Science.gov

Sample records for achieving significant reductions

  1. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  2. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  3. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  4. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  5. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals. PMID:27584888

  6. Predicting Significant Reductions in Instructional Expenditures by School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Patrick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses survival analysis to investigate the symptoms of fiscal distress that can lead to significant reductions in instructional expenditures by independent public school districts in the United States. We hypothesize that the likelihood of significant reductions in instructional expenditures is positively correlated with revenue…

  7. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  8. Emotional Intelligence Skills: Significant Factors in Freshmen Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darwin B.; Nelson, Kaye W.

    This study investigated the role of emotional skills in the academic achievement and retention of university freshmen. The research group was a randomly selected sample of first semester freshmen students (N=165), and cumulative grade point average was used as the criterion for academic success. The study was designed to investigate: (a) the…

  9. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  10. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  11. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  12. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture. PMID:23071672

  13. Significant reduction of instability growth in magnetically driven liner implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kyle; Awe, Tom; Rosenthal, Steve; McBride, Ryan; Sinars, Daniel; Yu, Edmund; Robertson, Grafton; Cuneo, Mike; Savage, Mark; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Slutz, Steve; Blue, Brent; Schroen, Diana; Tomlinson, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on Sandia's Z facility have shown a significant reduction of instability growth in solid metallic rods driven with a ~20 MA, 100ns current pulse when thick, ~70 μm dielectric coatings were employed to mitigate nonlinear growth of the electrothermal instability. In this paper, we present new electrothermal mitigation experiments with MagLIF relevant aluminum (aspect ratio 9) and beryllium liners (aspect ratio 6). These experiments show a similar improvement in instability performance while imploding to much higher convergence ratios and undergoing much greater acceleration. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information from laboratory research conducted to characterize the size reduction of municipal solid waste (MSW). Results and data are presented on the relationships between refuse size distribution, particle size, grinding speed, moisture content, energy con...

  15. Similarity and Spacetime: Studies in Intertheoretic Reduction and Physical Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Samuel Craig

    This dissertation explores in particular a few ways in which similarity bears on general relativity, our best physical theory of space and time. The first way concerns the role of the concept of "physicality" in theorizing and using spacetime models, which manifests in at least two different ways. One is whether particular models are (or have properties that are) "physically unreasonable"---they are deemed to be pathological or otherwise artifactual, and so must excluded from the theory. Another is whether particular properties of those models are "physically significant"---warranted to be inferred about the properties of a physical system they represent. This distinction, which I draw in more detail in chapter 2, separates these two senses of physicality, the former modal-metaphysical and the latter inferential-epistemic. It is this latter that more intimately involves the notion of similarity, particular notions of which can be encoded through the use of topology. I argue then that there is no canonical topology on the models of general relativity. Rather, the choice of topology must be nontrivially dependent on the context of investigation. In chapter 3, I bring attention to another way in which similarity, as encoded in topology, can be put to substantive use, namely in better understanding the nature of the reductive relationship between general relativity and its predecessor, the Newtonian theory of space, time, and gravitation. In particular, I show how this relationship can be made both perfectly general---applying to any situation the theories describe---and explanatory of the Newtonian theory's success. Finally, in chapter 4, I explicate what I think are the deeper structural issues with certain examples due to Robert Geroch that are intended to show a certain topology commonly used in the physics literature in fact has several counterintuitive features. I show that there is in fact no topology that meets a strong version of Geroch's demands, but if those

  16. Vouchers, Class Size Reduction, and Student Achievement: Considering the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    Proponents of private school vouchers argue that vouchers empower poor families and raise the academic achievement of poor children. They also argue that vouchers may improve achievement by forcing the public schools to compete in an education marketplace in which poor parents hold the power of the purse. Juxtaposed against this issue of vouchers…

  17. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of shredder tests using raw municipal solid waste, air-classified light fraction, and screened light fraction. The tests simulated single- and multiple-stage size reduction, using a 10-ton per hour swing hammermill and a small, high-speed fixed hammer...

  18. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  19. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  20. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. PMID:24325238

  1. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  2. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  3. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  4. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  5. Significant enhancement of magnetoresistance with the reduction of particle size in nanometer scale.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalipada; Dasgupta, P; Poddar, A; Das, I

    2016-01-01

    The Physics of materials with large magnetoresistance (MR), defined as the percentage change of electrical resistance with the application of external magnetic field, has been an active field of research for quite some times. In addition to the fundamental interest, large MR has widespread application that includes the field of magnetic field sensor technology. New materials with large MR is interesting. However it is more appealing to vast scientific community if a method describe to achieve many fold enhancement of MR of already known materials. Our study on several manganite samples [La(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3 (x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55)] illustrates the method of significant enhancement of MR with the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. Our experimentally observed results are explained by considering model consisted of a charge ordered antiferromagnetic core and a shell having short range ferromagnetic correlation between the uncompensated surface spins in nanoscale regime. The ferromagnetic fractions obtained theoretically in the nanoparticles has been shown to be in the good agreement with the experimental results. The method of several orders of magnitude improvement of the magnetoresistive property will have enormous potential for magnetic field sensor technology. PMID:26837285

  6. Significant enhancement of magnetoresistance with the reduction of particle size in nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Das, I.

    2016-02-01

    The Physics of materials with large magnetoresistance (MR), defined as the percentage change of electrical resistance with the application of external magnetic field, has been an active field of research for quite some times. In addition to the fundamental interest, large MR has widespread application that includes the field of magnetic field sensor technology. New materials with large MR is interesting. However it is more appealing to vast scientific community if a method describe to achieve many fold enhancement of MR of already known materials. Our study on several manganite samples [La1-xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55)] illustrates the method of significant enhancement of MR with the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. Our experimentally observed results are explained by considering model consisted of a charge ordered antiferromagnetic core and a shell having short range ferromagnetic correlation between the uncompensated surface spins in nanoscale regime. The ferromagnetic fractions obtained theoretically in the nanoparticles has been shown to be in the good agreement with the experimental results. The method of several orders of magnitude improvement of the magnetoresistive property will have enormous potential for magnetic field sensor technology.

  7. Significant enhancement of magnetoresistance with the reduction of particle size in nanometer scale

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kalipada; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Das, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Physics of materials with large magnetoresistance (MR), defined as the percentage change of electrical resistance with the application of external magnetic field, has been an active field of research for quite some times. In addition to the fundamental interest, large MR has widespread application that includes the field of magnetic field sensor technology. New materials with large MR is interesting. However it is more appealing to vast scientific community if a method describe to achieve many fold enhancement of MR of already known materials. Our study on several manganite samples [La1−xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55)] illustrates the method of significant enhancement of MR with the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. Our experimentally observed results are explained by considering model consisted of a charge ordered antiferromagnetic core and a shell having short range ferromagnetic correlation between the uncompensated surface spins in nanoscale regime. The ferromagnetic fractions obtained theoretically in the nanoparticles has been shown to be in the good agreement with the experimental results. The method of several orders of magnitude improvement of the magnetoresistive property will have enormous potential for magnetic field sensor technology. PMID:26837285

  8. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  9. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. PMID:25201670

  10. 20 CFR 418.1215 - What is a significant reduction in your income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a significant reduction in your income? 418.1215 Section 418.1215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part B Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax...

  11. 20 CFR 418.1220 - What is not a significant reduction in your income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is not a significant reduction in your income? 418.1220 Section 418.1220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part B Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax...

  12. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  13. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  14. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  15. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  16. Significant thermal conductivity reduction of silicon nanowire forests through discrete surface doping of germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ying; Hong, Guo; Raja, Shyamprasad N.; Zimmermann, Severin; Poulikakos, Dimos; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2015-03-02

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising materials for the realization of highly-efficient and cost effective thermoelectric devices. Reduction of the thermal conductivity of such materials is a necessary and viable pathway to achieve sufficiently high thermoelectric efficiencies, which are inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. In this article, vertically aligned forests of SiNW and germanium (Ge)-doped SiNW with diameters around 100 nm have been fabricated, and their thermal conductivity has been measured. The results show that discrete surface doping of Ge on SiNW arrays can lead to 23% reduction in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to uncoated SiNWs. Such reduction can be further enhanced to 44% following a thermal annealing step. By analyzing the binding energy changes of Ge-3d and Si-2p using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that surface doped Ge interacts strongly with Si, enhancing phonon scattering at the Si-Ge interface as has also been shown in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics studies of single nanowires. Overall, our results suggest a viable pathway to improve the energy conversion efficiency of nanowire-forest thermoelectric nanomaterials.

  17. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  18. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  19. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  20. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32–42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0–0.9 V, 0.9–1.95 V, and 1.95–3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  1. What happens to the large eddies when net drag reduction is achieved by outer flow manipulators?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, R. E.; Rashidnia, N.

    1987-01-01

    The tandem-arranged parallel plate manipulator (TAPPM) presently used to generate a flow with net drag reduction is conditionally sampled and found to exhibit significant changes of the boundary layer's large-scale motions at 20 delta(0), where delta(0) is the boundary layer thickness at the upstream plate of the TAPPM. Flow fields in the 'valleys' are equally affected. Both turbulent and irrotational flows then reestablish themselves by 50 delta(0). Flow visualization indicates that the TAPPM wake is very coherent at 20 delta(0), and has not yet spread into the wall region, while large scale motions and the ambient response flow continue to exhibit dynamic changes. This indicates that the shielding effect of the TAPPM's wake prolongs suppression of large-scale motions, thereby reducing skin friction over a sufficiently long extent of the boundary layer to overcome device drag and yield net drag reductions.

  2. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  3. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  4. The significance of duration and amount of sodium reduction intervention in normotensive and hypertensive individuals: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Graudal, Niels; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche; McCarron, David A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to establish the time for achievement of maximal blood pressure (BP) efficacy of a sodium reduction (SR) intervention and the relation between the amount of SR and the BP response in individuals with hypertension and normal BP. Relevant studies were retrieved from a pool of 167 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2010 and integrated in meta-analyses. Fifteen relevant RCTs were included in the maximal efficacy analysis. After initiation of sodium reduction (range: 55-118 mmol/d), there were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between measurements at weeks 1 and 2 (∆SBP: -0.18 mmHg/∆DBP: 0.12 mmHg), weeks 1 and 4 (∆SBP: -0.50 mmHg/∆DBP: 0.35 mmHg), weeks 2 and 4 (∆SBP: -0.20 mmHg/∆DBP: -0.10 mmHg), weeks 2 and 6 (∆SBP: -0.50 mmHg/∆DBP: -0.42 mmHg), and weeks 4 and 6 (∆SBP: 0.39 mmHg/∆DBP: -0.22 mmHg). Eight relevant RCTs were included in the dose-response analysis, which showed that within the established usual range of sodium intake [<248 mmol/d (5700 mg/d)], there was no relation between the amount of SR (range: 136-188 mmol) and BP outcome in normotensive populations [∆SBP: 0.99 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.12, 4.10 mm Hg), [corrected] P = 0.53; ∆DBP: -0.49 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.0, 3.03), P = 0.79]. In contrast, prehypertensive and hypertensive populations showed a significant dose-response relation (range of sodium reduction: 77-140 mmol/d) [∆SBP: 6.87 mmHg (95% CI: 5.61, 8.12, P < 0.00001); ∆DBP: 3.61 mmHg (95% CI: 2.83, 4.39, P < 0.00001)]. Consequently, the importance of kinetic and dynamic properties of sodium reduction, as well as baseline BP, should probably be considered when establishing a policy of sodium reduction. PMID:25770255

  5. The negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, Jim

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses proposes that the shortage of nurses is global in scale and is expected to become much worse in the years ahead. A major factor impacting on the worldwide nursing shortage is the diminishing number of young people choosing nursing as a career (International Council of Nurses, 2008). One important dimension of the school pupils' career choice process is their interactions with significant others and the influence of these significant others (Hodkinson and Sparkes, 1997). As Schools/Departments of Nursing endeavour to attract more intellectual school leavers it is important to examine what advice and opinions are significant others giving regarding nursing as a career choice and how influential is this advice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving 5th and 6th year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger sample, who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. The data was particularly striking in revealing the negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career. The influence of significant others, these being specifically parents, guardians, guidance teachers and career advisors was very apparent in the data in that they had a very negative view regarding nursing as a career choice for high academic achieving school pupils. PMID:22464633

  6. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  7. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recon-struction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  8. 20 CFR 418.1265 - What kind of significant modified adjusted gross income reduction evidence will you need to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income reduction evidence will you need to support your request? 418.1265 Section 418.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part B Income-Related Monthly... What kind of significant modified adjusted gross income reduction evidence will you need to...

  9. ACHIEVEMENTS IN SOURCE REDUCTION AND RECYCLING FOR TEN INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report produces 20 short write-ups of examples of recent industry initiatives to implement source reduction and recycling. hese examples are taken from 10 different industries. ach write-up contains a description of the company, an overview of the source reduction/recycling ...

  10. Dropout Reduction through Employment Achievement and Motivation (Project DREAM). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Dropout Reduction through Employment, Achievement, and Motivation Program (Project DREAM), which served poor Spanish-speaking immigrant high school students. The program operated at South Bronx High School serving 444 mostly immigrant students of limited English proficiency. The program…

  11. Isotopic modelling of the significance of bacterial sulphate reduction for phenol attenuation in a contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Michael J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Thornton, Steven F.; Lerner, David N.

    2001-12-01

    A Triassic sandstone aquifer polluted with a mixture of phenolic hydrocarbons has been investigated by means of high-resolution groundwater sampling. Samples taken at depth intervals of 1 m have revealed the presence of a diving pollutant plume with a sharply defined upper margin. Concentrations of pollutant phenols exceed 4 g/l in the plume core, rendering it sterile but towards the diluted upper margin evidence for bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) has been obtained. Groundwaters have been analysed for both δ34S-SO 4 and δ18O-SO 4. Two reservoirs have been identified with distinct sulphate-oxygen isotope ratios. Groundwater sulphate ( δ18O-SO 4=3-5‰) outside the plume shows a simple linear mixing trend with an isotopically uniform pollutant sulphate reservoir ( δ18O-SO 4=10-12‰) across the plume margin. The sulphur isotope ratios do not always obey a simple mixing relation, however, at one multilevel borehole, enrichment in 34SO 4 at the plume margin is inversely correlated with sulphate concentration. This and the presence of 34S-depleted dissolved sulphide indicate that enrichment in 34SO 4 is the result of bacterial sulphate reduction. δ34S analysis of trace hydrogen sulphide within the plume yielded an isotope enrichment factor ( ɛ) of -9.4‰ for present-day bacterial sulphate reduction. This value agrees with a long-term estimate (-9.9‰) obtained from a Rayleigh model of the sulphate reduction process. The model was also used to obtain an estimate of the pre-reduction sulphate concentration profile with depth. The difference between this and the present-day profiles then gave a mass balance for sulphate consumption. The organic carbon mineralisation that would account for this sulphate loss is shown to represent only 0.1‰ of the phenol concentration in this region of the plume. Hence, the contribution of bacterial sulphate reduction to biodegradation has thus far been small. The highest total phenolic concentration (TPC) at which there is

  12. Shortened cecropin A-melittin hybrids. Significant size reduction retains potent antibiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Andreu, D; Ubach, J; Boman, A; Wåhlin, B; Wade, D; Merrifield, R B; Boman, H G

    1992-01-20

    We have earlier reported two 26-residue antibacterial peptides made up from different segments of cecropin A (CA) and melittin (M). We now report a substantial reduction in size at the C-terminal section of the highly active hybrid CA(1-8)M(1-18), leading to a series of 20-, 18- and 15-residue analogs with antibiotic properties similar to the larger molecule. In particular, the 15-residue hybrids CA(1-7)M(2-9), CA(1-7)M(4-11) and CA(1-7)M(5-12) are the shortest cecropin-based peptide antibiotics described so far, with antibacterial activity and spectra similar or better than cecropin A and a 60% reduction in size. Their reduced size and highly alpha-helical structure require an alternative mechanism for their interaction with bacterial membranes. PMID:1733777

  13. Early Significant Tumor Volume Reduction After Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma Results in Long-Term Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wook Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate survival of patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 46 patients were treated with radiosurgery, and the total number of lesions was 99. The mean age was 58.9 years (range, 33-78 years). Twenty-six patients (56.5%) had a single brain metastasis. The mean tumor volume was 3.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-35.1 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 20.8 Gy (range, 12-25 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. A patient was classified into the good-response group when the sum of the volume of the brain metastases decreased to less than 75% of the original volume at a 1-month follow-up evaluation using MRI. Results: As of December 28, 2010, 39 patients (84.8%) had died, and 7 (15.2%) survived. The overall median survival time was 10.0 {+-} 0.4 months (95% confidence interval, 9.1-10.8). After treatment, local tumor control was achieved in 72 (84.7%) of the 85 tumors assessed using MRI after radiosurgery. The good-response group survived significantly longer than the poor-response group (median survival times of 18.0 and 9.0 months, respectively; p = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, classification in the good-response group was the only independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.037; hazard ratio = 0.447; 95% confidence interval, 0.209-0.953). Conclusions: Radiosurgery seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastases from RCC. The early significant tumor volume reduction observed after radiosurgery seems to result in long-term survival in RCC patients with brain metastases.

