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Sample records for achieving safe reliable

  1. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  2. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  3. Safe motherhood--a long way to achieve.

    PubMed

    Majhi, A K; Mondal, A; Mukherjee, G G

    2001-03-01

    Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the most important index for monitoring the progress of safe motherhood programmes. A retrospective analysis of all maternal deaths at RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta from 1st January, 1995 to 31st December, 1997 was carried out. There were 29,563 live births and 203 maternal deaths giving cumulative MMR of 686.67 per 100,000 live births. Among the victims 25.6% were < or = 20 years of age, majority (73.4%) were unbooked, mostly from rural (59.6%) or urban slum (20.2%) and from low socio-economic status (59.6%). Most (60.10%) were multiparous and 50.74% patients died within 24 hours of hospital admission. Direct causes were responsible for 83.25%, indirect causes for 14.78% and unrelated causes for 1.97% of maternal deaths. Toxaemia was the leading cause (53.20%) of maternal mortality. Other important causes were haemorrhage (16.75%), sepsis (12.31%), severe anaemia (6.4%), infective hepatitis (1.47%) and heart disease (3.44%). In comparison to previous years no significant changes in MMR had been found though there were temporary decline in some years. The contribution of toxaemia in maternal deaths is significantly high and is on the rise. The other national and global pictures were reviewed. India is among the countries of high MMR and far away from achieving safe motherhood. Majority of deaths are preventable. The medical causes of maternal deaths are in fact, the end point of a longer chain of many underlying factors like low socio-economic status, poverty, illiteracy, high parity and inadequate or no health care. An active community-based health care system accessible to every mother with strong referral system is the most effective approach to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:11478755

  4. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  5. Methods and Costs to Achieve Ultra Reliable Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A published Mars mission is used to explore the methods and costs to achieve ultra reliable life support. The Mars mission and its recycling life support design are described. The life support systems were made triply redundant, implying that each individual system will have fairly good reliability. Ultra reliable life support is needed for Mars and other long, distant missions. Current systems apparently have insufficient reliability. The life cycle cost of the Mars life support system is estimated. Reliability can be increased by improving the intrinsic system reliability, adding spare parts, or by providing technically diverse redundant systems. The costs of these approaches are estimated. Adding spares is least costly but may be defeated by common cause failures. Using two technically diverse systems is effective but doubles the life cycle cost. Achieving ultra reliability is worth its high cost because the penalty for failure is very high.

  6. Achieving a high-reliability organization through implementation of the ARCC model for systemwide sustainability of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    High-reliability health care organizations are those that provide care that is safe and one that minimizes errors while achieving exceptional performance in quality and safety. This article presents major concepts and characteristics of a patient safety culture and a high-reliability health care organization and explains how building a culture of evidence-based practice can assist organizations in achieving high reliability. The ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) model for systemwide implementation and sustainability of evidence-based practice is highlighted as a key strategy in achieving high reliability in health care organizations.

  7. Glioma Surgery: Technological Advances to Achieve a Maximal Safe Resection.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Cofano, Fabio; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Spena, Giannantonio; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fornaro, Riccardo; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Despite the best treatment and advances in therapy, prognosis remains poor. One of the mainstays of therapy in GBM is surgical excision. Several studies have confirmed that the extent of resection (EOR) positively influences overall survival (OS) in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs). A literature search was performed using PubMed to assess the useful neurosurgical tools to achieve the best neurosurgical performance. In order to achieve the major extent of resection, preserving neurological function, many tools are now available, especially neuronavigation, intraoperative fluorescence, intraoperative ultrasound, and neuromonitoring. In addition to the maximal excision of tumor, the neurosurgeon can use photodynamic therapy (PTD) and local drug delivery (LDD) to improve the local control and bridge conventional radio and chemotherapy. EOR improves OS in patients with HGGs. There are technological possibilities for achieving a complete resection preserving neurological function, and it is not acceptable to perform only biopsy of these lesions.

  8. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  9. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  10. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  11. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  12. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  13. A simple safe, reliable and reproducible mechanism for producing experimental bite marks.

    PubMed

    Chinni, S Subramanyeswara; Al-Ibrahim, Anas; Forgie, Andrew H

    2013-12-01

    With improving technology it should be possible to develop an objective, reliable and valid method that can be undertaken by most forensic Odontologists without recourse to expensive or bulky equipment. One of the main factors that affect the physical appearance of bitemark is the amount of force applied during biting. There is little evidence relating the appearance of a bite mark to the amount of force applied and how that force relates to the biters maximal biteforce. This paper describes simple apparatus that can be used to inflict experimental bites on living subjects reproducibly and with minimal risk. The aims of this study are to report on the development of a mechanical apparatus that produces experimental bitemarks on living human subjects with a known force in a safe, reliable and reproducible manner and to relate the force applied during production of the experimental bitemark to the maximum bite force of the biter. Maximum bite force of one of the authors was determined as 324 N. Experimental bitemarks were inflicted on living subjects with known weights. Weights of up to 10 kg were well tolerated by the subjects. The relation between forces used to inflict bites and the maximum bite force of the author is reported, with 10 kg being approximately one third of the maximum bite force. The apparatus was well tolerated and the results were reliable and reproducible. The results from this study could help in determining the severity of bitemarks. This apparatus could help researchers in developing objective based bitemark analysis techniques. PMID:24776438

  14. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation Program for Safe and Reliable Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program is presented. As a result of the loss of seven astronauts and the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, NASA has undergone many changes in its organization. NDE is one of the key areas that are recognized by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) that needed to be strengthened by warranting NDE as a discipline with Independent Technical Authority (iTA). The current NASA NDE system and activities are presented including the latest developments in inspection technologies being applied to the Space Transportation System (STS). The unfolding trends and directions in NDE for the future are discussed as they apply to assuring safe and reliable operations.

  15. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  16. An Embedded System for Safe, Secure and Reliable Execution of High Consequence Software

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY,JAMES A.

    2000-08-29

    As more complex and functionally diverse requirements are placed on high consequence embedded applications, ensuring safe and secure operation requires an execution environment that is ultra reliable from a system viewpoint. In many cases the safety and security of the system depends upon the reliable cooperation between the hardware and the software to meet real-time system throughput requirements. The selection of a microprocessor and its associated development environment for an embedded application has the most far-reaching effects on the development and production of the system than any other element in the design. The effects of this choice ripple through the remainder of the hardware design and profoundly affect the entire software development process. While state-of-the-art software engineering principles indicate that an object oriented (OO) methodology provides a superior development environment, traditional programming languages available for microprocessors targeted for deeply embedded applications do not directly support OO techniques. Furthermore, the microprocessors themselves do not typically support nor do they enforce an OO environment. This paper describes a system level approach for the design of a microprocessor intended for use in deeply embedded high consequence applications that both supports and enforces an OO execution environment.

  17. UAV Research at NASA Langley: Towards Safe, Reliable, and Autonomous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are fundamental components in several aspects of research at NASA Langley, such as flight dynamics, mission-driven airframe design, airspace integration demonstrations, atmospheric science projects, and more. In particular, NASA Langley Research Center (Langley) is using UAVs to develop and demonstrate innovative capabilities that meet the autonomy and robotics challenges that are anticipated in science, space exploration, and aeronautics. These capabilities will enable new NASA missions such as asteroid rendezvous and retrieval (ARRM), Mars exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), pollution measurements in historically inaccessible areas, and the integration of UAVs into our everyday lives all missions of increasing complexity, distance, pace, and/or accessibility. Building on decades of NASA experience and success in the design, fabrication, and integration of robust and reliable automated systems for space and aeronautics, Langley Autonomy Incubator seeks to bridge the gap between automation and autonomy by enabling safe autonomous operations via onboard sensing and perception systems in both data-rich and data-deprived environments. The Autonomy Incubator is focused on the challenge of mobility and manipulation in dynamic and unstructured environments by integrating technologies such as computer vision, visual odometry, real-time mapping, path planning, object detection and avoidance, object classification, adaptive control, sensor fusion, machine learning, and natural human-machine teaming. These technologies are implemented in an architectural framework developed in-house for easy integration and interoperability of cutting-edge hardware and software.

  18. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  19. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  20. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  1. Enhancing Achievement and Proficiency through Safe and Drug-Free Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The nineteen-member Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Advisory Committee was established in 2006 to consult with the United States Department of Education. U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings charged the Committee with providing this report in response to questions regarding the Department's Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  2. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  3. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach’s alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson’s correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  4. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

  5. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  6. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  7. Factors in reliable treatment plant operation for the production of safe water.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Bruce A

    2010-08-01

    This contribution to the International Congress on Production of Safe Water, Izmir, Turkey, 20-24 January, 2009, relates to general aspects of a water supply undertaking rather than to particular technologies or chemistries for water treatment. The paper offers a "creative problem solving" approach following Fogler and LeBlanc (Strategies for creative problem solving. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995) as a model for generating sustainable solutions when water quality and safety problems arise. Such a structured approach presents a systematic methodology that can promote communication and goal-sharing across the inter-related, but often isolated and dispersed, functions of water scientists and researchers, engineers, operations managers, government departments and communities. A problem-solving strategy, or "heuristic", invokes five main steps (define; generate; decide; implement; evaluate). Associated with each step are various creative and enabling techniques, many of which are quite familiar to us in one form or another, but which we can use more effectively in combination and through our increased awareness and practice. For example, taking a fresh view of a problem can be promoted by a variety of "lateral thinking" tools. First-hand investigation of a problem can trigger new thinking about the real problem and its origins. A good strategy implementation will always address each and every step (though not necessarily every possible technique) and will use them at various stages in the search for and implementation of solutions. The creative nature of our experience with a problem-solving heuristic develops our facility to cope better with complex formal situations, as well as with less formal or everyday problem situations. A few anecdotes are presented that illustrate some of the author's experiences relating to factors involved in safe water supply. Here, the term "factors" may signify people and organisations as agents, as well as meaning those aspects of a problem

  8. Automatic Bone Drilling - More Precise, Reliable and Safe Manipulation in the Orthopaedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiadjiev, George; Kastelov, Rumen; Boiadjiev, Tony; Delchev, Kamen; Zagurski, Kazimir

    2016-06-01

    Bone drilling manipulation often occurs in the orthopaedic surgery. By statistics, nowadays, about one million people only in Europe need such an operation every year, where bone implants are inserted. Almost always, the drilling is performed handily, which cannot avoid the subjective factor influence. The question of subjective factor reduction has its answer - automatic bone drilling. The specific features and problems of orthopaedic drilling manipulation are considered in this work. The automatic drilling is presented according the possibilities of robotized system Orthopaedic Drilling Robot (ODRO) for assuring the manipulation accuracy, precision, reliability and safety.

  9. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Routray, Parimita

    2014-01-01

    Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine. PMID:25153464

  10. Measuring the safety of excreta disposal behavior in India with the new Safe San Index: reliability, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Freeman, Matthew C; Routray, Parimita

    2014-08-01

    Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household's defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine. PMID:25153464

  11. Measuring the safety of excreta disposal behavior in India with the new Safe San Index: reliability, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Freeman, Matthew C; Routray, Parimita

    2014-08-01

    Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household's defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.

  12. A Reliable Earth Return System for Safe Recovery of Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R.; Killough, B.; Mitcheltree, R.; Carroll, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of a Mars sample return mission is to bring selected Mars surface materials to Earth. Numerous approaches for the Earth-return segment have been analyzed including propulsive or aerocapture return to low-Earth orbit followed by Space Shuttle rendezvous and direct entry. Of these approaches, ballistic entry of a small capsule terminating in a ground landing has been shown to be the lowest risk strategy. Over the past two years, significant work has been performed towards development of a robust direct entry vehicle for Mars sample return. In June 1999, the NASA Planetary Protection Officer provided initial guidance to the former Mars Sample Return Project. The sample return phase of the mission was assigned a restricted Earth return planetary protection classification. The draft mission requirement states that the total mean probability of release of unsterilized Mars material into the Earth;s biosphere must be less than 1.0E-06 (1 in a million). This strict requirement drives the approach and design of the Earth return system. To meet this requirement, selection of the Earth return strategy and development of the Earth return system must be guided by risk, not performance, based decisions. An initial Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) was performed to address the direct entry Earth return system containment assurance reliability and to identify high-risk elements of this system. The results of this PRA identified risk elements that include thermal protection system performance during entry, spin-eject orientation and aerodynamic stability during entry, structural integrity under atmospheric deceleration and impact loads, and tracking/recovery of this system. This initial probabilistic risk quantification demonstrates that, with the proper development program, a prototypical direct entry design can satisfy the containment assurance reliability requirement. Through the current Mars Sample Return Advanced Technology Development effort, an extensive

  13. Achieving reliable operation of a PSG-5000 delivery-water heater's tube system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, G. V.; Meshcheryakov, I. M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze factors due to which damage occurred in the first period of operation in the 12Kh18N1 austenitic-steel tube system of the delivery-water heater used as part of a T-180/210-130 turbine unit operating in a couple with a high-pressure drum boiler. Technical solutions undertaken for achieving reliable operation of the heater are considered.

  14. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  15. Achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using vision-based approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous landing capabilities will be critical to the success of planetary exploration missions, and in particular to the exploration of Mars. Past studies have indicated that the probability of failure associated with open-loop landings is unacceptably high. Two approaches to achieving autonomous landings with higher probabilities of success are currently under analysis. If a landing site has been certified as hazard free, then navigational aids can be used to facilitate a precision landing. When only limited surface knowledge is available and landing areas cannot be certified as hazard free, then a hazard detection and avoidance approach can be used, in which the vehicle selects hazard free landing sites in real-time during its descent. Issues pertinent to both approaches, including sensors and algorithms, are presented. Preliminary results indicate that one promising approach to achieving high accuracy precision landing is to correlate optical images of the terrain acquired during the terminal descent phase with a reference image. For hazard detection scenarios, a sensor suite comprised of a passive intensity sensor and a laser ranging sensor appears promising as a means of achieving robust landings.

  16. Achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using vision-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-03-01

    Autonomous landing capabilities will be critical to the success of planetary exploration missions, and in particular to the exploration of Mars. Past studies have indicated that the probability of failure associated with open-loop landings is unacceptably high. Two approaches to achieving autonomous landings with higher probabilities of success are currently under analysis. If a landing site has been certified as hazard free, then navigational aids can be used to facilitate a precision landing. When only limited surface knowledge is available and landing areas cannot be certified as hazard free, then a hazard detection and avoidance approach can be used, in which the vehicle selects hazard free landing sites in real-time during its descent. Issues pertinent to both approaches, including sensors and algorithms, are presented. Preliminary results indicate that one promising approach to achieving high accuracy precision landing is to correlate optical images of the terrain acquired during the terminal descent phase with a reference image. For hazard detection scenarios, a sensor suite comprised of a passive intensity sensor and a laser ranging sensor appears promising as a means of achieving robust landings.

  17. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  18. The quadruple squeeze: defining the safe operating space for freshwater use to achieve a triply green revolution in the anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Rockström, Johan; Karlberg, Louise

    2010-05-01

    Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze-from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping points in the Earth system-the degrees of freedom for sustainable human exploitation of planet Earth are severely restrained. It is in this reality that a new green revolution in world food production needs to occur, to attain food security and human development over the coming decades. Global freshwater resources are, and will increasingly be, a fundamental limiting factor in feeding the world. Current water vulnerabilities in the regions in most need of large agricultural productivity improvements are projected to increase under the pressure from global environmental change. The sustainability challenge for world agriculture has to be set within the new global sustainability context. We present new proposed sustainability criteria for world agriculture, where world food production systems are transformed in order to allow humanity to stay within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries. In order to secure global resilience and thereby raise the chances of planet Earth to remain in the current desired state, conducive for human development on the long-term, these planetary boundaries need to be respected. This calls for a triply green revolution, which not only more than doubles food production in many regions of the world, but which also is environmentally sustainable, and invests in the untapped opportunities to use green water in rainfed agriculture as a key source of future productivity enhancement. To achieve such a global transformation of agriculture, there is a need for more innovative options for water interventions at the landscape scale, accounting for both green and blue water, as well

  19. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  20. Modeling of a bubble-memory organization with self-checking translators to achieve high reliability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouricius, W. G.; Carter, W. C.; Hsieh, E. P.; Wadia, A. B.; Jessep, D. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Study of the design and modeling of a highly reliable bubble-memory system that has the capabilities of: (1) correcting a single 16-adjacent bit-group error resulting from failures in a single basic storage module (BSM), and (2) detecting with a probability greater than 0.99 any double errors resulting from failures in BSM's. The results of the study justify the design philosophy adopted of employing memory data encoding and a translator to correct single group errors and detect double group errors to enhance the overall system reliability.

  1. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  2. Reliability and Validity of the "Achievement Emotions Questionnaire": A Study of Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni, Paola Verónica; Vaja, Arabela Beatriz; Muñoz, Verónica Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at describing the psychometric features of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ), focusing specifically on the section that measures class emotions. From a theoretical perspective, this instrument was designed based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Therefore, a description of the…

  3. Laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys to achieve defect-free, structurally sound and reliable welds

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, T.

    2000-11-17

    The objective of this program was to seek improved process control and weldment reliability during laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys while retaining the high speed and accuracy of the laser beam welding process. The effects of various welding variables on the loss of alloying elements and the formation of porosity and other geometric weld defects such as underfill and overfill were studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  4. The importance of thermal-vacuum testing in achieving high reliability of spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work performed on thermal vacuum testing of complex mechanisms is described. The objective of these tests is to assess the mechanism reliability by monitoring performance in an environment that closely resembles the environment that will occur during flight. To be both valid and cost effective, these tests are performed in a detailed, formally controlled manner. A review of the major test observations is given, during which time some failure modes are detected. Full confidence now exists in many mechanism and component designs, and much valuable data obtained.

