Sunil; Narang, Tarun; Kumar, Bhushan
Leprosy is among the world's oldest and most dreaded diseases and it has been synonymous with stigma and discrimination due to the hideous deformities it produced, mystery around its aetiology and transmission and lack of any effective remedy till recently. Leprosy control started with the use of chaulmoogra oil and for the last three decades, multi drug therapy (MDT) has been our main tool against leprosy. In the last two decades, the reported global prevalence of active leprosy infection has dropped by almost 90 per cent by the combined efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO), local governments, health professionals, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), however, a parallel drop in the incidence or new case detection rate (NCDR) has not occurred. From 1994 through 2011, more than 100,000 new cases are being detected annually, of whom maximum case load is from India. There is need for research on tools for early diagnosis, short and effective treatment, and prevention of deformities and disabilities. Evaluating the role of immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis will also lead us to better understanding of their mode of action. Further molecular analysis of Mycobacterium leprae genome may provide the requisite basis for all this. The current reality is that there is a need to sustain and provide quality leprosy services to all persons through general health services, including good referral system. All these provisions in the integrated health care approach will go a long way in further reducing the stigma. Efforts need to be made to reduce deformity through early detection, self care, physiotherapy and reconstructive surgery and developing sound surveillance systems. With all the remarkable achievements in the fight against leprosy, the stage is now set for the final assault. It is hoped that with the efforts of all the stake holders and strong political will, the disease will be eradicated in the near future. PMID:23481049
Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B.; Tediosi, Fabrizio
economic benefits of elimination/eradication. To a lesser extent, challenges associated with achieving elimination/eradication and ensuring equity have also been explored. Although elimination and eradication are, for some diseases, good investments compared with control, countries’ incentives to eliminate do not always align with the global good and the most efficient elimination strategies may not prioritize the poorest populations. For any infectious disease, policy-makers will need to consider realigning contrasting incentives between the individual countries and the global community and to assure that the process towards elimination/eradication considers equity. PMID:26070135
Efrati, Cesare; Nicolini, Giorgia; Cannaviello, Claudio; O’Sed, Nicole Piazza; Valabrega, Stefano
antibiotic treatment. There was a low incidence of adverse effects in all groups of patients with sequential therapy, probably due to the presence of the L. reuteri supplementation. CONCLUSION: The sequential treatment regimen achieved a significantly higher eradication rate of H. pylori compared with standard 7-d regimen. L. reuteri supplementation could reduce the frequency and the intensity of antibiotic-associated side-effects. PMID:23180945
Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young
The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors.
Farbu, E; Gilhus, N E
Patients with previous polio represent a challenge for neurological rehabilitation. We examined 168 previous polio patients and 239 of their siblings, the patients either from the 1950-1954 epidemic cohort, or from a cohort of hospital-admitted rehabilitation patients. Ninety-four paralytic patients and 74 non-paralytic patients were included. All patients and siblings answered the same questionnaires for socioeconomic and health factors and chi-square comparisons were performed. Previous polio did not affect the level of education. Both patients and siblings rated their educational options to have been good. Significantly less patients were full-time employed at the age of 40 years compared to their siblings (P=0.015). This was the result of a lower full-time employment rate amongst the paralytic patients, only 52% of this group being employed full-time. Male patients and paralytic patients reported to have experienced reduced professional options. More patients were living alone compared to their siblings (P=0.035). The perception of general health was lower amongst patients than siblings, as was assessment of total life situation and patients reported more frequently symptoms like pain and tiredness. In conclusion, previous polio had not lowered the polio patients' educational status, but fewer patients were employed full-time at the age of 40 years.
Penniman, Teya M.; Buchanan, Lori; Loope, Lloyd L.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.
The state of Hawai'i (USA) has few regulations to limit plant introductions. A network of interagency islandbased invasive species committees has evolved over the past decade to address this vulnerability, with the aim of stopping invasions before they threaten natural areas. On Maui, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i, which comprise three of the four islands of Maui County, single-island eradications have been achieved for 12 plant species and eradication is likely imminent for an additional eight species. The islands vary in size, population, and land ownership. We explore the relative importance of those variables in achieving successful eradications along with target species selection, detection strategies, and public support
Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna
The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans.
McMahon, J. P.; Highton, R. B.; Goiny, H.
S. neavei, the vector of onchocerciasis, has been virtually eradicated from Kenya by larviciding measures in which DDT was used. Only a very small area remains infested and this is in the course of being treated by the Uganda medical authorities as it is part of a much larger focus occurring in that country. An account is given of the various surveys which have been carried out during the last ten years in Nyanza Province, involving 15 000 square miles (about 40 000 km2), and survey techniques are described. An account is given of the eradication measures carried out in North and South Nyanza, and techniques in connexion with dosing and checking operations are described. Costs for both surveys and eradication schemes are given, and minimum requirements for transport are indicated. PMID:13585062
With an increasing number of malaria eradication programmes approaching or entering the consolidation phase, the epidemiological features of disappearing malaria are getting better known and defined. At the same time, the old classical methods of measuring malaria prevalence have become inadequate and new methods for the epidemiological assessment of the progress of eradication are being developed. In this article the new methods of assessment and epidemiological and statistical criteria for discontinuing residual spraying and for the stability of consolidation are discussed on the basis of field experience in several countries during the past two or three years. Some prominent epidemiological features of malaria at reduced levels of transmission are described, special attention being given to the role of the asymptomatic carrier in malaria eradication. PMID:13846510
An intensive programme of residual spraying with DDT carried out over a period of 5 years in Taiwan has reduced malaria morbidity to a very low level. Since 1955, the goal has been complete eradication. Some foci of transmission and/or infection remain, however, and although no resistance problems have been encountered, the principal vector, A. minimus minimus, is still widely distributed. An elaborate surveillance organization is now in the process of creation, with the object of detecting and eliminating all residual foci of transmission and preventing the importation of fresh cases. It is hoped to complete eradication in another 3-5 years. PMID:13596886
In 2012 WHO declared a target to eradicate yaws by 2020. The cornerstone of this strategy is community mass treatment with azithromycin. Initial studies suggest this is a very effective tool that may be capable of interrupting transmission. Alongside this there has been progress in the development and validation of diagnostic tests for yaws. Several new challenges have also emerged, in particular, evidence that Haemophilus ducreyi can cause phenotypically similar ulcers in yaws endemic communities, and evidence for a possible non-human primate reservoir. The 2020 eradication target remains ambitious and more challenges should be expected on the journey. PMID:27268712
In 2012 WHO declared a target to eradicate yaws by 2020. The cornerstone of this strategy is community mass treatment with azithromycin. Initial studies suggest this is a very effective tool that may be capable of interrupting transmission. Alongside this there has been progress in the development and validation of diagnostic tests for yaws. Several new challenges have also emerged, in particular, evidence that Haemophilus ducreyi can cause phenotypically similar ulcers in yaws endemic communities, and evidence for a possible non-human primate reservoir. The 2020 eradication target remains ambitious and more challenges should be expected on the journey.
Aylward, R. B.; Hull, H. F.; Cochi, S. L.; Sutter, R. W.; Olivé, J. M.; Melgaard, B.
Disease eradication as a public health strategy was discussed at international meetings in 1997 and 1998. In this article, the ongoing poliomyelitis eradication initiative is examined using the criteria for evaluating candidate diseases for eradication proposed at these meetings, which covered costs and benefits, biological determinants of eradicability (technical feasibility) and societal and political considerations (operational feasibility). The benefits of poliomyelitis eradication are shown to include a substantial investment in health services delivery, the elimination of a major cause of disability, and far-reaching intangible effects, such as establishment of a "culture of prevention". The costs are found to be financial and finite, despite some disturbances to the delivery of other health services. The "technical" feasibility of poliomyelitis eradication is seen in the absence of a non-human reservoir and the presence of both an effective intervention and delivery strategy (oral poliovirus vaccine and national immunization days) and a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool (viral culture of specimens from acute flaccid paralysis cases). The certification of poliomyelitis eradication in the Americas in 1994 and interruption of endemic transmission in the Western Pacific since March 1997 confirm the operational feasibility of this goal. When the humanitarian, economic and consequent benefits of this initiative are measured against the costs, a strong argument is made for eradication as a valuable disease control strategy. PMID:10812724
Adu, F D; Kembi, F A; Bamgboye, A; Osei-Kwasi, M
Twenty two sewage samples collected from eleven locations among communities at risk of poliomyelitis in the southwestern part of Nigeria were screened for the presence of polio virus. The virus was isolated from seven of the samples. All the isolates were type 1 wild polio virus, an indication that all the isolates were from human contamination and that the wild polio virus is still very much in circulation in Nigeria many years after the Expanded Programme on Immunisation was introduced. It can be concluded from this study that polio immunisation campaign has not been successful in Nigeria considering the number of wild polio virus isolated from the sewage samples since virological examination of sewage has been used to document the effect of vaccination campaigns.
Delpeyroux, Francis; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge; Joffret, Marie-Line; Rousset, Dominique; Blondel, Bruno
The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network.
Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L
Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help
Valenciano Clavel, Luis
This paper presents the intervention of Dr Luis Valenciano Clavel in the act that was held on July 2, 2013 under the title Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the establishment of poliovirus vaccination campaigns in Spain. (Tribute to Dr D Florencio Perez Gallardo), in Ernest Lluch Hall of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Dr Luis Valenciano Clavel describes his experience and direct participation, along with Florencio Pérez Gallardo, during the first oral polio vaccination campaign in Spain, after returning from his stay in health centers of Germany and assuming the leadership of the Polio Diagnostic Laboratory of theNational School of Public Health. The success of the polio vaccination campaign, it gave rise to the current National Center of Virology, pivot of the current Institute of Health Carlos III.
Narain, Jai P.; Jain, S.K.; Bora, D.; Venkatesh, S.
Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 States of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance activities accompanied by serological surveys were continued in the erstwhile endemic districts. These surveys carried out among children between the age of 1-5 yr, further confirmed the absence of community transmission in the country. The experience of India demonstrates that yaws can be eradicated in all endemic countries of Africa and Asia, provided that political commitment can be mobilized and community level activities sustained until the goal is achieved. PMID:26139778
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Aqeel, Talieha; Akbar, Naila; Salman, Saad; Idress, Jawaria
Introduction Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results. Results A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42±2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions) while the mean attitude score was 28.75±5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements). Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%), management issues (31.9%), use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7%) and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%). The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%), while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%), and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%). Internet (n = 167, 37%) and Posters (n = 158, 35%) were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio. Conclusion Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan. PMID
Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer
The history of polio vaccination in the United States spans 50 years and includes different phases of the disease, multiple vaccines, and a sustained significant commitment of resources. We estimated cost-effectiveness ratios and assessed the net benefits of polio vaccination applicable at various points in time from the societal perspective and we discounted these back to appropriate points in time. We reconstructed vaccine price data from available sources and used these to retrospectively estimate the total costs of the U.S. historical polio vaccination strategies (all costs reported in year 2002 dollars). We estimate that the United States invested approximately US dollars 35 billion (1955 net present value, discount rate of 3%) in polio vaccines between 1955 and 2005 and will invest approximately US dollars 1.4 billion (1955 net present value, or US dollars 6.3 billion in 2006 net present value) between 2006 and 2015 assuming a policy of continued use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for routine vaccination. The historical and future investments translate into over 1.7 billion vaccinations that prevent approximately 1.1 million cases of paralytic polio and over 160,000 deaths (1955 net present values of approximately 480,000 cases and 73,000 deaths). Due to treatment cost savings, the investment implies net benefits of approximately US dollars 180 billion (1955 net present value), even without incorporating the intangible costs of suffering and death and of averted fear. Retrospectively, the U.S. investment in polio vaccination represents a highly valuable, cost-saving public health program. Observed changes in the cost-effectiveness ratio estimates over time suggest the need for living economic models for interventions that appropriately change with time. This article also demonstrates that estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios at any single time point may fail to adequately consider the context of the investment made to date and the importance of
On January 6, 1996, Dr. Haryono Suyono, Minister of State for Population and Chairman of BKKBN, the Minister of Health, and the Governor of West Java inaugurated the revitalization of village population and development institutions throughout Indonesia. The event was coined "The Movement of One Million Village Institutions." It highlighted progress made by village community institutions which successfully implemented nationwide polio vaccination and the village health insurance scheme for needy families. The movements are based upon community self-reliance and sharing, with the government providing assistance when and where needed. Relatively more affluent families are encouraged to help the less well-off in their villages meet their basic needs, including health and educational expenses. These institutions have now gone beyond promoting just family planning, but also help family income generation and village insurance schemes, provide fellowships to children of the less privileged, and help families build clean, cement house floors.
Barnes, C. M.; Spaulding, R. R.; Giddings, L. E.
The archives accumulated during 1 year of operation of the Satellite Temperature-Monitoring System during development of the Screwworm Eradication Data System are reported. Brief descriptions of all the kinds of tapes, as well as their potential uses, are presented. Reference is made to other documents that explain the generation of these data.
Noack, Julia; Bernasconi, Riccardo; Molinari, Maurizio
An essential step during the intracellular life cycle of many positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of host cell membranes to generate membrane-bound replication platforms. For example, Nidovirales and Flaviviridae subvert the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication. However, the absence of conventional ER and secretory pathway markers in virus-induced ER-derived membranes has for a long time hampered a thorough understanding of their biogenesis. Recent reports highlight the analogies between mouse hepatitis virus-, equine arteritis virus-, and Japanese encephalitis virus-induced replication platforms and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) tuning vesicles (or EDEMosomes) that display nonlipidated LC3 at their cytosolic face and segregate the ERAD factors EDEM1, OS-9, and SEL1L from the ER lumen. In this Gem, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on ERAD tuning pathways and how they might be hijacked for viral genome replication. As ERAD tuning components, such as SEL1L and nonlipidated LC3, appear to contribute to viral infection, these cellular pathways represent novel candidate drug targets to combat positive-strand RNA viruses.
The screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was a devastating pest to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of the screwworm was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. He...
Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Sahibzada, Muhammad Umar Khayam
A qualitative study design was adapted to explore the challenges faced by health workers (HWs) during the polio health campaign. In addition, HWs' opinions about the factors causing parents to refuse oral polio vaccination (OPV) were also explored. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were held (from 1st January 2015-31st March 2015) with the HWs who participated in the OPV campaigns in the polio red zones of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province of Pakistan, namely Kohat (FG 1), Domel and Bannu (FG 2), Hangoo (FG 3), and Peshawar (FG 4). A total of N=42 HWs (10-11 in each FG) agreed to participate in this study. Overall, HWs disclosed that public attitude and harsh behaviour towards the HWs and security threats are the two main challenges they face. Common issues hindering parents' willingness to vaccinate their children against OPV are: OPV is seen as haram and not permitted in Islam, it is said to contain the blood of pigs (Khinzir) and monkeys, and parents are afraid that it is done to induce sterility among their children. HWs also shared that parents have a strong belief in the conspiracies that are associated with OPV, i.e. the USA and CIA, are spying on us and our government is helping them to achieve their agenda. Furthermore, HWs revealed that frequent visits may further strengthen parents' perceptions and make them more resistant to OPV. The common side effects of OPV reported by parents were mainly gastro-intestinal problems and in some cases mild to moderate fever with some respiratory symptoms. There is a great need to improve the logistics and facilities for HWs assisting in vaccination programmes. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve education, so people understand the basic concept of revaccination and booster doses, thereby assisting in creating a basic understanding of vaccinations, which may trigger changes in attitudes and make people believe in the benefits of OPV rather than following the conspiracies that lead them to refuse it.
Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong
Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656
Corcoran, M; Morris, D; De Lappe, N; O'Connor, J; Lalor, P; Dockery, P; Cormican, M
Salmonellosis is the second most common cause of food-borne illness worldwide. Contamination of surfaces in food processing environments may result in biofilm formation with a risk of food contamination. Effective decontamination of biofilm-contaminated surfaces is challenging. Using the CDC biofilm reactor, the activities of sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride were examined against an early (48-h) and relatively mature (168-h) Salmonella biofilm. All 3 agents result in reduction in viable counts of Salmonella; however, only sodium hydroxide resulted in eradication of the early biofilm. None of the agents achieved eradication of mature biofilm, even at the 90-min contact time. Studies of activity of chemical disinfection against biofilm should include assessment of activity against mature biofilm. The difficulty of eradication of established Salmonella biofilm serves to emphasize the priority of preventing access of Salmonella to postcook areas of food production facilities.
Ranque, P; Hopkins, D
Dracunculiasis is eradicable because it is easy to diagnose, it is only transmitted by drinking water, there is no animal reservoir, and there are three ways to prevent the infection. Global 2000 is assisting guinea worm eradication Programmes in Pakistan, Ghana and Nigeria. The draft criteria for certification of dracunculiasis elimination and the resolutions adopted during the 3rd African Regional Conference on dracunculiasis were described. The progress of Pakistan's guinea worm eradication Programme, which has nearly achieved its goal and the accomplishments of the eradication Programme in Nigeria, which is thought to have the most case of guinea worm in the world were described. Evidence of socio-economic impact of dracunculiasis, vector control, local treatment and case containment were presented during the question and answer period.
Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Anahita; Hajiebrahimi, Shahin; Seyedmajidi, Seyedali; Rajabikashani, Majid; Firoozabadi, Mona; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid
Objective: Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy with two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. Some studies have shown that cranberry inhibits the adhesion of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including H. pylori. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cranberry on H. pylori eradication with a standard therapy including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (LCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Methods: In this study, H. pylori-positive patients with PUD were randomized into two groups: Group A: A 14-day LCA triple therapy with 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, and 500 mg clarithromycin bid; Group B: A 14-day 500 mg cranberry capsules bid plus LCA triple therapy. A 13C-urea breath test was performed for eradication assessment 6 weeks after the completion of the treatment. Findings: Two hundred patients (53.5% males, between 23 and 77 years, mean age ± standard deviation: 50.29 ± 17.79 years) continued treatment protocols and underwent 13C-urea breath testing. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 74% in Group A (LCA without cranberry) and 89% in Group B (LCA with cranberry) (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The addition of cranberry to LCA triple therapy for H. pylori has a higher rate of eradication than the standard regimen alone (up to 89% and significant). PMID:27843960
Nájera, José A.; González-Silva, Matiana; Alonso, Pedro L.
Encouraged by the early success of using dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Global Malaria Eradication Program (GMEP) in 1955. Fourteen years later, the campaign was discontinued when it was recognised that eradication was not achievable with the available means in many areas, although the long-term goal remained unchanged. During the GMEP, malaria was permanently eliminated from many regions. In other areas, however, substantial gains were lost in resurgences, sometimes of epidemic proportions. During the 1970s and 1980s, because of economic and financial crises, international support for malaria control declined rapidly, but in the past decade, following increasing demands from endemic countries and promising results from scaling up of control activities, interest in malaria elimination and the long-term goal of eradication has received international political and financial support. In 2007, there was a renewed call for malaria eradication and a consultative process to define a research and development agenda for malaria eradication (malERA) was established. Lessons learned from the GMEP (1955–1969) highlight the fact that no single strategy can be applicable everywhere and that a long-term commitment with a flexible strategy that includes community involvement, integration with health systems, and the development of agile surveillance systems is needed. PMID:21311585
Nájera, José A; González-Silva, Matiana; Alonso, Pedro L
Encouraged by the early success of using dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Global Malaria Eradication Program (GMEP) in 1955. Fourteen years later, the campaign was discontinued when it was recognised that eradication was not achievable with the available means in many areas, although the long-term goal remained unchanged. During the GMEP, malaria was permanently eliminated from many regions. In other areas, however, substantial gains were lost in resurgences, sometimes of epidemic proportions. During the 1970s and 1980s, because of economic and financial crises, international support for malaria control declined rapidly, but in the past decade, following increasing demands from endemic countries and promising results from scaling up of control activities, interest in malaria elimination and the long-term goal of eradication has received international political and financial support. In 2007, there was a renewed call for malaria eradication and a consultative process to define a research and development agenda for malaria eradication (malERA) was established. Lessons learned from the GMEP (1955-1969) highlight the fact that no single strategy can be applicable everywhere and that a long-term commitment with a flexible strategy that includes community involvement, integration with health systems, and the development of agile surveillance systems is needed.
Nollet, F; Ivanyi, B; Beelen, A; de Haan, R J; Lankhorst, G; de Visser, M
Objective: To investigate perceived health and its relation to residual paresis from polio, late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis (LSP), and sex, in a population based sample of polio survivors. Methods: 350 subjects traced from the notification records of the Dutch 1956 polio epidemic received a mailed questionnaire on residual polio paresis and new neuromuscular symptoms. Perceived health was measured using the Nottingham health profile. Respondents with new muscle weakness and new neuromuscular symptoms were considered as cases with LSP. Results: Health problems were perceived by 151 of the 260 respondents. Respondents with residual paresis had significantly more health problems than clinically recovered respondents for the Nottingham health profile category of physical mobility. The perceived health of respondents with LSP (45.5%) was significantly worse than that of respondents without LSP for all the health profile categories. Among the respondents with LSP, health status did not differ between those with residual paresis and those who had recovered, except for physical mobility. Female respondents with LSP reported worse health status than male respondents with regard to physical mobility and social isolation. Conclusions: In this population based sample, health problems were frequently reported. They were mainly related to late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis, which were perceived by a substantial proportion of all polio survivors—not only subjects with polio residuals but also individuals who (subjectively) had recovered from polio. PMID:12438472
Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N.; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W.
The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis - lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles - becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially. PMID:18698350
Wermeille, J; Zelger, G; Cunningham, M
The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is at present widely recognized as the adequate therapeutic approach for gastric and duodenal ulcers in infected patients. In those with dyspepsia but no ulcer as well as in those with type B chronic gastritis, eradication remains controversial. It is difficult to have a clear opinion on the advantages and disadvantages of the numerous existing therapies. Therefore, a systematic review of published treatments has been made by the authors. Ideally, the eradication treatment of H. pylori should have the following advantages: 1. eradication superior to 90%, 2. simplicity, 3. short duration, 4. safety, 5. low cost, 6. reproducibility of results. Dual therapies (2 antibiotics or a proton pump inhibitor in combination with an antibiotic) rarely allow an eradication greater than 90% and the results have poor reproducibility. Consequently, they do not represent an ideal anti-H. pylori treatment. Triple therapies come closer to the requirements for an ideal treatment, with eradication rates generally close to 90%, varying little between studies and the countries in which they were performed. The triple therapy bismuth-imidazole-tetracycline (or amoxicillin) still represents for many authors the standard reference therapy. It has the advantage of low cost, high efficacy and widespread use. It is the therapy that has been the most studied. However, the increasing emergence of strains resistant to imidazoles, the complexity of the treatment (10 to 12 tablets per day), the numerous adverse effects and the lack of availability of bismuth salts in certain countries has led to the elaboration of therapeutic schemes combining an antisecretory drug with 2 antibiotics. Among these, the combination PPI-clarithromycine-imidazole during 7 days represents the most studied triple therapy of short duration for some authors, it already represents a new standard. However, the efficacy of this therapy seems dependent on the sensitivity of the bacteria to
Appelin, Katja; Lexell, Jan; Månsson Lexell, Eva
The aims of this study were to describe which occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, which occupational area the occupations were related to and their level of complexity. The aims were also to describe their own perception of the importance, performance and satisfaction with these occupations. Sixty-two participants (mean age 61 years) were assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A total of 431 occupations were reported (43% self-care, 32% productivity and 25% leisure). Two subcategories, household management (27 %) and functional mobility (23 %), represented half of all the reported occupations. Ratings for prioritized occupations (N = 300) were high for importance and generally low for performance and satisfaction. A wide variety of occupations were reported, related to both occupational areas and different levels of complexity within an occupational area. The results underscore the importance of using assessment tools that can capture both the variety and complexity of occupations. By obtaining more detailed information about occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, this will enable occupational therapists to offer targeted interventions that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations. A larger and more heterogeneous sample may enable the results to be generalized to more people with late effects of polio. Future studies should focus on methods that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations for people with late effects of polio.
Lund, Maria Larsson; Lexell, Jan
The aim of this pilot study was to assess the association between perceived environmental barriers and perceived participation in everyday life situations encountered by people with late effects of polio. A sample of 45 persons with clinically verified late effects of polio answered the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF-S). The relationships between the perceived occurrence of a broad range of environmental barriers and perception of participation in life situations and problems with participation were explored. The majority of the respondents perceived that they encountered environmental barriers, but their occurrence was generally infrequent and their magnitude tended to be low. The barriers identified in the physical/structural subscale were generally most strongly related to problems with participation, compared with the four other environmental subscales. A high frequency of never encountering environmental barriers in the three subscales physical/structural, work and education, and policies in CHIEF-S were significantly related to more reports of good participation in IPA-S. These associations indicate that the participation of those with late effects of polio is influenced by their perception of the barriers they encounter. Further studies of these concepts can provide a greater understanding of disabilities and help us to promote participation in life situations for people with late effects of polio.
Pons-Salort, Margarita; Burns, Cara C; Lyons, Hil; Blake, Isobel M; Jafari, Hamid; Oberste, M Steven; Kew, Olen M; Grassly, Nicholas C
Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]). We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity above the
Burns, Cara C.; Lyons, Hil; Blake, Isobel M.; Oberste, M. Steven; Kew, Olen M.; Grassly, Nicholas C.
Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently “missed” groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004−2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55−0.82]). We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity
Fred L. Soper played a key role in promoting the idea that malaria could be eradicated world-wide. He believed eradication to be feasible based on the ability of household insecticide spraying to interrupt malaria transmission. He opposed WHO's strategy to reduce the number of years devoted to spraying and to rely instead on chemotherapy to wipe out remaining foci of malaria. While his criticism was intense, it neither featured in the discussions of the World Health Assembly nor the WHO malaria Expert Committee. The author concludes that had his criticism been heard the global campaign could have been stopped far earlier than in fact it was. Furthermore, failure to openly address Soper's criticism represented a major failure on the part of the WHO Secretariat to ensure that policy decisions reflected a full consideration of all underlying issues, technical or otherwise.
Spivak, Adam M; Planelles, Vicente
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has rendered HIV-1 infection a manageable illness for those with access to treatment. However, ART does not lead to viral eradication owing to the persistence of replication-competent, unexpressed proviruses in long-lived cellular reservoirs. The potential for long-term drug toxicities and the lack of access to ART for most people living with HIV-1 infection have fueled scientific interest in understanding the nature of this latent reservoir. Exploration of HIV-1 persistence at the cellular and molecular level in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, the predominant viral reservoir in patients on ART, has uncovered potential strategies to reverse latency. We review recent advances in pharmacologically based 'shock and kill' HIV-1 eradication strategies, including comparative analysis of early clinical trials.
Lin, Lien-Chieh; Hsu, Tzu-Herng; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Tam, Ka-Wai
AIM: To evaluate the applicability of nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in Chinese regions. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy between sequential therapy or triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in Chinese regions. The defined Chinese regions include China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore. The primary outcome was the H. pylori eradication rate; the secondary outcome was the compliance with therapy. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published in the period up to March 2016 with no language restriction. RESULTS: We reviewed six randomized controlled trials and 1616 patients. In 3 trials comparing concomitant quadruple therapy with triple therapy, the H. pylori eradication rate was significantly higher for 7-d nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy than for 7-d triple therapy (91.2% vs 77.9%, risk ratio = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.09-1.25). In 3 trials comparing quadruple therapy with sequential therapy, the eradication rate was not significant between groups (86.9% vs 86.0%). However, higher compliance was achieved with concomitant therapy than with sequential therapy. CONCLUSION: The H. pylori eradication rate was higher for nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy than for triple therapy. Moreover, higher compliance was achieved with nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy than with sequential therapy. Thus, nonbismuth concomitant quadruple therapy should be the first-line treatment in Chinese regions. PMID:27340362
de Quadros, Ciro A
The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva.
Sousa, Ivanildo P; Burlandy, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Silas S; Nunes, Amanda M; Sousa, Cristiane; da Silva, Elaine M; Souza, Jaqueline G A; de Paula, Valdemar A; Oliveira, Ivone C M; Tavares, Fernando Neto; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson Elias
The last case of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus in Brazil occurred in 1989. The interruption of the indigenous poliovirus transmission was obtained through mass immunization campaigns to eligible children and an active epidemiological and laboratorial surveillance of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children under 15 y of age. This paper describes and evaluates the performance of the AFP surveillance system in different geographic areas of Brazil between 2005 and 2014, using indicators recommended by WHO. AFP surveillance indicators as well as virological investigation of polio and non-polio enteroviruses in stool samples received in the laboratory were assessed from 2005-2014. During the period, 5463 cases of AFP were investigated. Of these, 55% were males and 45% were females. Those under 5 y of age represented 48% of all cases reported and investigated. AFP notification rate was within the acceptable values with mean value of 1.3 (North), 1.4 (Northeast), 1.1 (Southern), 1.0 (Southeast) and 1.4 (Midwest) cases of AFP per 100.000 population aged 15 y as well as the adequacy of fecal specimens received in the laboratory. Sabin- related polioviruses accounted for 1.7% of the isolates while, 6.7% were non-polio enterovirus with the values ranging from 5.0% to 8.9 %. No wild-type polio was found. The AFP epidemiological and laboratorial surveillance activities have been kept at appropriate levels in Brazil. These data are a very strong indication, which supports the status of country free of polio.
Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or “attack” phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection. Drugs will continue to be used to treat acute malaria illness and prevent complications in vulnerable groups, but better drugs are needed for elimination-specific indications such as mass treatment, curing asymptomatic infections, curing relapsing liver stages, and preventing transmission. The ideal malaria eradication drug is a coformulated drug combination suitable for mass administration that can be administered in a single encounter at infrequent intervals and that results in radical cure of all life cycle stages of all five malaria species infecting humans. Short of this optimal goal, highly desirable drugs might have limitations such as targeting only one or two parasite species, the priorities being Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The malaria research agenda for eradication should include research aimed at developing such drugs and research to develop situation-specific strategies for using both current and future drugs to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:21311580
Suckling, David Maxwell; Tobin, Patrick C; McCullough, Deborah G; Herms, Daniel A
Invasive species increasingly threaten ecosystems, food production, and human welfare worldwide. Hundreds of eradication programs have targeted a wide range of nonnative insect species to mitigate the economic and ecological impacts of biological invasions. Many such programs used multiple tactics to achieve this goal, but interactions between tactics have received little formal consideration, specifically as they interact with Allee dynamics. If a population can be driven below an Allee threshold, extinction becomes more probable because of factors such as the failure to find mates, satiate natural enemies, or successfully exploit food resources, as well as demographic and environmental stochasticity. A key implication of an Allee threshold is that the population can be eradicated without the need and expense of killing the last individuals. Some combinations of control tactics could interact with Allee dynamics to increase the probability of successful eradication. Combinations of tactics can be considered to have synergistic (greater efficiency in achieving extinction from the combination), additive (no improvement over single tactics alone), or antagonistic (reduced efficiency from the combination) effects on Allee dynamics. We highlight examples of combinations of tactics likely to act synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on pest populations. By exploiting the interacting effects of multiple tactics on Allee dynamics, the success and cost-effectiveness of eradication programs can be enhanced.
Warburton, B; Livingstone, P
Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5-10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in predictive
Warburton, B; Livingstone, P
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in
Khan, Saiqa I.; Golberg, Alexander; McCormack, Michael C.; Yarmush, Martin L.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Austen, William G.
Biofilm formation is a significant problem, accounting for over eighty percent of microbial infections in the body. Biofilm eradication is problematic due to increased resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials as compared to planktonic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on biofilm-infected mesh. Prolene mesh was infected with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated with PEF using a concentric electrode system to derive, in a single experiment, the critical electric field strength needed to kill bacteria. The effect of the electric field strength and the number of pulses (with a fixed pulse length duration and frequency) on bacterial eradication was investigated. For all experiments, biofilm formation and disruption were confirmed with bioluminescent imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Computation and statistical methods were used to analyze treatment efficiency and to compare it to existing theoretical models. In all experiments 1500 V are applied through a central electrode, with pulse duration of 50 μs, and pulse delivery frequency of 2 Hz. We found that the critical electric field strength (Ecr) needed to eradicate 100–80% of bacteria in the treated area was 121 ± 14 V/mm when 300 pulses were applied, and 235 ± 6.1 V/mm when 150 pulses were applied. The area at which 100–80% of bacteria were eradicated was 50.5 ± 9.9 mm2 for 300 pulses, and 13.4 ± 0.65 mm2 for 150 pulses. 80% threshold eradication was not achieved with 100 pulses. The results indicate that increased efficacy of treatment is due to increased number of pulses delivered. In addition, we that showed the bacterial death rate as a function of the electrical field follows the statistical Weibull model for 150 and 300 pulses. We hypothesize that in the clinical setting, combining systemic antibacterial therapy with PEF will yield a synergistic effect leading to improved eradication of mesh infections. PMID
McCormick, B J J; Stott, A W; Brülisauer, F; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Gunn, G J
The viability of eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Scottish suckler herds is dependent on the continued compliance with eradication schemes. At the farm level, the costs of BVD have been identified in previous studies and show a substantial financial imperative to avoid infection. At a regional level the incentives of BVD eradication to individuals are unclear, for example the requirement for vaccination strategies despite achieving disease-free status. Ensuring farmer compliance with an eradication scheme is therefore difficult. Experience of eradicating BVD from beef-dominated areas is limited and theoretical models have tended to focus on the dairy sector. Here we present a stochastic epidemiological model of a typical beef suckler herd to explore the interaction of a farm with a regional pool of replacements, utilising information from a BVD virus seroprevalence survey of Scottish beef suckler herds. Our epidemiological model is then used to assess the relative costs to individuals assuming different regional endemic prevalences, which are used to represent the likelihood of BVD re-introduction. We explore the relative cost of BVD, taken as likelihood and consequence, at an endemic steady state in contrast to previous models that have assumed the introduction or control of BVD in an epidemic state (e.g. a closed and mostly susceptible population). Where endemic, BVD is unlikely to affect all farms evenly and will cost most farmers very little due to herd immunity or self-clearance of the virus. Compliance is likely to be boosted by pump-priming to initiate and complete eradication schemes with cost-sharing.
Haskew, John; Kenyi, Veronica; William, Juma; Alum, Rebecca; Puri, Anu; Mostafa, Yehia; Davis, Robert
Background Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting. Methods Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district). Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting. Results Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall) during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place
Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif
Objectives To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012–2013 data was performed. Participants Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Main outcome measures Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard ‘Measure DHS’ questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Results Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.87; p<0.01). Further, unempowered women also had significantly higher odds of not taking their child for any polio vaccination (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.12; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.41; p=0.04). Conclusions Illiteracy, socioeconomic status and empowerment of women remained significant factors linked to poorer uptake of routine polio vaccination. PMID:28283489
Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B.; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.
Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). Methods. We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. Results. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. PMID:26908717
Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers Jr., P. Craig; Eberhard, Mark L.; Roy, Sharon L.
This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South Sudan, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492
Lashkevich, V A
against poliomyelitis. In some developing countries the vaccination data are falsified, thereby threatening the polio epidemics reappearance and the virus spreading to other countries. Methods must be developed for detection and dealing with extremely rare persistent virus carriers. Because of all these constraints the outcome of poliomyelitis eradication at present is uncertain and vaccination must be continued. The world has become poliovaccine dependent.
Liebhold, Andrew M; Berec, Ludek; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S; Hastings, Alan; Herms, Daniel A; Kean, John M; McCullough, Deborah G; Suckling, David M; Tobin, Patrick C; Yamanaka, Takehiko
Eradication is the deliberate elimination of a species from an area. Given that international quarantine measures can never be 100% effective, surveillance for newly arrived populations of nonnative species coupled with their eradication represents an important strategy for excluding potentially damaging insect species. Historically, eradication efforts have not always been successful and have sometimes been met with public opposition. But new developments in our understanding of the dynamics of low-density populations, the availability of highly effective treatment tactics, and bioeconomic analyses of eradication strategies offer new opportunities for developing more effective surveillance and eradication programs. A key component that connects these new developments is the harnessing of Allee effects, which naturally promote localized species extinction. Here we review these developments and suggest how research might enhance eradication strategies.
Sutter, Roland W.; Cáceres, Victor M.; Mas Lago, Pedro
The role of routine vaccination against poliomyelitis for the post-certification era remains an important area for policy decision-making. Two critical decisions need to be taken: first, to continue or discontinue vaccination with the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); and second, if OPV is to be discontinued, whether vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is needed. Four potential vaccination scenarios can be constructed: stop all polio vaccination; continue with current vaccination policies (OPV, IPV, or sequential schedule); discontinue OPV, but continue IPV universally; or discontinue OPV, but continue IPV in selected countries. All possible scenarios require continued investments in a surveillance and response strategy, including a stockpile of polio vaccine. Continuing vaccination would limit the savings that could be applied to the control of other health priorities. This report reviews the key issues associated with each scenario, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each scenario, and outlines the major challenges for policy decision-making. PMID:15106298
Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Francavilla, Ermenegildo; Gioulis, Manuela; Candeago, Rosa Maria; Mondardini, Valeria; Gentile, Manrico; Ferracci, Franco; Guzzo, Francesco; Granata, Carmela; Marchini, Corrado
Tick borne encephalitis virus infection usually shows a biphasic course. In the first stage of illness symptoms are similar to a flu-like syndrome, then after a defervescence period, fever may represent with neurological manifestations ranging from mild meningitis to severe encephalomyelitis. We report the clinical case of an adult man presented with an acute proximal hyposthenia, severe hyperckemia, clinical and laboratoristic evidence of acute tick borne virus infection. This virus has a favourite tropism for the anterior horn cells of the cervical spine segment. Polio-like syndrome, usually affecting the upper limbs, is the clinical phenotype of an infection of the cervical motoneurons. Usually myelitis is associated to severe encephalitis and a complete diagnosis may be difficult in comatose patients. Rarely, an isolated polio-like syndrome may be the sole neurological complication of tick-borne encephalitis.
Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P
Problem of poliomyelitis eradication is examined in the review. After the eradication of wild poliovirus, vaccine poliomyelitis virus continues to circulate in the human population. In rare cases it can cause the development of the disease. The authors describe disadvantages of the use of oral and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and note that by using oral poliomyelitis vaccine and eradication only of wild poliovirus, eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection will not succeed. As one of the approaches to reach this goal the authors propose the use of various enterovirus interference. Use of live enterovirus vaccine is described and its advantages and disadvantages are examined.
Biswas, Gautam; Sankara, Dieudonne P; Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Maiga, Alhousseini
Dracunculiasis, commonly known as guinea worm disease, is a nematode infection transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The disease prevails in the most deprived areas of the world. No vaccine or medicine is available against the disease: eradication is being achieved by implementing preventive measures. These include behavioural change in patients and communities--such as self-reporting suspected cases to health workers or volunteers, filtering drinking water and accessing water from improved sources and preventing infected individuals from wading or swimming in drinking-water sources--supplemented by active surveillance and case containment, vector control and provision of improved water sources. Efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. By the end of 2012, the disease had reached its lowest levels ever. This paper reviews the progress made in eradicating dracunculiasis since the eradication campaign began, the factors influencing progress and the difficulties in controlling the pathogen that requires behavioural change, especially when the threat becomes rare. The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis.
Trallero, Gloria; Cabrerizo, María; Avellón, Ana
The Spanish acute flaccid paralysis surveillance network is coordinated by the National Poliovirus Laboratory (NPL), which, since 1998, carries out polioviruses (PV) and other enteroviruses detected characterization by cell culture and molecular techniques. A total of 110,725 (70046+40679) samples were studied between 1998-2012 and enteroviruses were detected in 8% of these. Among these enteroviruses 241 PV were characterized as PV Sabin-like, except samples belong to an imported poliomyelitis case, all of which were characterised as vaccine derived PV type 2. The NPL has carried out the serotyping and the intratypic differentiation of all the isolated PV in Spain of any syndrome. It is shown that wild PV has not circulated in our country during the 15 years studied and that has led to the signing of the Act of the "eradication of poliomyelitis in Spain" by WHO in 2001, and the /"certification of the eradication of wild PV free for European countries" on 21 June 2002. Currently only 3 countries have endemic transmission of wild PV (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). Until a complete worldwide eradication, was achieved, Spain will actively continue to participate in the maintenance of the poliomyelitis eradication infrastructure by monitoring and vaccination as well as the wild PV containment plan to avoid the spread of wild PV.
Biswas, Gautam; Sankara, Dieudonne P.; Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Maiga, Alhousseini
Dracunculiasis, commonly known as guinea worm disease, is a nematode infection transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The disease prevails in the most deprived areas of the world. No vaccine or medicine is available against the disease: eradication is being achieved by implementing preventive measures. These include behavioural change in patients and communities—such as self-reporting suspected cases to health workers or volunteers, filtering drinking water and accessing water from improved sources and preventing infected individuals from wading or swimming in drinking-water sources—supplemented by active surveillance and case containment, vector control and provision of improved water sources. Efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. By the end of 2012, the disease had reached its lowest levels ever. This paper reviews the progress made in eradicating dracunculiasis since the eradication campaign began, the factors influencing progress and the difficulties in controlling the pathogen that requires behavioural change, especially when the threat becomes rare. The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis. PMID:23798694
Uotani, Takahiro; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Introduction A clearer understanding of the factors affecting the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection might lead to the development of novel prevention strategies and therapeutic targets. Areas covered This review covers two important issues that affect the eradication of H. pylori: bacterial and host factors. Several virulence factors have been shown to be predictors for gastroduodenal diseases. Successful treatment of H. pylori infection also depends on host genetic factors such as cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) and interleukin (IL)-1B. The latest evidence on host genetic factors is discussed. Expert opinion The authors identify three main targets for achieving effective eradication therapy. The first therapeutic target is to identify counter measures for antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility should be checked in all patients, ideally, before the start of eradication treatment. The second therapeutic target is the inhibition of acid suppression. Maintaining a high intragastric pH for 24 hours increases the effectiveness of some antibiotics and the eradication effects for H. pylori. The third therapeutic target is to identify high-risk groups; the CYP2C19 and IL-1B polymorphisms are candidates for significant risk factors. A personalized medical approach will likely increase the cure rate of H. pylori infection. PMID:26245678
Post, Virginia; Wahl, Peter; Richards, R Geoff; Moriarty, T Fintan
This study was carried out to determine the time and concentration profile required to achieve vancomycin-mediated eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. This information is critical for the identification of performance targets for local antibiotic delivery vehicles that target biofilm infections. S. aureus UAMS-1 biofilms were grown for 7 days on titanium-aluminium-niobium discs in Mueller Hinton broth. After 7 days, the discs were then incubated in Mueller Hinton broth containing vancomycin at concentrations of 100, 200, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/L. Biofilm eradication was assessed under both static and shaking conditions. Samples were retrieved at regular intervals for up to 28 days for quantification of residual biofilm. One additional disc was processed per time point for scanning electron microscopy. Progressive and significant reduction of viable bacteria was observed over time at all concentrations compared to unexposed controls. After 28 days under static conditions, the S. aureus biofilm was completely eradicated at 200 mg/L vancomycin and higher concentrations, but not at 100 mg/L. In contrast, bacterial biofilm could not be eradicated under shaking conditions at any concentration.