  14. Intermetallics as Novel Supports for Pt Monolayer O2 Reduction Electrocatalysts: Potential for Significantly Improving Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, T.; Vukmirovic, M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-01-27

    We report on a new class of core-shell electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction. These electrocatalysts comprise a Pt monolayer shell and ordered intermetallic compounds cores and have enhanced activity and stability compared with conventional ones. These advantages are derived from combining the unique properties of Pt monolayer catalysts (high activity, low metal content) and of the intermetallic compounds (high stability and, possibly, low price). This method holds excellent potential for creating efficient fuel cell electrocatalysts.

  15. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  16. Role of fuel carbon intensity in achieving 2050 greenhouse gas reduction goals within the light-duty vehicle sector.

    PubMed

    Melaina, M; Webster, K

    2011-05-01

    Recent U.S. climate change policy developments include aggressive proposals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including cap-and-trade legislation with a goal of an 83% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050. This study examines behavioral and technological changes required to achieve this reduction within the light-duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Under this "fair share" sectoral assumption, aggressive near-term actions are necessary in three areas: vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel economy (FE), and fuel carbon intensity (FCI). Two generic scenarios demonstrate the important role of FCI in meeting the 2050 goal. The first scenario allows deep reductions in FCI to compensate for relatively modest FE improvements and VMT reductions. The second scenario assumes optimistic improvements in FE, relatively large reductions in VMT and less aggressive FCI reductions. Each generic scenario is expanded into three illustrative scenarios to explore the theoretical implications of meeting the 2050 goal by relying exclusively on biofuels and hybrid vehicles, biofuels and plug-in hybrid vehicles, or hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. These scenarios inform a discussion of resource limitations, technology development and deployment challenges, and policy goals required to meet the 2050 GHG goal for LDVs. PMID:21456550

  17. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    PubMed

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  18. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  19. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  20. Significant reduction in arc frequency biased solar cells: Observations, diagnostics, and mitigation technique(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G. M.; Marinelli, W. J.; Aifer, E.; Hastings, D.; Snyder, D.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell following proper remediation procedures. Experiments naturally lead to and focussed on the adhesive/encapsulant that is used to bond the protective cover slip to the solar cell. An image-intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera system recorded UV emission from arc events which occurred exclusively along the interfacial edge between the cover slip and the solar cell. Microscopic inspection of this interfacial region showed a bead of encapsulant along this entire edge. Elimination of this encapsulant bead reduced the arc frequency by two orders of magnitude. Water contamination was also identified as a key contributor which enhances arcing of the encapsulant bead along the solar cell edge. Spectrally resolved measurements of the observable UV light shows a feature assignable to OH(A-X) electronic emission, which is common for water contaminated discharges. Experiments in which the solar cell temperature was raised to 85 C showed a reduced arcing frequency, suggesting desorption of H2O. Exposing the solar cell to water vapor was shown to increase the arcing frequency. Clean dry gases such as O2, N2, and Ar show no enhancement of the arcing rate. Elimination of the exposed encapsulant eliminates any measurable sensitivity to H2O vapor.

  1. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  2. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  3. High resolution anoscopy may be useful in achieving reductions in anal cancer local disease failure rates.

    PubMed

    Goon, P; Morrison, V; Fearnhead, N; Davies, J; Wilson, C; Jephcott, C; Sterling, J; Crawford, R

    2015-05-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon, with an incidence rate of 0.5-1.0 per 100,000 of the population but incidence rates have been steadily increasing over the last 3 decades. Biological and epidemiological evidence have been mounting and demonstrate that anal cancer has many similarities to cervical cancer, especially in regard to its aetiology. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) of the anal region – analogous to colposcopy of the cervix, is a technique that is not well-known in the medical and surgical fraternity. Evidence to support the use of HRA for detection and treatment in the surveillance of AIN exists and strongly suggests that it is beneficial, resulting in reduced rates of cancer progression. Pilot data from our study showed a local disease failure rate of 1.73 per 1000 patient-months compared with a published rate of 9.89 per 1000 patient-months. This demonstrates a 5.72-fold reduction in local disease failure rates of patients with T1-T3 tumours; the data therefore suggests that use of HRA for detection and treatment in surveillance of anal cancer patients will help prevent local regional relapse at the anal site. There is an urgent need for a large, randomised controlled clinical trial to definitively test this hypothesis. PMID:24373061

  4. Significant speedup of database searches with HMMs by search space reduction with PSSM family models

    PubMed Central

    Beckstette, Michael; Homann, Robert; Giegerich, Robert; Kurtz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) are currently the most popular modeling concept for protein families. They provide sensitive family descriptors, and sequence database searching with pHMMs has become a standard task in today's genome annotation pipelines. On the downside, searching with pHMMs is computationally expensive. Results: We propose a new method for efficient protein family classification and for speeding up database searches with pHMMs as is necessary for large-scale analysis scenarios. We employ simpler models of protein families called position-specific scoring matrices family models (PSSM-FMs). For fast database search, we combine full-text indexing, efficient exact p-value computation of PSSM match scores and fast fragment chaining. The resulting method is well suited to prefilter the set of sequences to be searched for subsequent database searches with pHMMs. We achieved a classification performance only marginally inferior to hmmsearch, yet, results could be obtained in a fraction of runtime with a speedup of >64-fold. In experiments addressing the method's ability to prefilter the sequence space for subsequent database searches with pHMMs, our method reduces the number of sequences to be searched with hmmsearch to only 0.80% of all sequences. The filter is very fast and leads to a total speedup of factor 43 over the unfiltered search, while retaining >99.5% of the original results. In a lossless filter setup for hmmsearch on UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, we observed a speedup of factor 92. Availability: The presented algorithms are implemented in the program PoSSuMsearch2, available for download at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/possumsearch2/. Contact: beckstette@zbh.uni-hamburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19828575

  5. Evaluation of progress in achieving TMDL mandated nitrogen reductions in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lebo, Martin E; Paerl, Hans W; Peierls, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Management efforts to control excess algal growth in the Neuse River and Estuary, North Carolina began in the 1980s, with an initial focus on phosphorus (P) input reduction. However, continued water quality problems in the 1990s led to development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen (N) in 1999 to improve conditions in N-sensitive estuarine waters. Evaluation of the effectiveness of management actions implemented in the Neuse River basin is a challenging endeavor due to natural variations in N export associated with climate. A simplified approach is presented that allows evaluation of trends in flow-normalized nutrient loading to provide feedback on effectiveness of implemented actions to reduce N loading to estuarine waters. The approach is applied to five watershed locations, including the headwaters of the Neuse Estuary. Decreases in nitrate + nitrite (NO(3)-N) concentrations occurred throughout the basin and were largest just downstream of the Raleigh metropolitan area. Conversely, concentrations of total Kjeldahl N (TKN) increased at many stations, particularly under high flow conditions. This indicates a relative increase in organic N (Org-N) inputs since the mid-1990s. Overall, patterns in different N fractions at watershed stations indicate both partial success in reducing N inputs and ongoing challenges for N loading under high flow conditions. In downstream waters, NO(3)-N concentrations decreased concurrent with TMDL implementation in the upper portion of the estuary but not in the middle and lower reaches. The lack of progress in the middle and lower reaches of the estuary may, at least in part, be affected by remineralization of settled particle-bound N deposited under high river flows. PMID:22037617

  6. The mother as hunter: significant reduction in foraging costs through enhancements of predation in maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Craig Howard; Blair, Jamie C; Karp, Natalie E; Hester, Naomi W; McNamara, Ilan M; Orthmeyer, Angela L; McSweeney, Molly C; Bardi, Massimo M; Karelina, Kate; Christon, Lillian M; Sirkin, Maxwell R; Victoria, Lindsay W; Skurka, Danielle J; Fyfe, Christian R; Hudepohl, Margaret B; Felicio, Luciano F; Franssen, R Adam; Meyer, Elizabeth E A; da Silva, Ilton S; Lambert, Kelly G

    2014-09-01

    In previous laboratory investigations, we have identified enhanced cognition and reduced stress in parous rats, which are likely adaptations in mothers needing to efficiently exploit resources to maintain, protect and provision their immature offspring. Here, in a series of seven behavioral tests on rats, we examined a natural interface between cognition and resource gathering: predation. Experiment 1 compared predatory behavior (toward crickets) in age-matched nulliparous mothers (NULLs) and postpartum lactating mothers (LACTs), revealing a highly significant enhancement of predation in LACT females (mean = -65s in LACTs, vs. -270s in NULLs). Experiment 2 examined the possibility that LACTs, given their increased metabolic rate, were hungrier, and thus more motivated to hunt; doubling the length of time of food deprivation in NULLs did not decrease their predatory latencies. Experiments 3-5, which examined sensory regulation of the effect, indicated that olfaction (anosmia), audition (blockade with white noise), and somatosensation (trimming the vibrissae) appear to play little role in the behavioral enhancement observed in the LACTs; Experiment 6 examined the possibility that visual augmentations may facilitate the improvements in predation; testing LACTs in a 0-lux environment eliminated the behavioral advantage (increasing their latencies from -65s to -212s), which suggests that temporary augmentation to the visual system may be important, and with hormone-neural alterations therein a likely candidate for further study. In contrast, testing NULLS in the 0-lux environment had the opposite effect, reducing their latency to catch the cricket (from -270s to -200s). Finally, Experiment 7 examined the development of predatory behavior in Early-pregnant (PREG), Mid-PREG, and Late-PREG females. Here, we observed a significant enhancement of predation in Mid-PREG and Late-PREG females--at a time when maternity-associated bodily changes would be expected to diminish

  7. Medicaid Expansion Did Not Result In Significant Employment Changes Or Job Reductions In 2014.

    PubMed

    Gooptu, Angshuman; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali I; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Medicaid expansion undertaken through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is already producing major changes in insurance coverage and access to care, but its potential impacts on the labor market are also important policy considerations. Economic theory suggests that receipt of Medicaid might benefit workers who would no longer be tied to specific jobs to receive health insurance (known as job lock), giving them more flexibility in their choice of employment, or might encourage low-income workers to reduce their hours or stop working if they no longer need employment-based insurance. Evidence on labor changes after previous Medicaid expansions is mixed. To view the impact of the ACA on current labor market participation, we analyzed labor-market participation among adults with incomes below 138 percent of the federal poverty level, comparing Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states and Medicaid-eligible and -ineligible groups, for the pre-ACA period (2005-13) and the first fifteen months of the expansion (January 2014-March 2015). Medicaid expansion did not result in significant changes in employment, job switching, or full- versus part-time status. While we cannot exclude the possibility of small changes in these outcomes, our findings rule out the large change found in one influential pre-ACA study; furthermore, they suggest that the Medicaid expansion has had limited impact on labor-market outcomes thus far. PMID:26733708

  8. Sectionalizing interconnected transmission network to improve system performance and achieve fault current reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.

    1998-12-31

    An analysis was recently undertaken at Northern States Power Company (NSP) in an attempt to identify the advantages and disadvantages of sectionalizing Twin Cities metropolitan area transmission system. Five specific sectionalization schemes were developed to evaluate the transmission system performance associated with each scenario. These schemes were judged against the following performance characteristics: fault current level, severity of voltage depression during faults, NSP system losses, system through flow and contingency operation. Study results indicated that by careful application of the splitting scheme, sectionalization can provide significant performance improvements and still have economic feasibility. A comparison between sectionalization costs (increased system losses) and its benefits (improved performance) would help determine to what degree sectionalization is economically feasible and make the final decision. Of the five schemes tested, the contour that appeared the best in terms of reliability, performance and economics was chosen for implementation in NSP system during 1997 summer.

  9. Navajo Culture and Family Influences on Academic Success: Traditionalism Is Not a Significant Predictor of Achievement among Navajo Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willeto, Angela A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 451 Navajo youths attending 11 high schools in the Navajo Nation found no relationship between their academic achievement and their cultural attachments and practices. Families modestly influenced educational outcomes, but being female was a stronger predictor of academic success. An appendix describes study variables. (Contains 42…

  10. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  11. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  12. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  13. Measuring Academic Achievement of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: Building Understanding of Alternate Assessment Scoring Criteria. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thompson, Sandra; Thurlow, Martha

    This report compares the assumptions and values embedded in scoring criteria used in five states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oregon, and Vermont) for alternate assessments of students with significant cognitive disabilities. The five states use different alternate assessment approaches, including portfolio assessment, performance assessment,…

  14. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  15. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  16. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  17. Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, Kenneth A.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Roche, Martin W.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001). PMID:25210632

  18. Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2009-02-26

    Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

  19. Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

    1986-01-01

    Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

  20. A New Bioinspired Perchlorate Reduction Catalyst with Significantly Enhanced Stability via Rational Tuning of Rhenium Coordination Chemistry and Heterogeneous Reaction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyong; Han, Mengwei; Wu, Dimao; Chen, Xi; Choe, Jong Kwon; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid reduction of aqueous ClO4(-) to Cl(-) by H2 has been realized by a heterogeneous Re(hoz)2-Pd/C catalyst integrating Re(O)(hoz)2Cl complex (hoz = oxazolinyl-phenolato bidentate ligand) and Pd nanoparticles on carbon support, but ClOx(-) intermediates formed during reactions with concentrated ClO4(-) promote irreversible Re complex decomposition and catalyst deactivation. The original catalyst design mimics the microbial ClO4(-) reductase, which integrates Mo(MGD)2 complex (MGD = molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide) for oxygen atom transfer (OAT). Perchlorate-reducing microorganisms employ a separate enzyme, chlorite dismutase, to prevent accumulation of the destructive ClO2(-) intermediate. The structural intricacy of MGD ligand and the two-enzyme mechanism for microbial ClO4(-) reduction inspired us to improve catalyst stability by rationally tuning Re ligand structure and adding a ClOx(-) scavenger. Two new Re complexes, Re(O)(htz)2Cl and Re(O)(hoz)(htz)Cl (htz = thiazolinyl-phenolato bidentate ligand), significantly mitigate Re complex decomposition by slightly lowering the OAT activity when immobilized in Pd/C. Further stability enhancement is then obtained by switching the nanoparticles from Pd to Rh, which exhibits high reactivity with ClOx(-) intermediates and thus prevents their deactivating reaction with the Re complex. Compared to Re(hoz)2-Pd/C, the new Re(hoz)(htz)-Rh/C catalyst exhibits similar ClO4(-) reduction activity but superior stability, evidenced by a decrease of Re leaching from 37% to 0.25% and stability of surface Re speciation following the treatment of a concentrated "challenge" solution containing 1000 ppm of ClO4(-). This work demonstrates the pivotal roles of coordination chemistry control and tuning of individual catalyst components for achieving both high activity and stability in environmental catalyst applications. PMID:27182602

  1. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  2. Classification of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Significance Analysis of Microarray-Gene Set Reduction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Linlin; Du, Bochuan; Wang, Tianjiao; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adenocarcinoma (AC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are two major histology subtypes, accounting for roughly 40% and 30% of all lung cancer cases, respectively. Since AC and SCC differ in their cell of origin, location within the lung, and growth pattern, they are considered as distinct diseases. Gene expression signatures have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for distinguishing AC and SCC. Gene set analysis is regarded as irrelevant to the identification of gene expression signatures. Nevertheless, we found that one specific gene set analysis method, significance analysis of microarray-gene set reduction (SAMGSR), can be adopted directly to select relevant features and to construct gene expression signatures. In this study, we applied SAMGSR to a NSCLC gene expression dataset. When compared with several novel feature selection algorithms, for example, LASSO, SAMGSR has equivalent or better performance in terms of predictive ability and model parsimony. Therefore, SAMGSR is a feature selection algorithm, indeed. Additionally, we applied SAMGSR to AC and SCC subtypes separately to discriminate their respective stages, that is, stage II versus stage I. Few overlaps between these two resulting gene signatures illustrate that AC and SCC are technically distinct diseases. Therefore, stratified analyses on subtypes are recommended when diagnostic or prognostic signatures of these two NSCLC subtypes are constructed. PMID:27446945

  3. Impact of diabetes duration on achieved reductions in glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and body weight with liraglutide treatment for up to 28 weeks: a meta-analysis of seven phase III trials.