  5. Towards clinical use of a laser-induced microjet system aimed at reliable and safe drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hun-jae; Yu, Hyeonju; Lee, Seonggeun; Hur, Eugene; Kim, Yoonkwan; Lee, Seol-Hoon; Kang, Naegyu; Yoh, Jack J

    2014-05-01

    An Er:YAG laser with 2940-nm wavelength and 250-μs pulse duration is used to generate a microjet that is ejected at ∼50 m/s in air. The strength of the microjet depends on the bubble dynamics from the beam-water interaction within the driving chamber as well as the discharging of the drug solution underneath the elastic membrane that separates the drug from the driving liquid. The jet characteristics, such as velocity, volume, and level of atomization, are obtained by high-speed camera images taken at 42,000 fps. The enhancements in jet volume (dosage) and repeated jet generation, which are aimed at making the injector suitable for general clinical applications, are achieved. The generation of repeated microjets is achieved with the help of a stepping motor that provides a uniform pressure within the drug reservoir before an ejection occurs through a micro nozzle. Also, two types of human growth hormones are used for monitoring any potential thermal damage to the drug solution due to a repeated laser ablation when driving the microjet. We provide strong evidence to support that the drugs, as they are injected to porcine skins, are free of the damage associated with the present delivery method. PMID:24849388

  6. Towards clinical use of a laser-induced microjet system aimed at reliable and safe drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hun-jae; Yu, Hyeonju; Lee, Seonggeun; Hur, Eugene; Kim, Yoonkwan; Lee, Seol-Hoon; Kang, Naegyu; Yoh, Jack J.

    2014-05-01

    An Er:YAG laser with 2940-nm wavelength and 250-μs pulse duration is used to generate a microjet that is ejected at ˜50 m/s in air. The strength of the microjet depends on the bubble dynamics from the beam-water interaction within the driving chamber as well as the discharging of the drug solution underneath the elastic membrane that separates the drug from the driving liquid. The jet characteristics, such as velocity, volume, and level of atomization, are obtained by high-speed camera images taken at 42,000 fps. The enhancements in jet volume (dosage) and repeated jet generation, which are aimed at making the injector suitable for general clinical applications, are achieved. The generation of repeated microjets is achieved with the help of a stepping motor that provides a uniform pressure within the drug reservoir before an ejection occurs through a micro nozzle. Also, two types of human growth hormones are used for monitoring any potential thermal damage to the drug solution due to a repeated laser ablation when driving the microjet. We provide strong evidence to support that the drugs, as they are injected to porcine skins, are free of the damage associated with the present delivery method.

  7. Towards clinical use of a laser-induced microjet system aimed at reliable and safe drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hun-jae; Yu, Hyeonju; Lee, Seonggeun; Hur, Eugene; Kim, Yoonkwan; Lee, Seol-Hoon; Kang, Naegyu; Yoh, Jack J

    2014-05-01

    An Er:YAG laser with 2940-nm wavelength and 250-μs pulse duration is used to generate a microjet that is ejected at ∼50 m/s in air. The strength of the microjet depends on the bubble dynamics from the beam-water interaction within the driving chamber as well as the discharging of the drug solution underneath the elastic membrane that separates the drug from the driving liquid. The jet characteristics, such as velocity, volume, and level of atomization, are obtained by high-speed camera images taken at 42,000 fps. The enhancements in jet volume (dosage) and repeated jet generation, which are aimed at making the injector suitable for general clinical applications, are achieved. The generation of repeated microjets is achieved with the help of a stepping motor that provides a uniform pressure within the drug reservoir before an ejection occurs through a micro nozzle. Also, two types of human growth hormones are used for monitoring any potential thermal damage to the drug solution due to a repeated laser ablation when driving the microjet. We provide strong evidence to support that the drugs, as they are injected to porcine skins, are free of the damage associated with the present delivery method.

  8. How to achieve an economic and reliable CP design using DnV RP B401

    SciTech Connect

    Thomason, W.H.; Rippon, I.; Foong, J.

    1995-11-01

    The 1993 Revision of Det Norske Veritas Industri Norge AS`s Recommended Practice RP B401 Cathodic Protection Design offers the operator the opportunity to use his own experience and data to justify more or less conservative designs. Examples of the use of this option to achieve an economic Southern North Sea CP design are presented. These examples include cost comparisons of actual bids received for CP/coating systems using different coating types. Some comparisons with NACE`s RP-0176-94 Corrosion. Control of Steel Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated with Petroleum Production are also made.

  9. Double concentric craniotomy: Safe and effective technique to achieve an en bloc resection of tumor involving both skull and duraa

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, R.; Altieri, R.; Garbossa, D.; Zenga, F.; Tartara, F.; Ducati, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many tumors can involve the skull. Meningiomas are one of the most common intracranial neoplasms and invasion of the bone was described in 49% of cases. Other neoplastic lesions that can arise in bone, or involve it, are metastases, hemangiomas, aggressive cutis carcinomas and sarcomas. Radical excision is the golden standard of treatment but elevating a bone flap when the tumor involves both the skull and the dura could represent a technical challenge. Presentation of case We report the technical details of our approach to remove a meningioma involving both skull and dura in a man aged 45. Patient underwent gross total excision and cranioplasty with PEEK custom made prothesis (Synthes™). Discussion We describe a double concentric craniotomy (DCC) technique where the tumor involving the bone is before left in situ, exposing normal dura, to perform afterwards en-bloc excision with minimal traction of brain surface. Conclusion DCC is a safe and effective technique to remove tumor involving both skull and dural structures under direct vision. PMID:26057993

  10. Optimising contraction and alignment of cellular collagen hydrogels to achieve reliable and consistent engineered anisotropic tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Caitriona; Drake, Rosemary A L; Cameron, Grant W W; Loughlin, A Jane; Phillips, James B

    2015-11-01

    Engineered anisotropic tissue constructs containing aligned cell and extracellular matrix structures are useful as in vitro models and for regenerative medicine. They are of particular interest for nervous system modelling and regeneration, where tracts of aligned neurons and glia are required. The self-alignment of cells and matrix due to tension within tethered collagen gels is a useful tool for generating anisotropic tissues, but requires an optimal balance between cell density, matrix concentration and time to be achieved for each specific cell type. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system based on contraction of free-floating cellular gels in 96-well plates that could be used to investigate cell-matrix interactions and to establish optimal parameters for subsequent self-alignment of cells in tethered gels. Using C6 glioma cells, the relationship between contraction and alignment was established, with 60-80% contraction in the 96-well plate assay corresponding to alignment throughout tethered gels made using the same parameters. The assay system was used to investigate the effect of C6 cell density, collagen concentration and time. It was also used to show that blocking α1 integrin reduced the contraction and self-alignment of these cells, whereas blocking α2 integrin had little effect. The approach was validated by using primary astrocytes in the assay system under culture conditions that modified their ability to contract collagen gels. This detailed investigation describes a robust assay for optimising cellular self-alignment and provides a useful reference framework for future development of self-aligned artificial tissue.

  11. Achieving a Safe Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure in the Prehospital Setting: Is It Time to Revise the Standard Cuff Inflation Practice?

    PubMed

    Carhart, Elliot; Stuck, Logan H; Salzman, Joshua G

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported unsafe endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressures (CP) in the prehospital environment. The purpose of this study was to identify an optimal cuff inflation volume (CIV) to achieve a safe CP (20-30 cmH2O). This observational study utilized 30 recently harvested ovine tracheae, which were warmed from refrigeration in a water bath at 85°F prior to testing. Each trachea was intubated with five different ETT sizes (6.0-8.0 mm), and each size tube was tested with six cuff inflation volumes (5-10 cc). The order of ETT size for each trachea and CIV for each size ETT was randomly pre-assigned. Data were descriptively summarized and categorized before mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine optimal CIV. Only 113 CP measurements (12.6%, N = 900) were within the optimal range (M = 54.75 cmH2O, SD = 38.52), all of which resulted from a CIV 6 or 7 cc (61% and 39%, respectively). CIVs of 5 cc (n = 150) resulted in underinflation (<20 cmH2O) in all instances, while CIVs of 8, 9, or 10 cc (n = 150 each) resulted in overinflation (>30 cmH2O) in all instances, regardless of ETT size. The odds of achieving a safe CP were greater with CIV of 6 cc for tube sizes 6.0 (OR = 15.9, 95% CI = 3.85-65.58, p < 0.01) and 6.5 mm (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.06-9.39, p = 0.039); however, there was no significant difference in the odds of achieving a safe CP between CIV of 6 and 7 cc for tube sizes 7.0, 7.5, or 8.0 mm. Neither trachea circumference (M = 7.11 cm, SD = 0.40), nor tissue temperature (M = 81.32°F, SD = 0.93) were found to be significant predictors of CP (p = 0.20 and 0.81, respectively). Our study showed a high frequency of CP measurements outside of the desired norms. The CIV range of 6-7 cc resulted in the highest likelihood of achieving the desired cuff pressure range, while cuffs inflated with 8-10 cc resulted in dangerously high CPs in all instances. In the absence of a more ideal solution, the results of this study suggest that narrowing the

  12. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  13. In-office distal Symes lesser toe amputation: a safe, reliable, and cost-effective treatment of diabetes-related tip of toe ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Abben, Kyle W; Hyllengren, Shelby B

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes-related tip of lesser toe ulcers have typically been associated with both underlying hammertoe contracture and peripheral neuropathy. The combination of digital deformity and neuropathy commonly results in non-healing, deep sores that frequently become complicated by osteomyelitis. We report on a well-known, but poorly reported, technique for surgical management of non-healing tip of lesser toe ulcers. After approval by the institutional review board, a review was performed of consecutive patients who had undergone office-based distal Symes toe amputation for a non-healing tip of lesser toe ulcer from January 2007 to December 2012. A variety of clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data were collected. A total of 48 consecutive patients (48 toe ulcers) were identified for inclusion in the present study. All patients had ulcers at the time of surgery, and no patient developed repeat ulceration of the involved digit postoperatively. Of the 48 patients, 44 (92%) had hammertoe deformity preoperatively. Also, 30 patients (63%) had positive probe-to-bone results, and 29 (97%) of these patients had culture or histologic findings positive for osteomyelitis. Of the 48 patients (48 ulcers), 73% had positive bone cultures, 69% had positive pathologic findings demonstrating osteomyelitis, and 100% had clean margins. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common pathogen isolated (13 of 48, 27%). No patient required additional amputation related to the operative digit. The mean follow-up period was 28.79 months. Our results have shown that in-office distal Symes lesser toe amputation is a safe, reliable, and likely cost-effective treatment of non-healing tip of lesser toe ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis. This office-based procedure allows bone biopsy diagnosis, removes the non-healing ulcer, confirms clear margins regarding the osteomyelitis, and addresses the underlying toe deformity to minimize the chances of repeat ulceration.

  14. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent with…

  15. Improving Secondary Students' Academic Achievement through a Focus on Reform Reliability: 4- and 9-Year Findings from the High Reliability Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam; Reynolds, David; Schaffer, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a reform effort in which characteristics derived from High Reliability Organization research were used to shape whole school reform. Longitudinal analyses of outcome data from 12 Welsh secondary schools indicated that 4 years after the effort was initiated, student outcomes at the sites were strongly positive. Additional…

  16. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  17. Fail safe logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, I.

    1983-03-01

    Ideally, a circuit is said to be fail safe, if for every possible failure configuration, the circuit results in a safe side output. In order to guarantee safe side failures, it is imperative that the circuit detects any faults within it. A suitable procedure for doing this can be based on an error detecting code, such as the K out of N code. A number of circuit types are considered, taking into account a fault tolerant circuit, a fault secure circuit, a self testing circuit, a self checking circuit, a self checking checker, and a fail safe circuit. Attention is given to the realization of combinational circuits, aspects of safety and reliability, sequential circuits, the realization of sequential circuits, the occurrence of clock failure, and the design procedure.

  18. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  19. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  20. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  1. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  2. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  3. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  4. Safe Lock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 1150 electronic spring latch, which provides controlled and timed access to a safe, was developed by Burnett Electronics Lab, Inc., San Diego, CA, and is marketed by KeyOne, Inc. also of San Diego. The Model 1150 is a spinoff from a spinoff. The original spinoff, the acoustic pinger, is an underwater transmitting device developed by Langley Research Center and the Navy for location and recovery of sounding rocket research payloads from the ocean. Long functioning life is a vital requirement for both the acoustic pinger and the Model 1150. The electronic spring latch employs the pinger power management technology to get long life out of the battery power source.

  5. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  6. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  7. A model for a space shuttle safing and failure-detection expert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeilingold, Daphna; Hoey, John

    1990-01-01

    The safing and failure-detection expert (SAFE) is a prototype for a malfunction detection, diagnosis, and safing system for the atmospheric revitalization subsystem (ARS) in the Space Shuttle orbiter. SAFE, whose knowledge was extracted from expert-provided heuristics and documented procedures, automatically manages all phases of failure handling: detection, diagnosis, testing procedures, and recovery instructions. The SAFE architecture allows it to handle correctly sensor failures and multiple malfunctions. Since SAFE is highly interactive, it was used as a test bed for the evaluation of various advanced human-computer interface (HCI) techniques. The use of such expert systems in the next generation of space vehicles would increase their reliability and autonomy to levels not achievable before.

  8. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  9. [The reliability of reliability].

    PubMed

    Blancas Espejo, A

    1991-01-01

    The author critically analyzes an article by Rodolfo Corona Vazquez that questions the reliability of the preliminary results of the Eleventh Census of Population and Housing, conducted in Mexico in March 1990. The need to define what constitutes "reliability" for preliminary results is stressed. PMID:12317739

  10. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation. PMID:25994377

  11. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  12. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  13. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  14. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... Make a Commitment to Safety Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  15. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result.

  16. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  17. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  18. Safe Kids Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your inbox Sign up today Text Help Us Protect Kids on the Move Let's make every kid a safe kid Donate today BAFFLED ABOUT CAR SEATS? The Ultimate Car Seat Guide can help. Check it out Safe Sleep 5 tips to create safer sleeping environment Learn ...

  19. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  20. Safe Hazmat Storage Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Provides a list of recommendations for safely managing hazardous waste containers. Encourages training of employees on the hazards of the wastes they handle and the correct procedures for managing containers. (DDR)

  1. Creating a Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Examines security issues that planners must address at the programming and schematic design phase in key areas of the school building. They include the front door, safe halls and stairs, positive classrooms, and secure assembly. (EV)

  2. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  3. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  4. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  5. Asymptotically safe inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2010-04-15

    Inflation is studied in the context of asymptotically safe theories of gravitation. Conditions are explored under which it is possible to have a long period of nearly exponential expansion that eventually comes to an end.

  6. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  7. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  8. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  9. The IFR route to safe, reliable and inexhaustible power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannum, W. H.

    The Integral Fast Reactor is a closed reactor fuel cycle composed of a metal fuelled, tank type, sodium cooled fast reactor; an electrochemical process for recovery of actinides from spent fuel; a simplified refabrication technology; and the associated waste processing technology. Feasibility of the reactor concept is established. Favorable safety attributes are recognized. The integral fuel cycle demonstration is being assembled. Good progress is being made in developing the associated waste processing technology.

  10. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  11. Safe Communities, Safe Schools Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2013-03-21

    04/18/2013 Amendment SA 730, under the order of 4/16/13, having achieved 60 votes in the affirmative, was agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 95 - 2. Record Vote Number: 105. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  13. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  14. Safe and Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Lanny I.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive security program that includes access control, surveillance methods, and personnel awareness, designed to keep public schools safe for students and faculty. Alternatives to traditional lock and key systems are discussed, as are patrolling tips for high crime sites and the need to educate staff and students. (GR)

  15. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  16. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  17. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  18. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  19. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  20. Iodised salt is safe.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S

    1995-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are prevalent in all the States and Union Territories in India. Under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control programme, the Government of India has adopted a strategy to iodisation of all edible salt in the country which is a long term and sustainable preventive solution to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders. The benefits to be derived from universal salt iodisation are more to the population. Iodised salt is safe and does not cause any side effect. PMID:8690505

  1. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  2. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  4. Safe N’ Sound

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janice; Nansel, Tonja R.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Tse, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Safe N’ Sound is a computer-based tool that prioritizes key injury risks for toddlers and infants and provides tailored feedback. The program was implemented in 5 pediatric sites. Caregiver risk behaviors were analyzed and compared with corresponding national and state morbidity and mortality data. The priority risks identified were generally consistent with the incidence of injury. Frequencies of several risk behaviors varied across sites and differences were observed across ages. Use of a prioritization scheme may facilitate risk behavior counseling and reasonably result in a decrease in injury mortality or morbidity. PMID:22617412

  5. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  6. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  7. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  8. Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    RELAV, a NASA-developed computer program, enables Systems Control Technology, Inc. (SCT) to predict performance of aircraft subsystems. RELAV provides a system level evaluation of a technology. Systems, the mechanism of a landing gear for example, are first described as a set of components performing a specific function. RELAV analyzes the total system and the individual subsystem probabilities to predict success probability, and reliability. This information is then translated into operational support and maintenance requirements. SCT provides research and development services in support of government contracts.