Murtaza, A; Khoja, S; Zaidi, AK; Ali, SA
Abstract Problem Polio remains endemic in many areas of Pakistan, including large urban centres such as Karachi. Approach During each of seven supplementary immunization activities against polio in Karachi, mobile phone numbers of the caregivers of a random sample of eligible children were obtained. A computer-based system was developed to send two questions – as short message service (SMS) texts – automatically to each number after the immunization activity: “Did the vaccinator visit your house?” and “Did the enrolled child in your household receive oral polio vaccine?” Persistent non-responders were phoned directly by an investigator. Local setting A cluster sampling technique was used to select representative samples of the caregivers of young children in Karachi in general and of such caregivers in three of the six “high-risk” districts of the city where polio cases were detected in 2011. Relevant changes In most of the supplementary immunization activities investigated, vaccine coverages estimated using the SMS system were very similar to those estimated by interviewing by phone those caregivers who never responded to the SMS messages. In the high-risk districts investigated, coverages estimated using the SMS system were also similar to those recorded – using lot quality assurance sampling – by the World Health Organization. Lessons learnt For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunization activities, automated SMS-based systems appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option. Further research is needed to determine if coverage data collected by SMS-based systems provide estimates that are sufficiently accurate. Such systems may be useful in other large-scale immunization campaigns. PMID:24700982
During the 1920s and 1930s, disabled polio survivors initiated a campaign which made them active, dissenting subjects in public discourse about disease and disability. Its source was a core of Warm Springs patients who wanted more than a healing refuge. They were well aware of the need to construct a new image of the disabled, and saw the resort's high public profile as a potent weapon in a cultural war to remake popular images of the disabled, whether as pathetic charitable objects or as horrific movie villains. Drawing on their own, disheartening experiences, this group of activists boldly critiqued the medical care offered most disabled patients as well as the training and attitudes of doctors, nurses and physical therapists. Protesting the narrow, medicalized definition of rehabilitation, they provocatively posed the need to "rehabilitate" prejudiced, able-bodied employers and health professionals. And most of all, they consciously designed the polio center at Warm Springs to function not as an inward-looking refuge but as an exemplar of the way polio survivors and other disabled people should be allowed to live, work and love. This story begins and ends in the 1930s. It traces a rise and fall: the rise of an activist community at the rehabilitative center at Warm Springs; and its decline with the creation of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (known popularly as the March of Dimes) in 1937.
Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar
Introduction Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of neonatal sepsis especially at the junction of summer and fall. Aim This study was planned to find the frequency of Enteroviral (EV) sepsis among neonates with clinical sepsis. Materials and Methods This is a prospective descriptive study. Rectal and pharyngeal swab samples were taken from all neonates with clinical sepsis and a control group of neonates with simple jaundice. EV was confirmed by both cell culture and RT-PCR. Anti polio antiserum was used to differentiate Polioviruses from Non Polio EVs (NPEV). Results We had 67 neonates with clinical sepsis and 31 cases of simple jaundice during 105 days. NPEVs were isolated from 2 cases (2.9%) of the sepsis arm and one neonate (3.2%) of the jaundice group. Polio virus was isolated from 16.2% and 15.3% of OPV recipients in the sepsis and jaundice group respectively. Conclusion Enteroviruses were not a common cause for neonatal sepsis in Nemazi hospital at the time of this study. OPV vaccinated neonates commonly pass the vaccine virus in their pharynx and stool which can be mistaken with NPEV. PMID:28050469
Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration.
Houe, H; Lindberg, A; Moennig, V
Several European countries have initiated national and regional control-and-eradication campaigns for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Most of these campaigns do not involve the use of vaccines; in Germany, vaccination is used only in states in which it is considered necessary because of high BVDV prevalence. In European countries without organized BVDV control programs, vaccination is commonly used to control BVDV. Diagnostic test strategies are fundamental to all control-and-eradication campaigns; therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe how the available diagnostic tests are combined into test strategies in the various phases of control-and-eradication campaigns in Europe. Laboratory techniques are available for BVDV diagnosis at the individual animal level and at the herd level. These are strategically used to achieve 3 main objectives: 1) initial tests to classify herd status, 2) follow-up tests to identify individual BVDV-infected animals in infected herds, and 3) continued monitoring to confirm BVDV-free status. For each objective or phase, the validity of the diagnostic tests depends on the mode of BVDV introduction and duration of infection in test-positive herds, and on how long noninfected herds have been clear of BVDV. Therefore, the various herd-level diagnostic tools--such as antibody detection in bulk milk or in blood samples from young stock animals, or BVDV detection in bulk milk--need to be combined appropriately to obtain effective strategies at low cost. If the individual diagnostic tests are used with due consideration of the objectives of a specific phase of a BVDV control program, they are effective tools for controlling and eradicating BVDV in regions not using vaccination and where vaccination is a part of the control or eradication program.
Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin
Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625
Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration. PMID
Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masafumi; Sugawara, Takeshi; Ono, Iwao
In Japan, Helicobacter pylori eradication has been approved since 2013 for treatment of H pylori-induced chronic gastritis, in an attempt to reduce the prevalence of gastric cancer, a leading cancer in Japan. H pylori infection affects more than 50% of the world’s population. H pylori eradication therapy is generally safe. To our knowledge, no case of newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis occurring immediately after H pylori eradication therapy has previously been reported. A 63-year-old man received a diagnosis of chronic gastritis and H pylori infection. In early March 2014, primary H pylori eradication therapy was initiated; lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin were administered for 1 week. Beginning on the fourth day, he had watery diarrhea twice a day. From the 11th day, bloody stools and watery diarrhea increased to 6 times a day. Colonoscopy, performed on the 40th day after termination of drug therapy, revealed diffuse inflammation in the distal aspect of the colon, with histologic findings consistent with ulcerative colitis. He was admitted to the hospital and was provided with a semivegetarian diet and metronidazole. He noticed a gradual decrease in the amount of blood in his feces then a disappearance of the blood. A fecal occult blood test on the 11th hospital day recorded 337 ng/mL. Fecal occult blood test is not indicated during macroscopic bloody stool but is indicated after disappearance of bloody stool. Therefore, he achieved clinical remission by the 11th hospital day. He was in remission on discharge. New onset of ulcerative colitis should be added to a list of adverse events of H pylori eradication therapy. PMID:27043835
Rwakimari, John B; Hopkins, Donald R; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto
Having begun its national Guinea Worm Eradication Program (UGWEP) in 1991 (1991 population, 16.6 million) with the third-highest number of cases reported by any endemic country, and ranked as the second-highest endemic country in the world in 1993, by 2004, Uganda celebrated its first full calendar year with no indigenous cases of the disease. Systematic interventions began in 1992 and were gradually intensified until the final indigenous case occurred in July 2003. The favorable concentration of most cases in relatively few northern districts of the country was partly offset by chronic insecurity in much of the endemic area and by repeated importations of cases from neighboring Sudan. Strong support and dedicated leadership by government officials and external partners were keys to this program's dramatic success. This program cost approximately US dollar 5.6 million.
Greenwood, Brian M.; Fidock, David A.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Kappe, Stefan H.I.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Collins, Frank H.; Duffy, Patrick E.
There are still approximately 500 million cases of malaria and 1 million deaths from malaria each year. Yet recently, malaria incidence has been dramatically reduced in some parts of Africa by increasing deployment of anti-mosquito measures and new artemisinin-containing treatments, prompting renewed calls for global eradication. However, treatment and mosquito control currently depend on too few compounds and thus are vulnerable to the emergence of compound-resistant parasites and mosquitoes. As discussed in this Review, new drugs, vaccines, and insecticides, as well as improved surveillance methods, are research priorities. Insights into parasite biology, human immunity, and vector behavior will guide efforts to translate parasite and mosquito genome sequences into novel interventions. PMID:18382739
Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G
Mycoplasma contaminations have a multitude of effects on cultured cell lines that may influence the results of experiments or pollute bioactive substances isolated from the eukaryotic cells. The elimination of mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures with antibiotics has been proven to be a practical alternative to discarding and re-establishing important or irreplaceable cell lines. Different fluoroquinolones, tetracyclins, pleuromutilins, and macrolides shown to have strong anti-mycoplasma properties are employed for the decontamination. These antibiotics are applied as single treatments, as combination treatment of two antibiotics in parallel or successively, or in combination with a surface-active peptide to enhance the action of the antibiotic. The protocols in this unit allow eradication of mycoplasmas, prevention of the development of resistant mycoplasma strains, and potential cure of heavily contaminated and damaged cells. Consistent and permanent alterations to eukaryotic cells attributable to the treatment have not been demonstrated.
Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H
Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.
Hagan, Liesl M.; Schinazi, Raymond F.
Worldwide eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is possible through a combination of prevention education, universal clinical and targeted community screening, effective linkage to care, and treatment with promising new direct-acting antiviral drug regimens. Universal screening should be offered in all healthcare visits, and parallel community screening efforts should prioritize high-prevalence, high-transmission populations including injection drug users, prison inmates, and those with HIV/HCV co-infection. Increasing awareness of HCV infection through screening, improving treatment uptake and cure rates by providing linkage to care and more effective treatment, and ultimately combining education efforts with vaccination campaigns to prevent transmission and reinfection can slow and eventually stop the “silent epidemic.” PMID:23286849
Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A
More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna.
Arp, G.; Forsberg, F.; Giddings, L.; Phinney, D.
The use of remotely sensed data is reported in the eradication of the screwworm and in the study of the role of the weather in the activity and development of the screwworm fly. As a result, the Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) algorithm was developed.
Insect eradication programs are nearly always targeted at recently arrived invasive species with significant pest potential. They attempt to contain a pest to a defined area and then completely eliminate the pest from that area. From a Federal regulatory standpoint, eradication programs are undert...
Jones, Holly P.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Kappes, Peter J.; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P.; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R.; Keitt, Bradford S.; Kress, Stephen W.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J.; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C.; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J.; Spatz, Dena R.; Towns, David R.; Croll, Donald A.
More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List—6% of all these highly threatened species—likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852
Xie, Yong; Zhu, Yin; Zhou, Hong; Lu, Zhi-Fa; Yang, Zhen; Shu, Xu; Guo, Xiao-Bai; Fan, Hui-Zhen; Tang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Xue-Ping; Wen, Jian-Bo; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Xing-Xing; Ma, Jiu-Hong; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Huang, Cai-Bin; Xu, Ning-Jian; Wang, Nong-Rong; Lu, Nong-Hua
quadruple furazolidone-based therapies achieve satisfactory H. pylori eradication rates. PMID:25170230
Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population. PMID:21311587
Speculatively, it is suggested that variola virus, the cause of smallpox, evolved from an orthopoxvirus of animals of the central African rain forests (possibly now represented by Tatera poxvirus), some thousands of years ago, and first became established as a virus specific for human beings in the dense populations of the Nile valley perhaps five thousand years ago. By the end of the first millennium of the Christian era, it had spread to all the densely populated parts of the Eurasian continent and along the Mediterranean fringe of north Africa. It became established in Europe during the times of the Crusades. The great voyages of European colonization carried smallpox to the Americas and to Africa south of the Sahara. Transported across the Atlantic by Europeans and their African slaves, it played a major role in the conquest of Mexico and Peru and the European settlement of north America. Variolation, an effective preventive inoculation, was devised as early as the tenth century. In 1798 this practice was supplanted by Jenner's cowpox vaccine. In 1967, when the disease was still endemic in 31 countries and caused ten to fifteen million cases and about two million deaths annually, the World Health Organization embarked on a programme that was to see the disease eradicated globally just over ten years later, and the world was formally declared to be free of smallpox in May 1980. Smallpox is unique--a specifically human disease that emerged from some animal reservoir, spread to become a worldwide, severe and almost universal affliction, and finally underwent the reverse process to emergence, namely global eradication.
Szadkowski, Aleksander; Chojnacki, Jan; Klupińska, Grazyna; Wojtuń, Stanisław
Numerous medical reports claim that the effectiveness of H. pylori therapy decreases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the reasons of this phenomenon on own material. The study included 437 subjects, aged 19-64 years with chronic gastritis with H. pylori infection. All patients were subjected to: endoscopy, fast urease test, breath test (UBT-13C) and antibody titer in IgG class was determined. In the case of ineffective therapy bacteriological examination was performed. In the first stage of the therapy pantoprazol (2 x 40 mg) and amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg) with metronidazol (2 x 500 mg) were applied in 282 subjects for 7 days (group I), amoxicillin with clarithromycin (2 x 500 mg) in 182 subjects (group II) and clarithromycin with metronidazol in 43 subjects (group III). After 6 weeks negative breath test was observed on average in 65.68% without significant differences between the groups. Ineffective therapy was more frequent in subjects over 45 years of age with high intensity of H. pylori colonization and earlier treated with antibiotics due to other reasons; such differences were not observed dependently on the antibody titer. In the second stage of the therapy pantoprazol was still administered but antibacterial drugs were changed among the groups. From among 150 subjects eradication was obtained in 117 (78.0%). In 33 subjects with ineffective therapy bacteriological examination of gastric bioptates confirmed antibiotic resistance in 75.76%. It results from the study that the applied therapy, consistent with current recommendations of the experts, does not ensure H. pylori eradication in part of the patients, what points to the necessity of searching for other effective antibiotics.
Zhu, Xinyan; Liu, Fei
Over 80% population with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is asymptomatic. H. pylori was considered as a primary reason for various natural gastric physiopathology. Increased antibiotic resistance and less medication compliance lead to the failure of antibiotic eradication therapy. Probiotics have been applied as a supplementary treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy in recent years. They have direct and indirect inhibitory effects on H. pylori in both animal models and clinical trials. Because of the improvement in eradication rates and therapy-related side effects, probiotics have been considered as the useful supplementation to current eradication therapy although the treatment outcomes were controversial due to the heterogeneity of probiotics in species, strains, doses and therapeutic duration. Despite the positive role of probiotics, several factors need to be further considered during the application of probiotics. At last, the adverse effects of probiotics are notable. Further investigation into the safety of adjuvant probiotics to present H. pylori eradication therapy is still needed.