    PubMed

    Seufert, J; Bailey, T; Barkholt Christensen, S; Nauck, M A

    2016-07-01

    This meta-analysis of seven randomized, placebo-controlled studies (total 3222 patients) evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) duration affects the changes in blood glucose control and body weight that can be achieved with liraglutide and placebo. With liraglutide 1.2 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a significantly greater, but clinically non-relevant, difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.18% (1.96 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. With liraglutide 1.8 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a small but statistically significant trend for greater fasting plasma glucose (FPG) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.38 mmol/l reduction in FPG per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. Neither the liraglutide 1.8 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between HbA1c and diabetes duration and neither the liraglutide 1.2 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between FPG and diabetes duration. Likewise, neither liraglutide nor placebo showed a significant association between change in weight and diabetes duration. These results suggest diabetes duration has a clinically negligible effect on achievable blood glucose control and weight outcomes with liraglutide and placebo in patients with T2D. PMID:26679282

  4. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. VOLUME 3. EFFECTS OF MACHINE PARAMETERS ON SHREDDER PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hammermill shredders for size reduction of refuse were examined at three sites to determine the influence of key machine parameters on their performance. Internal machine configuration and single-versus two stage size reduction were studied. Key parameters that were investigated ...

  5. Teacher Layoffs, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: The Implementation and Consequences of a Discretionary Reduction-in-Force Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that "last hired, first fired" policies maximize the number of teachers subject to reductions in force by eliminating those teachers that are lowest on the pay scale first. Until now, advocates of effectiveness-based reduction-in-force (RIF) policies could only point to simulated policy exercises as evidence of the…

  6. The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES): Rationale for a Tailored Behavioral and Educational Pharmacist-Administered Intervention for Achieving Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zullig, Leah L.; Melnyk, S. Dee; Stechuchak, Karen M.; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are significant, but often preventable, contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medication and behavioral nonadherence are significant barriers to successful hypertension, hyperlidemia, and diabetes management. Our objective was to describe the theoretical framework underlying a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving CVD risk reduction. Materials and Methods: Adults with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia were enrolled from three outpatient primary care clinics associated with the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Durham, NC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a pharmacist-administered, tailored, 1-year telephone-based intervention or usual care. The goal of the study was to reduce the risk for CVD through a theory-driven intervention to increase medication adherence and improve health behaviors. Results: Enrollment began in November 2011 and is ongoing. The target sample size is 500 patients. Conclusions: The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES) intervention has been designed with a strong theoretical underpinning. The theoretical foundation and intervention are designed to encourage patients with multiple comorbidities and poorly controlled CVD risk factors to engage in home-based monitoring and tailored telephone-based interventions. Evidence suggests that clinical pharmacist-administered telephone-based interventions may be efficiently integrated into primary care for patients with poorly controlled CVD risk factors. PMID:24303930

  7. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  8. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prospective nonrandomized control study. The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time. A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P

  9. A 50% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 50) is a clinically significant endpoint in the assessment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Christopher S; Feldman, Steven R; Krueger, James G; Menter, Alan; Krueger, Gerald G

    2004-06-01

    A 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI 75) is the current benchmark of primary endpoints for most clinical trials of psoriasis. Many consider this endpoint to be too stringent as it places potentially useful therapies at risk of failing to demonstrate efficacy. We hypothesized that a 50% reduction in the PASI score (PASI 50) represents a meaningful change in a person's life and thus is a better primary endpoint. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed PASI scores, quality of life (QoL) data, and desired re-treatment scores from a number of clinical trials in addition to studying individual elements that make up the PASI. This analysis shows (1). the PASI score is not linearly reflective of psoriasis severity (eg, a reduction in area of 95% without a change in redness, scaliness, and induration translates to only a 66% reduction in PASI); conversely, a drop in erythema, scale, and induration from an average of 3 to 1 would not lead to a 75% reduction in PASI; (2). treatment with methotrexate, an effective psoriasis therapy, more frequently reaches PASI 50 than PASI 75 as evidenced by a recent open trial in which 63% of patients achieved PASI 50 versus 26% achieving PASI 75; (3). improvement in QoL exists at PASI 50, using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index, as documented in several recently completed large clinical trials; (4). patients achieving PASI 75 frequently defer therapy until they are well below PASI 50; a clinical trial where retreatment was patient initiated showed patients did not re-treat until their PASI dropped to an average of 20% improvement from baseline; and (5). effective, meaningful therapies are consistently differentiated from placebo at PASI 50 as evidenced by histologic and photographic parameters of clinical trials of alefacept, efalizumab, and etanercept. We conclude that PASI 50 equates to a clinically meaningful improvement in psoriasis and represents a discerning primary endpoint. PMID:15153885

  10. Dose reduction of up to 89% while maintaining image quality in cardiovascular CT achieved with prospective ECG gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londt, John H.; Shreter, Uri; Vass, Melissa; Hsieh, Jiang; Ge, Zhanyu; Adda, Olivier; Dowe, David A.; Sabllayrolles, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of dose and image quality performance evaluation of a novel, prospective ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography acquisition mode (SnapShot Pulse, LightSpeed VCT-XT scanner, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and compare it to conventional retrospective ECG gated helical acquisition in clinical and phantom studies. Image quality phantoms were used to measure noise, slice sensitivity profile, in-plane resolution, low contrast detectability and dose, using the two acquisition modes. Clinical image quality and diagnostic confidence were evaluated in a study of 31 patients scanned with the two acquisition modes. Radiation dose reduction in clinical practice was evaluated by tracking 120 consecutive patients scanned with the prospectively gated scan mode. In the phantom measurements, the prospectively gated mode resulted in equivalent or better image quality measures at dose reductions of up to 89% compared to non-ECG modulated conventional helical scans. In the clinical study, image quality was rated excellent by expert radiologist reviewing the cases, with pathology being identical using the two acquisition modes. The average dose to patients in the clinical practice study was 5.6 mSv, representing 50% reduction compared to a similar patient population scanned with the conventional helical mode.

  11. Biocatalytic reduction of racemic 2-arenoxycycloalkanones by yeasts P. glucozyma and C. glabrata: one way of achieving chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Cecilia; Peña, Miguel; Del Olmo, Marcel Lí

    2016-06-01

    Chiral β-aryloxy alcohols are interesting building blocks that form part of drugs like β adrenergic antagonists. Acquiring cyclic rigid analogs to obtain more selective drugs is interesting. Thus, we used whole cells of yeast strains Pichia glucozyma and Candida glabrata to catalyze the reduction of several 2-arenoxycycloalkanones to produce chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with good/excellent enantioselectivity. In both cases, the alcohol configuration that resulted from the carbonyl group reduction was S. Yeast P. glucozyma allowed the conversion of both enantiomers of the starting material to produce 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with configuration (1S, 2R) and (1S, 2S). The reaction with C. glabrata nearly always allowed the kinetic resolution of the starting ketone, recovering 2-arenoxycycloalkanone with configuration S and (1S, 2R)-2-arenoxycycloalcohol.All the four possible stereoisomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanol and the two enantiomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanone were obtained by combining the biocatalyzed reaction with the oxidation/reduction of the chiral compounds with standard reagents. This is a simple approach for the synthesis of the rigid chiral moiety 2-arenoxycycloalcohols contained in putative β-blockers 2-arenoxycycloalkanepropanolamines. PMID:26754816

  12. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions. PMID:24437434

  13. The Significance of Lewis Acid Sites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide on Vanadium-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marberger, Adrian; Ferri, Davide; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2016-09-19

    The long debated reaction mechanisms of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia (NH3 ) on vanadium-based catalysts rely on the involvement of Brønsted or Lewis acid sites. This issue has been clearly elucidated using a combination of transient perturbations of the catalyst environment with operando time-resolved spectroscopy to obtain unique molecular level insights. Nitric oxide reacts predominantly with NH3 coordinated to Lewis sites on vanadia on tungsta-titania (V2 O5 -WO3 -TiO2 ), while Brønsted sites are not involved in the catalytic cycle. The Lewis site is a mono-oxo vanadyl group that reduces only in the presence of both nitric oxide and NH3 . We were also able to verify the formation of the nitrosamide (NH2 NO) intermediate, which forms in tandem with vanadium reduction, and thus the entire mechanism of SCR. Our experimental approach, demonstrated in the specific case of SCR, promises to progress the understanding of chemical reactions of technological relevance. PMID:27553251

  14. Carbonization of self-assembled nanoporous hemin with a significantly enhanced activity for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Tang, Chizhou; Hao, Zhiqiang; Lv, Yang; Yang, Ruixia; Wei, Xuming; Deng, Weiqiao; Wang, Anjie; Yi, Baolian; Song, Yujiang

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity and high cost of Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) hinder the practical application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is critical to replace platinum with non-noble metal electrocatalysts (NNMEs). Carbonized metalloporphyrins represent an important class of NNMEs, but most metalloporphyrins are costly and the corresponding NNMEs do not possess a high ORR activity. Herein, we report that the self-assembly of inexpensive hemin leads to porous nanomaterials in water under ambient conditions and subsequent heat-treatment of the unprecedented nanoporous hemin results in a magnetic NNME with a much enhanced ORR activity compared with directly carbonized hemin without self-assembly. The improvement of the ORR activity likely originates from the exposure of more ORR active sites, caused by the surface area increase of the nanoporous hemin after carbonization over that of micro-scale pristine hemin crystals. Moreover, the ORR activity of heat-treated nanoporous hemin is actually comparable to that of commercial Pt/C in alkaline solution. Additionally, the carbonized nanoporous hemin is much better than commercial Pt/C in terms of durability and tolerance to methanol. This study opens up a new avenue to the production of inexpensive metalloporphyrin-based NNMEs with a high ORR performance by using a self-assembly method in combination with traditional pyrolysis. PMID:25406677

  15. A novel iron (Ⅱ) polyphthalocyanine catalyst assembled on graphene with significantly enhanced performance for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Li, Meng; Jiang, Liqing; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Dajun; He, Xingquan; Cui, Lili

    2014-12-01

    To realize the large-scale commercial application of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), the catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are the crucial obstacle. Here, an efficient non-noble-metal catalyst for ORR, denoted FePPc/PSS-Gr, has been obtained by anchoring p-phenyl-bis(3,4-dicyanophenyl) ether iron(Ⅱ) polyphthalocyanine (FePPc) on poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) modified graphene (PSS-Gr) through a solvothermally assisted π-π assembling approach. The Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal the π-π interaction between FePPc and PSS-Gr. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements show that the proposed catalyst possesses an excellent catalytic performance towards ORR comparable with the commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline medium, such as high onset potential (-0.08 V vs. SCE), half-wave potential (-0.19 V vs. SCE), better tolerance to methanol crossover, excellent stability (81.1%, retention after 10,000 s) and an efficient four-electron pathway. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance could be chiefly attributed to its large electrochemically accessible surface area, fast electron transfer rate of PSS-Gr, in particular, the synergistic effect between the FePPc moieties and the PSS-Gr sheets.

  16. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches. PMID:15759749

  17. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  18. Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Li, Liang; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2014-04-15

    Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs

  19. Culturally-sensitive weight loss program produces significant reduction in weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol in eight weeks.

    PubMed Central

    Ard, J. D.; Rosati, R.; Oddone, E. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Dietary and behavioral needs of special populations are rarely considered in traditional weight loss programs. This study assessed the impact of culturally-sensitive modifications to the Duke University Rice Diet weight loss program for African-American dieters. The study was a randomized modified cross-over study in which volunteers received either early or delayed weight loss intervention. Final outcomes were measured at 8 weeks. At the onset of the study, there were 56 African American participants, however, only 44 (79%) completed the study. The eight-week intervention was a modified 1000-calorie/day version of the Rice Diet. Modifications to the program included decreased cost, culturally-sensitive recipes, addressing attitudes about exercise, and including family members in weight loss efforts. Average weight loss for subjects completing the program was 14.8 pounds (SD = 6.8 pounds). BMI decreased from 37.8 kg/m2 to 35.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 199.2 mg/dL to 185.4 mg/dL (p < 0.01); systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. The control group showed no significant change in any outcome measures. We found that diet programs can be successfully tailored to incorporate the needs of African-Americans. Most importantly, these dietary program changes can lead to significant improvement in clinical parameters. Additional studies are necessary to determine the permanence of these short-term changes. PMID:11152083

  20. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in & cedil;earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  1. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in ¸ earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  2. Significant reduction in allergenicity of ovalbumin from chicken egg white following treatment with ascidian viscera N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Seong; Park, Heajin; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jai Yeon; Lee, Young Kwang; Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2016-06-17

    Ovalbumin (OA) is the most abundant ingredient of chicken egg-white allergenic proteins. In the present study we investigated the possibility of reducing OA allergenicity by treatment with a natural protein exhibiting N-acetylglucosaminidase (NA) activity. Ascidian is cultivated as a food resource in northeast Asia. The ascidian viscera NA (AVNA) with almost no other exoglycosidases or proteolytic enzymes was isolated by applying size-exclusion chromatography to a protein precipitate of ascidian viscera. Intact OA was mixed with AVNA containing 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 Units of NA. Anion-exchange chromatography was then used to isolate OA from AVNA-treated OA. The electrophoretic patterns and N-glycans of each isolated OA from AVNA-treated OA (iOA) were analyzed, and the terminal N-acetylglucosamines of iOA were selectively cleaved with no other degradation occurring. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using rabbit anti-OA sera was performed to investigate the allergenicity of iOA, which was found to be significantly reduced depending on the increased NA activity compared to that of intact OA. These results indicate that OA allergenicity was reduced using a simple and mild treatment process with AVNA, and suggest that ascidian NA is an efficient natural protein for reducing the allergenicity of OA without requiring the use of harsh physical treatments or chemical conjugation. PMID:27178210

  3. Significant reduction in spin pumping efficiency in a platinum/yttrium iron garnet bilayer at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, Ei; Ando, Yuichiro; Ohshima, Ryo; Dushenko, Sergey; Higuchi, Yukio; Shinjo, Teruya; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The temperature evolution of a direct-current electromotive force (EMF) generated by spin pumping and the inverse-spin Hall effect in a platinum (Pt)/yttrium iron garnet (YIG) bilayer was investigated down to 80 K. The magnitude of the EMF decreased significantly with decreasing temperature and disappeared at approximately 80 K. 40-nm-thick YIG films fabricated by a metal organic decomposition method exhibited single-peak ferrimagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra without any spin wave resonance, which allowed us to precisely analyze the FMR spectra. We determined that the temperature evolution of the Gilbert damping constant is the dominant factor in the temperature dependence of the EMF. The comparison of the FMR linewidth between the X- and Q-bands revealed that an increase in Gilbert damping constant at low temperatures is not due to the enhancement of the spin pumping efficiency but due to an additional spin relaxation in the YIG film itself, which reduces the precession angle of the magnetization under the FMR conditions.