  9. Reliable, efficient systems for biomedical research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, P.

    1997-05-01

    Medical Sciences Research Building III (MSRB III) is a 10-story, 207,000 ft{sup 2} (19,230 m{sup 2}) biomedical research facility on the campus of the University of Michigan. The design of MSRB III required a variety of technological solutions to complex design issues. The systems also had to accommodate future modifications. Closely integrated, modular systems with a high degree of flexibility were designed to respond to this requirement. Additionally, designs were kept as simple as possible for operation and maintenance personnel. Integrated electronic controls were used to provide vital data during troubleshooting and maintenance procedures. Equipment was also specified that provides reliability and minimizes maintenance. Other features include 100% redundancy of all central equipment servicing the animal housing area; redundant temperature controls for each individual animal housing room for fail-safe operation to protect the animals against overheating; and accessibility to all items requiring maintenance through an above-ceiling coordination process. It is critical that the engineering systems for MSRB III provide a safe, comfortable, energy efficient environment. The achievement of this design intent was noted by the University`s Commissioning Review Committee which stated: The Commissioning Process performed during both the design phase and construction phase of MSRB III was a significant success, providing an efficiently functioning facility that has been built in accordance with its design intent.

  10. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  11. Asymptotically safe cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Litim, Daniel; Rahmede, Christoph E-mail: d.litim@sussex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum modifications to cosmology in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with and without scalar fields by taking the renormalisation group running of gravitational and matter couplings into account. We exploit the Bianchi identity to relate the renormalisation group scale with scale factor and derive the improved cosmological evolution equations. We find two types of cosmological fixed points where the renormalisation group scale either freezes in, or continues to evolve with scale factor. We discuss the implications of each of these, and classify the different cosmological fixed points with and without gravity displaying an asymptotically safe renormalisation group fixed point. We state conditions of existence for an inflating ultraviolet cosmological fixed point for Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. We also discuss other fixed point solutions such as 'scaling' solutions, or fixed points with equipartition between kinetic and potential energies.

  12. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  13. Technologies for safe births.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The basic elements of a safe birth are proper prenatal care, adequate preparation of the mother, health worker, and site, awareness of the progress of labor and safe delivery, recognition of danger signs, and appropriate follow-up care. Technologies are differentiated by determining 1) the needs of rural birth attendants, 2) the nature of delivery kits, 3) proper cleanliness of the hands and equipment, and appropriate use of 5) disinfecting equipment, 6) drugs and medications, 7) the vertical position, 8) specialized instruments, and 9) records and support materials. Alternatives for measuring time are indicated. Customized kits available from UNICEF are described; some of the problems with these kits are reported. The logistics, referral procedures, and training and supervision needed for appropriate program managements are discussed. Adapting technologies to the local environment requires assessing the practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), the provision of kits (cost, ease of use and maintenance, replacement, durability, availability), the training required for proper use of equipment, the logistics of kit use, side effects of technologies, community attitudes, and evaluation. The advantages and disadvantages of including or not including particular supplies in the kit are discussed, i.e., the container for boiling water would either be a local pot or the aluminum carrying case. In lieu of a fingernail brush, a twig may be used for nail cleaning. Hand washing where water shortages exist might entail using a tin with a hole plugged with a stick to let water trickle as needed. Antiseptic solutions such a Dettol or Savlon can be used where a severe shortage exists. Basic equipment includes: soap and water, a container for boiling, other sterile containers, a protective cover of delivery area, towels, swabs, an optional apron, cord ties, a cutting instrument, gauze, a receiving blanket, records, and a carrying case.

  14. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    PubMed

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS. PMID:25109084

  15. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    PubMed

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS.

  16. Reliable timing systems for computer controlled accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Jürgen; Nettleton, Robert

    1986-06-01

    Over the past decade the use of computers has set new standards for control systems of accelerators with ever increasing complexity coupled with stringent reliability criteria. In fact, with very slow cycling machines or storage rings any erratic operation or timing pulse will cause the loss of precious particles and waste hours of time and effort of preparation. Thus, for the CERN linac and LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) timing system reliability becomes a crucial factor in the sense that all components must operate practically without fault for very long periods compared to the effective machine cycle. This has been achieved by careful selection of components and design well below thermal and electrical limits, using error detection and correction where possible, as well as developing "safe" decoding techniques for serial data trains. Further, consistent structuring had to be applied in order to obtain simple and flexible modular configurations with very few components on critical paths and to minimize the exchange of information to synchronize accelerators. In addition, this structuring allows the development of efficient strategies for on-line and off-line fault diagnostics. As a result, the timing system for Linac 2 has, so far, been operating without fault for three years, the one for LEAR more than one year since its final debugging.

  17. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  18. On safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1988-05-01

    After a general discussion of the factors contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity, a solution to both of these problems is suggested for India: an initiative at the district level to improve support, supervision, training, essential midwifery and obstetric care. The general causes of the 200 or more times higher maternal morality risks in developing countries act throughout the woman's lifetime: powerlessness, illiteracy, malnutrition, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D and iron, heavy physical labor, unchecked fertility, lack of prenatal and obstetric care and illegal abortion. The most common causes of maternal morality and morbidity, eclampsia, obstructed labor, hemorrhage and sepsis, have been prevented in developed countries and in China. We know how to prevent them, by technical support and management at the district level. 4 elements are required: 1) adequate primary health care, food and universal family planning; 2) prenatal care and nutrition with referral if needed; 3) assistance of a trained person at every childbirth; 4) access to obstetric care for those at high risk. Rather than spend money or urban specialized hospital centers, half to 2/3 of all fatal complications of childbirth can be eliminated by local hospitals with the ability to do basic obstetrics such as caesareans and blood transfusions. There is a need for further health systems research in the given locale, but what we need now is an initiative on making pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women. PMID:3420000

  19. Defining Requirements for Improved Photovoltaic System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1998-12-21

    Reliable systems are an essential ingredient of any technology progressing toward commercial maturity and large-scale deployment. This paper defines reliability as meeting system fictional requirements, and then develops a framework to understand and quantify photovoltaic system reliability based on initial and ongoing costs and system value. The core elements necessary to achieve reliable PV systems are reviewed. These include appropriate system design, satisfactory component reliability, and proper installation and servicing. Reliability status, key issues, and present needs in system reliability are summarized for four application sectors.

  20. Time to prioritise safe walking.

    PubMed

    Toroyan, Tami; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Peden, Margie

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on information from two recently published documents on pedestrian safety and global status of road safety to draw attention to the need to prioritize safe walking in planning and policy at local, national and international levels. The study shows that each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world's roads. The study argues that this situation need not persist because proven pedestrian safety interventions exist but do not attract the merit they deserve in many locations. The study further shows that the key risk factors for pedestrian road traffic injury such as vehicle speed, alcohol use by drivers and pedestrians, lack of infrastructure facilities for pedestrians and inadequate visibility of pedestrians are fairly well documented. The study concludes that pedestrian collisions, like all road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. While stressing that reduction or elimination of risks faced by pedestrians is an important and achievable policy goal, the study emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive, holistic approach that includes engineering, enforcement and education measures. PMID:23701478

  1. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm.

  2. Safe Child Penarth: experience with a Safe Community strategy for preventing injuries to children

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A.; Gibbs, N.; Vafidis, G.; Sibert, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the process of establishing a Safe Community project for children. Design—A descriptive study. Setting—Penarth, a town (population 20 430) Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales. Subjects—3943 children and their families in Penarth. Main outcome measures—Whether the 12 criteria for a Safe Community project (World Health Organisation) were met. Implementation of the safety agenda set by the community. Results—Safe Child Penarth met 10 of the 12 criteria for the Safe Community network. All the items on the agenda were introduced in the initial two years of the project. There were difficulties, however, achieving sustained community ownership of the project. Conclusions—The Safe Community concept stimulated work to improve child safety in Penarth. Community safety initiatives should involve all local agencies to identify the problems and work with the community to set and meet the safety agenda. Partnership with the local authority is valuable to improve the safety of the environment. The experience generated from Safe Child Penarth has been used to develop a county wide, all age community safety project. PMID:9595337

  3. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  4. Safe-Guarding Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.

    2006-08-01

    There is a host of uncontestable reasons, ranging from scientific to economic via issues of efficiency, why a properly-managed data archive is an essential facility in an observational science like astronomy. While most astronomers would agree with the principle of archiving data of all kinds for the wider community benefit, in practice our achievements are patchy, particularly in issues of preservation and accessibility. This talk will try to analyse why that seems to be so. How effectively archiving is being accomplished reflects prevailing attitudes. It is those attitudes, both individual and corporate, that largely direct where and how we distribute our resources; they control, prioritise and thereby effect (and affect) the quality, content and future of the science which only observational data can support.

  5. Safe patch version 0.9 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M

    1999-03-01

    The SafePatch version 0.9 provides automated analysis of network-based computer systems to determine the status of security patches and distributes needed patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed and what patches are installed on a system. SafePatch will distribute needed patches to the remote system for later installation. For those patches that are installed, SafePatch checks the permissions and ownership of the files referenced in the patch and reports on the attributes that differ from those recommended by the patch. SafePatch also ensures that the system software is authentic (that is, belonging to either a release of an operating system or a patch). The process SafePatch uses to authenticate the software on a system is more reliable and secure than other vendor-specific tools. SafePatch compares the remote system's files with the files from the patches to determine what is actually installed and what needs to be installed. This approach ensures accurate reporting of a system's patch status. It also allows SafePatch to identify files that do not belong to either the original system distribution (for example, Solaris 2.5) or to any patch. These unidentified files may be customized or trojan. Either way these files should be investigated further to determine their exact origin.

  6. Bold Steps Build Safe Havens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Following the National Alliance of Safe Schools' recommendations, a suburban New Jersey school district developed a successful school/police liaison program, issued photo ID cards, and initiated a "safe haven," zero-tolerance substance abuse policy. The district metes out immediate, serious penalties for violations, but also teaches students…

  7. Scatter factor and reliability of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueller, G. I.; Freudenthal, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of time to first failure is utilized to perform a parameter study of scatter factors of aircraft structures. The Weibull distribution is used for estimation of characteristic and certifiable lives. Scatter factors for various Weibull-shaped parameters, fleet sizes and level of reliabilities are calculated. It is concluded that the currently used range of scatter factors (2 through 4) is too narrow for the estimation of a safe life and that a safe and economical design for structural materials with shape parameters less than 2 does not seem feasible except for very small fleet sizes and low levels of reliability.

  8. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  9. Who's Got the Bridge? - Towards Safe, Robust Autonomous Operations at NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette; Cross, Charles D.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc; Trujillo, Anna C.; Crisp, Vicki K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA aeronautics research has made decades of contributions to aviation. Both aircraft and air traffic management (ATM) systems in use today contain NASA-developed and NASA sponsored technologies that improve safety and efficiency. Recent innovations in robotics and autonomy for automobiles and unmanned systems point to a future with increased personal mobility and access to transportation, including aviation. Automation and autonomous operations will transform the way we move people and goods. Achieving this mobility will require safe, robust, reliable operations for both the vehicle and the airspace and challenges to this inevitable future are being addressed now in government labs, universities, and industry. These challenges are the focus of NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator whose R&D portfolio includes mission planning, trajectory and path planning, object detection and avoidance, object classification, sensor fusion, controls, machine learning, computer vision, human-machine teaming, geo-containment, open architecture design and development, as well as the test and evaluation environment that will be critical to prove system reliability and support certification. Safe autonomous operations will be enabled via onboard sensing and perception systems in both data-rich and data-deprived environments. Applied autonomy will enable safety, efficiency and unprecedented mobility as people and goods take to the skies tomorrow just as we do on the road today.

  10. Is Rinsing Your Sinuses Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... water that is used with nasal rinsing devices. Tap water that is not filtered, treated, or processed in ... safe for use as a nasal rinse. Some tap water contains low levels of organisms, such as bacteria ...

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  12. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  13. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  14. Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options

  15. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  16. Reliability and Maintainability Engineering - A Major Driver for Safety and Affordability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing

  17. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  18. Developing a Safe Cycling Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Amy Backus

    1983-01-01

    A cycling course can take advantage of students' interests, teach safe cycling, and give students a fuller appreciation of a lifetime sport. Suggestions for planning and scheduling a cycling course, covering safety procedures, and considering other elements necessary for a successful course are given. (PP)

  19. Making Cyberspace Safe for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joyce; McLaughlin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Despite the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Act's supposed protections, most web sites still collect personal information and post no privacy statements. Internet-filtering software packages are described and suggestions given for creating a safe environment, dismantling "cookies," informing parents and teachers, and checking "history" submenus on…

  20. Finding a Safe Way Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven M.; Derby, Joel

    1996-01-01

    Building designers, owners, and managers are morally responsible for providing persons with disabilities with a safe way out of multistory buildings. Although codes, standards, and elevator features may make the job more complicated, all of the difficulties can be overcome. Four figures illustrate elevator egress. (MLF)

  1. How Safe Are Our Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a study she conducted in Newfoundland to determine the level of abuse and/or violence experienced by teachers, the nature of that abuse/violence, its personal impact, and whether Newfoundland teachers feel safe in their workplaces. The experiences presented are those of a focus group of eight teachers,…

  2. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. ); Majumdar, D. )

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  3. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  4. Study of fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Herring, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.

  5. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  6. High Reliability and Excellence in Staffing.

    PubMed

    Mensik, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Nurse staffing is a complex issue, with many facets and no one right answer. High-reliability organizations (HROs) strive and succeed in achieving a high degree of safety or reliability despite operating in hazardous conditions. HROs have systems in place that make them extremely consistent in accomplishing their goals and avoiding potential errors. However, the inability to resolve quality issues may very well be related to the lack of adoption of high-reliability principles throughout our organizations.

  7. Evaluating "The Safe Living Guide": A Home Hazard Checklist for Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorcinelli, Andrea; Shaw, Lynn; Freeman, Andrew; Cooper, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and reliability of a home hazard checklist published in Health Canada, "The Safe Living Guide: A Guide to Home Safety for Seniors" (2003). Methods: 76 community-dwelling seniors evaluated the guide, and inter-rater reliability was determined through comparison of ratings of seniors and…

  8. The Penrose drain: a safe, atraumatic colostomy bridge.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, R; Ketcham, A S

    1985-02-01

    Because of the problems associated with the large, bulky bridges presently used for construction of loop ostomies, particularly complications of leaks and skin excoriation, we have studied the use of the Penrose drain as an alternative. This method has been time-tested on 45 patients and has been found to be safe, reliable, and inexpensive and has gained popularity among patients and ostomy nurses. The bulky colostomy bridge should no longer be accepted as a standard of care.

  9. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as KR-20 coefficients and…

  10. HELIOS Critical Design Review: Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents Helios Critical Design Review Reliability form October 16-20, 1972. The topics include: 1) Reliability Requirement; 2) Reliability Apportionment; 3) Failure Rates; 4) Reliability Assessment; 5) Reliability Block Diagram; and 5) Reliability Information Sheet.

  11. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  12. Safe-haven locking device

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  13. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  14. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  15. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    PubMed

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  16. Making Human Spaceflight as Safe as Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Frederick D.

    2005-01-01

    We articulated the safety hierarchy a little over two years ago, as part of our quest to be the nation s leader in safety and occupational health, and in the safety of the products and services we provide. The safety hierarchy stresses that we are all accountable for assuring that our programs, projects, and operations do not impact safety or health for the public, astronauts and pilots, employees on the ground, and high-value equipment and property. When people are thinking about doing things safely, they re also thinking about doing things right. And for the past couple of years, we ve had some pretty good results. In the time since the failures of the Mars 98 missions that occurred in late 1999, every NASA spacecraft launch has met the success objectives, and every Space Shuttle mission has safely and successfully met all mission objectives. Now I can t say that NASA s safety program is solely responsible for these achievements, but, as we like to say, "mission success starts with safety." In the future, looking forward, we will continue to make spaceflight even safer. That is NASA s vision. That is NASA s duty to both those who will travel into space and the American people who will make the journey possible.

  17. Safeguarding patients: complexity science, high reliability organizations, and implications for team training in healthcare.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Leslie M; Oswaks, Jill D; Cunningham, Patricia D

    2006-01-01

    Serious events within healthcare occur daily exposing the failure of the system to safeguard patient and providers. The complex nature of healthcare contributes to myriad ambiguities affecting quality nursing care and patient outcomes. Leaders in healthcare organizations are looking outside the industry for ways to improve care because of the slow rates of improvement in patient safety and insufficient application of evidenced-based research in practice. Military and aviation industry strategies are recognized by clinicians in high-risk care settings such as the operating room, emergency departments, and intensive care units as having great potential to create safe and effective systems of care. Complexity science forms the basis for high reliability teams to recognize even the most minor variances in expected outcomes and take strong action to prevent serious error from occurring. Cultural and system barriers to achieving high reliability performance within healthcare and implications for team training are discussed.

  18. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  19. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  20. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Rex, C; Vignesh, R; Javed, M; Balaji, Subba Chandra; Premanand, C; Zakki, Syed Ashfaque

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unstable phalangeal fractures are commonly treated with K-wire fixation. Operative fixation must be used judiciously and with the expectation that the ultimate outcome should be better than the outcome after nonoperative management. It is necessary to achieve a stable fracture fixation and early mobilization. In order to achieve this goal, one should closely understand the safe portals/corridors in hand for K-wire entry for fractures of the phalanges. Safe corridors were defined and tested using a pilot cadaveric and a clinical case study by assessing the outcome. Materials and Methods: In our prospective case series, 50 patients with 64 phalangeal fractures were treated with closed reduction and K-wires were inserted through safe portals identified by a pilot cadaveric study. On table active finger movement test was done and the results were analyed using radiology, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score and total active motion (TAM). In our study, little finger (n = 28) was the most commonly involved digit. In fracture pattern, transverse (n = 20) and spiral (n = 20) types were common. Proximal phalanx (n = 38) was commonly involved and the common site being the base of the phalanx (n = 28). Results: 47 (95%) patients had excellent TAM and the mean postoperative DASH score was 58.05. All patients achieved excellent and good scores proving the importance of the safe corridor concept. Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing “on-table active finger movement test” at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures. PMID:26229157

  1. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  2. The ethics of safe sex.