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter
Previous studies have suggested that transmission of measles virus from the opposite sex increases the severity of infection; however, the role of gender in the transmission of other infections has not been examined. Multiple polio cases within a family usually occur simultaneously, and are therefore likely to be secondary to a common subclinical index case. The few clinical polio cases that appear much later than any other clinical case are likely to be tertiary cases. If cross-sex transmission increases the severity of infection then multiple polio cases would tend to affect the same sex, i.e. the opposite sex to that of the subclinical index case. In order to assess this phenomenon we identified 6345 records of individuals hospitalized with poliomyelitis in Copenhagen between 1919 and 1953. The severity and gender of suspected secondary and tertiary cases were analysed among all multiple household cases. Overall, 70% of the 133 sibling pairs having polio simultaneously were same-sex pairs, which differed significantly from the expected 52% (chi2 = 9.1; p < 0.01). Tertiary cases with exposure to the opposite sex were more likely to be paralytic than cases with exposure to the same sex [relative risk (RR) = 2.86 (95% confidence interval 1.08-7.58)1. In families with adult polio cases, possible tertiary cases were more common among fathers (7/24) than among mothers (1/35) [RR = 10.21 (1.34-77.72)]. We examined whether the excess of male polio cases was more pronounced in small families where the mother would play a relatively larger role in disease transmission and found that the male:female excess decreased with increasing birth order (p = 0.02) and family size (p = 0.09). The strong tendency towards same-sex pairs in 2-case families suggests that gender plays an important role in the severity of polio infection. Cross-sex transmission may increase the severity of polio and mothers may contribute to the higher prevalence of polio cases among boys.
Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Kang, Kyu Keun; Lee, Ae-Ra; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung
AIM: To investigate the eradication rate and histological changes after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication treatment following subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 610 patients with H. pylori infection who had undergone surgery for either early or advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between May 2004 and December 2010 were retrospectively studied. A total of 584 patients with proven H. pylori infection after surgery for gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Patients received a seven day standard triple regimen as first-line therapy and a 10 d bismuth-containing quadruple regimen as second-line therapy in cases of eradication failure. The patients underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) between six and 12 mo after surgery, followed by annual EGDs. A further EGD was conducted 12 mo after confirming the result of the eradication and the histological changes. A gastric biopsy specimen for histological examination and Campylobacter-like organism testing was obtained from the lesser and greater curvature of the corpus of the remnant stomach. Histological changes in the gastric mucosa were assessed using the updated Sydney system before eradication therapy and at follow-up after 12 mo. RESULTS: Eradication rates with the first-line and second-line therapies were 78.4% (458/584) and 90% (36/40), respectively, by intention-to-treat analysis and 85.3% (458/530) and 92.3% (36/39), respectively, by per-protocol analysis. The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Billroth II surgery was an independent factor predictive of eradication success in the eradication success group (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.41-1.65, P = 0.021). The atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) scores 12 mo after eradication were significantly lower in the eradication success group than in the eradication failure group (0.25 ± 0.04 vs 0.47 ± 0.12, P = 0.023; 0.27 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.12, P = 0.015, respectively). The atrophy and IM scores 12 mo after successful
Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R
Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented. We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme. We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates. Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the ‘occupied zone’ and three types of breach that lead to a larger ‘occupied zone’, but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger ‘buffer zone’. For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach. Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient
Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R
Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented.We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme.We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates.Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the 'occupied zone' and three types of breach that lead to a larger 'occupied zone', but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger 'buffer zone'.For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach.Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient implementation detail
Leggett, Cadman L.; Prasad, Ganapathy A.
Purpose of review Endoscopic eradication therapy is considered a safe and effective alternative to esophagectomy for a select patient population with high-grade Barrett’s esophagus and intramucosal adenocarcinoma. This review highlights available eradication techniques (resection and ablation) with emphasis on factors that influence choice of therapy. Recent findings Long-term follow-up of patients treated with endoscopic eradication therapies demonstrate high rates of complete remission of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia with overall survival comparable to subjects treated surgically. Cohort studies also report that recurrence following successful ablation occurs in a significant proportion of subjects, making careful surveillance an indispensable component following successful endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic eradication therapy is also effective for treatment of recurrent dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia. Ablative therapies may lead to buried metaplasia in a small proportion of subjects. The long-term clinical implications of buried metaplasia are unclear. Summary Patients undergoing endoscopic eradication therapy should be enrolled in a comprehensive surveillance and staging program that offers both resection and ablative techniques. Complete remission of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia can be achieved in the vast majority of patients undergoing endoscopic therapy. Surveillance should continue after treatment with close monitoring for recurrent dysplasia. PMID:22450896
Francesco, Vincenzo De; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare
The study found that the 7 d of concomitant therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole) achieved significantly higher eradication rates compared to 7 d of triple therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin), the intention to treat (ITT) cure rates being 94.9% and 68.3%, respectively. According to our opinion, this study is clinically relevant for Japanese physicians for at least 2 reasons: (1) the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin) achieved disappointing cure rates in Japan - in agreement with what was observed in several countries; and (2) the concomitant quadruple therapy is an effective therapeutic alternative. PMID:23494655
Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Thevasagayam, Samuel; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter L
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of sheep and goats that is caused by PPR virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus that includes the viruses that cause rinderpest (RP) in cattle. RP was the first animal disease to be globally eradicated in 2011 and is only the second disease, after smallpox, to have ever been eradicated. PPR is one of the principal constraints to small ruminant production in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The epidemiology of PPR and RP as well as the technologies available for their diagnosis and control are similar. The conditions that favored the eradication of RP are also largely present for PPR. In this work, we outline the evolving strategy for eradication in light of current opportunities and challenges, as well as the lessons from other eradication programs in animal and human health. The global PPR situation and technology for its control are summarized. A strategy based on the lessons from previous eradication efforts that integrate epidemiology, social science, and economics as tools to target and motivate vaccination is summarized. Major aspects of the cost and benefit-cost analysis of the indicated program are presented. The overall undiscounted cost of eradication was estimated as $3.1 billion, and the benefit-cost ratio for the most likely scenario was estimated at 33.8. We close with a discussion of the possible next steps.
Although technical constraints to eradication of bovine tuberculosis are well-recognised, non-technical constraints can also delay progress towards eradication, leading to inefficiency and increased programme costs. This paper seeks to analyse the main non-technical constraints that can interfere with the successful implementation of tuberculosis eradication plans, based on experiences from an area of high tuberculosis prevalence in Regione Piemonte, Italy. The main social and economic constraints faced in the past 20 years are reviewed, including a social reluctance to recognise the importance of seeking eradication as the goal of disease control, effective communication of technical issues, the training and the organization of veterinary services, the relationship between the regional authority and farmers and their representatives, and data management and epidemiological reporting. The paper analyses and discusses the solutions that were applied in Regione Piemonte and the benefits that were obtained. Tuberculosis eradication plans are one of the most difficult tasks of the Veterinary Animal Health Services, and non-technical constraints must be considered when progress towards eradication is less than expected. Organizational and managerial resources can help to overcome social or economic obstacles, provided the veterinary profession is willing to address technical, but also non-technical, constraints to eradication.
Silva, Marco; Gaspar, Rui; Morais, Rui; Ramalho, Rosa; Macedo, Guilherme; Santos-Antunes, João
Abstract The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is essential for prevention and treatment of various conditions associated with this infection. However, its effectiveness is limited and influenced by factors linked to the bacteria and the host. In particular, influence of the biotype, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and previous treatment failure in eradication is understudied. Our center proposed to evaluate these aspects in a real life cohort by applying a questionnaire with demographic and lifestyle variables in patients who consecutively underwent urease breath test after the eradication therapy. PMID:28191542
Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.
Monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance measure how well public health programs operate over time and achieve their goals. As countries approach malaria elimination, these activities will need to shift from measuring reductions in morbidity and mortality, to detecting infections (with or without symptoms) and measuring transmission. Thus, the monitoring and evaluation and surveillance research and development agenda needs to develop the tools and strategies that will replace passive surveillance of morbidity with active and prompt detection of infection, including confirmation of interruption of transmission by detecting present and past infections, particularly in mobile populations. The capacity to assess trends and respond without delay will need to be developed, so that surveillance itself becomes an intervention. Research is also needed to develop sensitive field tests that can detect low levels of parasitaemia, together with strategies for their implementation. Other areas to explore include the rigorous evaluation of the utility of more detailed maps of disease and infection incidence and prevalence, the development of new maps to inform programmatic responses and the use of surveillance technologies based on cell phone or real-time internet Web-based reporting. Because any new strategies for monitoring and evaluation and surveillance for eradication have major implications for program implementation, research is also needed to test systems of delivery for acceptability, feasibility, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and community engagement. Finally, there is a clear need to systematically review the information from past elimination efforts for malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:21311581
responses to biological warfare vaccines in human vaccinees . Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:1–7. 20] Butler D. Admission on Gulf War vaccines spurs debate on...Naval Health Research Center Effect of Multiple, Simultaneous Vaccines on Polio Seroresponse and Associated Health Outcomes Michael P...Diego, California 92106-3521 E a M C a b a A R R A A K P I S M T T 1 t c i o c i A h 0 Vaccine 33 (2015) 2842–2848 Contents lists available at
Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex
The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance.
Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age.
Kilpi, Terhi M; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Nilsson, Lennart; Syrjänen, Ritva; Belloni, Cesare; Desole, Maria; Triban, Chiara; Storsaeter, Jann; Soila, Maaria; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie
The use of combination vaccines in the routine childhood program reduces distress to the recipients and is likely to improve uptake rates and timeliness of vaccination but requires careful evaluation and surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two commercial diphtheria-tetanus- acellular pertussis-hepatitis b-inactivated polio virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) combination vaccines when administered to infants at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. A total of 494 infants were randomized to receive three doses of either Infanrix hexa (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; N = 246) or Hexavac (Sanofi Pasteur MSD; N = 248) in 10 centers in Italy, Finland and Sweden. After the third dose, antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, polio and Hib were at the protective level in nearly all infants in both groups whereas the proportion of subjects who had achieved the protective concentration of >or=10 mIU/ml to hepatitis B surface antigen was 99.1% (95% CI 96.7-99.9) in the Infanrix hexa group as compared to 94.4% (95% CI 126.96.36.199) in the Hexavac group. Antibody titers to all three polio antigens were highest in Italy and lowest in Finland. Clinically relevant general reactions (such as fever of >39.5 degrees C) were mostly reported in less than 5% of the vaccinees. Three doses of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccines produced sufficient immune responses in nearly all vaccinees.
Khan, Saiqa I; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Vecchio, Daniela; Golberg, Alexander; McCormack, Michael C; Yarmush, Martin L; Hamblin, Michael R; Austen, William G
Biofilm formation is a significant problem, accounting for over eighty percent of microbial infections in the body. Biofilm eradication is problematic due to increased resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials as compared to planktonic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on biofilm-infected mesh. Prolene mesh was infected with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated with PEF using a concentric electrode system to derive, in a single experiment, the critical electric field strength needed to kill bacteria. The effect of the electric field strength and the number of pulses (with a fixed pulse length duration and frequency) on bacterial eradication was investigated. For all experiments, biofilm formation and disruption were confirmed with bioluminescent imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Computation and statistical methods were used to analyze treatment efficiency and to compare it to existing theoretical models. In all experiments 1500 V are applied through a central electrode, with pulse duration of 50 μs, and pulse delivery frequency of 2 Hz. We found that the critical electric field strength (Ecr) needed to eradicate 100-80% of bacteria in the treated area was 121 ± 14 V/mm when 300 pulses were applied, and 235 ± 6.1 V/mm when 150 pulses were applied. The area at which 100-80% of bacteria were eradicated was 50.5 ± 9.9 mm(2) for 300 pulses, and 13.4 ± 0.65 mm(2) for 150 pulses. 80% threshold eradication was not achieved with 100 pulses. The results indicate that increased efficacy of treatment is due to increased number of pulses delivered. In addition, we that showed the bacterial death rate as a function of the electrical field follows the statistical Weibull model for 150 and 300 pulses. We hypothesize that in the clinical setting, combining systemic antibacterial therapy with PEF will yield a synergistic effect leading to improved
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0191 TITLE: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Eradicating Recurrent Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...31Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0191 New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Eradicating Recurrent Breast Cancer 5...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Some breast cancer patients have no evidence
Kondo, Yasuteru; Iwata, Tomoaki; Haga, Takahiro; Kimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Masashi; Kakazu, Eiji; Kogure, Takayuki; Morosawa, Tatsuki; Aiba, Setsuya; Shimosegawa, Tooru
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can affect immune cells and induce various kinds of immune-related diseases including pyoderma gangrenosum. We experienced a difficult-to-treat case of pyoderma gangrenosum-like lesions in a patient with HCV infection. The patient was treated with pegylated interferon (PEG IFN)-α-2b and ribavirin (RBV) therapy and achieved a sustained virological response. Before the eradication of HCV, the frequency of T-helper 17 cells was remarkably high in comparison to chronic hepatitis C patients without extrahepatic immune-related diseases. Moreover, we could detect negative and positive strand-specific HCV RNA in the CD19(+) B lymphocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocytes. However, after the eradication of HCV, the immunological status became normal and the pyoderma gangrenosum-like lesions became stable without immunosuppressive therapy. Here, we report a sequential immunological analysis during PEG IFN/RBV therapy and the beneficial effect of HCV eradication in difficult-to-treat pyoderma gangrenosum-like lesions.
In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.
Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Bätza, Hans-Joachim
The problem of successfully controling PRRS with traditional methods has led to a growing interest in eradication. This review summarizes the current literature on topics of PRRS-eradication, including the relevant routine diagnostic procedures, routes of virus transmission between pig herds (as i.e. pig movement, semen, aerosols, insects, fomites, transport vehicles) and eradication by close&rollover and test&removal, respectively. On the basis of this knowledge and experiences it can be concluded that PRRS eradication in Germany with its intensive pig production and remarkably high pig density in several regions may only be possible through a national eradication program. The lack of potent marker vaccines that reduce the virus spread significantly, combined with the lack of differentiating diagnostic tests for routine laboratory use leads to the recommendation not to launch a national eradication program under the given circumstances. For the future it should be taken into account that the situation after reintroduction of PRRSV in a free region could only be managed by stamping-out which is generally poorly accepted by the majority of pig producers.
Dracunculiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Dracunculus medinensis. Persons become infected by drinking water from stagnant sources (e.g., ponds) contaminated by copepods (water fleas) that contain immature forms of the parasite. In 1986, the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for the eradication of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) at a time when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred annually in 20 countries in Africa and Asia and 120 million persons were at risk for the disease. Because of slow mobilization in countries with endemic disease, the global dracunculiasis eradication program did not meet the 1995 target date for eradicating dracunculiasis set by WHA in 1991. In 2004, WHA established a new target date of 2009 ; despite considerable progress toward global eradication, that target date also will not be met. This report updates continued progress toward global eradication of dracunculiasis since January 2008. At the end of December 2008, dracunculiasis was endemic in six countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan). The number of indigenous cases of dracunculiasis had decreased 52%, from 9,585 in 2007 to 4,619 in 2008. Of the 1,446 cases that occurred during January-June 2009, 1,413 (98%) were reported from Sudan and Ghana. Currently, insecurity (e.g., sporadic violence or civil unrest) in areas of Sudan and Mali where dracunculiasis is endemic poses the greatest threat to the success of the global dracunculiasis eradication program.