  4. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  5. Wire Marking Results in a Small but Significant Reduction in Avian Mortality at Power Lines: A BACI Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Rafael; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Martín, Carlos A.; Martín, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control) power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV) and distribution (15 kV–45 kV) lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6%) but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only) or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only) on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. Conclusions Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species of conservation

  6. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  7. Significant reduction in energy for plant-growth lighting in space using targeted LED lighting and spectral manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, L.; Massa, G. D.; Morrow, R. C.; Bourget, C. M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems involving photoautotrophic organisms will be necessary to sustain long-duration crewed missions at distant space destinations. Since sufficient sunlight will not always be available for plant growth at many space destinations, efficient electric-lighting solutions are greatly needed. The present study demonstrated that targeted plant lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and optimizing spectral parameters for close-canopy overhead LED lighting allowed the model crop leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Waldmann's Green') to be grown using significantly less electrical energy than using traditional electric-lighting sources. Lettuce stands were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber controlling temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 level. Several red:blue ratios were tested for growth rate during the lag phase of lettuce growth. In addition, start of the exponential growth phase was evaluated. Following establishment of a 95% red + 5% blue spectral balance giving the best growth response, the energy efficiency of a targeted lighting system was compared with that of two total coverage (untargeted) LED lighting systems throughout a crop-production cycle, one using the same proportion of red and blue LEDs and the other using white LEDs. At the end of each cropping cycle, whole-plant fresh and dry mass and leaf area were measured and correlated with the amount of electrical energy (kWh) consumed for crop lighting. Lettuce crops grown with targeted red + blue LED lighting used 50% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated, and the total coverage white LEDs used 32% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated than did the total coverage red + blue LEDs. An energy-conversion efficiency of less than 1 kWh/g dry biomass is possible using targeted close-canopy LED lighting with spectral optimization. This project was supported by NASA grant NNX09AL99G.

  8. Moderate Weight Reduction in an Outpatient Obesity Intervention Program Significantly Reduces Insulin Resistance and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grulich-Henn, J.; Lichtenstein, S.; Hörster, F.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Nawroth, P. P.; Hamann, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Metabolic risk factors like insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are frequently observed in severly obese children. We investigated the hypothesis that moderate weight reduction by a low-threshold intervention is already able to reduce insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children. Methods. A group of 58 severely obese children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years participating in a six-month-long outpatient program was studied before and after treatment. The program included behavioral treatment, dietary education and specific physical training. Metabolic parameters were measured in the fasting state, insulin resistance was evaluated in an oral glucose tolerance test. Results. Mean standard deviation score of the body mass index (SDS-BMI) in the study group dropped significantly from +2.5 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 0.6 (P < 0.0001) after participation in the program. A significant decrease was observed in HOMA (6.3 ± 4.2 versus 4.9 ± 2.4, P < 0.03, and in peak insulin levels (232.7 ± 132.4 versus 179.2 ± 73.3 μU/mL, P < 0.006). Significant reductions were also observed in mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that already moderate weight reduction is able to decrease insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:21904547

  9. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  10. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  11. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  12. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  13. An examination of factors contributing to a reduction in subgroup differences on a constructed-response paper-and-pencil test of scholastic achievement.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Bryan D; Arthur, Winfred

    2007-05-01

    The authors investigated subgroup differences on a multiple-choice and constructed-response test of scholastic achievement in a sample of 197 African American and 258 White test takers. Although both groups had lower mean scores on the constructed-response test, the results showed a 39% reduction in subgroup differences compared with the multiple-choice test. The results demonstrate that the lower subgroup differences were explained by more favorable test perceptions for African Americans on the constructed-response test. In addition, the two test formats displayed comparable levels of criterion-related validity. The results suggest that the constructed-response test format may be a viable alternative to the traditional multiple-choice test format in efforts to simultaneously use valid predictors of performance and minimize subgroup differences in high-stakes testing. PMID:17484558

  14. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades — A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973–1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years); 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years) to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis. PMID:26068417

  15. A combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering for noise reduction when using region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy for patient dose reduction in image guided vascular interventions with significant anatomical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bioprosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  16. A Combination of Spatial and Recursive Temporal Filtering for Noise Reduction when Using Region of Interest (ROI) Fluoroscopy for Patient Dose Reduction in Image Guided Vascular Interventions with Significant Anatomical Motion

    PubMed Central

    Nagesh, S.V. Setlur; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bio-prosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions. PMID:26900203

  17. Adding multiple micronutrient powders to a homestead food production programme yields marginally significant benefit on anaemia reduction among young children in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Osei, Akoto K; Pandey, Pooja; Spiro, David; Adhikari, Debendra; Haselow, Nancy; De Morais, Caroline; Davis, Dale

    2015-12-01

    Anaemia affects 46% of preschool-aged children in Nepal. A cluster-randomised study was conducted in rural Nepal to test whether providing micronutrient powders (MNP) in addition to enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) programme, consisting of home gardens, poultry and nutrition education, could lead to a higher reduction in anaemia compared with providing only EHFP. This sub-study enrolled 335 children aged 6-9 months into one of three groups: (1) EHFP + MNP; (2) EHFP; or (3) control. The EHFP + MNP group received 60 sachets of MNP for flexible consumption at the start and 6 months later for a total supplementation period of 11 months. The MNP contained 15 micronutrients including iron (10 mg encapsulated ferrous fumarate). Haemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post-MNP supplementation. Mean ± SE haemoglobin concentration increased significantly in all groups, with a slightly higher but non-significant increase in the EHFP + MNP and EHFP compared with control (difference-in-differences: 4.1 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. control; 3.6 g L(-1) for EHFP vs. control; 0.5 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. EHFP). Anaemia decreased at a slightly higher magnitude in the EHFP + MNP [51.5 percentage points (PP)] than the EHFP (48.6 PP) and control (39.6 PP), with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) at post-supplementation of 0.52 (0.25-1.12) for EHFP + MNP and 0.69 (0.35-1.36) for EHFP, compared with control. There was no impact on child growth. Combining EHFP and MNP programmes yielded a marginally significant reduction in anaemia among children. PMID:25682798

  18. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was < 6.8%. At a distance of 10 cm from the unshielded capsule the HP(0.07) was 46.18 μSv/(GBq•s), and on the surface of the lead container containing the [131I]-capsule the HP(0.07) was 2.99 and 0.27 μSv/(GBq•s) for the two used container sizes. The calculated reduction of the effective dose by using the shielded measuring method was, depending on the used container size, 74.0% and 97.4%, compared to the measurement of the unshielded [131I]-capsule using a dose calibrator. The measured reduction of the effective radiation dose in the practice was 56.6% and 94.9 for size I and size II containers. The shielded [131I]-capsule measurement reduces the radiation exposure to the

  19. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  20. DsRNA-mediated targeting of ribosomal transcripts RPS6 and RPL26 induces long-lasting and significant reductions in fecundity of the vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Estep, A S; Sanscrainte, N D; Becnel, J J

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal transcripts produce critical proteins that are involved in most cellular production processes. Targeting ribosomal transcripts has produced mortality in mites and ticks but the effect of ribosomal transcript knockdown has not been thoroughly examined in mosquitoes. We examine the effects of triggers targeting four ribosomal proteins (RP) transcripts. Although no significant mortality was observed after dsRNA microinjection and subsequent blood feeding, significant contrasts were observed on fecundity. Triggers targeting RPS6 and RPL26 effectively reduced gene expression but more importantly, reduced reproductive output by more than 96% and 91% at the first oviposition while triggers targeting RPL1 and RPS2 did not cause a reduction although gene expression was reduced. Significantly reduced fecundity continued through a second oviposition cycle in dsRPS6 and dsRPL26 cohorts, although the effect was not as strong. Relative gene expression levels confirmed specific transcript knockdown up to 20days post-injection in mosquitoes that did not oviposit or produced reduced clutch sizes. Dissections at 36h post-blood meal indicated defects in oocyte provisioning. The strong phenotype produced by dsRPS6 allowed us to examine the effects in various tissues as well as the dose response, trigger format, delivery method and trigger specificity in Aedes aegypti. Strong knockdown was observed in the abdomen and the ovaries. Greater than 50ng of dsRPS6 significantly reduced fecundity but not when delivered in a sugar meal or as an siRNA. Similar bioassays with mutated dsRPS6 triggers indicates that up to three mismatches per possible siRNA are still effective in reducing fecundity. These studies indicate that while active and effective triggers can be developed for vector species, the lack of an efficient delivery method is the biggest barrier to use as a potential control method. PMID:27180677

  1. The Effect of Significant Tumor Reduction on the Dose Distribution in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head-And-Neck Cancer: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mechalakos, James Lee, Nancy; Hunt, Margie; Ling, C. Clifton; Amols, Howard I.

    2009-10-01

    We present a unique case in which a patient with significant tissue loss was monitored for dosimetric changes using weekly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. A previously treated nasopharynx patient presented with a large, exophytic, recurrent left neck mass. The patient underwent re-irradiation to 70 Gy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with shielding blocks over the spinal cord and brain stem. Weekly CBCT scans were acquired during treatment. Target contours and treatment fields were then transferred from the original treatment planning computed tomography (CT) to the CBCT scans and dose calculations were performed on all CBCT scans and compared to the planning doses. In addition, a 'research' treatment plan was created that assumed the patient had not been previously treated, and the above analysis was repeated. Finally, to remove the effects of setup error, the outer contours of 2 CBCT scans with significant tumor reductions were transferred to the planning scan and dose in the planning scan was recalculated. Planning treatment volume (PTV) decreased 45% during treatment. Spinal cord D05 differed from the planned value by 3.5 {+-} 9.8% (average + standard deviation). Mean dose to the oral cavity and D05 of the mandible differed from the planned value by 0.9 {+-} 2.1% and 0.6 {+-} 1.5%, respectively. Results for the research plan were comparable. Target coverage did not change appreciably (-0.2 {+-} 2.5%). When the planning scan was recalculated with the reduced outer contour from the CBCT, spinal cord D05 decreased slightly due to the reduction in scattered dose. Weekly imaging provided us the unique opportunity to use different methods to examine the dosimetric effects of an unusually large loss of tissue. We did not see that tissue loss alone resulted in a significant effect on the dose delivered to the spinal cord for this case, as most fluctuation was due to setup error. In the IGRT era, delivered dose distributions can be more

  2. Significant reduction in toxicity, BOD, and COD of textile dyes and textile industry effluent by a novel bacterium Pseudomonas sp. LBC1.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kim, Seon-Won; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-03-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical characteristics were confirmed that the isolated bacterium is Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. The commonly used textile dye, Direct Brown MR has been used to study the fate of biodegradation. Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 showed 90% decolorization of Direct Brown MR (100 mg/L) and textile industry effluent with significant reduction in COD and BOD. The optimum condition for decolorization was 7.0 pH and 40°C. Significant increase in a activity of extracellular laccase suggested their possible involvement in decolorization of Direct Brown MR. Biodegradation metabolites viz. 3,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-7-aminonaphthol-3-sulfonic acid, and p-dihydroperoxybenzene were identified on the basis of mass spectra and using the 1.10 beta Shimadzu NIST GC-MS library. The Direct Brown MR and textile industry effluent were toxic to Sorghum bicolor and Vigna radiata plants as compared to metabolites obtained after decolorization. The Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 could be useful strain for decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes as well as textile industry effluent. PMID:22354382

  3. The Significance of Harm Reduction as a Social and Health Care Intervention for Injecting Drug Users: An Exploratory Study of a Needle Exchange Program in Fresno, California.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kris; Harris, Debra; Zweifler, John A; Lasher, Marc; Mortimer, Roger B; Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community. This article presents an exploratory small-scale quantitative study of the injection drug using habits of a group of injection drug users (IDUs) at a needle exchange program in Fresno, California. Respondents reported significant decreases in high risk IDU behaviors, including sharing of needles and to a lesser extent re-using of needles. They also reported frequent use of clean paraphernalia. Greater collaboration between social and health outreach professionals at NEPs could provide important frontline assistance to people excluded from mainstream office-based services and enhance efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS or HCV infection. PMID:27167664

  4. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1.5T and 3T MRI by the Use of a Cochlear Implant with Removable Magnet: An Experimental Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franca; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Leidolt, Lars; Vischer, Mattheus; Weder, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Caversaccio, Marco D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implants (CIs) are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans after CI with a removable magnet. Methods Three criteria (diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts) were assessed at 1.5T and 3T in five cadaver heads with CI. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. Results MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.5T and 3T. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. Conclusions The results indicate the possible advantages for 1.5T and 3T MR scanning of the brain in CI carriers with removable magnets. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies. PMID:26200775

  5. Significant reduction in bacterial shedding and improvement in milk production in dairy farms after the use of a new inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in a field trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Paratuberculosis vaccination has been in use in some regions for many decades, but results have not been widely spread. A new Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) killed vaccine was studied in relationship with its effects on fecal shedding and milk production in four farms while other two were kept as controls submitted to a test and cull scheme. Findings Fecal detection (n = 1829) and milking records (n = 2413) have been analyzed after two (5 herds) and four (1 herd) years of the beginning of the intervention. Shedder prevalence was reduced by 100% in three of the four vaccinated farms, 68% in the total of vaccinated animals and 46% in the two control farms. Total amount of MAP shed was reduced 77% in the vaccinated farms and 94% in the control farms. Overall milk production increased up to 3.9% after vaccination, while there was no significant difference in production after intervention in the non-vaccinated farms. Conclusion MAP shedding reduction can be quickly accomplished both by vaccination and by testing and culling. However, vaccination appears to be a less expensive and more sustainable strategy since it required one single intervention and was also associated with an increase in milk production. PMID:19930604

  6. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. PMID:27101757

  7. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

  9. Selenate reduction to elemental selenium by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and culture: biogeochemical significance of a novel, sulfate-independent respiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial water profiles of SeO42−, SeO32−, SO42−, and Cl− in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42− occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3−, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42− or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.

  10. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The

  11. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  12. A Class Size Reduction (CSR) Implementation Plan Based on an Evaluative Study of CSRs for the Improvement of Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandyke, Barbara Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    For too long, educators have been left to their own devices when implementing educational policies, initiatives, strategies, and interventions, and they have longed to see the full benefits of these programs, especially in reading achievement. However, instead of determining whether a policy/initiative is working, educators have been asked to…

  13. Significant Promotion Effect of Mo Additive on a Novel Ce-Zr Mixed Oxide Catalyst for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO(x) with NH3.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shipeng; Liu, Fudong; Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Kuo; Lian, Zhihua; Xie, Lijuan; He, Hong

    2015-05-13

    A novel Mo-promoted Ce-Zr mixed oxide catalyst prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method was used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) with NH3. The optimal catalyst showed high NH3-SCR activity, SO2/H2O durability, and thermal stability under test conditions. The addition of Mo inhibited growth of the CeO2 particle size, improved the redox ability, and increased the amount of surface acidity, especially the Lewis acidity, all of which were favorable for the excellent NH3-SCR performance. It is believed that the catalyst is promising for the removal of NO(x) from diesel engine exhaust. PMID:25894854

  14. Significant reduction in NiO band gap upon formation of Lix Ni1-x O alloys: applications to solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term sustainable solar energy conversion relies on identifying economical and versatile semiconductor materials with appropriate band structures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications (e.g., band gaps of ∼ 1.5-2.0 eV). Nickel oxide (NiO) is an inexpensive yet highly promising candidate. Its charge-transfer character may lead to longer carrier lifetimes needed for higher efficiencies, and its conduction band edge is suitable for driving hydrogen evolution via water-splitting. However, NiO's large band gap (∼ 4 eV) severely limits its use in practical applications. Our first-principles quantum mechanics calculations show band gaps dramatically decrease to ∼ 2.0 eV when NiO is alloyed with Li2O. We show that Lix Ni1-x O alloys (with x=0.125 and 0.25) are p-type semiconductors, contain states with no impurity levels in the gap and maintain NiO's desirable charge-transfer character. Lastly, we show that the alloys have potential for photoelectrochemical applications, with band edges well-placed for photocatalytic hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, as well as in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells as a photocathode. PMID:24265209

  15. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  16. Environmental significance of the potential for mer(Tn21)-mediated reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 in natural waters.