    PubMed

    Broom, N D; Rickett, C E

    1988-12-14

    Western society has undergone a vast sociological change during the 20th century in terms of the value of sexuality. Sexual choice has gained a new legitimacy never before experienced. There is less guilt surrounding issues of sexuality and it is now common place to hear and see explicit discussions about sex in the mass media. This acceptance has undoubtedly encouraged many people to be more daring and promiscuous in their sexual activities. Proof of this can be seen in the increase is the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Presently there are more than 20 epidemiologically significant diseases that are sexually transmitted. Beyond the 5 old standards of gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lyphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinala STDs now include: chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, genital mycoplasms, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, vaginitis, enteric infections, and ectoparasitic diseases. Keeping all this in mind, the question of the ethics of safe sex must be addressed. In many countries, the governments have undertaken large public education programs to encourage safe sex practices. All these programs a founded upon two ideas: that safe sex should be promoted free of any ethical discussions or considerations, and that technology alone, the condom, will protect the public from the problem of STDs. However these campaigns will fail to protect the public unless they try to intervene at some level other than the mechanical aspect of the sex act itself. Condoms have failure rates too high to be relied upon as the sole means of protecting the public. Sex education for children and an inclusion of the ethical aspects of sex, now that the consequences can mean death, must be included in these government programs if they are to be successful.

  3. Reliability in aposematic signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In light of recent work, we will expand on the role and variability of aposematic signals. The focus of this review will be the concepts of reliability and honesty in aposematic signaling. We claim that reliable signaling can solve the problem of aposematic evolution, and that variability in reliability can shed light on the complexity of aposematic systems. PMID:20539774

  4. Viking Lander reliability program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilny, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  5. Reliability as Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Reliability consists of both important social and scientific values and methods for evidencing those values, though in practice methods are often conflated with the values. With the two distinctly understood, a reliability argument can be made that articulates the particular reliability values most relevant to the particular measurement situation…

  6. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  7. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    O'Heir, J M

    1997-09-01

    A series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules was evaluated in nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centers, acute care hospitals, and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Nepal in 1995. The series was developed by the World Health Organization's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program. A total of 36 teachers, 82 midwives or nurse-midwives, and 60 post-basic midwifery students were enrolled in a 2-week clinical skills course and an 8-day training in module use. In subsequent questionnaires and focus group discussions, participants indicated the modules were understandable, relevant, easy to use, and of high quality and the guidelines for assessing competence were adequate. Difficulties encountered included insufficient recommended time frames for some of the sessions, a limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules, difficulties obtaining data for a community profile, and a lack of resources to support application of skills learned. Participants indicated they would benefit from having copies of the technical material used in the modules for reference after the course. Overall, these findings indicate the modules have the potential to strengthen the education of midwives in developing countries and thereby to make motherhood safer. Weak health system infrastructures, including regulatory measures, represent the major obstacle to successful program application.

  8. Working safely in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.; Versweyveld, J. )

    1992-08-13

    Working in confined spaces is a delicate balance of the correct equipment, hazard knowledge, proper training, and common sense. Anything less has potentially deadly consequences. The dangerous atmospheric and physical hazards often encountered in confined spaces must be recognized and accounted for. In addition, procedures and practices must conform to Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) confined space regulations. Last year, three men were asphyxiated while surveying beneath a manhole in Boulder, CO. An area newspaper called the deaths the result of a freak accident. Whatever the cause, entering a manhole without first monitoring the air and posting an outside attendant is both extremely dangerous and a violation of safe entry procedures. The National Institute for Health and Occupational Safety (NIOSH) estimates that millions of workers from a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to confined space hazards every year. Although confined space deaths are not a new phenomenon, only recently has the problem received serious study. Government regulatory agencies are becoming more involved OSHA recently proposed ruling 1910.146, Permit Required Confined Spaces, to mandate safe entry practices and procedures. The ruling requires all employers to develop a specific action plan for confined space entry, including entry procedures, worker training, safety equipment, and emergency action. This first article defines a confined space and examines some common hazards, including toxic, combustible, and oxygen-deficient atmospheres and combustible dusts. A subsequent article will review the use of test instruments, personal protective equipment, worker training, and emergency response.

  9. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  10. Reliable Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Techniques within Nuclear Hot Cell Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.L.; Tulenko, J.

    2000-09-20

    On this NEER project the University of Florida has investigated and applied advanced communications techniques to address data acquisition and control problems within the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) of Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho Falls. The goals of this project have been to investigate and apply wireless communications techniques to solve the problem of communicating with and controlling equipment and systems within a nuclear hot cell facility with its attendant high radiation levels. Different wireless techniques, including radio frequency, infrared and power line communications were reviewed. For each technique, the challenges of radiation-hardened implementation were addressed. In addition, it has been a project goal to achieve the highest level of system reliability to ensure safe nuclear operations. Achievement of these goals would allow the eventual elimination of through-the-wall, hardwired cabling that is currently employed in the hot cell, along wit h all of the attendant problems that limit measurement mobility and flexibility.

  11. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  12. 76 FR 16240 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    .... Reliability Coordinator's Procedures for 37 Selecting the SOLs for Evaluation by the Interchange Distribution..., Order No. 693, 72 FR 16416 (Apr. 4, 2007), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242, order on reh'g, Order No. 693-A... reliability coordinator to use analyses and assessments as methods of achieving the stated goal....

  13. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm. PMID:10329901

  14. Is herniography useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, Gregor R; Kidambi, Ananta V

    2011-11-01

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy. PMID:20833494

  15. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behavior is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze at a constant and calculable value in the ultraviolet, their values can even be made arbitrarily small for an appropriate choice of the ratio Nc/Nf of fermion colors and flavors in the Veneziano limit. Thus, a perturbative treatment can be justified. We compute the pressure, entropy density, and thermal degrees of freedom of these theories to next-to-next-to-leading order in the coupling constants.

  16. Is periconceptional opioid use safe?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Felix; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question A patient in my practice who takes buprenorphine for chronic pain would like to conceive. Is it safe for her to continue taking her medication? Answer The literature regarding periconceptional opioid use is conflicted as to whether opioids pose an elevated risk of birth defects. Confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, stress, and alcohol consumption might play a role. The first trimester of pregnancy is the critical period of development for many organ systems in the embryo. A chemical or environmental insult is more likely to produce major congenital malformations such as neural tube defects or mental retardation if it occurs within this window. Medical practitioners should judiciously consider a risk-benefit analysis before making their decisions. PMID:26167561

  17. Is "Safety" Dangerous? A Critical Examination of the Classroom as Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    The notion that the classroom can, indeed must, be a safe space to promote student engagement and enhance academic outcomes is pervasive in the teaching and learning literature. Despite the prevalence of this claim, there is a dearth of empirical evidence documenting the effectiveness of safe space classrooms in achieving these goals. The purpose…

  18. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  19. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  20. Human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

  1. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  2. Operational safety reliability research

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant.

  3. Reliability of genetic networks is evolvable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunewell, Stefan; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Control of the living cell functions with remarkable reliability despite the stochastic nature of the underlying molecular networks—a property presumably optimized by biological evolution. We ask here to what extent the ability of a stochastic dynamical network to produce reliable dynamics is an evolvable trait. Using an evolutionary algorithm based on a deterministic selection criterion for the reliability of dynamical attractors, we evolve networks of noisy discrete threshold nodes. We find that, starting from any random network, reliability of the attractor landscape can often be achieved with only a few small changes to the network structure. Further, the evolvability of networks toward reliable dynamics while retaining their function is investigated and a high success rate is found.

  4. Combining Grades from Different Assessments: How Reliable Is the Result?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The author suggests combining grades from component assessments to provide an overall student assessment. He explores the concept of reliability and concludes that the overall assessment will be reliable only if the number of grades used to report component achievements equals or exceeds the number used to report overall achievement. (Author/CH)

  5. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  6. Safe testing nuclear rockets economically

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; Travis, B. J.; Zerkle, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  7. What is a safe lift?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  8. Inflation from asymptotically safe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-05-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, different from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyze the minimal and nonminimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large nonperturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with the data, while in the nonminimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce the observed amplitude of density perturbations constrains the geometric data of the theory such as the number of colors and flavors for generic values of the nonminimal coupling.

  9. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Reliability-based casing design

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, M.A.; Gulati, K.C.; Johnson, R.C.; McKenna, D.L.; Brand, P.R.; Lewis, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    The present paper describes the development of reliability-based design criteria for oil and/or gas well casing/tubing. The approach is based on the fundamental principles of limit state design. Limit states for tubulars are discussed and specific techniques for the stochastic modeling of loading and resistance variables are described. Zonation methods and calibration techniques are developed which are geared specifically to the characteristic tubular design for both hydrocarbon drilling and production applications. The application of quantitative risk analysis to the development of risk-consistent design criteria is shown to be a major and necessary step forward in achieving more economic tubular design.

  11. Bayesian methods in reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  12. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOEpatents

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  13. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOEpatents

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  14. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  15. NASA Applications and Lessons Learned in Reliability Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Fuller, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986, communities across NASA have been developing and extensively using quantitative reliability and risk assessment methods in their decision making process. This paper discusses several reliability engineering applications that NASA has used over the year to support the design, development, and operation of critical space flight hardware. Specifically, the paper discusses several reliability engineering applications used by NASA in areas such as risk management, inspection policies, components upgrades, reliability growth, integrated failure analysis, and physics based probabilistic engineering analysis. In each of these areas, the paper provides a brief discussion of a case study to demonstrate the value added and the criticality of reliability engineering in supporting NASA project and program decisions to fly safely. Examples of these case studies discussed are reliability based life limit extension of Shuttle Space Main Engine (SSME) hardware, Reliability based inspection policies for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) turbine disc, probabilistic structural engineering analysis for reliability prediction of the SSME alternate turbo-pump development, impact of ET foam reliability on the Space Shuttle System risk, and reliability based Space Shuttle upgrade for safety. Special attention is given in this paper to the physics based probabilistic engineering analysis applications and their critical role in evaluating the reliability of NASA development hardware including their potential use in a research and technology development environment.

  16. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  17. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients?

    PubMed

    Williams, Trish

    2016-01-01

    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  18. Review of "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Barnett, Steven; Welner, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    The research summary "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students" presents the research background for the Obama administration's proposals for comprehensive, community-wide services in high-poverty neighborhoods, extended learning time, family engagement and safe schools. While these policies have broad and common-sense appeal, the research…

  19. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  20. Safe Space: Student Perspectives on Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Lynn C.; Steiner, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from a survey of 121 baccalaureate and master of social work students at a western university, this study explores students' perspectives of "safe" and "unsafe" classroom environments. The majority reported that being in a safe classroom changed both what and how much they learned. Students offered a wide range of instructor, fellow…

  1. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  2. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  3. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.10 Safe harbors. (a) In general. An operator will be deemed to be...

  4. Safe Schools: The Threat from within?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Safe school policies in many urban schools in Ontario have featured security guards, electronic surveillance, student identification tags, discipline, and zero tolerance. In 2000, the Ontario Ministry of Education passed the Safe Schools Act, which set out a list of offences that could trigger expulsion, suspension, and other disciplinary…

  5. Safe Homes: Is It Worth the Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSena, A.D.; Murphy, R.A.; Douglas-Palumberi, H.; Blau, G.; Kelly, B.; Horwitz, S.M.; Kaufman, J.

    2005-01-01

    .001). Conclusion:: Improvements in outcomes related to continuity of care can be attained through staff training. The SAFE Home model of care is not cost-effective for first-time placements.Objective:: To evaluate the SAFE Homes (SH) program, a short-term group care program for children between 3 and 12 years of age who enter care for the first…

  6. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  7. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  8. Child Care Provider's Guide to Safe Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... consultant to create a policy that fits your child care center or home. Safe Sleep Practices Practice SIDS reduction ... questions about safe sleep practices please contact Healthy Child Care America at the American Academy of Pediatrics at childcare@aap.org or 888/227-5409. Remember, if ...

  9. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  10. Novel, ultra-compact, high-performance, eye-safe laser rangefinder for demanding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; Morton, G.; McNeill, C.; McSporran, D.; McRae, I.; McKinlay, G.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2016-05-01

    Compact eye-safe laser rangefinders (LRFs) are a key technology for future sensors. In addition to reduced size, weight and power (SWaP), compact LRFs are increasingly being required to deliver a higher repetition rate, burst mode capability. Burst mode allows acquisition of telemetry data from fast moving targets or while sensing-on-the-move. We will describe a new, ultra-compact, long-range, eye-safe laser rangefinder that incorporates a novel transmitter that can deliver a burst capability. The transmitter is a diode-pumped, erbium:glass, passively Q-switched, solid-state laser which uses design and packaging techniques adopted from the telecom components sector. The key advantage of this approach is that the transmitter can be engineered to match the physical dimensions of the active laser components and the submillimetre sized laser spot. This makes the transmitter significantly smaller than existing designs, leading to big improvements in thermal management, and allowing higher repetition rates. In addition, the design approach leads to devices that have higher reliability, lower cost, and smaller form-factor, than previously possible. We present results from the laser rangefinder that incorporates the new transmitter. The LRF has dimensions (L x W x H) of 100 x 55 x 34 mm and achieves ranges of up to 15km from a single shot, and over a temperature range of -32°C to +60°C. Due to the transmitter's superior thermal performance, the unit is capable of repetition rates of 1Hz continuous operation and short bursts of up to 4Hz. Short bursts of 10Hz have also been demonstrated from the transmitter in the laboratory.

  11. Reliability prediction of corroding pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Strutt, J.E.; Allsopp, K.; Newman, D.; Trille, C.

    1996-12-01

    Recent data collection studies relating to loss of containment of pipeline and risers indicate that corrosion is now the dominant failure mode for steel pipelines in the North Sea area. As the North Sea pipeline infrastructure ages, it is expected that the proportion of pipelines failing by corrosion will increase further and this raises the question of the relationship between probability of pipeline corrosion failure and the reliability of the corrosion control and monitoring systems used by operators to prevent corrosion failures. This paper describes a methodology for predicting the probability of corrosion failure of a specific submarine pipeline or riser system. The paper illustrates how the model can be used to predict the safe life of a pipeline, given knowledge of the underlying corrosion behavior and corrosion control system and how the time to failure can be updated in the light of inspection and monitoring results enabling inspection policy to be evaluated for its impact on risk. The paper also shows how different assumptions concerning the underlying cause of failure influences the estimation of the probability of failure.

  12. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  13. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  14. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  15. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  16. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  17. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  18. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  19. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  20. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  1. Simplifying the Ambiguous Law, Keeping Everyone Reliably Safe Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sanchez, Loretta [D-CA-47

    2010-07-01

    07/28/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. [Metformin - new data for an "old", but efficient, safe and reliable antidiabetic drug].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the basic drug of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: according to actual therapeutic guidelines, it should be given in the absence of contraindications or intolerance during the whole course of the disease even after the initiation of insulin therapy. Recently more and more details have been explored regarding the molecular background of its effects, however, in parallel with the enormous growing knowledge, the number of questions still waiting to be answered has also grown. This review article deals with data already crystallized as well as with details not definitely cleared up. Genetic polymorphisms as well as potential drug interactions influencing the effects of metformin are also briefly summarized. PMID:27233831

  3. [Metformin - new data for an "old", but efficient, safe and reliable antidiabetic drug].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the basic drug of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: according to actual therapeutic guidelines, it should be given in the absence of contraindications or intolerance during the whole course of the disease even after the initiation of insulin therapy. Recently more and more details have been explored regarding the molecular background of its effects, however, in parallel with the enormous growing knowledge, the number of questions still waiting to be answered has also grown. This review article deals with data already crystallized as well as with details not definitely cleared up. Genetic polymorphisms as well as potential drug interactions influencing the effects of metformin are also briefly summarized.

  4. Conversations in Equity and Social Justice: Constructing Safe Schools for Queer Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a critique of discourse focused on at-risk behaviour and homophobic bullying. The paper argues that conversations around homophobic bullying must include discussions of doing equity and achieving social justice,in which the ultimate goal of constructing safe schools is achieved through the utter transformation of school culture.…

  5. Software reliability perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry; Shen, Wenhui

    1987-01-01

    Software which is used in life critical functions must be known to be highly reliable before installation. This requires a strong testing program to estimate the reliability, since neither formal methods, software engineering nor fault tolerant methods can guarantee perfection. Prior to the final testing software goes through a debugging period and many models have been developed to try to estimate reliability from the debugging data. However, the existing models are poorly validated and often give poor performance. This paper emphasizes the fact that part of their failures can be attributed to the random nature of the debugging data given to these models as input, and it poses the problem of correcting this defect as an area of future research.

  6. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  7. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  8. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  9. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  10. Materials reliability issues in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.R. ); Yost, F.G. ); Ho, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of a MRS symposium on materials reliability in microelectronics. Topics include: electromigration; stress effects on reliability; stress and packaging; metallization; device, oxide and dielectric reliability; new investigative techniques; and corrosion.

  11. Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This is a viewgraph presentation that is a course for teaching the safe use of hydrogen. The objectives of the course are 1. To familiarize the student with H2 safety properties 2. To enable the identification, evaluations and addressing of H2 system hazards 3. To teach: a. Safe practices for, b. Design, c. Materials selection, d. H2 system operation, e. Physical principles and empirical observations on which these safe practices are based, f. How to respond to emergency situations involving H2, g How to visualize safety concepts through in-class exercises, h. Identify numerous parameters important to H2 safety.