Kim, Jong-Hoon; Rho, Seong-Hwan
One drawback of oral polio vaccine (OPV) is the potential reversion to more transmissible, virulent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which may cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. Previous modeling studies of the transmission of cVDPVs assume an unrealistic homogeneous mixing of the population and/or ignore that OPV viruses and cVDPVs compete for susceptibles, which we show is a key to understanding the dynamics of the transmission of cVDPVs. We examined the transmission of OPV viruses and cVDPVs on heterogeneous, dynamic contact networks using differential equation-based and individual-based models. Despite the lower transmissibility, OPV viruses may outcompete more transmissible cVDPVs in the short run by spreading extensively before cVDPVs emerge. If viruses become endemic, however, cVDPVs eventually dominate and force OPV viruses to extinction. This study improves our understanding of the emergence of cVDPVs and helps develop more detailed models to plan a policy to control paralytic polio associated with the continued use of OPV in many countries.
Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Pliaka, Vaia; Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Markoulatos, Panayotis
Human enteroviruses (EV) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are among the most common viruses infecting humans. They consist of up to 100 immunologically and genetically distinct types: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, and the more recently characterized 43 EV types. Frequent recombinations and mutations in enteroviruses have been recognized as the main mechanisms for the observed high rate of evolution, thus enabling them to rapidly respond and adapt to new environmental challenges. The first signs of genetic exchanges between enteroviruses came from polioviruses many years ago, and since then recombination has been recognized, along with mutations, as the main cause for reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. More recently, non-polio enteroviruses became the focus of many studies, where recombination was recognized as a frequent event and was correlated with the appearance of new enterovirus lineages and types. The accumulation of multiple inter- and intra-typic recombination events could also explain the series of successive emergences and disappearances of specific enterovirus types that could in turn explain the epidemic profile of circulation of several types. This review focuses on recombination among human non-polio enteroviruses from all four species (EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, and EV-D) and discusses the recombination effects on enterovirus epidemiology and evolution.
Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell
Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications.
Axon, A. T.; O'Moráin, C. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Crowe, J. P.; Beattie, A. D.; Thompson, R. P.; Smith, P. M.; Hollanders, F. D.; Baron, J. H.; Lynch, D. A.; Dixon, M. F.; Tompkins, D. S.; Birrell, H.; Gillon, K. R.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces recurrence of benign gastric ulceration. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, controlled study. Patients were randomised in a 1:2 ratio to either omeprazole 40 mg once daily for eight weeks or the same treatment plus amoxycillin 750 mg twice daily for weeks 7 and 8. A 12 month untreated follow up ensued. SETTING: Teaching and district general hospitals between 1991 and 1994. SUBJECTS: 107 patients with benign gastric ulcer associated with H pylori. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Endoscopically confirmed relapse with gastric ulcer (analysed with life table methods), H pylori eradication, and healing of gastric ulcers (Mantel-Haenszel test). RESULTS: 172 patients were enrolled. Malignancy was diagnosed in 19; 24 were not infected with H pylori; four withdrew because of adverse events; and 18 failed to attend for start of treatment, leaving 107 patients eligible for analysis (35 omeprazole alone; 72 omeprazole plus amoxycillin). In the omeprazole/amoxycillin group 93% (67/72; 95% confidence interval 84% to 98%) of gastric ulcers healed and 83% (29/35; 66% to 94%) in the omeprazole group (P = 0.103). Eradication of H pylori was 58% (42/72; 46% to 70%) and 6% (2/35; 1% to 19%) (P < 0.001) and relapse after treatment was 22% (16/72) and 49% (17/35) (life table analysis, P < 0.001), in the two groups, respectively. The recurrence rates were 7% (3/44) after successful H pylori eradication and 48% (30/63) in those who continued to be infected (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Eradication of H pylori reduces relapse with gastric ulcer over one year. Eradication rates achieved with this regimen, however, are too low for it to be recommended for routine use. PMID:9055715
Altenbaugh, Richard J.
Viewing disabled people as historical actors, this essay ponders emerging disability historiography, distilling three key characteristics--the norm, prejudice and human agency--and applies them to specific cases related to the polio phenomenon of the twentieth century, focusing on the closely related experiences of childhood, families and…
Hachisuka, K; Makino, K; Wada, F; Saeki, S; Yoshimoto, N; Arai, M
A prospective study was carried out on the clinical application and features of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis (carbon orthosis) for polio survivors. The subjects comprised 9 polio survivors, and 11 carbon knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) were prescribed, fabricated, and checked out at the authors' post-polio clinic. Walking was classified based on the functional ambulatory category, and the features of walking with a carbon orthosis were self-evaluated by using a visual analogue scale. The period from modelling a cast to completion was 55 +/- 25 days; the weight of a carbon KAFO was 27.8% lighter than that of the ordinary KAFO; the standard carbon KAFO was 50% more expensive than the ordinary KAFO. The carbon KAFO remained undamaged for at least 2 years. It improved the scores in the functional ambulation categories, but there was no difference between walking with an ordinary and with a carbon KAFO. The self-evaluation of walking with a carbon KAFO revealed that the subjects using a carbon KAFO were satisfied with their carbon KAFO. The carbon KAFO is lightweight, durable, slim and smart, and is positively indicated for polio survivors.
Touray, Kebba; Mkanda, Pascal; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Banda, Richard; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.
Introduction. Nigeria is among the 3 countries in which polio remains endemic. The country made significant efforts to reduce polio transmission but remains challenged by poor-quality campaigns and poor team performance in some areas. This article demonstrates the application of geographic information system technology to track vaccination teams to monitor settlement coverage, reduce the number of missed settlements, and improve team performance. Methods. In each local government area where tracking was conducted, global positioning system–enabled Android phones were given to each team on a daily basis and were used to record team tracks. These tracks were uploaded to a dashboard to show the level of coverage and identify areas missed by the teams. Results. From 2012 to June 2015, tracking covered 119 immunization days. A total of 1149 tracking activities were conducted. Of these, 681 (59%) were implemented in Kano state. There was an improvement in the geographic coverage of settlements and an overall reduction in the number of missed settlements. Conclusions. The tracking of vaccination teams provided significant feedback during polio campaigns and enabled supervisors to evaluate performance of vaccination teams. The reports supported other polio program activities, such as review of microplans and the deployment of other interventions, for increasing population immunity in northern Nigeria. PMID:26609004
Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara
Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic
Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chuah, Seng-Kee
Quinolone has the disadvantage of easily acquired drug resistance. It is important to prescribe it wisely for a high eradication rate. The current study aimed to determine the clinical and bacteriological factors for optimal levofloxacin-containing triple therapies in second-line H. pylori eradication. We enrolled a total of 158 H. pylori-infected patients who failed H. pylori eradication using the 7-day standard triple therapy (proton-pump inhibitor [PPI] twice daily, 500 mg clarithromycin twice daily, and 1 g amoxicillin twice daily). They were prescribed with either a 10-day (group A) or 14-day (group B) levofloxacin-containing triple therapy group (levofloxacin 500 mg once daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily for 10 days) by their clinicians. Follow-up studies to assess treatment responses were carried out 8 weeks later. The eradication rates attained by groups A and B were 73.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63.9-85.3%) and 90.5% (95% CI = 84.5-98.1%), respectively in the per protocol analysis (P = 0.008 in the per protocol analysis) and 67.1% (95% CI = 56.6-78.5%) and 84.8% (95% CI = 76.8-93.4%), respectively, in the intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.009). The subgroup analysis revealed that H. pylori eradication rates for group A patients with levofloxacin-susceptible strains were 92.9% (13/14) but it dropped to 12.5% (1/8) when levofloxacin-resistant strains existed. H. pylori was eradicated among all the group B patients with levofloxacin-susceptible strains, but only half of patients with levofloxacin-resistant strains were successfully eradicated. In conclusion, this study confirms the effectiveness of 14-day treatment. Importantly, the results imply that 10-day treatment duration should be optimal if a culture can be performed to confirm the existence of susceptible strains. The duration of H. pylori eradication and levofloxacin resistance were the influencing factors for successful treatment. This study suggests
Iverson, Richard D.; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Tasker, Alan V.
Witchweed [(Striga asiatica (L.) O. Kuntze)] is a parasitic weed from Asia and Africa that attaches to the roots of grasses and grass crops such as corn and sorghum. Witchweed was first detected in the western hemisphere in a corn field in Columbus County, North Carolina, in July, 1956. Since that time, a federal/state cooperative program has eliminated over 99% of the 432,000+ acres that have been found infested with witchweed in the eastern Carolinas. This chapter provides an overview of the USDA-Carolinas Witchweed Eradication Program, as well as the methods and procedures that have been employed to achieve this remarkable level of success.
Simitsopoulou, Maria; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel
The antibiofilm activities of caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin, and liposomal amphotericin B were studied against Candida lusitaniae, Candida guilliermondii, and a Candida albicans control strain. While anidulafungin and micafungin (0.007 to 2,048 mg/liter) showed reduced activity against biofilms of both test species, caspofungin displayed concentration-dependent antibiofilm activity, reaching complete and persistent eradication at concentrations achievable during lock therapy (512 to 2,048 mg/liter, P < 0.05). Although liposomal amphotericin B strongly inhibited mature biofilms, it possessed lower antibiofilm activity than caspofungin (P < 0.05).
Tiengwe, Calvin; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D
Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is central to antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Although much prior work documents that VSG is efficiently synthesized and exported to the cell surface, it was recently claimed that 2-3 fold more is synthesized than required, the excess being eliminated by ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) (Field et al., ). We now reinvestigate VSG turnover and find no evidence for rapid degradation, consistent with a model whereby VSG synthesis is precisely regulated to match requirements for a functional surface coat on each daughter cell. However, using a mutated version of the ESAG7 subunit of the transferrin receptor (E7:Ty) we confirm functional ERAD in trypanosomes. E7:Ty fails to assemble into transferrin receptors and accumulates in the ER, consistent with retention of misfolded protein, and its turnover is selectively rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. We also show that ER accumulation of E7:Ty does not induce an unfolded protein response. These data, along with the presence of ERAD orthologues in the Trypanosoma brucei genome, confirm ERAD in trypanosomes. We discuss scenarios in which ERAD could be critical to bloodstream parasites, and how these may have contributed to the evolution of antigenic variation in trypanosomes.
Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.
Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O
The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice.
Carleton, Heather A.
Dr. Dorothy Horstmann, epidemiologist, virologist, clinician, and educator, was the first woman appointed as a professor at the Yale School of Medicine. Horstmann made significant contributions to the fields of public health and virology, her most notable being the demonstration that poliovirus reached the central nervous system via the bloodstream, upsetting conventional wisdom and paving the way for polio vaccines. In 1961, she was appointed a professor at Yale School of Medicine, and in 1969, she became the first woman at Yale to receive an endowed chair, which was named in honor of her mentor, Dr. John Rodman Paul. In this review, the major scientific contributions of Dr. Dorothy Horstmann will be highlighted from her more than 50-year tenure at Yale School of Medicine. PMID:21698038
This article introduces Japanese vaccinations and practices, focusing on polio and pertussis. Japan is one of the few industrialized countries still using live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Current status of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Japan is discussed. This review is intended to encourage early conversion of OPV to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for the routine vaccination as soon as possible. The other topic pertains to the results of a study designed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Japanese DPT vaccine in adults when administered at the dose of 0.2 ml (2/5th of the ordinary dose). In Japan, there is no system for providing advice to adults on vaccination once the childhood schedule is completed. The author, however, wishes to propose here that if the currently approved DPT vaccine can be better utilized as Tdap, we may improve the means for disease prophylaxis.
Voorn, Eric L; Beelen, Anita; Gerrits, Karin H L; Nollet, Frans; de Haan, Arnold
The present study investigated whether intrinsic fatigability of the muscle fibers is reduced in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This may contribute to the muscle fatigue complaints reported by patients with PPS. For this purpose, we assessed contractile properties and fatigue resistance of the knee extensor muscles using repeated isometric electrically evoked contractions in 38 patients with PPS and 19 age-matched healthy subjects. To determine whether any difference in fatigue resistance between both groups could be attributed to differences in aerobic capacity of the muscle fibers, 9 patients with PPS and 11 healthy subjects performed the same protocol under arterial occlusion. Results showed that fatigue resistance of patients with PPS was comparable to that in controls, both in the situation with intact circulation and with occluded blood flow. Together, our findings suggest that there are no differences in contractile properties and aerobic muscle capacity that may account for the increased muscle fatigue perceived in PPS.
Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Sung Han; Jee, Young Mee; Kim, Jung Soo
This report describes a case of acute flaccid paralysis after administration of oral polio vaccine (OPV). A 4 month-old male patient with the decreased movement of left lower extremity for 1 month was transferred to the Department of Pediatrics. He received OPV with DTaP at 2 months of age. Flaccid paralysis was detected 4 weeks after OPV immunization. Attempts to isolate Sabin-like viruses in the two stool and CSF samples failed because those specimens were collected more than 2 month after the onset of paralysis. Hypotonic monoparesis (GIV/V), hypotonia and atrophy on the left lower extremity, and ipsilateral claw foot persisted for more than 18 months, while we followed him with rehabilitation therapy. This is the first case of officially approved, recipient vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Korea.
Dutta, Mahendra; Basu, R N
Following several key breakthroughs during the mid-1960s under the global smallpox eradication programme namely, development of a thermo-stable vaccine, efficient and acceptable technique of it's delivery by bifurcated needle and evolution of a strategy (in lieu of mass vaccination) of active case search and containment, an intensified campaign of smallpox eradication from India was successfully implemented during 1973-1975. A formidable battle was fought, particularly in Bihar state leading to the occurrence of last indigenous case on 17 May 1975. The rapid achievement of eradication of the scourge from India in a record time was hailed as unprecedented in public health history. The single key factor in the achievement was the sustained efforts of a band of national and international epidemiologists, supported by young medical interns heading mobile containment teams, working under trying field conditions. Through the campaign several important lessons were learnt and innovations made. Important among these were: (i) need for refinement of tools, techniques, and strategies for attaining the objective; (ii) implementation of a time and target oriented campaign; (iii) support of adequate and dedicated short term personnel to supplement supervision and field activities; (iv) providing of flexible funding and a convenient disbursement procedure; (v) building private-public partnership; (vi) devising of simple innovations, based on feedback from field, to support activities; (vii) development of political commitment; (viii) improved communication from field to higher levels to enable action on recent information; (ix) regular periodic staff meetings at each administrative level to facilitate early recognition and correction of deficiencies; (x) mobilization of support from international community, whenever required.