    PubMed Central

    Barkay, T; Liebert, C; Gillman, M

    1989-01-01

    The role of mer(Tn21) in the adaptation of aquatic microbial communities to Hg2+ was investigated. Elemental mercury was the sole product of Hg2+ volatilization by freshwater and saline water microbial communities. Bacterial activity was responsible for biotransformation because most microeucaryotes did not survive the exposure conditions, and removal of larger microbes (greater than 1 micromole) from adapted communities did not significantly (P greater than 0.01) reduce Hg2+ volatilization rates. DNA sequences homologous to mer(Tn21) were found in 50% of Hg2+-resistant bacterial strains representing two freshwater communities, but in only 12% of strains representing two saline communities (the difference was highly significant; P less than 0.001). Thus, mer(Tn21) played a significant role in Hg2+ resistance among strains isolated from fresh waters, in which microbial activity had a limited role in Hg2+ volatilization. In saline water environments in which microbially mediated volatilization was the major mechanism of Hg2+ loss, other bacterial genes coded for this biotransformation. PMID:2547336

  17. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  18. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences. PMID:25357269

  19. Very low amount of TiO2 on N-doped carbon nanotubes significantly improves oxygen reduction activity and stability of supported Pt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Anqi; Masa, Justus; Xia, Wei

    2015-04-28

    Electrochemical corrosion is a major problem for carbon materials used in electrocatalysis. Highly dispersed TiO2 was deposited on O-functionalized and N-doped carbon nanotubes by chemical vapour deposition to tackle the carbon corrosion problem. Very low Ti loadings of about 1 wt% were applied to minimize the negative influence of TiO2 as a semiconductor on the high conductivity of carbon materials. Both N doping and TiO2 coating facilitate strong metal-support interactions and favour the formation of small Pt particles. N doping improved the intrinsic catalytic activity of the carbon support and enhanced the conductivity due to the removal of surface oxygen groups, while the negative effect of TiO2 on conductivity is counterbalanced by its promoting effect on metal-support interactions leading to enhanced overall catalytic performance. Pt/TiO2/NCNTs showed the highest ORR activity, and significantly outperformed Pt/NCNTs in electrochemical stability tests. PMID:25811122

  20. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  1. Determination of the structure of {gamma}-alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    SciTech Connect

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Gale, Julian D.; Buckley, Craig E.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This suggests that cations of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other

  2. Determination of the structure of γ -alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Buckley, Craig E.; Gale, Julian D.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of γ-Al2O3 , beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . This suggests that cations of γ-Al2O3 are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of γ-Al2O3 does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of γ-Al2O3 than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other tetrahedral site positions during optimization which were found not to affect the diffraction

  3. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  4. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  5. CNX-012-570, a direct AMPK activator provides strong glycemic and lipid control along with significant reduction in body weight; studies from both diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the coordination of anabolic and catabolic processes and is an attractive therapeutic target for T2DM, obesity and metabolic syndrome. We report the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of CNX-012-570 is an orally bioavailable small molecule (molecular weight of 530 Daltons) that directly activates AMPK in DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. Methods Activity and efficacy of the compound was tested in cell based as well as cell free systems in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) were assigned to either vehicle or CNX-012-570 (3 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 8 weeks (n = 8). Genetically diabetic db/db mice on chow diet were dosed with vehicle control or CNX-012-570 (2.5 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 6 weeks (n = 8). Results CNX-012-570 is a highly potent and orally bioavailable compound activating AMPK in both cell and cell free systems. It inhibits lipolysis (33%) and gluconeogenesis (28%) in 3T3L1 cells and rat primary hepatocytes respectively. The efficacy of the molecule was translated to both DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. CNX-012-570 has reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 14%, body weight by 24% and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) by 24%. CNX-012-570 showed a 22% reduction in fed serum cholesterol levels and 19% increase in HDL levels. In db/db mice model, CNX-012-570 has shown 18% decrease in fed glucose and 32% decrease in fasting glucose with a 2.57% reduction in absolute HbA1c. Decrease in serum insulin and glucose AUC indicates the increased insulin sensitivity. Body weight was reduced by 13% with increased browning of adipose tissue and decreased inguinal and mesenteric fat mass. There was significant reduction in liver TG and liver total cholesterol. Conclusions CNX-012-570 has the potential to control hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also reduces body weight gain with an additional benefit of minimizing cardiovascular risks in

  6. Significant reduction of left atrial volume concomitant with clinical improvement after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and its precise detection with multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Yuichiro; Akita, Keitaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Yamada, Yoshitake; Hayashida, Kentaro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Murata, Mitsushige; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), left atrial (LA) volume measurement is very important to provide prognostic information. Recent studies demonstrated that multidetector CT (MDCT) is useful to assess the changes in LA volume. Our aim was to examine the utility of a follow-up cardiac MDCT for long-term evaluation of the effect of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on LA volume. Methods We studied a consecutive cohort of 20 patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM after PTSMA. We evaluated LA volume analyses with cardiac MDCT on patients who underwent PTSMA as compared to echocardiography. Results Before PTSMA, 75% of all patients had heart failure-associated symptoms in the New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. All patients experienced relief from heart failure-associated symptoms after PTSMA. Cardiac MDCT showed significant reduction in the index of maximum LA volume during follow-up compared to before PTSMA in the same way as in echocardiography (93.6±34.1 mL/m2 vs 82.6±35.3 mL/m2, p=0.035). A Bland-Altman plot showed small mean differences and limits of agreement in the measurements of the index of maximum LA volume before and after PTSMA between echocardiography and MDCT. Conclusions The follow-up cardiac MDCT was a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of PTSMA on reduction of LA volume. Cardiac MDCT might provide comparable measurements of the LA volume in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM before and after PTSMA compared to echocardiography. PMID:27307994

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction.

    PubMed

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter; Atkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  9. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  10. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  11. Significant Reduction of Late Toxicities in Patients With Extremity Sarcoma Treated With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy to a Reduced Target Volume: Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0630 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dian; Zhang, Qiang; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Kane, John M.; Li, X. Allen; Lucas, David; Petersen, Ivy A.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Freeman, Carolyn R.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Bedi, Manpreet; Singh, Anurag K.; Dundas, George; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed a multi-institutional prospective phase II trial to assess late toxicities in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treated with preoperative image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to a reduced target volume. Patients and Methods Patients with extremity STS received IGRT with (cohort A) or without (cohort B) chemotherapy followed by limb-sparing resection. Daily pretreatment images were coregistered with digitally reconstructed radiographs so that the patient position could be adjusted before each treatment. All patients received IGRT to reduced tumor volumes according to strict protocol guidelines. Late toxicities were assessed at 2 years. Results In all, 98 patients were accrued (cohort A, 12; cohort B, 86). Cohort A was closed prematurely because of poor accrual and is not reported. Seventy-nine eligible patients from cohort B form the basis of this report. At a median follow-up of 3.6 years, five patients did not have surgery because of disease progression. There were five local treatment failures, all of which were in field. Of the 57 patients assessed for late toxicities at 2 years, 10.5% experienced at least one grade ≥ 2 toxicity as compared with 37% of patients in the National Cancer Institute of Canada SR2 (CAN-NCIC-SR2: Phase III Randomized Study of Pre- vs Postoperative Radiotherapy in Curable Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma) trial receiving preoperative radiation therapy without IGRT (P < .001). Conclusion The significant reduction of late toxicities in patients with extremity STS who were treated with preoperative IGRT and absence of marginal-field recurrences suggest that the target volumes used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0630 (A Phase II Trial of Image-Guided Preoperative Radiotherapy for Primary Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity) study are appropriate for preoperative IGRT for extremity STS. PMID:25667281

  12. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  13. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  14. Significant photoinduced Kerr rotation achieved in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherbunin, R. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Kavokin, K. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Kopteva, N. E.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Giant Kerr rotation and ellipticity are observed and investigated in an asymmetric planar microcavity with a quantum well in the active region. Rotation angle of the polarization plane as well as ellipticity were determined from time- and frequency-resolved measurements of the Stokes vector components of reflected light. It was found that in a small range of the cavity mode detunings the polarized pump pulse creates a large splitting of the lower polariton branch while leaving its linewidth almost the same. This fact gives a possibility to observe at such detunings the Kerr rotation angle and ellipticity, close to their extremes. A theoretical analysis shows that the decisive role in reaching extreme polarization rotation angles is played by the structure asymmetry. Comprehensive analysis of the polarization state of the light in this regime shows that both renormalization of the exciton energy and the saturation of the excitonic resonance contribute to the observed optical nonlinearities.

  15. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  16. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  17. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  18. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  20. Radon reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials.

  1. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  2. Coherent diffractive imaging: towards achieving atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Dietze, S H; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of X-ray sources will feature highly brilliant X-ray beams that will enable the imaging of local nanoscale structures with unprecedented resolution. A general formalism to predict the achievable spatial resolution in coherent diffractive imaging, based solely on diffracted intensities, is provided. The coherent dose necessary to reach atomic resolution depends significantly on the atomic scale structure, where disordered or amorphous materials require roughly three orders of magnitude lower dose compared with the expected scaling of uniform density materials. Additionally, dose reduction for crystalline materials are predicted at certain resolutions based only on their unit-cell dimensions and structure factors. PMID:26524315

  3. Chem-nuclear's midwest volume reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loiselle, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 amendments to the Low-Level Waste Policy Act mandated volume allocation limits for nuclear utilities over a 7-yr period ending December 31, 1992. Under the provisions of the act, nonsited regions of the US, such as the Midwest, have received more stringent volume limitations than the sited regions. Restrictions, however severe, are causing all nuclear utilities to carefully examine the source and volume generation of low-level wastes at their respective plants. Nuclear utilities dry active wastes (DAW), as compared to wet wastes, amount to 50 to 75% of wastes generated. The progress in reducing DAW can now be achieved with volume reduction by supercompaction. Chem-Nuclear established and licensed its Midwest Volume Reduction Facility (MWVRF) to provide an integrated volume reduction service. Although compaction of DAW is not new, supercompaction is. Through millions of pounds-force (as compared to tens of thousands pounds-force currently available from conventional equipment) much greater volume reduction can be achieved. The results of supercompaction is a product that approaches the theoretical density of its solid constituents - a logical and ultimate end point for compaction capability and volume reduction overall. The reduction service, equipment, and the facility interfacing with other services of transportation and disposal and the generator are discussed in detail. As a result of the integrated service, significant savings in waste management and volume allocation can be achieved.

  4. Outcomes of pharmacological management of nocturia with non-antidiuretic agents: does statistically significant equal clinically significant?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ariana L; Wein, Alan J

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the statistical and clinical efficacy of the pharmacological treatments of nocturia using non-antidiuretic agents. A literature review of treatments of nocturia specifically addressing the impact of alpha blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) and antimuscarinics on reduction in nocturnal voids. Despite commonly reported statistically significant results, nocturia has shown a poor clinical response to traditional therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia including alpha blockers and 5ARI. Similarly, nocturia has shown a poor clinical response to traditional therapies for overactive bladder including antimuscarinics. Statistical success has been achieved in some groups with a variety of alpha blockers and antimuscarinic agents, but the clinical significance of these changes is doubtful. It is likely that other types of therapy will need to be employed in order to achieve a clinically significant reduction in nocturia. PMID:21518417

  5. A Comparison of QEIA and Non-QEIA Schools: Implications of Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Louise Carolyn Sater

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to compare student achievement changes between matched QEIA and non-QEIA schools in an effort to infer effects of the most significant feature of QEIA funding, class size reduction. The study addressed the critical question--are there demonstrated, significant differences in student achievement gains between…

  6. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  7. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  10. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh; Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu

    2010-10-26

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as 'Occurrence Index (O{sub i})'. With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  11. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh; Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu

    2010-10-01

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as "Occurrence Index (Oi)". With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  12. Footprint reduction's 'multiple paybacks'.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Some of the measures that EFM personnel can take to further reduce their estates' carbon footprint at a time when pressure to cut energy consumption must be balanced both against the requirement to create the best possible patient environment, and new medical technology that may require substantial energy to operate, were the focus of a recent IHEEM carbon reduction seminar in London. The one-day event, "Planning to achieve Carbon Reduction Commitment targets for healthcare premises", also included a look at the key steps affected healthcare organisations, and especially their estates teams, need to be taking already to ensure compliance with the new Carbon Reduction Commitment scheme. PMID:20597381

  13. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  14. Large-Scale Discovery and Validation Studies Demonstrate Significant Reductions in Circulating Levels of IL8, IL-1Ra, MCP-1, and MIP-1β in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Sharad; Sharma, Ashok; Hopkins, Diane; Steed, Leigh; Bode, Bruce; Anderson, Stephen W.; Reed, John Chip; Steed, R. Dennis; Yang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have attempted to elucidate the potential role of various cytokines and chemokines in human type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the precise role of these serum proteins in T1D is still controversial and undetermined primarily due to the small sample sizes of the previous studies. We profiled a panel of serum cytokines and chemokines using a large-scale, two-stage study design for the discovery and validation of the serum proteins associated with T1D. Participants: The participants were patients with T1D and islet autoantibody–negative control subjects from the Phenome and Genome of Diabetes Autoimmunity study. Main Outcome Measures: Thirteen cytokines and chemokines were measured in serum of 4424 subjects using multiplex immunoassays. Results: Using 1378 samples in Stage 1, we found that four of the 13 proteins are significantly lower in patients with T1D than controls (IL8: odds ratio [OR] = 0.40; P = 5.7 × 10−19; IL-1Ra: OR = 0.42; P = 1.1 × 10−13; MCP-1: OR = 0.60; P = 6.7 × 10−9; and MIP-1β: OR = 0.63; P = 4.2 × 10−7). Our confirmation data with 3046 samples in Stage 2 further confirmed the significant negative associations of these four proteins with T1D (IL8: OR = 0.43; P = 8.9 × 10−32; IL-1Ra: OR = 0.56, P = 3.7 × 10−27; MCP-1: OR = 0.61, P = 4.3 × 10−17; and MIP-1β: OR = 0.69, P = 2.4 × 10−13). Quartile analyses also suggested that significantly more T1D cases have protein levels in the bottom quartile than in the top quartile for all four proteins: IL8 (OR = 0.09), IL-1Ra (OR = 0.18), MCP-1 (OR = 0.38), and MIP-1β (OR = 0.44). Furthermore, the negative associations between T1D and serum levels of all four proteins are stronger in genetically high-risk groups compared with the moderate and low-risk groups. Conclusions: IL8, IL-1Ra, MCP-1, and MIP-1β are significantly lower in patients with T1D than controls. PMID:26158606

  15. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  16. Effectiveness of pneumatic reduction of ileocolic intussusception in children.