  12. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1997-03-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs.

  13. Reliability and Failure in NASA Missions: Blunders, Normal Accidents, High Reliability, Bad Luck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA emphasizes crew safety and system reliability but several unfortunate failures have occurred. The Apollo 1 fire was mistakenly unanticipated. After that tragedy, the Apollo program gave much more attention to safety. The Challenger accident revealed that NASA had neglected safety and that management underestimated the high risk of shuttle. Probabilistic Risk Assessment was adopted to provide more accurate failure probabilities for shuttle and other missions. NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" initiative and government procurement reform led to deliberately dismantling traditional reliability engineering. The Columbia tragedy and Mars mission failures followed. Failures can be attributed to blunders, normal accidents, or bad luck. Achieving high reliability is difficult but possible.

  14. Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

    Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

  15. Grid reliability management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Martinez, C.; Dyer, J.; Budhraja, V.

    2000-10-01

    To summarize, Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) is engaged in a multi-year program of public interest R&D to develop and prototype software tools that will enhance system reliability during the transition to competitive markets. The core philosophy embedded in the design of these tools is the recognition that in the future reliability will be provided through market operations, not the decisions of central planners. Embracing this philosophy calls for tools that: (1) Recognize that the game has moved from modeling machine and engineering analysis to simulating markets to understand the impacts on reliability (and vice versa); (2) Provide real-time data and support information transparency toward enhancing the ability of operators and market participants to quickly grasp, analyze, and act effectively on information; (3) Allow operators, in particular, to measure, monitor, assess, and predict both system performance as well as the performance of market participants; and (4) Allow rapid incorporation of the latest sensing, data communication, computing, visualization, and algorithmic techniques and technologies.

  16. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  17. Software reliability report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry

    1991-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Unfortunately, the models appear to be unable to account for the random nature of the data. If the same code is debugged multiple times and one of the models is used to make predictions, intolerable variance is observed in the resulting reliability predictions. It is believed that data replication can remove this variance in lab type situations and that it is less than scientific to talk about validating a software reliability model without considering replication. It is also believed that data replication may prove to be cost effective in the real world, thus the research centered on verification of the need for replication and on methodologies for generating replicated data in a cost effective manner. The context of the debugging graph was pursued by simulation and experimentation. Simulation was done for the Basic model and the Log-Poisson model. Reasonable values of the parameters were assigned and used to generate simulated data which is then processed by the models in order to determine limitations on their accuracy. These experiments exploit the existing software and program specimens which are in AIR-LAB to measure the performance of reliability models.

  18. Reliable solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Magney, G.K.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the activities of SERVE, a Christian relief and development agency, to introduce solar ovens to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It has provided 5,000 solar cookers since 1984. The experience has demonstrated the potential of the technology and the need for a durable and reliable product. Common complaints about the cookers are discussed and the ideal cooker is described.

  19. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  20. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems such as tracking in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is a hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent', and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  1. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  2. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  3. Patient Safety: Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Information > Patient Safety Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery Patient Safety More Resources Choose a surgeon ... Important facts about the safety and risks of plastic surgery Questions to ask my plastic surgeon Choose ...

  4. Expedition 25 Crew Lands Safely in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, NASA International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock and NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Nov. 2...

  5. Common Vaccine Safe for Mother, Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... TUESDAY, Nov. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine is safe for pregnant ... Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  6. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sanitary conditions back to top Types of Bottled Water FDA describes bottled water as water that’s intended ...

  7. Anesthesia Safe for Kids, Doctors' Group Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe for Kids, Doctors' Group Says But concerns, child's health history should be discussed with anesthesiologists before surgery ... surgery is only recommended when necessary for the child's health, so parents should not avoid an important procedure ...

  8. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. PMID:25680494

  9. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  10. Multi-Disciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code developed under the leadership of NASA Lewis Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multi-disciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  11. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  12. Reliability and durability problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojtsov, B. V.; Kondrashov, V. Z.

    The papers presented in this volume focus on methods for determining the stress-strain state of structures and machines and evaluating their reliability and service life. Specific topics discussed include a method for estimating the service life of thin-sheet automotive structures, stressed state at the tip of small cracks in anisotropic plates under biaxial tension, evaluation of the elastic-dissipative characteristics of joints by vibrational diagnostics methods, and calculation of the reliability of ceramic structures for arbitrary long-term loading programs. Papers are also presented on the effect of prior plastic deformation on fatigue damage kinetics, axisymmetric and local deformation of cylindrical parts during finishing-hardening treatments, and adhesion of polymers to diffusion coatings on steels.

  13. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  14. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  15. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  16. Primary Teacher Attitudes in Achievement-Based Literacy Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of primary schools in Australia and overseas organise their students into achievement-based classes for literacy (and/or numeracy): a practice often seen in high school settings. Why school systems do this will be examined elsewhere, though it is safe to say that concern for ongoing student achievement is a consideration.…

  17. Mirror coatings for eye-safe laser generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenev, T. K.; Miloushev, I. K.; Peyeva, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Eye-safety is of paramount importance in the use of laser-based instruments. Eye safe output at 1.54 micron is very important for various applications such as robot vision, range finding and laser radars in civil and military use. Nonlinear crystals have been used in state-of-the-art rangefinders for providing eye-safe output in the 1550 ± 50 nm band. We present our results on designing a back and a front mirror for eye-safe laser generation at a wavelength of 1538 nm. The back mirror is designed for high transmission at 1067 nm and high reflection at 1351 and 1538 nm. The front mirror is designed for high transmission at 1067 nm, high reflection at 1351 nm and partial reflection at 1538 nm. The optimized design is achieved using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide layers. In the experiment, the coatings are fabricated by electron beam evaporation on BK7 glass substrates. The characteristics of the coated samples are compared with the results of the calculations, showing good correspondence. The laser mirrors so prepared passed the laser damage and durability tests.

  18. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  19. A Statistical Simulation Approach to Safe Life Fatigue Analysis of Redundant Metallic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, William T.; Neal, Donald M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a dual active load path fail-safe fatigue design concept analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. The concept utilizes the inherent fatigue life differences between selected pairs of components for an active dual path system, enhanced by a stress level bias in one component. The design is applied to a baseline design; a safe life fatigue problem studied in an American Helicopter Society (AHS) round robin. The dual active path design is compared with a two-element standby fail-safe system and the baseline design for life at specified reliability levels and weight. The sensitivity of life estimates for both the baseline and fail-safe designs was examined by considering normal and Weibull distribution laws and coefficient of variation levels. Results showed that the biased dual path system lifetimes, for both the first element failure and residual life, were much greater than for standby systems. The sensitivity of the residual life-weight relationship was not excessive at reliability levels up to R = 0.9999 and the weight penalty was small. The sensitivity of life estimates increases dramatically at higher reliability levels.

  20. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  1. ATLAS reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Key elements of the 36 MJ ATLAS capacitor bank have been evaluated for individual probabilities of failure. These have been combined to estimate system reliability which is to be greater than 95% on each experimental shot. This analysis utilizes Weibull or Weibull-like distributions with increasing probability of failure with the number of shots. For transmission line insulation, a minimum thickness is obtained and for the railgaps, a method for obtaining a maintenance interval from forthcoming life tests is suggested.

  2. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  3. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  4. Investigation of safe-life fail-safe criteria for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of a safe-life design approach and a fail-safe design approach on the space shuttle booster vehicle structure, and to recommend any changes to the structural design criteria. Two configurations of the booster vehicle were considered, one incorporating a delta wing (B-9U configuration) and the other a swept wing (B-16B configuration). Several major structural components of the booster were studied to determine the fatigue life, safe-life, and fail-safe capabilities of the baseline design. Each component was investigated to determine the practicability of applying a safe-life or fail-safe design philosophy, the changes such design approaches might require, and the impact of these changes on weight, cost, development plans, and performance.

  5. Methodology for Physics and Engineering of Reliable Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Gibbel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Physics of failure approaches have gained wide spread acceptance within the electronic reliability community. These methodologies involve identifying root cause failure mechanisms, developing associated models, and utilizing these models to inprove time to market, lower development and build costs and higher reliability. The methodology outlined herein sets forth a process, based on integration of both physics and engineering principles, for achieving the same goals.

  6. Construction of Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…

  7. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  8. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  9. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  10. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  11. Illustrated structural application of universal first-order reliability method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1994-01-01

    The general application of the proposed first-order reliability method was achieved through the universal normalization of engineering probability distribution data. The method superimposes prevailing deterministic techniques and practices on the first-order reliability method to surmount deficiencies of the deterministic method and provide benefits of reliability techniques and predictions. A reliability design factor is derived from the reliability criterion to satisfy a specified reliability and is analogous to the deterministic safety factor. Its application is numerically illustrated on several practical structural design and verification cases with interesting results and insights. Two concepts of reliability selection criteria are suggested. Though the method was developed to support affordable structures for access to space, the method should also be applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation systems.

  12. Adoption of the B2SAFE EUDAT replication service by the EPOS community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, Claudio; Fares, Massimo; Fiameni, Giuseppe; Michelini, Alberto; Danecek, Peter; Wittenburg, Peter

    2014-05-01

    B2SAFE is the EUDAT service for moving and replicating data between sites and storage systems for different purposes. The goal of B2SAFE is to keep the data from a repository safe by replicating it across different geographical and administrative zones according to a set of well-defined policies. It is also a way to store large volumes of data permanently at those sites which are providing powerful on-demand data analysis facilities. In particular, B2SAFE operates on the domain of registered data where data objects are referable via persistent identifiers (PIDs). B2SAFE is more than just copying data because the PIDs must be carefully managed when data objects are moved or replicated. The EUDAT B2SAFE Service offers functionality to replicate datasets across different data centres in a safe and efficient way while maintaining all information required to easily find and query information about the replica locations. The information about the replica locations and other important information is stored in PID records, each managed in separate administrative domains. The B2SAFE Service is implemented as an iRODS module providing a set of iRODS rules or policies to interface with the EPIC handle API and uses the iRODS middleware to replicate datasets from a source data (or community) centre to a destination data centre. The definition of the dataset(s) to replicate is flexible and up to the communities using the B2SAFE service. While the B2SAFE is internally using the EPIC handle API, communities have the choice to use any PID system they prefer to assign PIDs to their digital objects. A reference to one or more EUDAT B2SAFE PIDs is returned by the B2SAFE service when a dataset is replicated. The presentation will introduce the problem space of B2SAFE, presents the achievements that have been made during the last year for enabling communities to make use of the B2SAFE service, demonstrates a EPOS use cases, outlines the commonalities and differences between the policies

  13. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  14. Photovoltaic-Reliability R&D Toward a Solar-Powered World (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Granata, J.

    2009-08-01

    Presentation about the importance of continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, and high-performance PV systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity.

  15. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  16. What are fire-safe valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.M.; Riccioli, F.D.

    1985-05-27

    The definition of a fire-safe valve has more than one answer since different standards exist for such valves. The major standards are presented in this article and their criteria discussed as an aid in specifying these devices. Fire-safety standards for equipment used in the chemical process industries (CPI) are critical however no single test for fire-safe valves has been developed that covers all of CPI. Since all fires are not alike, safety precautions should not all be the same for all situations. This article attempts to answer such questions as whether the refining industry's standards cover fire hazards posed by media and processes specific to the rest of the CPI and which criteria come closest to providing proper guidelines for choosing a fire-safe valve for non-oilrefining service.

  17. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  18. [Interrater reliability of the Braden scale].

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Tannen, Antje; Dassen, Theo

    2008-04-01

    Pressure ulcer risk assessment scales can assist nurses in determining the individual pressure ulcer risk. Although the Braden scale is widely used throughout Germany, its psychometric properties are yet unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the interrater reliability of the Braden scale and to compare the results with those of published data. A literature review was conducted. 20 studies measuring the interrater reliability of the Braden scale were evaluated. Only three of those studies investigated the interrater reliability of single items. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (0.80 to 1.00) was calculated in most studies for an evaluation of the Braden scale as a whole. However, the use of correlation coefficients is inappropriate for measuring the interrater reliability of the Braden scale. Measures of the intraclass correlation coefficient varied from 0.83 to 0.99. The investigation of the interrater reliability of the Braden scale's German version was conducted in a German nursing home in 2006. Nurses independently rated 18 and 32 residents twice. Nurses achieved the highest agreement when rating the items "friction and shear" and "activity" (overall proportion of agreement = 0.67 to 0.84, Cohen's Kappa = 0.57 to 0.73). The lowest agreement was achieved when the item "nutrition" (overall proportion of agreement = 0.47 to 0.51, Cohen's Kappa = 0.28 to 0.30) was rated. For 66% of the rated residents the difference in the obtained Braden scores was equal or less than one point. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.96) and 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.96). This indicates that the interrater reliability of the Braden scale was high in the examined setting.

  19. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  20. Blade reliability collaborative :

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  1. What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Skip sharing on social media links What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? Page Content ... safe sleep environment information are available below: What does a safe sleep environment look like? Reduce the ...

  2. Safe chemotherapy in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Chavis-Parker, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the safe and effective use of chemotherapeutic medications in the acute and outpatient care settings. A review of literature was performed to determine the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy in the home environment. The administration of oral and intravenous chemotherapy in the home has become a common intervention for patients being treated for cancer based on patient preference, cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery, and increasing demand for oncology services. Home healthcare nurses can greatly impact the management of adverse effects of chemotherapy in the home, increasing the quality of life and improving patient outcomes.

  3. DMD reliability: a MEMS success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments (TI) has made tremendous progress in both performance and reliability since it was first invented in 1987. From the first working concept of a bistable mirror, the DMD is now providing high-brightness, high-contrast, and high-reliability in over 1,500,000 projectors using Digital Light Processing technology. In early 2000, TI introduced the first DMD chip with a smaller mirror (14-micron pitch versus 17-micron pitch). This allowed a greater number of high-resolution DMD chips per wafer, thus providing an increased output capacity as well as the flexibility to use existing package designs. By using existing package designs, subsequent DMDs cost less as well as met our customers' demand for faster time to market. In recent years, the DMD achieved the status of being a commercially successful MEMS device. It reached this status by the efforts of hundreds of individuals working toward a common goal over many years. Neither textbooks nor design guidelines existed at the time. There was little infrastructure in place to support such a large endeavor. The knowledge we gained through our characterization and testing was all we had available to us through the first few years of development. Reliability was only a goal in 1992 when production development activity started; a goal that many throughout the industry and even within Texas Instruments doubted the DMD could achieve. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that we succeeded by exceeding the reliability goals.

  4. Fault Tree Reliability Analysis and Design-for-reliability

    1998-05-05

    WinR provides a fault tree analysis capability for performing systems reliability and design-for-reliability analyses. The package includes capabilities for sensitivity and uncertainity analysis, field failure data analysis, and optimization.

  5. On Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.

  6. Improve relief valve reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on careful evaluation of safety relief valves and their service conditions which can improve reliability and permit more time between testing. Some factors that aid in getting long-run results are: Use of valves suitable for service, Attention to design of the relieving system (including use of block valves) and Close attention to repair procedures. Use these procedures for each installation, applying good engineering practices. The Clean Air Act of 1990 and other legislation limiting allowable fugitive emissions in a hydrocarbon processing plant will greatly impact safety relief valve installations. Normal leakage rate from a relief valve will require that it be connected to a closed vent system connected to a recovery or control device. Tying the outlet of an existing valve into a header system can cause accelerated corrosion and operating difficulties. Reliability of many existing safety relief valves may be compromised when they are connected to an outlet header without following good engineering practices. The law has been enacted but all the rules have not been promulgated.

  7. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  8. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  9. Reliable Entanglement Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan; Gittsovich, Oleg; Donohue, John; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    Entanglement plays a central role in quantum protocols. It is therefore important to be able to verify the presence of entanglement in physical systems from experimental data. In the evaluation of these data, the proper treatment of statistical effects requires special attention, as one can never claim to have verified the presence of entanglement with certainty. Recently increased attention has been paid to the development of proper frameworks to pose and to answer these type of questions. In this work, we apply recent results by Christandl and Renner on reliable quantum state tomography to construct a reliable entanglement verification procedure based on the concept of confidence regions. The statements made do not require the specification of a prior distribution nor the assumption of an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) source of states. Moreover, we develop efficient numerical tools that are necessary to employ this approach in practice, rendering the procedure ready to be employed in current experiments. We demonstrate this fact by analyzing the data of an experiment where photonic entangled two-photon states were generated and whose entanglement is verified with the use of an accessible nonlinear witness.