Prothero, R. Mansell
Population movements of various kinds are among the outstanding demographic features of the African continent and entail serious difficulties for malaria eradication. The majority of these movements are free and uncontrolled and are frequently inter-territorial in nature, hampering nation-wide or more limited malaria eradication projects and resulting in much reinfection. The author examines in some detail the types of population movements and their relationship to malaria problems in the Republic of Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, East Africa, Zanzibar, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Nigeria and Ghana. He concludes that these movements cannot be stopped and must be taken into account in planning malaria eradication programmes. More information on them and on the complex relationships between parasites, vectors and human beings is required, and inter-territorial co-operation is essential in obtaining this information and in planning. PMID:13738245
Cairncross, S; Braide, E I; Bugri, S Z
As Guinea worm eradication programmes have got under way in endemic countries over the last decade, there has been a shift towards more participatory methods. The approach to surveillance has changed from periodic cross-sectional surveys to monthly village-based reporting of cases by a volunteer village health worker. At the same time, the emphasis regarding control interventions has moved from the provision of safe water supplies to health education. The new approach has proved very effective. The village health volunteers who carry out both surveillance and health education seem to be motivated largely by the social status of their role; still more commitment will be required of them in the final stages of eradication. It is to be hoped that the networks of village health workers established for Guinea worm eradication will find a useful role in health promotion after the worms have gone.
Krikler, S. J.
The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a group of 28 men living in a totally isolated environment for a year. Initially, nasal, axillary and perineal swabs were taken at weekly intervals, but from week 24 throat swabs were taken from known nasal carriers. Several attempts were made during the study to eradicate S. aureus. Eight subjects consistently carried their own phage type throughout the study, despite the application of antibacterial agents. In three subjects strains were isolated late in the study of a phage type which had either not been isolated before in this study, or had not been found for a prolonged period. Nine of the 12 nasal carriers also yielded S. aureus from the throat. It is apparent that following attempted eradication, S. aureus may seem to disappear, only to reappear some time later; 'eradication' in this case would be an erroneous appellation. PMID:3794322
Hackett, C. J.
Much has been learnt of the epidemiology of yaws during eradication campaigns in populations in which the prevalence of active yaws was high, but not all has been published. The recognition of the importance of latent cases in the maintenance of yaws has contributed to the effectiveness of these campaigns. Yaws eradication activities are extending into populations where at present active yaws is often not high. Planning of effective and economical eradication measures, especially in such populations, needs as complete a picture of the disease as possible, from its transmission and the factors that favour this until the death of the infected person, before or after cure of the infection either after chemotherapy or spontaneously. By revealing the many gaps that still remain in our knowledge of yaws, this summary may encourage those who have gathered valuable material during field work to study and prepare it for publication. PMID:13710280
Barnabas, Ruanne V.; Rue, Tessa; Weisman, Jordan; Harris, Nathan A.; Orenstein, Walter A.
Abstract Background: Interactive games that highlight global health challenges and solutions are a potential tool for increasing interest in global health. To test this hypothesis, we developed an interactive “Polio Eradication” (PE) game and evaluated whether playing or watching was associated with increased public interest in global health. Materials and Methods: The PE game is a life-size, human board game that simulates PE efforts. Four players—a researcher, a transportation expert, a local community coordinator, and a healthcare worker—collaborate as an interdisciplinary team to help limit ongoing and future polio outbreaks in Pakistan, represented on the game board. Participants who played or observed the game and those who did not participate in the game, but visited noninteractive global health exhibits, completed a survey on participation outcomes. We used relative risk regression to examine associations between cofactors and change in global health interest. Results: Three variables predicted increased global health interest among the game participants: Having little or no previous global health knowledge prior to playing the game (risk ratio [RR]=1.28; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.45), not currently being involved in global health (RR=1.41; 95 percent CI, 1.07–1.85), and visiting Seattle (RR=1.25; 95 percent CI, 1.04–1.51). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a hands-on, interactive game may increase the public's interest in global health, particularly among those with minimal previous knowledge of or involvement in global health activities. PMID:26182064
Rao, Durga C; Ananda Babu, M; Raghavendra, A; Dhananjaya, D; Kumar, Sudheendra; Maiya, P P
A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrheal cases still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with E11 being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of
Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Tobler, Kurt; Abril, Carlos; Diedrich, Sabine; Ackermann, Mathias; Pallansch, Mark A; Metzler, Alfred
From 2001 to 2004, Switzerland switched from routine vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), using both vaccines in the intervening period. Since IPV is less effective at inducing mucosal immunity than OPV, this change might allow imported poliovirus to circulate undetected more easily in an increasingly IPV-immunized population. Environmental monitoring is a recognized tool for identifying polioviruses in a community. To look for evidence of poliovirus circulation following cessation of OPV use, two sewage treatment plants located in the Zurich area were sampled from 2004 to 2006. Following virus isolation using either RD or L20B cells, enteroviruses and polioviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 20 out of 174 wastewater samples were positive for 62 Sabin-like isolates. One isolate from each poliovirus-positive sample was analyzed in more detail. Sequencing the complete viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid coding region, as well as intratypic differentiation (ITD), identified 3 Sabin type 1, 13 Sabin type 2, and 4 Sabin type 3 strains. One serotype 1 strain showed a discordant result in the ITD. Three-quarters of the strains showed mutations within the 5' untranslated region and VP1, known to be associated with reversion to virulence. Moreover, three strains showed heterotypic recombination (S2/S1 and S3/S2/S3). The low number of synonymous mutations and the partial temperature sensitivity are not consistent with extended circulation of these Sabin virus strains. Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity.
Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies.
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McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.
In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.
Puvacić, Zlatko; Beslagić, Edina; Zvizdić, Sukrija; Puvacić, Sandra; Ravlija, Jelena; Hamzić, Sadeta
Typhus exanthematicus in Bosnia and Herzegovina held in endemic areas from which especially quickly began spread after 1945. That year, in 1945, one hundred epidemics of typhus fever appeared, with the highest incidence rate in Europe of 215.04 per 1,000. Directions of unique program in the world were to eradicate lice of the body, but also establish monitoring of the recidivism, Brill-Zinsser disease. Since 1971, typhus exanthematicus (classical typhus) hasn't appeared in Bosnia and Herzegovina, so epidemic typhus can considered as an eradicated communicable disease.
Llovet, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel
Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated as trigger or disease modifier in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). So, eradication treatment for this agent could have clinical benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews comprising 40 studies addressing the question of this article overall, including one randomized controlled trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded Helicobacter eradication might decrease risk of bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia but the certainty of the evidence is low.
As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.
Glupczynski, Y; Burette, A; Nyst, J F; De Prez, C; De Koster, E; Deltenre, M
The efficacy of various antimicrobial and anti-ulcer agents on the eradication of Campylobacter pylori in patients with antral gastritis or duodenal ulcers was investigated by several open studies or double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols. Among the anti-ulcer agents, ranitidine, cimetidine or sucraflate had no effect on C. pylori. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate achieved clearance of C. pylori in 40% of treated patients at the end of therapy but a high relapse rate (14/16 patients) was observed after a 6-month follow-up period. The antibacterial agents doxycycline, minocycline, ofloxacin, clindamycin, paromomycin and nifuroxazide failed to eradicate C. pylori in most patients. By contrast, short term elimination of C. pylori could be achieved in more than 90% of patients treated with amoxycillin. However, relapse occurred as a rule in all amoxycillin-treated patients within one month after therapy. Overall, we observed no correlation between the in-vitro activity of the different antibacterial agents and their in vivo efficacy. Development of resistance during therapy does not seem to account for this discrepancy since it occurred only with ofloxacin. On the basis of these results, we conclude that long term eradication of C. pylori from the gastric antrum cannot be achieved after monotherapy either with antibiotics or with bismuth salts.
Alexander, James P; Zubair, Mufti; Khan, Muzaffar; Abid, Nima; Durry, Elias
Pakistan is one of 3 countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. Numbers of confirmed polio cases have declined by >90% from preeradication levels, although outbreaks occurred during 2008-2013. During 2012 and 2013, 58 and 93 WPV cases, respectively, were reported, almost all of which were due to WPV type 1. Of the 151 WPV cases reported during 2012-2013, 123 (81%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. WPV type 3 was isolated from only 3 persons with polio in a single district in 2012. During August 2012-December 2013, 62 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 cases were detected, including 40 cases (65%) identified in the FATA during 2013. Approximately 350 000 children in certain districts of the FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012, because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers, which started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world.
Jung, Tae-Du; Broman, Lisbet; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gonzalez, Henrik; Borg, Kristian
To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.
Zipursky, Simona; Boualam, Liliane; Cheikh, Dah Ould; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hamid, Djabar; Janssen, Mathias; Kartoglu, Umit; Waeterloos, Genevieve; Ronveaux, Olivier
This study is the first systematic documentation of the potency of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 3 (mOPV3) kept at ambient temperatures during a polio immunization campaign in Chad. During the study test vials were exposed to temperatures of up to 47.1 °C, and kept outside of the 2-8 °C range for a maximum of 86.9 hours. Post-campaign laboratory testing confirmed that the test vials were still potent, and in conformity with the defined release specifications. Further, the Vaccine Vial Monitors performed as expected, giving an early warning indication of when cumulative exposure to heat reached levels that may have negatively affected the vaccine's potency. This study provides proof-of-concept evidence that certain types of OPV remain potent and thus can be kept, for limited periods of time, as well as administered at ambient temperatures.
Shapira, Ilana; Charuvi, Dana; Elkabetz, Yechiel; Hirschberg, Koret; Bar-Nun, Shoshana
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) eliminates aberrant proteins from the secretory pathway. Such proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Cis-acting motifs can function in ERAD as retention signals, preventing vesicular export from the endoplasmic reticulum, or as degrons, targeting proteins for degradation. Here, we show that microstp, the C-terminal 20-residue tailpiece of the secretory IgM mus heavy chain, functions both as a portable retention signal and as an ERAD degron. Retention of microstp fusions of secreted versions of thyroid peroxidase and yellow fluorescent protein in the endoplasmic reticulum requires the presence of the penultimate cysteine of microstp. In its role as a portable degron, the microstp targets the retained proteins for ERAD but does not serve as an obligatory ubiquitin-conjugation site. Abolishing microstp glycosylation accelerates the degradation of both microstpCys-fused substrates, yet absence of the N-glycan eliminates the requirement for the penultimate cysteine in the retention and degradation of the unglycosylated yellow fluorescent protein. Hence, the dual role played by the microstpCys motif as a retention signal and as a degron can be attributed to distinct elements within this sequence.
Williams, Matthew O.; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan
Although disease transmission in the near eradication regime is inherently stochastic, deterministic quantities such as the probability of eradication are of interest to policy makers and researchers. Rather than running large ensembles of discrete stochastic simulations over long intervals in time to compute these deterministic quantities, we create a data-driven and deterministic "coarse" model for them using the Equation Free (EF) framework. In lieu of deriving an explicit coarse model, the EF framework approximates any needed information, such as coarse time derivatives, by running short computational experiments. However, the choice of the coarse variables (i.e., the state of the coarse system) is critical if the resulting model is to be accurate. In this manuscript, we propose a set of coarse variables that result in an accurate model in the endemic and near eradication regimes, and demonstrate this on a compartmental model representing the spread of Poliomyelitis. When combined with adaptive time-stepping coarse projective integrators, this approach can yield over a factor of two speedup compared to direct simulation, and due to its lower dimensionality, could be beneficial when conducting systems level tasks such as designing eradication or monitoring campaigns.
Wallace, R. A.; Schluter, P. J.; Webb, P. M.
Compared to the general population, Helicobacter pylori infection is more common among adults with intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with greater levels of disability, maladaptive behaviour, and institutionalization. Little information exists about the effects of eradication therapy in this group, so we aimed to evaluate: (1) success…
The available results of triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), as recommended in European countries--i.e. combination of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole for 7 days--lead to rates of failure of about 30%. Several clinical studies have been recently conducted to distinguish factors influencing effectiveness of therapy and to evaluate results of new regimens. Comparative trials have demonstrated the equivalence of omeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, rabeprazole 20 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg, twice daily in these 7-days triple therapies. Efficacy of treatment is not affected by metronidazole resistance (44% in France) when amoxicillin-clarithromycin-based triple therapy is prescribed. The impact of clarithromycin resistance (14%) is much more important with failure of eradication in all cases treated by clarithromycin-based triple therapy. The eradication rate could be slightly improved by increasing the dose of clarithromycin but with more frequent side effects. To prolong the duration treatment improve also slightly the cure rate with a gain of less than 10%, but with an increasing rate of side effects. To date, the PPI-based triple therapies, as recommended in France, have not to be modified. The treatment of H. pylori infection has to be globally considered, with a first-line treatment leading to eradication in 70% of patients and a second-line treatment needed for the resting 30% of patients.
Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell
The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-$1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%);…
Hidalgo, Solange; García Erro, Marcela; Cisterna, Daniel; Freire, M Cecilia
We describe a case of poliomyelitis in a 3-year-old Argentinean boy with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. The child had no history of polio vaccination, but a poliovirus isolated from a stool sample had 97.2% genetic similarity to the Sabin 1 vaccine strain. According to the WHO definition, this is the first case reported of a vaccine-derived poliovirus infection recorded in continental Latin America.
Krafsur, E S; Lindquist, D A
The American screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, was detected in northwestern Libya in 1988. By August 1990, a screwworm epizootic extended over 26,000 km2 but collapsed in December and disappeared in April 1991. The relative contributions of winter weather and sterile insect releases on screwworm eradication in Libya were assessed by using temperature data and population demography. A screwworm overwintering threshold mean temperature of approximately 9.7 degrees C for 3 mo is supported strongly by published experimental and epizootiological data. In Libya, temperatures were above this overwintering threshold at Zawia, Sorman, and Tripoli weather stations. At Gharyan, in the interior highlands, mean winter temperatures from 1 December 1990 to 28 February 1991 were less than the putative overwintering threshold. No kill of screwworm pupae or adults was likely as a result of low temperatures near any weather station in the winter of 1990-1991. Evidence of screwworm overwintering in 1990-1991 was provided by the detection of a natural infestation in April and trap captures of numerous wild adult females in February, March, and April. Successful screwworm overwintering was highly probable in the coastal plain of Libya but unlikely in much of the interior highlands. The high rate of animal inspections by eradication personnel achieved as much as a 30% chance of detecting a screwworm case in domestic animals. Generation times and expectation of life among feral adult flies were estimated. Case reports for January to June 1991 were consistently less than estimates based on historical experience in Libya 1989-1990 and in Texas 1962-1983. Phenological simulations of sterile mating rates in feral screwworm flies supports the contention that sterile fly releases led to a greatly reduced case incidence from January to the time that eradication was declared in October 1991.
Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P
Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Kobtan, Abdelrahman; El-kalla, Ferial; Elkhalawany, Walaa; Nawasany, Sally El; Saif, Sabry Abou; Yousef, Mohamed; Ali, Lobna Abo; Soliman, Samah; Mansour, Loai; Habba, Eslam; Soliman, Hanan; Rizk, Fatma; Shehata, Mona AH
Abstract As there are increasing reports of fluoroquinolone resistance on use as a first- or second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide-based regimen as a rescue regimen in Egyptian patients whose previous traditional treatment for H pylori infection failed.In total, 100 patients from the outpatient clinic of the Tropical medicine department, Tanta University hospital in whom the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin-based triple therapy) failed were enrolled in the study. Nitazoxanide (500 mg bid), levofloxacin (500 mg once daily), omeprazole (40 mg bid), and doxycyclin (100 mg twice daily) were prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by stool antigen for H pylori 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Among the patients enrolled in the study, 44% of patients were men and the mean age for the participants in the study was 46.41 ± 8.05, 13% of patients were smokers, and 4% of patients had a previous history of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. A total of 94 patients (94%) completed the study with excellent compliance. Only 1 patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to intolerable side effects and 5 patients (5%) did not achieve good compliance or were lost during follow up. However, 83 patients had successful eradication of H pylori with total eradication rates 83% (95 % CI 75.7–90.3%) and 88.30% (95 % CI 81.8–94.8%) according to an intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, respectively. Adverse events were reported in 21% of patients: abdominal pain (6%), nausea (9%) and constipation (12%), (2%) headache, and (1%) dizziness. A 2-week nitazoxanide-based regimen is an effective and safe rescue therapy in Egyptian patients whose previous standard triple therapy has failed. PMID:27310977
Niepa, Tagbo H R; Wang, Hao; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Ren, Dacheng
Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections associated with medical devices and biomaterials. One important intrinsic mechanism of such resistance is the formation of persister cells that are phenotypic variants of microorganisms and highly tolerant to antibiotics. Recently, we reported a new approach to eradicating persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using low-level direct electrochemical current (DC) and synergy with the antibiotic tobramycin. To further understand the underlying mechanism and develop this technology toward possible medical applications, we investigated the electricidal activities of non-metallic biomaterial on persister and biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa using graphite-based TGON™ 805 electrodes. We employed both single and dual chamber systems to compare electrochemical factors of TGON and stainless steel 304 electrodes. The results revealed that TGON-based treatments were highly effective against P. aeruginosa persister cells. In the single chamber system, complete eradication of planktonic persister cells (corresponding to a 7-log killing) was achieved with 70μA/cm(2) DC using TGON electrodes within 40min of treatment, while the cell viability in biofilms was reduced by 2 logs within 1h. The killing effects were dose and time dependent with higher current densities requiring less time. Moreover, reduction reactions were found more effective than oxidation reactions, confirming that metal cations are not indispensable, although they may facilitate cell killing. The findings of this study can help develop electrochemical technologies to eradicate persister and biofilm cells for more effective treatment of medical device and biomaterial associated infections.
Buzás, György Miklós
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future. PMID:24833852
ABSTRACT Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success in limiting the pathology and transmission of the human parasitic infections onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The full implementation of MDA campaigns for filariasis elimination has been stymied by the unacceptable incidence of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria. Extending MDA strategies to regions where loiasis is coendemic could be done confidently if a simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic method was available that could accurately identify individuals who have L. loa microfilarial loads above the risk threshold and could thus be excluded from treatment. A recent paper in mBio reports the discovery of an antigen unique to L. loa microfilaria that can be detected in blood and urine and may form the basis for such an assay. Further work will reveal whether this discovery will smooth the path to achieve filariasis eradication. PMID:27073095
Lu, Chao; Sang, Jianzhong; He, Haijian; Wan, Xingyong; Lin, Yiming; Li, Lan; Li, Youming; Yu, Chaohui
This meta-analysis included eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the aim of determining whether probiotic supplementation can improve H. pylori eradication rates. PUBMED, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid databases were searched. We included RCTs that investigated the effect of combining probiotics, with or without a placebo, with standard therapy. A total of 21 RCTs that reported standard therapy plus probiotics were included. Compared to the placebo group, the probiotics group was 1.21(OR 1.21, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.69) and 1.28 (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.86) times more likely to achieve eradication of H. pylori infection in intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and per protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. Probiotics with triple therapy plus a 14-day course of treatment did not improve the eradication of H. pylori infection (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.39) compared to the placebo. Moreover, the placebo plus standard therapy did not improve eradication rates compared to standard therapy alone (P = 0.816). However, probiotics did improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and nausea. These pooled data suggest that the use of probiotics plus standard therapy does not improve the eradication rate of H. pylori infection compared to the placebo.
Asahi, Atsuko; Nishimoto, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Yuka; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yasuo; Kuwana, Masataka
Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which platelet-specific autoantibodies cause a loss of platelets. In a subset of patients with ITP and infected with Helicobacter pylori, the number of platelets recovers after eradication of H. pylori. To examine the role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of ITP, the response of 34 ITP patients to treatment with a standard H. pylori eradication regimen, irrespective of whether they were infected with H. pylori, was evaluated. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in all H. pylori–positive patients, and a significant increase in platelets was observed in 61% of these patients. By contrast, none of the H. pylori–negative patients showed increased platelets. At baseline, monocytes from the H. pylori–positive patients exhibited an enhanced phagocytic capacity and low levels of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB). One week after starting the H. pylori eradication regimen, this activated monocyte phenotype was suppressed and improvements in autoimmune and platelet kinetic parameters followed. Modulation of monocyte FcγR balance was also found in association with H. pylori infection in individuals who did not have ITP and in mice. Our findings strongly suggest that the recovery in platelet numbers observed in ITP patients after H. pylori eradication is mediated through a change in FcγR balance toward the inhibitory FcγRIIB. PMID:18654664
Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Homapoor, Saba; Zanganeh, Elahe; Dadjou, Mohammad; Eskandari Nejad, Shahab; Tajik Galayeri, Mohammad Hadi; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid
Background: Triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of clidinium-C addition on HP eradication and to investigate the efficacy and safety of clidinium-C in prevention of drugs' side effects. Methods: A total of 200 histopathologically confirmed HP positive peptic ulcer enrolled in this study which were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: OAC (20 mg omeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid and 500 mg clarithromycin bid) and OAC + clidinium-C. The effect of treatment and adverse effects were compared 6 weeks after completion of treatment. A13C-urea breath test was performed to confirm HP eradication. Results: A total of 184 patients (90 in group A and 94 in group B) completed the treatment protocols. HP eradication was achieved in 71.1% in OAC versus 72.3% in OCA+clidinium-C, (P=0.73). The frequencies of abdominal pain and stool abnormality, among the side effects recorded during the therapy period, were significantly lower in group B (OCA+clidinium-C) (P=0.01 and P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Addition of clidinium-C to OCA triple therapy decreases abdominal pain and frequency of stool abnormalities without affecting HP eradication rate. Based on these findings addition of clidinium-C may increase patient's compliance. PMID:27386057
Lu, Chao; Sang, Jianzhong; He, Haijian; Wan, Xingyong; Lin, Yiming; Li, Lan; Li, Youming; Yu, Chaohui
This meta-analysis included eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the aim of determining whether probiotic supplementation can improve H. pylori eradication rates. PUBMED, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid databases were searched. We included RCTs that investigated the effect of combining probiotics, with or without a placebo, with standard therapy. A total of 21 RCTs that reported standard therapy plus probiotics were included. Compared to the placebo group, the probiotics group was 1.21(OR 1.21, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.69) and 1.28 (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.86) times more likely to achieve eradication of H. pylori infection in intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and per protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. Probiotics with triple therapy plus a 14-day course of treatment did not improve the eradication of H. pylori infection (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.39) compared to the placebo. Moreover, the placebo plus standard therapy did not improve eradication rates compared to standard therapy alone (P = 0.816). However, probiotics did improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and nausea. These pooled data suggest that the use of probiotics plus standard therapy does not improve the eradication rate of H. pylori infection compared to the placebo. PMID:26997149
Yellow brain culinary-medicinal mushroom, Tremella mesenterica Ritz.:Fr. (higher Basidiomycetes), is subjectively but not objectively effective for eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a prospective controlled trial.
Lachter, Jesse; Yampolsky, Yevgeny; Gafni-Schieber, Ronit; Wasser, Solomon P
Inhibitory effects of the higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms, including species of genus Tremella, on the growth of Helicobacter pyroli (Hp) have been described. This study aimed to test T. mesenterica (Tm) efficacy in vivo on eradication of Hp. This IRB-approved study included 52 consenting patients diagnosed with Hp infections. The patients were selected for 10-day treatments with one of the three arms of the protocol, namely, (i) Tm 2 g, (ii) Tm given with omeprazole 20 mg, or (iii) omeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1000 mg (all regimens given twice daily). The Tm submerged cultivated mycelium in the form of tablets (1 g) was supplied free of charge to patients. Three weeks after completing the therapy, breath testing was assessed for Hp eradication. The patients who took the standard triple therapy had a 70% (n = 14) eradication rate of Hp. Of the patients taking Tm, with and without omeprazole, only one had a breath test indicative of eradication of Hp, p < 0.000. Tm-treated patients had fewer adverse events and equivalent symptomatic relief. Limitations of this study include the brief duration of Tm therapy. Longer treatment might achieve better results, but was judged to be not warranted, so as to not excessively further delay accepted therapy. Ten-day Tm was not found to be effective in vivo in eradicating Hp, whether if given with or without omeprazole. Significant symptomatic relief found among Tm-treated patients suggests that further study of Tm is well justified.
Bell, G D; Powell, K; Burridge, S M; Harrison, G; Weil, J; Gant, P W; Jones, P H; Trowell, J E
We have performed a retrospective study of 103 patients with either peptic ulcer or non-ulcer dyspepsia, infected with metronidazole-sensitive strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), who were treated with a combination of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and metronidazole for a period of at least two weeks. Dual therapy with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate plus metronidazole showed similarly high eradication rates (greater than or equal to 80%) of H. pylori from patients irrespective of age, gender or clinical diagnosis. Most importantly, dual therapy achieved a similar eradication rate of H. pylori infection in 41 patients who had previously been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate alone or in combination with an antibiotic other than metronidazole. It therefore appears that H. pylori does not become resistant to treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.
Focuses on lessons educators might learn from the Intensified Campaign for the Global Eradication of Smallpox. Outlines the history of smallpox eradication. Discusses the eradication effort's obstacles, campaign, and costs and benefits. Considers five factors relevant to the successful implementation of educational programs. (CMK)
... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National... project to eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National... the eradication of the house mouse and the prevention of future human introduction of mice. We...
Elkholy, Yasmine Samy; Hegab, Asmaa Sayed; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Hassan, Reem Mostafa
Endoscopes are a common source of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. It is therefore important to identify high-level disinfectants capable of eliminating or killing all vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. Aldehydebased disinfectants are most commonly used in clinical practice but resistance has recently been detected and side effects associated with these disinfectants are well documented. In this study, we evaluated Virusolve+® EDS, a novel quaternary ammonium compound formulation supplied by Amity international, against Mycobacterium bovis (ATCC-27289), hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive serum and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive serum. We also compared its efficacy against Cidex® (glutaraldehyde 2%), an aldehyde-based disinfectant. M. bovis showed no growth after 10 weeks with either Virusolve+® or Cidex®. Virusolve+® achieved a 10(4)- fold reduction in the initial 10(6) HCV load under clean conditions (without red blood cells) for 20 min, whereas Cidex® achieved this reduction under clean and dirty conditions (without and with red blood cells, respectively) after both 10 and 20 min. Both Virusolve+® and Cidex® were able to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity under clean conditions after 10 and 20 min, whereas under dirty conditions they were only able to eradicate virus infectivity after 20 min. Virusolve+® EDS when compared with Cidex® showed equal mycobactericidal activity completely eradicating M. bovis. However, both showed comparable virucidal activity against HBV, which was more effective under clean conditions, emphasizing the importance of the cleaning step in endoscope reprocessing. Cidex® was more effective at eradicating HCV under dirty conditions after a short contact time.
Yu, S Z
Qingpu, in western suburban of Shanghai, was one of serious schistosomiasis endemic counties in China. In 1958, in response to Chairman Mao' s call " Schistosomiasis must be eradicated", Shanghai First Medical College organized a research group to carry out schitosomiasis control in Qingpu. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was about 39% in 390 000 people and 8.4% in cattle. Oncomelania was distributed in an area of 70 million meter(2). The fighting project could be divided into two steps, the first one was from 1958 to 1974, during this period, the epidemic survey and patient treatment were conducted, and oncomelania control was carried out by using different kind of molluscides. In 1975, up to 92% of patients were cured, and 98% of oncomelania were killed. The second step was from 1975 to 1985, the main tasks were the consolidation of control achievement and surveillance. During this period oral medicines were used instead of venous injections. After the improvement of oncomelania detection method, the oncomelania clustering were found under rock duck and brick shore. In 1985, it was confirmed that schistosomiasis had been eradicated in Qingpu and other suburb areas of Shanghai.
Livingstone, P G; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, S A
We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme, in meeting
Livingstone, PG; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, SA
Abstract We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme
Más Lago, P.
The eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba, for which effective vaccines had to be acquired, is reviewed in this article. The strategy for eradication was based on mass immunization campaigns for the annual delivery of two doses of trivalent Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Except during the first campaign in 1962, the ages of the children for immunization were determined through national serological surveys of the entire country, including rural and urban areas. The interruption of wild virus transmission had been suspected since 1967 in Cuba, and since 1970 no studies have detected any wild virus. The important role of political and social organizations in the success of the programme and in the execution of the mass immunization campaigns is underscored. Countries that have successfully interrupted poliovirus circulation should maintain high immunization coverage for as long as there are other countries in the world where poliovirus still exists. PMID:10516790
Davidson, R M
New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose.
Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell
The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%); and halving the share of people who suffer from hunger. As for education, the MDGs seek to ensure that all children can complete primary schooling by 2015. Drawing on examples from selected southern African countries, the present study examines the need to strengthen economic support for (adult) education as an instrument of poverty