    PubMed

    Menor, F; Cortina, H; Marco, A; Olague, R

    1992-01-01

    A total of 158 consecutive therapeutic air enemas were performed upon 133 patients during a 2-year period. Perforation and/or an impairment of the general condition of the children were the only main contraindications for the reduction attempt (five patients). Successful reductions were achieved in 89% of cases with no complications. Operation was performed in all 17 cases of unsuccessful reduction: resection in four cases, easy manual reduction in nine, difficult manual reduction in two, and spontaneous reduction in two. There were 16 (12%) patients with one or more recurrent episodes. In 23 (16%) cases, following pneumatic reduction, a swollen ileocecal valve showing a multiple appearance was observed. This fact sometimes results in a differential diagnosis with incomplete reduction; in all these cases, small bowel aeration was always a sign of complete reduction. No significant difference was noted between a swollen ileocecal valve and patient age, duration of symptoms, presence of small bowel obstruction, and further recurrences. Air enema has improved our previous success obtained with hydrostatic reduction (79%), as well as being a simpler, cleaner, and faster technique for intussusception reduction in children. PMID:1426851

  17. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  18. AMD NOX REDUCTION IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first phase of a potentially multi-phase project aimed at identifying scientific methodologies that will lead to the development of innnovative analytical tools supporting the analysis of control strategy effectiveness, namely. accountabilty. Significant reductions i...

  19. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, Charlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-10-14

    Prototype cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3 7% void fraction increase on the Low Pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand to cable analysis of short and longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of Internal Tin strands in the longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of Bronze Process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the Internal Tin strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Furthermore, the short twist pitch CICC made from Bronze Process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.

  20. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sanabria, Charlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-10-14

    Prototype cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3 7% void fraction increase on the Low Pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filamentmore » fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand to cable analysis of short and longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of Internal Tin strands in the longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of Bronze Process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the Internal Tin strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Furthermore, the short twist pitch CICC made from Bronze Process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.« less

  1. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-12-01

    Prototype cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the toroidal field and central solenoid coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3%-7% void fraction increase on the low pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand-to-cable analysis of short and longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of internal tin (IT) strands in the longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of bronze process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the IT strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Conversely, the short twist pitch CICC made from bronze process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.

  2. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...The Department of the Army announces the availability of the draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FNSI) and final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Army force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal Years (FYs) 2013-2020. The Army must achieve force reductions as it transitions from major combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, while reducing spending without......

  3. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  4. Improving Elementary American Indian Students' Math Achievement with Inquiry-Based Mathematics and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jamalee; Hamann, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Project Inquiry-Based Mathematics was a National Science Foundation Math-Science Partnership implemented in a Great Plains city school district with a significant K-12 Native American population. One goal of the project was to reduce the achievement gap between Native American and non-Native students enrolled in district. This gap reduction was to…

  5. Drag Reduction Tests on Supersonic Transport Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley researchers recently completed supersonic tests in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on a nonlinear design for a supersonic transport. Although the drag reduction measured during the tests was not as great as that predicted using computational methods, significant drag reductions were achieved. Future tests will be conducted at a higher Reynolds number, which will be more representative of flight conditions. These tests will be used to identify a supersonic transport configuration that provides maximum drag reduction. Reducing drag decreases operating cost by improving fuel consumption and lowering aircraft weight. As a result, this research has the potential to help make a future high-speed civil transport (HSCT) an affordable means of travel for the flying public.

  6. NASA research on viscous drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research on natural laminar flow, laminar flow control by suction, and turbulent drag reduction is discussed. Preliminary results suggest that a significant amount of natural laminar flow can be achieved on small, straight wing airplanes. On larger, swept wing aircraft, laminar flow control by distributed suction is expected to result in significant fuel savings. The area over which laminar flow control is applied depends on tradeoffs involving structural complexity, maintenance, and cost. Several methods of reducing turbulent skin friction by altering the turbulence structure itself have shown promise in exploratory testing. The status of these technologies and the benefits of applying them to future aircraft are reviewed.

  7. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  8. Reduction pneumonoplasty for emphysema. Early results.

    PubMed Central

    Little, A G; Swain, J A; Nino, J J; Prabhu, R D; Schlachter, M D; Barcia, T C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the role of Nd:YAG laser reduction pneumonoplasty for selected patients with diffuse emphysema. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The study is based on the concepts introduced 30 years ago by Brantigan regarding the value of lung reduction surgery in patients with emphysema. The authors used minimally invasive techniques with the hopes of providing appropriate clinical results with the least surgical morbidity. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with advanced symptomatic emphysema were treated with unilateral Nd:YAG laser reduction pneumonoplasty to achieve lung volume reduction. RESULTS: Patients experienced significant improvement in exercise capacity and relief of breathlessness. This correlated with improvement in objective measures of pulmonary function and with reduction in lung volume by radiographic and spirometric measures. Significant associated hospital morbidity and a 5.5% mortality were associated. CONCLUSIONS: These encouraging results with treatment of only one lung will be built on with both sequential lung and simultaneous, bilateral lung treatment protocols. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7677465

  9. Overview of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant Early Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Laznow, J. ); Daniel, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Under provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Title III, the EPA has proposed a regulation (Early Reduction Program) to allow a six-year compliance extension from Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for sources that voluntarily reduce emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by 90% or more (95% or more for particulates) from a base year of 1987 or later. The emission reduction must be made before the applicable MACT standard is proposed for the source category or be subject to an enforceable commitment to achieve the reduction by January 1, 1994 for sources subject to MACT standards prior to 1994. The primary purpose of this program is to encourage reduction of HAPs emissions sooner than otherwise required. Industry would be allowed additional time in evaluating emission reduction options and developing more cost-effective compliance strategies, although, under strict guidelines to ensure actual, significant and verifiable emission reductions occur.

  10. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  11. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  12. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  13. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  14. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  15. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  16. Mn2O3 Slurry Achieving Reduction of Slurry Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used for SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, the used slurry being disposed of. We have demonstrated that Mn2O3 abrasive slurry polishes dielectric SiO2 film, giving 4 times the removal rate of conventional fumed silica slurry. The higher removal rate reduces the total amount of slurry used, consequently reducing the amount of used slurry waste. The removal rate of Mn2O3 slurry remains constant for solid concentrations between l and 10 wt %, and stays constant without pad conditioning. These characteristics are very useful for slurry reuse. Remanufacture of Mn2O3 slurry from used slurry has been demonstrated, and the removal rates of the remanufactured and fresh slurries are the same. Reuse and remanufacturing drastically reduce the amount of waste.

  17. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  19. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  20. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  1. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  2. Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals as Motivational Links between Perceived Contexts and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Juyeon; Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate (a) how the subjectively perceived achievement goals of significant others would predict the academic self-efficacy and achievement goals of Korean adolescents and (b) how those self-efficacy and achievement goals in turn predicted their achievement. We also compared these predictive…

  3. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  8. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  9. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  3. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  4. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  5. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  8. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  9. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  10. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  11. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  12. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  13. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  14. Reduction in Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews several concerns that must be addressed by school business administrators in districts facing declining enrollments and the need for reductions in force. The chapter first looks at the business administrator's significant role in planning for retrenchment. The chapter then…

  15. A Survey of Selected Teachers Opinions to the Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have studied the affects of class size on student achievement for years. Therefore, the size of classes presently is disturbing. In regards to class size reductions, Murphy, 1998 states that students enjoyed significantly greater improvements in test scores in reading, language arts, and math. A class size research study was conducted…

  16. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  17. Significant Steps Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuta, Theresa; Mauricio, David

    2012-01-01

    Three years ago, the authors accepted positions as high school principals in Buffalo City (NY) Schools after serving as elementary school principals in the district for many years. In their new positions, they were to lead schools that were designated by the New York State Department of Education as "persistently lowest achieving," better known…

  18. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It is found that significant reduction in growth rate can be achieved.

  19. A rat model for evaluating physiological responses to femoral shaft fracture reduction using a surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Kendoff, Daniel; Hufner, Tobias; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gosling, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The first step in treatment of displaced femoral shaft fractures is adequate reduction of the fracture fragments. Manually performed, reduction can be challenging, and is frequently associated with soft tissue damage, especially when repeated reduction attempts are made. The magnitude of local and systemic inflammatory responses caused by prolonged and repeated reduction maneuvers has not been fully established. We devised an operative technique utilizing a robotic reduction device for use in a rat. A femoral fracture was simulated by means of an osteotomy. The robot enabled reproduction of both manual and guided precision reductions, performed in a single path movement. An external fixator was designed specifically to manipulate the rat femur and also for fixation of the osteotomy region. First, reduction accuracy was assessed in eight femurs, then the quality of fixator placement and reduction accuracy was analyzed in 22 femurs. In the first case, 100% of the femurs were accurately reduced. In the second case, 91% had successful stable fixation and an accurate reduction was achieved in 86% of the specimens. We demonstrated the feasibility of a model of robot-assisted fracture reduction that could be used to analyze the effects of reduction on the surrounding soft tissue via biochemical and histopathological means. A future aspect will be to evaluate whether the robot confers an advantage in fracture reduction versus the conventional technique, which would have significant implications for the use of robotic devices in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:18634014

  20. Industrial Waste Reduction Program. Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  1. Variance Reduction for a Discrete Velocity Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    We extend a variance reduction technique developed by Baker and Hadjiconstantinou [1] to a discrete velocity gas. In our previous work, the collision integral was evaluated by importance sampling of collision partners [2]. Significant computational effort may be wasted by evaluating the collision integral in regions where the flow is in equilibrium. In the current approach, substantial computational savings are obtained by only solving for the deviations from equilibrium. In the near continuum regime, the deviations from equilibrium are small and low noise evaluation of the collision integral can be achieved with very coarse statistical sampling. Spatially homogenous relaxation of the Bobylev-Krook-Wu distribution [3,4], was used as a test case to verify that the method predicts the correct evolution of a highly non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium. When variance reduction is not used, the noise causes the entropy to undershoot, but the method with variance reduction matches the analytic curve for the same number of collisions. We then extend the work to travelling shock waves and compare the accuracy and computational savings of the variance reduction method to DSMC over Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 10.

  2. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  3. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  4. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  5. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  6. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  7. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  8. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  9. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  10. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  11. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  12. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  13. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  14. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  15. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  16. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  17. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  18. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  19. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  20. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  1. Managing the workforce reduction: hospital CEO perceptions of organizational dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Kent V; Wagar, Terry H

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years many nations have undertaken activities aimed at restructuring and reengineering their health system as a means of achieving greater cost effectiveness and consumer responsiveness. Most efforts at reforming healthcare delivery have been accompanied by the downsizing of healthcare organizations. Organizations that are undergoing decline or significant workforce contractions are widely believed to experience a number of negative or dysfunctional attributes as a consequence of reductions in, or redeployments of, their labor force. For organizations undergoing planned workforce reductions, much speculation has been made in an attempt to identify a set of "best practices" that have the potential to mitigate the dysfunctional consequences associated with large permanent reductions in the workforce. This article explores the relationships among workforce-reduction practices and perceptions of organizational dysfunction in a large sample of Canadian hospitals. Results of the analysis suggest that the application of certain "progressive" workforce-reduction practices preceding, during, and subsequent to the downsizing process may play an important role in mitigating some of these dysfunctional organizational consequences. This research provides some evidence to suggest that how a workforce reduction is carried out may have a greater effect on organizational effectiveness than either the magnitude or severity of the overall workforce reduction. PMID:12055899

  2. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  3. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  4. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  5. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  6. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1979-01-01

    To estimate correlation between motivation and achievement, correlations from a calibration sample of 22 studies and a validation sample of 18 studies were analyzed using analysis of variance and regression techniques. Grade level was the only significant student characteristic; motivation and achievement were more highly correlated in later…

  7. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  8. Open reduction and internal fixation of radial head fractures.

    PubMed

    King, G J; Evans, D C; Kellam, J F

    1991-01-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced fractures of the radial head were reviewed in 14 elbows. Follow-up averaged 32 months. The average elbow score for Mason type II fractures was 96.8 points, corresponding to 100% good or excellent results. Average flexion was 142.5 degrees, and the mean fixed flexion deformity was 3.9 degrees. There was no loss in grip strength. An almost normal elbow was the expected result. Good or excellent results were achieved in only 33% of Mason type III fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation. The average elbow score was 72.9 points, and this was statistically significantly different than the Mason type II fractures (p less than 0.05). An associated elbow dislocation did not affect the results significantly, but was associated with a slightly increased fixed flexion deformity. Fractures may be more comminuted than suggested by plain radiographs, and intraoperative decision making is required in deciding between reconstruction or excision of the radial head. Excellent results were obtained provided an anatomical reduction with stable fixation and early range of motion were achieved. If a stable anatomic reduction cannot be obtained, then alternative treatment methods should be considered. PMID:2023039

  9. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  10. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  11. Drag reduction strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-01-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  12. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  13. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  14. Magnetostrictively actuated control flaps for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Millott, T.; Friedmann, P.P.

    1994-12-31

    High vibration levels can impose constraints on helicopter operations and hinder passenger acceptance. Vibration reduction using blade root pitch control introduces a significant power penalty and may adversely affect the airworthiness of the flight control system. Comparable levels of vibration reduction can be achieved using considerably less power through an actively controlled trailing edge flap mounted on the blade. Such a device would have no effect on helicopter airworthiness since it is controlled by a loop separate from the primary flight control system which utilizes the swashplate. Control flap actuation using the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D is studied in this paper by designing a minimum weight actuator, subject to a set of actuation and stress constraints. The resulting device is capable of producing vibration reduction in excess of 90% at cruise conditions.

  15. A nonlinear structural concept for compliant walls. [drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two mechanisms of drag reduction for flow over flat plates were investigated. The first mechanism employs Bushnell's hypothesis that compliant walls produce drag reduction by interfering with the formation of the turbulent spots in a turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the amplitudes and frequencies of compliant wall motions for drag reduction might be achieved by using slightly curved walls and the resulting large amplitude motions of snap buckling. A simple structural model of an arch is used in the analysis, and an asymptotic method is developed. The required wall motions can be obtained by using materials like mylar. In addition, the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent flow by driven walls was studied for Poiseuille channel flow. The walls are driven by a periodic traveling wave. A significant increase in the transitional Reynolds number is obtained by appropriately prescibing the wavelength and phase velocity of the wall motion. Previously developed asymptotic methods are used in the analysis.