  10. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  11. "Safe Schools within Safe Communities: A Regional Summit in the Heartland." Policy Briefs Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huertas, Aurelio, Jr.; Sullivan, Carol

    This report documents the proceedings of a regional policy seminar hosted by the Iowa Department of Education with support from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) and the Midwest Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities (MRC). The seminar, "Safe Schools Within Safe Communities," was held on September 19-20,…

  12. Sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe work systems

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Brian M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; DeJoy, David M.; Huang, Yuang-Hsiang; Love, Peter E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social–organisational and technical–work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasises factors such as the joint optimisation of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable human–system performance and safety metrics as design and analysis criteria, the maintenance of a realistic and consistent set of safety objectives and policies, and regular access to the expertise and input of workers. We discuss three current approaches to the analysis and design of complex sociotechnical systems: human–systems integration, macroergonomics and safety climate. Each approach emphasises key sociotechnical systems themes, and each prescribes a more holistic perspective on work systems than do traditional theories and methods. We contrast these perspectives with historical precedents such as system safety and traditional human factors and ergonomics, and describe potential future directions for their application in research and practice. Practitioner Summary: The identification of factors that can reliably distinguish between safe and unsafe work systems is an important concern for ergonomists and other safety professionals. This paper presents a variety of sociotechnical systems perspectives on intersections between social–organisational and technology–work process factors as they impact work system analysis, design and operation. PMID:25909756

  13. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  14. Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Derek

    This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

  15. The Food-Safe Schools Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Food-Safe School Needs Assessment and Planning Guide" is a tool that can help schools assess their food safety policies, procedures, and programs and develop plans for improvement. This tool includes a simple, straightforward questionnaire, score card, and planning guide that give administrators, school staff, families, and students a chance…

  16. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  17. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  18. Exploring Safely: A Guide for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Terry; Texley, Juliana

    It is very important to provide a safe learning environment for students while engaging them in investigative and observational hands-on science activities. This teacher's guide provides information on safety rules and regulations in a narrative style while discussing both self-contained classroom teachers and science specialists in the elementary…

  19. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlay, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  20. Safe Schools: What the Southeast Is Doing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SERVE Policy Brief, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Virtually no school is safe from violence. FBI statistics, which show that juvenile crimes actually peaked during the mid-1970s, are at odds with the public perception that crime rates among young people are at an all-time high. The FBI acknowledges, however, that the crimes committed by young people tend to be more serious than in the past, and…

  1. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  2. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  3. Creating a Safe and Positive Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kimberly A.

    To insure that each child has a safe and positive environment at school, teachers should earn their pupils' respect and classroom activities should be oriented to helping each child succeed. Three key phrases reinforce the expectation of success. These phrases, which teacher and pupils should understand and remember, are: (1) It is O.K. to make a…

  4. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  5. Safe Schools: A Best Practices Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Every day in America more than 50 million children go to neighborhood public schools. Parents send them off with every hope they will be safe while there. And yet, as has been the case in too many cities, violence shatters that hope. The Council of Educational Facilities Planners International (CEFPI) seeks to lead in the effort to bolster schools…

  6. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  7. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  8. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  9. Safe practice in syringe pump management.

    PubMed

    Mukoreka, Juliette; Sisay, Isatta

    Syringe pumps offer an alternative route for delivering medicine when the oral route cannot be used. This is particularly important for patients receiving palliative care, for whom a continuous infusion of medication can improve symptom control. This article explains how to administer drugs safely using these devices. PMID:26182586

  10. Guide for preparing Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.K.; Patrician, D.E.; Lucas, H.; Ware, R.A.; Wright, D.A.; Izzo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) are written for activities that involve the use of explosives, dangerous chemicals, radioactive materials, hazardous systems, and for certain types of operational facilities that present hazards. This guide states SOP requirements for Sandia Livermore in detail and gives a format for writing an SOP.

  11. Safe Space Oddity: Revisiting Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by an incident in a social work graduate classroom in which she was a teaching assistant, the author reflects on her commitment to constructivist teaching methods, critical theory, and critical pedagogy. Exploring the educational utility of notions such as public space and safe space, the author employs this personal experience to examine…

  12. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  13. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  14. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  15. Campaign Safe & Sober. Youth & Generation X Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This packet contains information on safe and sober driving for members of Generation X. The packet includes information on "Buckle Up America! Week 1998," which was designed to encourage everyone on the road to use seat belts and child safety seats and to use them properly. It also offers a safety city brochure and multiple program materials…

  16. Business of reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  17. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  18. Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

    2006-01-01

    Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

  19. Factor reliability into load management

    SciTech Connect

    Feight, G.R.

    1983-07-01

    Hardware reliability is a major factor to consider when selecting a direct-load-control system. The author outlines a method of estimating present-value costs associated with system reliability. He points out that small differences in receiver reliability make a significant difference in owning cost. 4 figures.

  20. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  1. Environmentally Safe SRM Strategies Using Liquefied Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, M.; Layton, K.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation includes several SRM strategies to offset global warming using the large scale release of liquefied air (Lair). Lair could be used to cool large atmospheric volumes as it expands from a liquid below minus 300 degrees F (-184 degrees C) into ambient air, which could trigger new clouds or brighten existing clouds. It is hoped that the potential feasibility and benefits of this concept would be found to warrant further development through funded research. A key trait of Lair is its enormous expansion ratio in warming from a cold liquid into ambient air. At sea level, this expansion is about 900 times. At high altitudes such as 50,000 ft (15 km) the same amount of Lair would expand 5,000 times. One strategy for this concept would be to release Lair at 50,000 ft to super-cool existing water vapor into reflective droplets or ice particles. This could create very large clouds thick enough to be highly-reflective and high enough for long residence times. Another strategy to consider for this concept would be to release CCN’s (such as salt particulates) along with Lair. This might enable the formation of clouds where Lair alone is insufficient. Water vapor could also be added to assist in cloud development if necessary. The use of these elements would be non-polluting, enabling the concept to be safely scaled as large as necessary to achieve the desired results without harming the environment. This is extremely important, because it eliminates the risk of environmental damage that is a potential roadblock for most other SRM schemes. Further strategies of this concept would include formation of clouds near the equator to maximize reflected energy, creating clouds over ocean regions so as to minimize weather changes on land, and creating clouds over Arctic regions to minimize the melting of sea ice. Because this concept requires only existing technology to implement, research and implementation timelines could be minimized (unlike most proposed schemes

  2. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  3. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  4. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  2. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  3. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  7. Safe Affordable Fission Engine-(SAFE-) 100a Heat Exchanger Thermal and Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeve, B. E.

    2005-01-01

    A potential fission power system for in-space missions is a heat pipe-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, a heat exchanger (HX) transfers the heat of the reactor core to the Brayton gas. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine- (SAFE-) 100a is a test program designed to thermally and hydraulically simulate a 95 Btu/s prototypic heat pipe-cooled reactor using electrical resistance heaters on the ground. This Technical Memorandum documents the thermal and structural assessment of the HX used in the SAFE-100a program.

  8. Realistic Testing of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-100) Thermal Simulator Using Fiber Bragg Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Fielder, Robert S.; Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-02-04

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. Distributed high temperature measurements were made with 20 FBG temperature sensors installed in the SAFE-100 thermal simulator at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center. Experiments were performed at temperatures approaching 800 deg. C and 1150 deg. C for characterization studies of the SAFE-100 core. Temperature profiles were successfully generated for the core during temperature increases and decreases. Related tests in the SAFE-100 successfully provided strain measurement data.

  9. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  10. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  11. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.06... Safe speed (Rule 6). Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take... prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be...

  12. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.06... Safe speed (Rule 6). Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take... prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be...

  13. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.06... Safe speed (Rule 6). Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take... prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be...

  14. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.06... Safe speed (Rule 6). Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take... prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be...

  15. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.06... Safe speed (Rule 6). Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take... prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  17. Dame Juliet Rhys Williams Memorial Lecture 1989. Safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Brain, M

    1990-02-01

    An estimated 500,000 women worldwide die annually in pregnancy or childbirth; 99% of these deaths are in developing countries. The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1987 at an international conference in Nairobi sponsored by the World Bank, WHO, and the UN Fund for Population Activities, and attended by representatives from 45 countries. Participants together pledged their commitment to try to reduce mortality by 50% by the year 4000. This notion of safe motherhood means not only that maternal mortality should be reduced, but that mothers should be implemented worldwide since the conference. The author, President of the Royal College of Midwives, emphasizes the role midwives can play in promoting safe motherhood. Improved social conditions, improved midwife training, dietary supplementation, establishment of the national health service, advances in medical technology, services evaluation, and family planning availability helped reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the United Kingdom. Maternal morbidity has not, however, been eliminated in the UK. Some women still report receiving substandard care and some advances have actually created emotional strains for women. Policymakers, doctors and midwives must therefore not become complacent about women's needs in the UK while sharing domestic achievements with the developing world. Specifically, developing countries need money; education and training resources for midwives, researchers, and other care providers; and the provision of appropriate care. To best provide care, practitioners need to understand women's traditional medical practices, customs, values, and beliefs about health, health care, and health problems. Finally, practitioners and women in developed countries could also note the merits of developing country systems of extended familial support, resourcefulness, and breastfeeding practice. PMID:2314316

  18. Record-low quantum defect operation of an eye-safe Er-doped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Gabrielyan, N.; Fromzel, V.; Dubinskii, M.

    2016-11-01

    Several new laser transitions from a resonantly-pumped Er3+:YVO4 laser have been demonstrated. Laser operation with quantum defect as low as 0.82% has been achieved. We believe that this is the lowest quantum defect operation ever reported for an eye-safe laser.

  19. Improving Search Engine Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthi, Jyoti; Kumar, Ela

    2010-11-01

    Search engines on the Internet are used daily to access and find information. While these services are providing an easy way to find information globally, they are also suffering from artificially created false results. This paper describes two techniques that are being used to manipulate the search engines: spam pages (used to achieve higher rankings on the result page) and cloaking (used to feed falsified data into search engines). This paper also describes two proposed methods to fight this kind of misuse, algorithms for both of the formerly mentioned cases of spamdexing.

  20. [Consensus on safe infant's furniture: brief version].

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Several products that are used for support, transportation or recreation in infants and children can cause non intentional injuries. This consensus tries to provide pediatricians and families with the necessary elements to recognize and choose safe infant's furniture. A group of 24 experts developed a consensus according to Delphi's method, which consists in successiverounds of questions. Recommendations are supported with bibliography. Infant walkers are not recommended, as they are considered useless and dangerous. Guidelines are given to choose appropriate child restraint systems, when and how to use them, and how to install them in a safe way. Injuries and prevention measures related to strollers, high chairs, cribs and bunk beds are described. Risks and the way to avoid them are diagrammed in figures that can be used to transmit recommendations to families. PMID:27079398

  1. [Consensus on safe infant's furniture: brief version].

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Several products that are used for support, transportation or recreation in infants and children can cause non intentional injuries. This consensus tries to provide pediatricians and families with the necessary elements to recognize and choose safe infant's furniture. A group of 24 experts developed a consensus according to Delphi's method, which consists in successiverounds of questions. Recommendations are supported with bibliography. Infant walkers are not recommended, as they are considered useless and dangerous. Guidelines are given to choose appropriate child restraint systems, when and how to use them, and how to install them in a safe way. Injuries and prevention measures related to strollers, high chairs, cribs and bunk beds are described. Risks and the way to avoid them are diagrammed in figures that can be used to transmit recommendations to families.

  2. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2016-03-01

    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel.

  3. Safe and efficient use of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-07-14

    A minority of people abuse the freedom of the Internet to the detriment of the vast majority. Many people feel that the Internet requires more regulation to reduce the burden of hackers, viruses, hoaxes, adverts and spam that continue to proliferate unabated. Until this ever happens, it is down to the individual person or business to protect themselves against malicious attacks and to use the Internet in a safe and efficient manner. PMID:17632481

  4. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use. PMID:20401276

  5. Energy week `96 - PETRO-SAFE

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Proceedings of the Petro-Safe Energy Week Conference and Exhibition held January 29-February 2, 1996 in Houston, Texas are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for 53 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. The papers covered such topics as environmental issues in the petroleum industry, process safety management, waste and remediation issues, safety issues, and health, safety, and environemental training issues.

  6. Safe and efficient use of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-07-14

    A minority of people abuse the freedom of the Internet to the detriment of the vast majority. Many people feel that the Internet requires more regulation to reduce the burden of hackers, viruses, hoaxes, adverts and spam that continue to proliferate unabated. Until this ever happens, it is down to the individual person or business to protect themselves against malicious attacks and to use the Internet in a safe and efficient manner.

  7. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  8. Safe motherhood partners -- the International Children's Centre.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The International Children's Centre (ICC) works worldwide to improve child health in the least developed countries. In its training and research projects the agency contributes to the Safe Motherhood Initiative to improve the health of mothers and infants. ICC is based in Paris, it was established in 1949, and the agency has cooperated with governments, nongovernmental organizations and international bodies like the World Health Organization (WHO) in child care. ICC's activities reflect concern for the health of women before and during pregnancy and the rest of their lives. The center's work comprises training, research, local projects, and information and documentation. Following the 1987 Nairobi conference on safe motherhood, ICC organized a seminar in Paris on maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan francophone Africa, which led to participation in the Safe Motherhood Initiative with a variety of training and research programs. ICC training is integrated, community-based, and multidisciplinary. Anthropology, psychology, economics and management have played a role in ICC training courses. The center runs an international course on maternal and child health from January to April each year and also organizes distance training courses on problem solving in health care. ICC training programs have taken place in Laos, Senegal, and Vietnam to strengthen the work of maternal and child health training centers there. A 4-week course on economic evaluation of health programs is held in Paris each July. In 1989 and 1990, ICC organized in collaboration with WHO safe motherhood workshops on research methodology in Benin and in Burkina Faso with participants from 6 francophone African countries. One research project in Benin is on risk factors for maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, and the other in Cameroon on improving surveillance of pregnancy, delivery, and the postnatal period. ICC focuses on long-term planning and action for the benefit of mothers and children.

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  10. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  11. Developing Ultra Reliable Life Support for the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Recycling life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by using spares to replace failed components. The added mass for spares is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided the original system reliability is not very low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the space shuttle and space station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units, However, this maintenance and repair depends on a logistics supply chain that provides the needed spares. The Mars mission must take all the needed spares at launch. The Mars mission also must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since it requires years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, the Mars mission has a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than shuttle or station. Achieving ultra reliable space life support with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must define the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Technologies, components, and materials must be designed and selected for high reliability. Extensive testing is needed to ascertain very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The systems must be designed, produced, integrated, and tested without impairing system reliability. Maintenance and failed unit replacement should not introduce any additional probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass must start soon if it is to produce timely results for the moon and Mars.

  12. Nanoparticle-based cancer treatment: can delivered dose and biological dose be reliably modeled and quantified?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Petryk, Alicia A.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Stigliano, Robert V.; D'Angelo, Robert N.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Cassim, Shiraz M.; Foreman, Allan; Bischof, John C.; Pearce, John A.; Ryan, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Essential developments in the reliable and effective use of heat in medicine include: 1) the ability to model energy deposition and the resulting thermal distribution and tissue damage (Arrhenius models) over time in 3D, 2) the development of non-invasive thermometry and imaging for tissue damage monitoring, and 3) the development of clinically relevant algorithms for accurate prediction of the biological effect resulting from a delivered thermal dose in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs. The accuracy and usefulness of this information varies with the type of thermal treatment, sensitivity and accuracy of tissue assessment, and volume, shape, and heterogeneity of the tumor target and normal tissue. That said, without the development of an algorithm that has allowed the comparison and prediction of the effects of hyperthermia in a wide variety of tumor and normal tissues and settings (cumulative equivalent minutes/ CEM), hyperthermia would never have achieved clinical relevance. A new hyperthermia technology, magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia (mNPH), has distinct advantages over the previous techniques: the ability to target the heat to individual cancer cells (with a nontoxic nanoparticle), and to excite the nanoparticles noninvasively with a noninjurious magnetic field, thus sparing associated normal cells and greatly improving the therapeutic ratio. As such, this modality has great potential as a primary and adjuvant cancer therapy. Although the targeted and safe nature of the noninvasive external activation (hysteretic heating) are a tremendous asset, the large number of therapy based variables and the lack of an accurate and useful method for predicting, assessing and quantifying mNP dose and treatment effect is a major obstacle to moving the technology into routine clinical practice. Among other parameters, mNPH will require the accurate determination of specific nanoparticle heating capability, the total nanoparticle content and biodistribution in

  13. Are specialist certification examinations a reliable measure of physician competence?

    PubMed

    Burch, V C; Norman, G R; Schmidt, H G; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2008-11-01

    High stakes postgraduate specialist certification examinations have considerable implications for the future careers of examinees. Medical colleges and professional boards have a social and professional responsibility to ensure their fitness for purpose. To date there is a paucity of published data about the reliability of specialist certification examinations and objective methods for improvement. Such data are needed to improve current assessment practices and sustain the international credibility of specialist certification processes. To determine the component and composite reliability of the Fellowship examination of the College of Physicians of South Africa, and identify strategies for further improvement, generalizability and multivariate generalizability theory were used to estimate the reliability of examination subcomponents and the overall reliability of the composite examination. Decision studies were used to identify strategies for improving the composition of the examination. Reliability coefficients of the component subtests ranged from 0.58 to 0.64. The composite reliability of the examination was 0.72. This could be increased to 0.8 by weighting all test components equally or increasing the number of patient encounters in the clinical component of the examination. Correlations between examination components were high, suggesting that similar parameters of competence were being assessed. This composite certification examination, if equally weighted, achieved an overall reliability sufficient for high stakes examination purposes. Increasing the weighting of the clinical component decreased the reliability. This could be rectified by increasing the number of patient encounters in the examination. Practical ways of achieving this are suggested.

  14. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  15. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  16. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  17. Probabilistic Methods for Structural Design and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a formal method to quantify structural damage tolerance and reliability in the presence of a multitude of uncertainties in turbine engine components. The method is based at the material behavior level where primitive variables with their respective scatter ranges are used to describe behavior. Computational simulation is then used to propagate the uncertainties to the structural scale where damage tolerance and reliability are usually specified. Several sample cases are described to illustrate the effectiveness, versatility, and maturity of the method. Typical results from this method demonstrate, that it is mature and that it can be used to probabilistically evaluate turbine engine structural components. It may be inferred from the results that the method is suitable for probabilistically predicting the remaining life in aging or in deteriorating structures, for making strategic projections and plans, and for achieving better, cheaper, faster products that give competitive advantages in world markets.

  18. Optimal Implementations for Reliable Circadian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival through synchronizing with the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. We find by using a phase model with multiple inputs that achieving the maximal limit of regularity and entrainability entails many inherent features of the circadian mechanism. At the molecular level, we demonstrate the role sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. At the behavioral level, the optimal phase-response curve inevitably contains a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. We reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments entrained by two types of periodic light pulses. Our results indicate that circadian clocks are designed optimally for reliable clockwork through evolution.

  19. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Achieving the Beginning Teacher Standards Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiyun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity and reliability of the "Achieving the NASPE Standards Inventory (ANSI)" that assesses pre-service physical education teachers' perceptions of achieving the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) beginning teacher standards (2003). Four hundred fifty-two…

  1. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  2. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  3. Gender and development: a SAFE recipe.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S

    1996-05-01

    It is argued that an alternative strategy to women's involvement in development is the development of a whole "new dish, prepared, baked, and distributed equally" rather than acquisition of a "bigger piece of the pie." The issues of gender and development (GAD) involve women gaining power and control of the decision making processes. Past development has been too much of a "fixed menu" approach. Feminist development involves the satisfaction of the strategic needs of women, an agenda-setting direction, flexibility, and empowerment (SAFE). Strategic gender needs were conceptualized first by Maxine Malyneaux. Within women's defined roles, there are needs for access to adequate and clean water supplies, nutrition, health care, and income. Women in development (WID) approaches are strong in serving practical needs. The SAFE approach combines both the strategic and practical needs of women. Some argue that a focus on strategic and/or practical needs should be conceptualized in terms of changing women's position within a structurally unequal set of social relations. Some emphasize autonomy. The basic concepts of strategic needs is viewed as including the change in women's status and movement toward autonomy. Aid agencies and development groups have been mainstreaming WID and GAD over the past decade by integrating women and women's needs into administration, decision making, and the project cycle. Gender issues could be built into existing development paradigms or could change the existing development agenda with a gender perspective. It is argued that an agenda-setting approach is needed in order to assure that the strategic needs of women are incorporated. Flexibility and adaptation of approaches means that WID and GAD can be adjusted to all cultures. It is cited by Buvinic and Moser that welfare, equity, anti-poverty, efficiency, and empowerment are five ethical policy approaches. The policy approach of SAFE is that of empowerment or the knowledge and exercise of

  4. Titanium dioxide in our everyday life; is it safe?

    PubMed Central

    Skocaj, Matej; Filipic, Metka; Petkovic, Jana; Novak, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered as an inert and safe material and has been used in many applications for decades. However, with the development of nanotechnologies TiO2 nanoparticles, with numerous novel and useful properties, are increasingly manufactured and used. Therefore increased human and environmental exposure can be expected, which has put TiO2 nanoparticles under toxicological scrutiny. Mechanistic toxicological studies show that TiO2 nanoparticles predominantly cause adverse effects via induction of oxidative stress resulting in cell damage, genotoxicity, inflammation, immune response etc. The extent and type of damage strongly depends on physical and chemical characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles, which govern their bioavailability and reactivity. Based on the experimental evidence from animal inhalation studies TiO2 nanoparticles are classified as “possible carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as occupational carcinogen by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The studies on dermal exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles, which is in humans substantial through the use of sunscreens, generally indicate negligible transdermal penetration; however data are needed on long-term exposure and potential adverse effects of photo-oxidation products. Although TiO2 is permitted as an additive (E171) in food and pharmaceutical products we do not have reliable data on its absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity on oral exposure. TiO2 may also enter environment, and while it exerts low acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, upon long-term exposure it induces a range of sub-lethal effects. Conclusions Until relevant toxicological and human exposure data that would enable reliable risk assessment are obtained, TiO2 nanoparticles should be used with great care. PMID:22933961

  5. Implementing safe obstetric anesthesia in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M

    2009-08-01

    The position of woman in any civilization is an index of the advancement of that civilization; the position of woman is gauged best by the care given her at the birth of her child. Obstetric anesthesia, by definition, is a subspecialty of anesthesia devoted to peripartum, perioperative, pain and anesthetic management of women during pregnancy and the puerperium. Today, obstetric anesthesia has become a recognized subspecialty of anesthesiology and an integral part of practice of most anesthesiologists. Perhaps, no other subspecialty of anesthesiology provides more personal gratification than the practice of obstetric anesthesia. This article reviews the challenges associated with implementing safe obstetric anesthesia practice in Eastern Europe.

  6. Keeping sports participants safe in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Sparling, P B; Millard-Stafford, M

    1999-07-01

    Keeping in mind the key concepts of heat dissipation and using sound strategies for heat acclimatization and fluid replacement can help keep participants and spectators safe during hot-weather sports activities. Acclimatization to heat requires 10 to 14 days of training. Prudent hydration involves drinking plenty of fluid 2 hours before exercise, 5 to 10 oz of fluid every 15 minutes during exercise, and fluids with increased sodium content after exercise. A sidebar on environmental conditions and heat-related medical encounters during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta illustrates the importance of prevention strategies at the individual and event level.

  7. The Journey from Safe Yield to Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.; Leake, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

  8. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  9. Infrared safe definition of jet flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Banfi, Andrea; Salam, Gavin P.; Zanderighi, Giulia; /Fermilab /CERN

    2006-01-01

    It is common, in both theoretical and experimental studies, to separately discuss quark and gluon jets. However, even at parton level, widely-used jet algorithms fail to provide an infrared safe way of making this distinction. We examine the origin of the problem, and propose a solution in terms of a new ''flavour-kt'' algorithm. As well as being of conceptual interest this can be a powerful tool when combining fixed-order calculations with multi-jet resummations and parton showers. It also has applications to studies of heavy-quark jets.

  10. The process group approach to reliable distributed computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulty of developing reliable distribution software is an impediment to applying distributed computing technology in many settings. Experience with the ISIS system suggests that a structured approach based on virtually synchronous process groups yields systems that are substantially easier to develop, exploit sophisticated forms of cooperative computation, and achieve high reliability. Six years of research on ISIS, describing the model, its implementation challenges, and the types of applications to which ISIS has been applied are reviewed.

  11. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  12. Reliability and coverage analysis of non-repairable fault-tolerant memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. W.; Carroll, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed for the construction of probabilistic state-space models for nonrepairable systems. Models were developed for several systems which achieved reliability improvement by means of error-coding, modularized sparing, massive replication and other fault-tolerant techniques. From the models developed, sets of reliability and coverage equations for the systems were developed. Comparative analyses of the systems were performed using these equation sets. In addition, the effects of varying subunit reliabilities on system reliability and coverage were described. The results of these analyses indicated that a significant gain in system reliability may be achieved by use of combinations of modularized sparing, error coding, and software error control. For sufficiently reliable system subunits, this gain may far exceed the reliability gain achieved by use of massive replication techniques, yet result in a considerable saving in system cost.

  13. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  14. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  15. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  16. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  17. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  18. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  19. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  20. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  1. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  2. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  3. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  7. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  8. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  9. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  10. Stirling Convertor Fasteners Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor; Kovacevich, Tiodor; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) being developed for NASA s deep-space science and exploration missions require reliable operation for up to 14 years and beyond. Stirling power conversion is a candidate for use in an RPS because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced inventory of radioactive material. Structural fasteners are responsible to maintain structural integrity of the Stirling power convertor, which is critical to ensure reliable performance during the entire mission. Design of fasteners involve variables related to the fabrication, manufacturing, behavior of fasteners and joining parts material, structural geometry of the joining components, size and spacing of fasteners, mission loads, boundary conditions, etc. These variables have inherent uncertainties, which need to be accounted for in the reliability assessment. This paper describes these uncertainties along with a methodology to quantify the reliability, and provides results of the analysis in terms of quantified reliability and sensitivity of Stirling power conversion reliability to the design variables. Quantification of the reliability includes both structural and functional aspects of the joining components. Based on the results, the paper also describes guidelines to improve the reliability and verification testing.

  11. Issues in Modeling System Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Annis, Chuck; Booker, Jane; Robinson, David; Sues, Rob

    2002-10-01

    This paper discusses various issues in modeling system reliability. The topics include: 1) Statistical formalisms versus pragmatic numerics; 2) Language; 3) Statistical methods versus reliability-based design methods; 4) Professional bias; and 5) Real issues that need to be identified and resolved prior to certifying designs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  12. Avionics design for reliability bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A bibliography with abstracts was presented in support of AGARD lecture series No. 81. The following areas were covered: (1) program management, (2) design for high reliability, (3) selection of components and parts, (4) environment consideration, (5) reliable packaging, (6) life cycle cost, and (7) case histories.

  13. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  14. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  15. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  16. Building a safe care-providing robot.

    PubMed

    Fotoohi, Leila; Gräser, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A service robot especially a care-providing robot, works in the vicinity of a human body and is sometimes even in direct contact with it. Conventional safety methods and precautions in industrial robotics are not applicable to such robots. This paper presents a safety approach for designing the safe care-providing robot FRIEND. The approach is applied in each step of design iteratively to identify and assess the potential hazards during design. The steps are explained briefly in this work. The main contribution of this paper is verification of safety requirements using the Ramadge-Wonham (RW) framework. The greater complexity of the tasks the robot will perform, the more complex is the identification of safety requirements. Use of this framework led us to analyze the requirements and verify them formally, systematically and on a modular basis. In our approach human-robot interaction (HRI) is also modeled by a set of uncontrolled events that may happen any time during operation. Subsequently the safety requirements are modified to consider these interactions. As a result the safety module behaves like a controller, running in parallel with the system, which maintains the system safe and works according to the safety requirements by enabling the admissible sequences of events.

  17. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  18. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  19. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  20. Statistical modeling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.

  1. A Vision for Spaceflight Reliability: NASA's Objectives Based Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Evans, John; Hall, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In defining the direction for a new Reliability and Maintainability standard, OSMA has extracted the essential objectives that our programs need, to undertake a reliable mission. These objectives have been structured to lead mission planning through construction of an objective hierarchy, which defines the critical approaches for achieving high reliability and maintainability (R M). Creating a hierarchy, as a basis for assurance implementation, is a proven approach; yet, it holds the opportunity to enable new directions, as NASA moves forward in tackling the challenges of space exploration.

  2. Human reliability in petrochemical industry: an action research.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Alexandre Pinheiro; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify conflicts and gaps between the operators' strategies and actions and the organizational managerial approach for human reliability. In order to achieve these goals, the research approach adopted encompasses literature review, mixing action research methodology and Ergonomic Workplace Analysis in field research. The result suggests that the studied company has a classical and mechanistic point of view focusing on error identification and building barriers through procedures, checklists and other prescription alternatives to improve performance in reliability area. However, it was evident the fundamental role of the worker as an agent of maintenance and construction of system reliability during the action research cycle.

  3. The impact of reliability on naval aviation operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashbrooke, D. P.

    The Gulf war illustrated the effectiveness of Naval helicopters, as well as the impact of reliability on rapidly fitted new equipment. Poor reliability can lead to reduced effectiveness, inadequate spares, high cost, and increased risk to human life. Only limited improvements can be achieved in service so the Navy's Aircraft Support Executive has developed ways of targeting equipment having the most adverse effect. The Merlin will need much higher standards of reliability before it enters service, because of its complexity and the cramped confines from which it will operate.

  4. A forward view on reliable computers for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J.; Wensley, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for fault-tolerant computers for flight control of commercial aircraft are examined; it is concluded that the reliability requirements far exceed those typically quoted for space missions. Examination of circuit technology and alternative computer architectures indicates that the desired reliability can be achieved with several different computer structures, though there are obvious advantages to those that are more economic, more reliable, and, very importantly, more certifiable as to fault tolerance. Progress in this field is expected to bring about better computer systems that are more rigorously designed and analyzed even though computational requirements are expected to increase significantly.

  5. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  6. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  7. Results of 30 kWt Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-30) primary heat transport testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Kevin; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvil, Pat; Reid, Bob

    2001-02-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Safe Affordable Fission Engine-30 kilowatt (SAFE30) test article are being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made. .

  8. Medicines: Use Them Safely | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Medicines: Use Them Safely Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Questions To Ask Your Doctor About A New Medicine What is the name of the medicine, and ...

  9. Ibogaine for treating drug dependence. What is a safe dose?

    PubMed

    Schep, L J; Slaughter, R J; Galea, S; Newcombe, D

    2016-09-01

    The indole alkaloid ibogaine, present in the root bark of the West African rain forest shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has been adopted in the West as a treatment for drug dependence. Treatment of patients requires large doses of the alkaloid to cause hallucinations, an alleged integral part of the patient's treatment regime. However, case reports and case series continue to describe evidences of ataxia, gastrointestinal distress, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden and unexplained deaths of patients undergoing treatment for drug dependence. High doses of ibogaine act on several classes of neurological receptors and transporters to achieve pharmacological responses associated with drug aversion; limited toxicology research suggests that intraperitoneal doses used to successfully treat rodents, for example, have also been shown to cause neuronal injury (purkinje cells) in the rat cerebellum. Limited research suggests lethality in rodents by the oral route can be achieved at approximately 263mg/kg body weight. To consider an appropriate and safe initial dose for humans, necessary safety factors need to be applied to the animal data; these would include factors such as intra- and inter-species variability and for susceptible people in a population (such as drug users). A calculated initial dose to treat patients could be approximated at 0.87mg/kg body weight, substantially lower than those presently being administered to treat drug users. Morbidities and mortalities will continue to occur unless practitioners reconsider doses being administered to their susceptible patients. PMID:27426011

  10. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  11. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  12. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Yonesian, Masud; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts. Materials and methods: The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation. Results: The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management. Conclusion: In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery. Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies. PMID:26622310

  13. Lessons learned from commercial experience with nuclear plant decontamination to safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Partain, W.L.; Sype, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has successfully performed decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) on many production reactors it. DOE now has the challenge of performing D&D on a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe-storage status before conducting D&D-for perhaps as much as 20 yr. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and transition to D&D. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this paper are directly applicable to transitioning the DOE Weapons Complex.

  14. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, Jerome; Anderson - Cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  15. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  16. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  17. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  18. Creating Food-Safe Schools: A How-to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A food-safe school takes the steps to minimize the risk of foodborne illness throughout the school's environment and has procedures in place to identify and manage outbreaks if they occur. This booklet introduces the Food-Safe Schools Action Guide, which helps schools identify gaps in food safety and develop an action plan for becoming food-safe.…

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... required by this subpart to be intrinsically safe must use approved components meeting UL 913 or IEC 60079-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically safe system must— (1) Be 50 mm (2 inches) or more from cable of non-intrinsically safe...

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required by this subpart to be intrinsically safe must use approved components meeting UL 913 or IEC 60079-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically safe system must— (1) Be 50 mm (2 inches) or more from cable of non-intrinsically safe...

  1. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks. Safe water marks indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. They are often used to...

  2. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks. Safe water marks indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. They are often used to...

  3. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks. Safe water marks indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. They are often used to...

  4. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.420 - Safe practices manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe practices manual. 1910.420 Section 1910.420 Labor... Safe practices manual. (a) General. The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practices manual... practices manual shall contain a copy of this standard and the employer's policies for implementing...

  6. 77 FR 31147 - National Safe Boating Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12877 Filed 5-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8825 of May 21, 2012 National Safe Boating Week, 2012 By the President of the.... During National Safe Boating Week, we renew our commitment to safe, responsible practices on our...

  7. 75 FR 29391 - National Safe Boating Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8524 of May 20, 2010 National Safe Boating Week, 2010 By the President of the... spend time on the water, let us recommit during National Safe Boating Week to practicing safe...

  8. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515.326 Section 515.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  9. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500.326 Section 500.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  10. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515.326 Section 515.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  11. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515.326 Section 515.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  12. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515.326 Section 515.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  13. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515.326 Section 515.326 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the...

  14. Working with Self-Injurious Adolescents Using the Safe Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a guide for using the Safe Kit when working with clients who self-injure. The Safe Kit can be used as a supplement to more traditional approaches to counseling and offers clients alternatives to self-injury when they need alternatives the most. The Safe Kit works under the assumption that individuals differ in the meaning they…

  15. Creating a safe and supportive treatment environment.

    PubMed

    Lacy, M

    1981-01-01

    The physical environment of a psychiatric facility can, by careful design, provide both a safe and supportive base for the treatment program. One requirement is an environment that is not monotonous; the lack of adequate stimuli leads to boredom, disorientation, and abnormal behavior. Visual stimuli are essential; they can come from changing patterns of light (preferably from the outdoors), variations in texture, colorful graphics, and variations in color value as well as in the colors themselves. Visual effects can also be used to improve the traditional long corridors, which foster alienation and disorientation, and to cause spaces to appear larger or smaller. Allowing patients some control over their environment, by encouraging them to hang personalized decorations, rearrange furniture, or participate in renovations, can relieve frustration and the sense of helplessness. PMID:7461618

  16. A practical guide to safe PICC placement.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Linda

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are a popular device for long-term vascular access. They were introduced into practice in the US in the 1970s, but only gained popularity in the UK during the 1990s (Gabriel, 1995). Many nurses now provide services for central venous access. To ensure patient safety, it is important that practitioners inserting these devices maintain up-to-date knowledge and ensure evidence-based practice. This should ultimately reduce complication and risk during insertion. The purpose of this article is to offer a guide to safe PICC insertion by providing an overview of anatomy and physiology and focusing on some of the main complications of PICC insertion and methods along with ways of reducing these.