  16. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  17. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-11-15

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  20. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Edward P; Wood, Douglas E; Utz, James P

    2008-05-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) produces physiological, symptomatic, and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Because it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost, nonsurgical alternatives for achieving volume reduction have been developed. Three bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) approaches have shown promise and reached later-stage clinical trials. These include the following: (1) placement of endobronchial one-way valves designed to promote atelectasis by blocking inspiratory flow; (2) formation of airway bypass tracts using a radiofrequency catheter designed to facilitate emptying of damaged lung regions with long expiratory times; and (3) instillation of biological adhesives designed to collapse and remodel hyperinflated lung. The limited clinical data currently available suggest that all three techniques are reasonably safe. However, efficacy signals have been substantially smaller and less durable than those observed after LVRS. Studies to optimize patient selection, refine treatment strategies, characterize procedural safety, elucidate mechanisms of action, and characterize short- and longer-term effectiveness of these approaches are ongoing. Results will be available over the next few years and will determine whether BLVR represents a safe and effective alternative to LVRS. PMID:18453355

  1. Mobilization of arsenite by dissimilatory reduction of adsorbed arsenate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zobrist, J.; Dowdle, P.R.; Davis, J.A.; Oremland, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfurospirillum barnesii is capable of anaerobic growth using ferric iron or arsenate as electron acceptors. Cell suspensions of S. barnesii were able to reduce arsenate to arsenite when the former oxyanion was dissolved in solution, or when it was adsorbed onto the surface of ferrihydrite, a common soil mineral, by a variety of mechanisms (e.g., coprecipitation, presorption). Reduction of Fe(III) in ferrihydrite to soluble Fe(II) also occurred, but dissolution of ferrihydrite was not required in order for adsorbed arsenate reduction to be achieved. This was illustrated by bacterial reduction of arsenate coprecipitated with aluminum hydroxide, a mineral that does not undergo reductive dissolution. The rate of arsenate reduction was influenced by the method in which arsenate became associated with the mineral phases and may have been strongly coupled with arsenate desorption rates. The extent of release of arsenite into solution was governed by adsorption of arsenite onto the ferrihydrite or alumina phases. The results of these experiments have interpretive significance to the mobilization of arsenic in large alluvial aquifers, such as those of the Ganges in India and Bangladesh, and in the hyporheic zones of contaminated streams.Sulfurospirillum barnesii is capable of anaerobic growth using ferric iron or arsenate as electron acceptors. Cell suspensions of S. barnesii were able to reduce arsenate to arsenite when the former oxyanion was dissolved in solution, or when it was adsorbed onto the surface of ferrihydrite a common soil mineral, by a variety of mechanisms (e.g., coprecipitation, presorption). Reduction of Fe(III) in ferrihydrite to soluble Fe(II) also occurred, but dissolution of ferrihydrite was not required in order for adsorbed arsenate reduction to be achieved. This was illustrated by bacterial reduction of arsenate coprecipitated with aluminum hydroxide, a mineral that does not undergo reductive dissolution. The rate of arsenate reduction was

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  3. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  4. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  5. Structural parameters that influence the noise reduction characteristics of typical general aviation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Grosveld, F.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of panel curvature and oblique angle of sound incidence on noise reduction characteristics of an aluminum panel are experimentally investigated. Panel curvature results show significant increase in stiffness with comparable decrease of sound transmission through the panel in the frequency region below the panel/cavity resonance frequency. Noise reduction data have been achieved for aluminum panels with clamped, bonded and riveted edge conditions. These edge conditions are shown to influence noise reduction characteristics of aluminum panels. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. Results indicate important improvement in noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity resonance frequency.

  6. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  7. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  8. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  9. van Hiele Levels and Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    1989-01-01

    Secondary geometry students were tested for van Hiele level of thinking, geometry knowledge and achievement, and proof-writing achievement. Proof-writing achievement correlated significantly with van Hiele level entering geometry knowledge and geometry achievement. The predictive validity of the van Hiele model was supported. (Author/DC)

  10. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  11. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  12. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  13. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  14. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  15. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  16. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  17. Achieving blood pressure goals: why aren't we?

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Basile, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommends a blood pressure (BP) goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients with hypertension and <130/80 mm Hg in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Achievement of BP goals is associated with significant benefits in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although evidence suggests these goals are attainable, only about one third of patients are meeting them. There is a significant gap between treatment guideline recommendations and their implementation in clinical practice. Many clinicians appear satisfied with modest BP reductions and do not make the necessary treatment adjustments to achieve BP goals. Patient nonadherence is another important reason for lack of BP control. For the success of clinical trials to be reproduced in clinical practice, clinicians must recognize the importance of treating BP to goal, emphasize to patients the need to adhere to treatments, and provide persistent, goal-targeted therapy. PMID:17170612

  18. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  19. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  20. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning. PMID:19255042

  1. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  2. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  3. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  4. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  5. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  6. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  7. Treatment of alcohol dependence: recent progress and reduction of consumption.

    PubMed

    Testino, G; Leone, S; Borro, P

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a major public health problem. Currently, three drugs for the treatment of AD have been approved by both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): acamprosate, disulfiram, and oral naltrexone. The FDA also approved the use of long-acting injectable naltrexone. In Austria and in Italy sodium oxybate is also approved. The EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use has recently granted marketing authorization for nalmefene for the reduction of alcohol consumption. Many patients, while accepting the problem, are unable or unwilling to completely stop consuming alcohol, leading to an inevitable deterioration over time of their psycho-physical state, and social and family relationships. It is appropriate to offer these patients the opportunity to significantly reduce their consumption of alcohol. The reduction may be an opportunity to prepare the individual for achieving complete abstinence. Abstinence should always be the main goal. Currently, nalmefene is the only drug that has been authorized for the reduction of alcohol consumption. Its association with psycho-social support is mandatory; it is taken on an "as-needed" basis, which should preferably be 1-2 hours before the possible intake of alcohol. The trials showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption, which resulted in a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Reducing consumption allows a decrease in the progression of numerous alcohol-induced chronic diseases, as well as a reduction in psycho-physical damage, acts of violence, motor vehicle accidents, and accidents at work, which in turn means fewer healthcare costs. PMID:25392958

  8. Progress on Footprint Reduction at the Hanford Site - 12406

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, Dale E.; Seeley, Paul; Farabee, Al

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to reduce the footprint of legacy sites throughout the EM complex. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess contaminated facilities, soil and groundwater remediation, and solid waste disposition. All of these initiatives are being accomplished with established technologies in proven regulatory frameworks. Ultimately, completion of these environmental cleanup activities will reduce the monitoring and maintenance costs associated with managing large federal facilities, allowing EM to place more focus on other high priority cleanup efforts and facilitate a successful transition to land-term stewardship of these sites. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) investment, the Department's cleanup footprint has been reduced by 45 percent to date, from 2411 km{sup 2} (931 mi{sup 2}) to 1336 km{sup 2} (516 mi{sup 2}s). With this significant progress on footprint reduction, the Department is on track towards their goal to reduce its overall footprint by approximately 90 percent by 2015. In addition, some areas cleaned up may become available for alternate uses (i.e. recreation, conservation, preservation, industrialization or development). Much of the work to reduce the complex's footprint occurred at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington, but cleanup continues across the complex. Footprint reduction is progressing well at the Hanford Site, supported predominantly through ARRA investment. To date, 994 km{sup 2} (384 mi{sup 2}) (65%) of footprint reduction have been achieved at Hanford, with a goal to achieve a 90% reduction by Fiscal Year 2015. The DOE EM and DOE Richland Operations Office, continue to make great progress to reduce the legacy footprint of the Hanford Site. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination

  9. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  11. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  12. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  13. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  14. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of combustor pressure rig screening tests was conducted on three combustor concepts applied to the TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of evaluating their relative emissions reduction potential consistent with prescribed performance, durability, and envelope contraints. The three concepts and their modifications represented increasing potential for reducing emission levels with the penalty of increased hardware complexity and operational risk. Concept 1 entailed advanced modifications to the present production TFE731-2 combustion system. Concept 2 was based on the incorporation of an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection system. Concept 3 was a staged premix/prevaporizing combustion system. Significant emissions reductions were achieved in all three concepts, consistent with acceptable combustion system performance. Concepts 2 and 3 were identified as having the greatest achievable emissions reduction potential, and were selected to undergo refinement to prepare for ultimate incorporation within an engine.

  15. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  16. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  17. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  19. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  20. Flow management techniques for base and afterbody drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, P. R.

    The problem of turbulent base flows and the drag associated with it have been of significant interest in missile as well as fighter aircraft design. Numerous studies in the literature have been devoted to aspects of reducing base drag on two-dimensional as well as on axisymmetric bodies. This paper presents a review of the developments that have taken place on the use of passive techniques or devices for axisymmetric base and net afterbody drag reduction in the absence of jet flow at the base. In particular, the paper discusses the effectiveness of base cavities, ventilated cavities, locked vortex afterbodies, multi-step afterbodies and afterbodies employing a non-axisymmetric boat-tailing concept for base and net drag reduction in different speed regimes. The broad features of the flow and the likely fluid-dynamical mechanisms associated with the device leading to base drag reduction are highlighted. Flight-test results assessing the effectiveness of some of the devices are compared with data from wind tunnels. The present survey indicates that base and net afterbody drag reduction of considerable engineering significance in aerospace applications can be achieved by various passive devices even when the (unmanipulated) base flow is not characterised by vortex shedding.

  1. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  2. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  3. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  4. Achieving the Promise: The Significant Role of Schools in Transforming Children's Mental Health in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechtenberger, DeAnn; Mullins, Frank Edward; Greenword, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs can play an essential role in disseminating information on children's mental health and design curricula that teach the skills necessary for promoting good mental health in schools to preservice and inservice professionals from diverse backgrounds and disciplines. The strategies presented in this article will provide…

  5. The Significance of Career Narrative in Examining a High-Achieving Woman's Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elley-Brown, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the career journey of one New Zealand woman was analysed. Three key findings emerged: the power of narrative as a vehicle for this woman's story, her movement towards greater authenticity and spiritual fulfilment as a mature woman, and the ongoing struggle for concurrent fulfilment from communal and agentic perspectives.…

  6. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  7. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  8. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  9. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  10. The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement among Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Pimentel, Allyson; Martin, Margary

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Newcomer immigrant students are entering schools in the United States in unprecedented numbers. As they enter new school contexts, they face a number of challenges in their adjustment. Previous literature suggested that relationships in school play a particularly crucial role in promoting socially competent behavior in the…

  11. The Significance of the Interculturally Competent School Psychologist for Achieving Equitable Education Outcomes for Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article examines procedures and processes that result in the over-referral of migrant students to separate special education programmes and, as a consequence, their exclusion from general education. The particular focus is on the role of the school psychologist in this process. The empirical study is a comparison of Swiss teachers' and…

  12. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  13. Turbulent Drag Reduction: Studies of Feedback Control and Flow Over Riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    The objective of this study is to explore concepts for control of turbulent boundary layers leading to skin -friction reduction using the direct numerical simulation technique. This report is divided into three parts where three different control methods are investigated; a passive control by longitudinal riblets, an active control by sensing and perturbing structures near the wall, and a feedback control procedure guided by control theory. In PART I significant drag reduction is achieved when the surface boundary condition is modified to suppress the dynamically significant coherent structures present in the wall region. The drag reduction is accompanied with significant reduction in the intensity of the wall -layer structures and reductions in the magnitude of Reynolds shear stress throughout the flow. Two essential drag reduction mechanisms are presented. In PART II mathematical methods of control theory are applied to the problem of control of fluid flow. The procedure of how to cast the problem of controlling turbulence into a problem in optimal control theory is presented through the formalism and language of control theory. Then a suboptimal control and feedback procedure are presented using methods of calculus of variations through the adjoint state and gradient algorithms. This suboptimal feedback control procedure is applied to the distributed and boundary controls of the stochastic Burgers equation. Most cases considered show significant reductions of the costs. In PART III direct numerical simulation is performed to analyze turbulent flow over longitudinal riblets, and to educe the mechanism of drag reduction by riblets. The computed drags on the riblet surfaces are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. Differences in the mean-velocity profile and turbulence quantities are found to be limited to the inner region of the boundary layer. Velocity and vorticity fluctuations as well as the Reynolds shear stresses above the riblets are

  14. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  15. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  16. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  17. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  18. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  19. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  20. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  1. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This Achiever contains a brief summary on the results of two major international studies: (1) 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS); and (2) 2003 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the 2003 TIMSS, American fourth- and eighth-graders significantly outperformed many of their international peers. In…

  2. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  3. Multilingualism, Mathematics Achievement and Instructional Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel Singal

    2010-01-01

    A significant and growing proportion of students in the United States speak primarily a non-English language at home. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of academic achievement patterns among language minority students in the United States. The first essay uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class…

  4. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  5. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  6. Reduction of breakdown threshold by metal nanoparticle seeding in a DC microdischarge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Jordan; Abboud, Jacques; Zhang, Zhili; Adams, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Significant reduction of the breakdown threshold in a DC microdischarge via seeding metal nanoparticles has been demonstrated. Compared to standard Paschen curves in dry air, reductions in the breakdown voltage of 5% to 25% were obtained for PD values (the product of pressure and electrode gap distance) ranging from 20 to 40 Torr-cm by seeding aluminum and iron nanoparticles with mean sizes of 75 nm and 80 nm, respectively. No secondary energy source was required to achieve this breakdown threshold reduction. From high-speed chemiluminescence imaging of the discharge evolution, breakdown was shown to be initiated at reduced voltages. Following breakdown, the increase in temperature ignited some of the nanoparticles near the cathode. Results suggest that possible charging of the nanoparticles within the gap may reduce the effective transient distance, leading to the threshold reduction.

  7. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  8. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  9. Tuning the catalytic activity of graphene nanosheets for oxygen reduction reaction via size and thickness reduction.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Xu, Qian; Wang, Peng; Shen, Yuting; Sun, Litao; Wang, Tanyuan; Li, Meixian; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2014-11-26

    Currently, the fundamental factors that control the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of graphene itself, in particular, the dependence of the ORR activity on the number of exposed edge sites remain elusive, mainly due to limited synthesis routes of achieving small size graphene. In this work, the synthesis of low oxygen content (<2.5±0.2 at. %), few layer graphene nanosheets with lateral dimensions smaller than a few hundred nanometers were achieved using a combination of ionic liquid assisted grinding of high purity graphite coupled with sequential centrifugation. We show for the first time that the graphene nanosheets possessing a plethora of edges exhibited considerably higher electron transfer numbers compared to the thicker graphene nanoplatelets. This enhanced ORR activity was accomplished by successfully exploiting the plethora of edges of the nanosized graphene as well as the efficient electron communication between the active edge sites and the electrode substrate. The graphene nanosheets were characterized by an onset potential of -0.13 V vs Ag/AgCl and a current density of -3.85 mA/cm2 at -1 V, which represent the best ORR performance ever achieved from an undoped carbon based catalyst. This work demonstrates how low oxygen content nanosized graphene synthesized by a simple route can considerably impact the ORR catalytic activity and hence it is of significance in designing and optimizing advanced metal-free ORR electrocatalysts. PMID:25334050

  10. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  11. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  12. Mean and peak wind load reduction on heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, L.; Bienkiewcz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated both mean and peak forces, and moments. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved. In addition, a preliminary review of wind loads on parabolic dish collectors was conducted, resulting in a recommended research program for these type collectors. 42 refs., 38 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The lower the better? Reviewing the evidence for more aggressive cholesterol reduction and goal attainment.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan

    2002-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that more aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with increased benefits in reducing atherosclerotic disease burden, supporting the notion of 'the lower, the better.' However, achievement of currently recommended goals has proven difficult with lipid-lowering agents at the commonly used doses. Current options for achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions include use of high doses of the most effective of the available statins and use of high or moderate statin doses in combination with agents that work in a complementary manner (e.g. bile acid sequestrants or niacin). Near-term options may include statins with increased LDL cholesterol-lowering effectiveness and better-tolerated secondary agents that can be combined with statin therapy. Rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) is a new statin that may prove to be of considerable utility in achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions than are currently possible with existing statins. Recent phase III clinical trials have shown that this agent produces significantly greater LDL cholesterol reductions than atorvastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and significantly greater reductions than the maximal dose of atorvastatin in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:11976073

  14. Geometric Quantization and Foliation Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skerritt, Paul

    with its usual decomposition by irreducible representations, and so proves that quantization and reduction do indeed commute in this context. A significant omission from the proof is the construction of an inner product on the space of polarized sections, and a discussion of its behavior under reduction. In the concluding chapter of the thesis, we suggest some ideas for future work in this direction.

  15. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  16. Reductive dissolution of goethite by phenolic reductants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Stone, Alan T.

    1989-05-01

    The reductive dissolution of goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) by phenolic reductants has been examined in order to improve the understanding of iron transformations in soils, sediments and aquifers. Rates of goethite reductive dissolution by hydroquinone increased as the pH was increased from pH 1.8 to 4.65, arid the following reaction stoichiometry was obeyed: 2 α- FeOOH + QH2 = 2 Fe2+ + Q + 4 OH-. As the pH was increased from pH 4.5 to 6.0, the reductive dissolution rate decreased to below the detection limit. At pH 3.4, the reductive dissolution of hematite was two orders of magnitude slower than goethite. The relationship between structure and reactivity was examined for a series of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxybenzene reductants. Rates of reductive dissolution decreased in the following order: catechol ˜- hydroquinone > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid > resorcinol-phenol-4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

  17. Reductive electrolytic dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.W. Jr.; Suidan, M.T.; Venosa, A.D.; Acheson, C.M.