  17. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used. PMID:11764886

  18. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  19. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  20. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  1. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  2. Safe new reactor for radionuclide production

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.L.

    1995-02-15

    In late 1995, DOE is schedule to announce a new tritium production unit. Near the end of the last NPR (New Production Reactors) program, work was directed towards eliminating risks in current designs and reducing effects of accidents. In the Heavy Water Reactor Program at Savannah River, the coolant was changed from heavy to light water. An alternative, passively safe concept uses a heavy-water-filled, zircaloy reactor calandria near the bottom of a swimming pool; the calandria is supported on a light-water-coolant inlet plenum and has upflow through assemblies in the calandria tubes. The reactor concept eliminates or reduces significantly most design basis and severe accidents that plague other deigns. The proven, current SRS tritium cycle remains intact; production within the US of medical isotopes such as Mo-99 would also be possible.

  3. Safe disposal of metal values in slag

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, P.T.; Zarur, G.L.

    1982-10-26

    The method of safely disposing of sludge containing metal values capable of displaying toxic ecological properties includes the steps of deriving from an organic or inorganic sludge an intermediate product such as a dewatered sludge or an incinerated ash, and adding this intermediate product to a metal smelting step of a type producing a slag such that most of the metal values become encapsulated in the slag. Some precious metal values may be recovered with the metal being smelted, and may be subsequently separated therefrom by appropriate metal winning steps. The sludge product brings to the smelting process certain additives needed therein such as silica and phosphates for the slag, alumina and magnesium to lower the viscosity of the molten slag, and organic matter serving as reducing agents.

  4. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    KENNY, A W

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste-reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry-and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

  5. New approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

    2002-01-01

    Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

  6. Spit tobacco: not a safe alternative.

    PubMed

    Straffon, D; McGowan, J M

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief spread by misleading advertisements, spit tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. An abundance of evidence indicates that these products are not only dangerous to health, but often lethal. In Michigan, a statewide educational campaign is now underway to alert the public to the facts about spit tobacco. The National Institute of Health recommends that dentists ask all patients, beginning at age 5, about their tobacco use. The use of nationally known celebrities seems a critically important ingredient in this anti-tobacco campaign, in order to offset the glamorous advertisements from the tobacco industry. Ultimately, however, it is steady, sure, ever-serious reminders by health professionals of the dangers of spit tobacco that will carry the most weight. Above all, it is the dentist who has this opportunity and this responsibility.

  7. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  8. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B. ); Block, C.S. ); Mills, C.H. )

    1995-01-30

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated.

  9. Improve filtration for optimum equipment reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction 20 years ago of the American Petroleum Institute Standard API-614 as a purchase specification for lubrication, shaft sealing and control oil systems, had a considerable impact and did much to improve system reliability at that time. Today, however, these recommendations regarding filter rating and flushing cleanliness are outdated. Much research in the tribology field correlates clearance size particulate contamination with accelerated component wear, fatigue and performance degradation. Some of these studies demonstrate that by decreasing the population of clearance size particulate in lubrication oils, component life increases exponentially. Knowing the dynamic clearances of a piece of machinery makes it possible, using the ISO 4406 Cleanliness Code, to determine what cleanliness level will minimize contamination-related component wear/fatigue and thus help optimize machinery performance and reliability. Data obtained by the author through random sampling of rotating equipment lube and seal oil systems indicate that the API-614 standard, as it pertains to filtration and flushing, is insufficient to ensure that particulate contamination is maintained to within the levels necessary to achieve optimum equipment reliability and safety, without increasing operating cost. Adopting and practicing the guidelines presented should result in the following benefits: (1) the frequency of bearing, oil pump, mechanical seal, fluid coupling, gearbox and hydraulic control valve failures would be minimized; (2) the mean time between planned maintenance (MTBPM) would be increased. The result will be a substantial increase in safety and cost savings to the operator.

  10. Flame Tests Performed Safely: A Safe and Effective Alternative to the Traditional Flame Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable…

  11. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  12. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  13. Reliability analysis of interdependent lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limiao, Zhang; Daqing, Li; Pengju, Qin; Bowen, Fu; Yinan, Jiang; Zio, Enrico; Rui, Kang

    2016-06-01

    Network reliability analysis has drawn much attention recently due to the risks of catastrophic damage in networked infrastructures. These infrastructures are dependent on each other as a result of various interactions. However, most of the reliability analyses of these interdependent networks do not consider spatial constraints, which are found important for robustness of infrastructures including power grid and transport systems. Here we study the reliability properties of interdependent lattices with different ranges of spatial constraints. Our study shows that interdependent lattices with strong spatial constraints are more resilient than interdependent Erdös-Rényi networks. There exists an intermediate range of spatial constraints, at which the interdependent lattices have minimal resilience.

  14. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmuson, D. M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems.

  15. (Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CRDO))

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J

    1987-04-21

    One of the primary goals of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is to be an international focal point for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) data. During FY-1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) with Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) regarding cooperative data exchange efforts. This agreement was CREDO's first step toward internationalization and represented an initial realization of the previously mentioned goal. DOE's interest in further internationalization of the CREDO system was the primary motivation for the traveler's attendance at the Reliability '87 conference.

  16. Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on.

    PubMed

    Kippax, Susan; Race, Kane

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the ways in which populations at risk of HIV in the developed world have enculturated the knowledges and technologies of both the medical and the social sciences. By revisiting a number of review papers and by reviewing findings from a range of studies, we argue that gay men have appropriated information that has enabled them to sustain safe practices while they have eschewed information that has made maintenance difficult. The paper describes a range of risk reduction strategies and compares the responses of populations at risk of HIV in the years before the advent of highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) with their responses after the introduction of HAART in 1996. We concentrate our argument on the changing responses to HIV risk of gay men, although occasionally illustrate our argument with reference to the responses of injecting drug users. The responses of gay men to risk post-HAART--particularly those who reside in Australia--speak to the adoption of a range of considered strategies, not altogether safe, to reduce harm. We argue that such strategies need to be understood and addressed within a 'new' social public health, that is, a public health that takes what social analysis has to say seriously. The paper examines the differences between the traditional, the 'modern' epidemiological/clinical and the 'new' social or socio-cultural public healths and describes the tensions between the medical and the social science disciplines in their efforts to inform public health. Key concepts provided by social science such as agency (including individual and collective agency), alongside its methodological reflexivity are key to effective public health. The risk avoidance strategies adopted by gay men suggest a way forward by turning our attention to the ways in which medicine is taken in(to) their practice.

  17. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  18. Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Caughey, Aaron B; Cahill, Alison G; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Rouse, Dwight J

    2014-03-01

    In 2011, 1 in 3 women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. Cesarean birth can be lifesaving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases. However, the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 through 2011 without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. Variation in the rates of nulliparous, term, singleton, vertex cesarean births also indicates that clinical practice patterns affect the number of cesarean births performed. The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include, in order of frequency, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate (formerly, nonreassuring) fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia. Safe reduction of the rate of primary cesarean deliveries will require different approaches for each of these, as well as other, indications. For example, it may be necessary to revisit the definition of labor dystocia because recent data show that contemporary labor progresses at a rate substantially slower than what was historically taught. Additionally, improved and standardized fetal heart rate interpretation and management may have an effect. Increasing women's access to nonmedical interventions during labor, such as continuous labor and delivery support, also has been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates. External cephalic version for breech presentation and a trial of labor for women with twin gestations when the first twin is in cephalic presentation are other of several examples of interventions that can contribute to the safe lowering of the primary cesarean delivery rate.

  19. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  20. Adoption of Sun Safe Work Place Practices by Local Governments

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D.; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Context Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer, the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Objective Local government managers in Colorado—in municipalities, counties and special districts—were surveyed in order to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. Design The survey consisted of 51 question assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was comprised or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. Results Over 40 percent of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. Conclusions The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting

  1. Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2012-02-01

    Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).

  2. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  3. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  4. Failure Analysis for Improved Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Outline: Section 1 - What is reliability and root cause? Section 2 - Overview of failure mechanisms. Section 3 - Failure analysis techniques (1. Non destructive analysis techniques, 2. Destructive Analysis, 3. Materials Characterization). Section 4 - Summary and Closure

  5. An experiment in software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a software reliability experiment conducted in a controlled laboratory setting are reported. The experiment was undertaken to gather data on software failures and is one in a series of experiments being pursued by the Fault Tolerant Systems Branch of NASA Langley Research Center to find a means of credibly performing reliability evaluations of flight control software. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of radar tracking software having ultra-reliability requirements and uses n-version programming for error detection, and repetitive run modeling for failure and fault rate estimation. The experiment results agree with those of Nagel and Skrivan in that the program error rates suggest an approximate log-linear pattern and the individual faults occurred with significantly different error rates. Additional analysis of the experimental data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults. This phenomenon may provide one explanation for software reliability decay.

  6. High-Reliability Health Care: Getting There from Here

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Mark R; Loeb, Jerod M

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite serious and widespread efforts to improve the quality of health care, many patients still suffer preventable harm every day. Hospitals find improvement difficult to sustain, and they suffer “project fatigue” because so many problems need attention. No hospitals or health systems have achieved consistent excellence throughout their institutions. High-reliability science is the study of organizations in industries like commercial aviation and nuclear power that operate under hazardous conditions while maintaining safety levels that are far better than those of health care. Adapting and applying the lessons of this science to health care offer the promise of enabling hospitals to reach levels of quality and safety that are comparable to those of the best high-reliability organizations. Methods We combined the Joint Commission's knowledge of health care organizations with knowledge from the published literature and from experts in high-reliability industries and leading safety scholars outside health care. We developed a conceptual and practical framework for assessing hospitals’ readiness for and progress toward high reliability. By iterative testing with hospital leaders, we refined the framework and, for each of its fourteen components, defined stages of maturity through which we believe hospitals must pass to reach high reliability. Findings We discovered that the ways that high-reliability organizations generate and maintain high levels of safety cannot be directly applied to today's hospitals. We defined a series of incremental changes that hospitals should undertake to progress toward high reliability. These changes involve the leadership's commitment to achieving zero patient harm, a fully functional culture of safety throughout the organization, and the widespread deployment of highly effective process improvement tools. Conclusions Hospitals can make substantial progress toward high reliability by undertaking several specific

  7. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  8. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  9. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  10. The application of multilayer elastic beam in MEMS safe and arming system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guozhong Shi, Gengchen; Sui, Li; Yi, Futing; Wang, Bo

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, a new approach for a multilayer elastic beam to provide a driving force and driving distance for a MEMS safe and arming system is presented. In particular this is applied where a monolayer elastic beam cannot provide adequate driving force and driving distance at the same time in limited space. Compared with thicker elastic beams, the bilayer elastic beam can provide twice the driving force of a monolayer beam to guarantee the MEMS safe and arming systems work reliably without decreasing the driving distance. In this paper, the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the multilayer elastic beam is presented. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the bilayer elastic provides 1.8–2 times the driving force of a monolayer, and a method that improves driving force without reducing the driving distance.

  11. Safe affordable fission engine (SAFE 30) module conductivity test thermal model correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Jose

    2001-02-01

    The SAFE 30 is a simple, robust space fission power system that is comprised of several independent modules. Each module contains 4 fuel tubes bonded to a central heatpipe. Fission energy is conducted from the fuel tubes to the heatpipe, which in turn transfers the energy to a power conversion system. This paper benchmarks a thermal model of the SAFE 30 with actual test data from simulated SAFE 30 module tests. Two ``dummy'' SAFE 30 modules were fabricated-each consisted of 4 1-inch dia. tubes (simulating the fuel tubes) bonded to a central 1'' dia. tube (simulating the heatpipe). In the first module the fuel tubes were simply brazed to the heatpipe along the line of contact (leaving void space in the interstices), and in the second module the tubes and heatpipe were brazed via tri-cusps that completely fill the interstices between the tubes. In these tests, fission energy is simulated by placing resistance heaters within each of the 4 fuel tubes. The tests were conducted in a vacuum chamber in 4 configurations: tri-cusps filled with and without an outer insulation wrap, and no tri-cusps with and without an outer insulation wrap. The baseline SAFE 30 configuration uses the brazed tri-cusps. During the tests, the power applied to the heaters was varied in a stepwise fashion, until a steady-state temperature profile was reached. These temperature levels varied between 773 K and 1073 K. To benchmark the thermal model, the input energy and chamber surface temperature were used as boundary conditions for the model. The analytical results from the nodes at the same location as the test thermocouples were plotted again test data to determinate the accuracy of the analysis. The unknown variables on the analysis are the radiation emissivity of the pipe and chamber and the radiation view factor between the module and the chamber. A correlation was determined using a parametric analysis by varying the surface emissivity and view factor until a good match was reached. This

  12. Irradiation: Making Produce Healthy and Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahed, Masooma

    2008-01-01

    One of the core competencies in the IFT education standards for students is to achieve competency in communications skills (that is, oral and written communication, listening, interviewing, and so on). According to the IFT guidelines, by the time students graduate, they should not only be able to search for and condense information but also be…

  13. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses were that even with large doses (i.e., >30 mg/kg), serum lidocaine concentrations would be below levels associated with mild toxicity and that the concentration-time profile would be lower after liposuction than without liposuction. METHODS: Volunteers participated in 1 to 2 infiltration studies without liposuction and then one study with tumescent liposuction totally by local anesthesia. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 hours after each tumescent lidocaine infiltration. Area under the curve (AUC∞) of the serum lidocaine concentration-time profiles and peak serum lidocaine concentrations (Cmax) were determined with and without liposuction. For any given milligram per kilogram dosage, the probability that Cmax >6 μg/mL, the threshold for mild lidocaine toxicity was estimated using tolerance interval analysis. RESULTS: In 41 tumescent infiltration procedures among 14 volunteer subjects, tumescent lidocaine dosages ranged from 19.2 to 52 mg/kg. Measured serum lidocaine concentrations were all <6 μg/mL over the 24-hour study period. AUC∞s with liposuction were significantly less than those without liposuction (P = 0.001). The estimated risk of lidocaine toxicity without liposuction at a dose of 28 mg/kg and with liposuction at a dose of 45 mg/kg was ≤1 per 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary estimates for maximum safe dosages of tumescent lidocaine are 28 mg/kg without liposuction and 45 mg/kg with liposuction. As a

  14. Impact of junction temperature on microelectronic device reliability and considerations for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Chen, Yuan; Cooper, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of an industry survey on junction temperature derating from key microelectronics suppliers, and offers recommendations to users for temperature derating for reliable operation over time. Background information on established derating factors, and reccommendations for safe operating junction temperatures for newer technologies are also presented.

  15. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  16. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    SciTech Connect

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  17. [Is undirected liver biopsy a safe procedure?].

    PubMed

    Oliva, L; Hirt, M

    1993-09-01

    In the authors' group of 976 umaimed liver biopsies (ULB) 10 complications were recorded. The authors described them and compared them with reports from the world literature. Two patients from the group died after ULB. One as a result of biopsy from haemoperitoneum, the other patient died with delirium tremens after surgery called for by persisting peritoneal syndrome. In eight patients mild complications were involved. In five patients complications receded spontaneously, in three after administration of an analgetic. From the submitted paper ensues that ULB is not quite safe, even when used by an experienced physician and when all contraindications are respected. A smooth course is not ensured by a risk-free diagnosis, previous uncomplicated biopsies normal prebioptic haemocoagulation tests. It is essential to realize this with regard to every patient where we indicate ULB. It is better to omit it unless we are unequivocally convinced of its asset. The question thus is: What will be the benefit of ULB for the patient?

  18. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  19. Safe patient handling for rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas R; Rockefeller, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Every day, thousands of physical therapists and rehabilitation nurses are required to perform physically demanding therapeutic patient handling tasks that are stressful to the caregiver and increase his or her risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). In rehabilitation, patient handling tasks might be classified as"traditional" or "therapeutic."Traditional tasks have a practical goal, such as transferring a patient from bed to a wheelchair, and therapeutic tasks have more targeted goals such as facilitating patient function and independence. Therapeutic patient handling tasks present a greater risk for caregivers to sustain work-related MSDs than typical patient handling tasks do because caregivers are exposed to high mechanical loads on the spinal tissues for longer amounts of time. The Veterans Health Administration, Association of Rehabilitation Nurses, and the American Physical Therapy Association endorse the use of modern patient handling technology as part of a comprehensive safe patient handling program for providing therapy in rehabilitation settings. Information about patient handling technology that is effective in reducing the risk of work-related MSDs from performing therapeutic patient handling and movement tasks is also presented and discussed in this article.

  20. Bifurcations and safe regions in open Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, R.; Blesa, F.; Serrano, S.

    2009-05-01

    By using different recent state-of-the-art numerical techniques, such as the OFLI2 chaos indicator and a systematic search of symmetric periodic orbits, we get an insight into the dynamics of open Hamiltonians. We have found that this kind of system has safe bounded regular regions inside the escape region that have significant size and that can be located with precision. Therefore, it is possible to find regions of nonzero measure with stable periodic or quasi-periodic orbits far from the last KAM tori and far from the escape energy. This finding has been possible after a careful combination of a precise 'skeleton' of periodic orbits and a 2D plate of the OFLI2 chaos indicator to locate saddle-node bifurcations and the regular regions near them. Besides, these two techniques permit one to classify the different kinds of orbits that appear in Hamiltonian systems with escapes and provide information about the bifurcations of the families of periodic orbits, obtaining special cases of bifurcations for the different symmetries of the systems. Moreover, the skeleton of periodic orbits also gives the organizing set of the escape basin's geometry. As a paradigmatic example, we study in detail the Hénon-Heiles Hamiltonian, and more briefly the Barbanis potential and a galactic Hamiltonian.