    1995-11-01

    A biofilm-electrode reactor (BER) was used to dechlorinate pentachlorophenol (PCP), a recalcitrant halogenated organic used in wood and leather preservation. Electrical current was shown to play a necessary role in dechlorination, although it is unknown whether this was due to the resultant generation of hydrogen or the low reducing potential surface formed on the cathode of the anode-cathode cell. The PCP concentration in the feed was 5,000 {micro} g/L, and the PCP in the effluent was about 50 {micro}g/L, at a ethanol feed of 5 mg/L, which is a 99% reduction in PCP concentration. The feed ethanol was varied from zero to 100 mg/L, with the greatest PCP removal occurring at the highest ethanol feed rate. The total dechlorination decreased significantly when the ethanol was removed from the feed, indicating that the ethanol stabilized dechlorination.

  18. Early Reduction of Serum-Free Light Chains Associates with Renal Recovery in Myeloma Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Cockwell, Paul; Stringer, Stephanie; Bradwell, Arthur; Cook, Mark; Gertz, Morie A.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Kumar, Shaji; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Leung, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Myeloma kidney is the major cause of severe irreversible renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma. This tubulointerstitial injury is a direct consequence of high concentrations of circulating monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) produced by a clonal expansion of plasma cells. Early reduction of serum FLCs associates with renal recovery, but the target threshold of reduction to facilitate renal recovery is unknown. To determine the relationship between the achieved FLC reduction and renal recovery, we identified 39 patients with biopsy-proven myeloma kidney, the majority of whom had severe renal failure at presentation (median estimated GFR 9 ml/min per 1.73 m2). In a multivariable analysis incorporating demographic, hematologic, and renal variables, only the achieved FLC reduction significantly predicted renal recovery (P = 0.003). The relationship between renal recovery and FLC reduction was linear with no absolute threshold for FLC reduction. A 60% reduction in FLCs by day 21 associated with recovery of renal function for 80% of the population. Patient survival strongly associated with renal recovery: the median survival was 42.7 months (range 0 to 80) among those who recovered function compared with 7.8 months (range 0 to 54) among those who did not (P < 0.02). Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that the first presentation of myeloma, the kappa isotype of FLC, and renal recovery were independent predictors of survival. In conclusion, recovery of renal function in myeloma kidney depends on early reduction of serum FLCs, and this recovery associates with a significant survival advantage. PMID:21511832

  19. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Several combustor concepts were designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the hot wall combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners; the recuperative cooling combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber; and the catalytic converter combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultralow levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved.

  20. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved with this technology.

  1. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  2. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  3. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  5. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  6. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  7. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  8. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  9. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  12. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  13. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  14. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  15. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  16. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  17. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  18. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... achievable (BAT). 430.84 Section 430.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... reduction attainable by the application of best available technology economically achievable (BAT)....

  20. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... achievable (BAT). 430.84 Section 430.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... reduction attainable by the application of best available technology economically achievable (BAT)....

  1. TIGRE: Combinator graph reduction on the RTX 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient evaluation technique is examined for lazy functional programs based on combinator graph reduction. Graph reduction is widely believed to be slow and inefficient, but an abstract machine called the Threaded Interpretive Graph Reduction Engine (TIGRE) achieves a substantial speedup over previous reduction techniques. The runtime system of TIGRE is a threaded system that permits self-modifying program execution with compiler-guaranteed safety. This paper describes an implementation of TIGRE in Forth for the Harris RTX 2000 stack processor.

  2. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535

  3. Impacts of emission reductions on aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kupiainen, K.; Klimont, Z.; Makkonen, R.; Korhonen, H.; Karinkanta, R.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Laaksonen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2014-12-01

    The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ is used to study the aerosol burden and forcing changes in the coming decades. Four different emissions scenarios are applied for 2030 (two of them applied also for 2020) and the results are compared against reference year 2005. Two of the scenarios are based on current legislation reductions, one shows the maximum potential of reductions that can be achieved by technical measures, and the last one is targeted to short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). We have analysed the results in terms of global means and additionally focused on 8 sub-regions. Based on our results, aerosol burdens overall show decreasing trend, but in some locations, such as India, the burdens could increase significantly. This has impact on the direct aerosol effect (DRE), which could reduce globally 0.06-0.4 W m-2 by 2030, but can increase over India (up to 0.84 W m-2). The global values depend on the scenario and are lowest with the targeted SLCF simulation. The cloud radiative effect could decline 0.25-0.82 W m-2 by 2030 and occurs mostly over oceans, whereas the DRE effect is mostly over land. Our results show that targeted emission reduction measures can be a~much better choice for the climate than overall high reductions globally. Our simulations also suggest that more than half of the near-future forcing change is due to the radiative effects associated with aerosol-cloud interactions.

  4. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  5. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  6. Fundamental limits on NOx reduction by plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B. M., LLNL

    1997-04-07

    This paper discusses the gas-phase reaction mechanisms for removal of NO{sub x} in a plasma. The effect of oxygen content on the competition between the reduction and oxidation processes is discussed. The effect of the electron kinetic energy distribution on the radical production and subsequent chemistry is then discussed in order to predict the best performance that can be achieved for NO{sub x} reduction using the plasma alone. The fundamental limit on the minimum electrical energy consumption that will be required to implement NO{sub x} reduction in any type of plasma reactor is established.

  7. Active{sup 3} noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-06-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. An Efficient Method for Computing All Reducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yongguang; Du, Xiaoyong; Deng, Mingrong; Ishii, Naohiro

    In the process of data mining of decision table using Rough Sets methodology, the main computational effort is associated with the determination of the reducts. Computing all reducts is a combinatorial NP-hard computational problem. Therefore the only way to achieve its faster execution is by providing an algorithm, with a better constant factor, which may solve this problem in reasonable time for real-life data sets. The purpose of this presentation is to propose two new efficient algorithms to compute reducts in information systems. The proposed algorithms are based on the proposition of reduct and the relation between the reduct and discernibility matrix. Experiments have been conducted on some real world domains in execution time. The results show it improves the execution time when compared with the other methods. In real application, we can combine the two proposed algorithms.

  9. Physiological Noise Reduction Using Volumetric Functional Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Wang, Fu-Nien; Belliveau, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological noise arising from a variety of sources can significantly degrade the detection of task-related activity in BOLD-contrast fMRI experiments. If whole head spatial coverage is desired, effective suppression of oscillatory physiological noise from cardiac and respiratory fluctuations is quite difficult without external monitoring, since traditional EPI acquisition methods cannot sample the signal rapidly enough to satisfy the Nyquist sampling theorem, leading to temporal aliasing of noise. Using a combination of high speed magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) and digital filtering, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress cardiac and respiratory noise without auxiliary monitoring, while achieving whole head spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. Our systematic study of the effects of different moving average (MA) digital filters demonstrates that a MA filter with a 2 s window can effectively reduce the variance in the hemodynamic baseline signal, thereby achieving 57-58% improvements in peak z-statistic values compared to unfiltered InI or spatially smoothed EPI data (FWHM =8.6 mm). In conclusion, the high temporal sampling rates achievable with InI permit significant reductions in physiological noise using standard temporal filtering techniques that result in significant improvements in hemodynamic response estimation. PMID:21954026

  10. Current trends in breast reduction.

    PubMed

    Roje, Zdravko; Roje, Zeljka; Milosević, Milan; Varvodić, Josip; Mance, Marko

    2012-06-01

    Results of our study describe the long term effects of reduction mammaplasty. Many women with excessively small or large breasts have an altered personal self-image and often suffer from low self-esteem and other psychological stresses. This procedure is designed to reduce and reshape large breasts, and since the size, shape, and symmetry of a woman's breasts can have a profound effect on her mental and physical well-being it is important to observe the patient's long-term outcome. Currently, breast reduction surgery is safe, effective and beneficial to the patient. In Croatia, reduction mammoplasty is often excluded from the general health care plan. The distinction between "reconstructive" versus "cosmetic" breast surgery is very well defined by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Board of Directors. Unfortunately, the Croatian Health Society has yet to standardize such a distinction. There is an imperative need for evidence-based selection criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 59 female patients suffering from symptomatic macromastia who underwent reduction mammaplasty over a 16 year period (1995 until 2011). Our aim was to compare and contrast the various techniques available for reduction mammaplasty and to determine, based on patient outcome and satisfaction, which technique is most suited for each patient. The results of our study generally reinforce the observation that reduction mammaplasty significantly provides improvements in health status, long-term quality of life, postsurgical breast appearance and significantly decrease physical symptoms of pain. A number of 59 consecutive cases were initially treated with the four different breast reduction techniques: inverted-T scat or Wisa pattern breast reduction, vertical reduction mammaplasty, simplified vertical reduction mammaplasty, inferior pedicle and free nipple graft techniques. The average clinical follow-up period was 6-months, and included 48 patients. The statistical analysis of the

  11. Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Coupling of Aryl Bromides with Alkyl Bromides: Et3N as the Terminal Reductant.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhengli; Li, Wu; Lei, Aiwen

    2016-08-19

    Reductive cross-coupling has emerged as a direct method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds. Most cobalt-, nickel-, and palladium-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reactions to date are limited to stoichiometric Mn(0) or Zn(0) as the reductant. One nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling paradigm using Et3N as the terminal reductant is reported. By using this photoredox catalysis and nickel catalysis approach, a direct Csp(2)-Csp(3) reductive cross-coupling of aryl bromides with alkyl bromides is achieved under mild conditions without stoichiometric metal reductants. PMID:27472556

  12. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  13. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  14. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered {open_quotes}necessary{close_quotes} for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost.

  15. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. PMID:26969286

  16. Reductions in indoor black carbon concentrations from improved biomass stoves in rural India.

    PubMed

    Patange, Omkar S; Ramanathan, Nithya; Rehman, I H; Tripathi, Sachi Nand; Misra, Amit; Kar, Abhishek; Graham, Eric; Singh, Lokendra; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ramanathan, V

    2015-04-01

    Deployment of improved biomass burning cookstoves is recognized as a black carbon (BC) mitigation measure that has the potential to achieve health benefits and climate cobenefits. Yet, few field based studies document BC concentration reductions (and resulting human exposure) resulting from improved stove usage. In this paper, data are presented from 277 real-world cooking sessions collected during two field studies to document the impacts on indoor BC concentrations inside village kitchens as a result of switching from traditional stoves to improved forced draft (FD) stoves. Data collection utilized new low-cost cellphone methods to monitor BC, cooking duration, and fuel consumption. A cross sectional study recorded a reduction of 36% in BC during cooking sessions. An independent paired sample study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of 40% in 24 h BC concentrations when traditional stoves were replaced with FD stoves. Reductions observed in these field studies differ from emission factor reductions (up to 99%) observed under controlled conditions in laboratory studies. Other nonstove sources (e.g., kerosene lamps, ambient concentrations) likely offset the reductions. Health exposure studies should utilize reductions determined by field measurements inside village kitchens, in conjunction with laboratory data, to assess the health impacts of new cooking technologies. PMID:25738526

  17. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  18. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  19. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  20. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  1. The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in Danish coastal sediments - Iron reduction, manganese reduction, and sulfate reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Thamdrup, BO; Hansen, Jens W.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of porewater and solid phase analysis as well as a series of sediment incubations are used to quantify organic carbon oxidation by dissimilatory Fe reduction, Mn reduction, and sulfate reduction, in sediments from the Skagerrak (located off the northeast coast of Jutland, Denmark). Solid phase data are integrated with incubation results to define the zones of the various oxidation processes. At S(9), surface Mn enrichments of up to 3.5 wt pct were found, and with such a ready source of Mn, dissimilatory Mn reduction was the only significant anaerobic process of carbon oxidation in the surface 10 cm of the sediment. At S(4) and S(6), active Mn reduction occurred; however, most of the Mn reduction may have resulted from the oxidation of acid volatile sulfides and Fe(2+) rather than by a dissimilatory sulfate. Dissolved Mn(2+) was found to completely adsorb onto sediment containing fully oxidized Mn oxides.

  2. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  3. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  4. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  5. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  6. Application of the rat liver lysosome assay to determining the reduction of toxic gliadin content during breadmaking.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Hugh J; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Small, Darryl M; Buddrick, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Enriched caricain was able to detoxify a major proportion of the gliadin in wholemeal wheat dough by allowing it to react for 5h at 37 °C during the fermentation stage. A reduction of 82% in toxicity, as determined by the rat-liver lysosome assay, was achieved using 0.03% enzyme on weight of dough. Without enzyme, only 26% reduction occurred. The difference in reduction of toxicity achieved is statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results are very similar to those obtained in our previous work using an immuno assay and the same enzyme preparation. They confirm the value of caricain as a means of reducing the toxicity of gliadin and open the way for enzyme therapy as an adjunct to the gluten free diet. This approach should lead to better control over the elimination of dietary gluten intake in conditions such as coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis. PMID:26304430

  7. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  8. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  9. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  10. Reductive Dehalogenation of Herbicides by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the genus Anaeromyxobacter are well known for their versatile respiratory capabilities, including reductive dehalogenation of phenolic compounds. The widespread distribution of Anaeromyxobacter spp. in the environment suggests their potential significance in biogeochemical cycling includi...

  11. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  12. Significance of Algal Polymer in Designing Amphotericin B Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Kumar, Vikash; Sharma, Kiran; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2014-01-01

    Development of oral amphotericin B (AmB) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) demands a novel technique which reduces its toxicity and other associated problems. Packing of AmB in between two oppositely charged ions by polyelectrolyte complexation technique proved to be a successful strategy. We have developed a novel carrier system in form of polyelectrolyte complex of AmB by using chitosan (CS) and porphyran (POR) as two oppositely charged polymers with TPP as a crosslinking agent. Initially POR was isolated from Porphyra vietnamensis followed by the fact that its alkali induced safe reduction in molecular weight was achieved. Formulation was optimized using three-factor three-level (33) central composite design. High concentration of POR in NPs was confirmed by sulfated polysaccharide (SP) assay. Degradation and dissolution studies suggested the stability of NPs over wide pH range. Hemolytic toxicity data suggested the safety of prepared formulation. In vivo and in vitro antifungal activity demonstrated the high antifungal potential of optimized formulation when compared with standard drug and marketed formulations. Throughout the study TPP addition did not cause any significant changes. Therefore, these experimental oral NPs may represent an interesting carrier system for the delivery of AmB. PMID:25478596

  13. New Marsulex technology significantly cuts power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    As utility deregulation becomes reality, successful generators of electricity will significantly lower bus bar cost of power by a creative combination of low cost fuel and the application of Marsulex Environmental Technologies'(MET) patented Ammonia Scrubbing Technology. Because fuel constitutes the largest component of generation cost, substantial reductions can be achieved by firing low cost fuels such as petroleum coke. This option has been historically handicapped by sulfur dioxide emission limitations and related economics. MET's proprietary ammonium sulfate technology now enables the use of low cost, 5--7% sulfur fuels without the associated sulfur penalty. The MET technology can reduce generation costs by 25% or more on a typical coal fired unit and does not require any capital outlay by the generator. In addition, this concept can also serve as the cornerstone of a Phase 2 SO{sub 2} compliance strategy, or provide the winning edge in a bid for generation assets. This paper will outline this unique commercial and technical solution and provide economic examples of this cost-cutting strategy.

  14. New Marsulex technology significantly cuts power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    As utility deregulation becomes reality, successful generators of electricity will significantly lower bus bar cost of power by a creative combination of low cost fuel and the application of Marsulex Environmental Technologies' (MET) patented Ammonia Scrubbing Technology. Because fuel constitutes the largest component of generation cost, substantial reductions can be achieved by firing low cost fuels such as petroleum coke. Tis option has been historically handicapped by sulfur dioxide emission limitations and related economics. MET's proprietary ammonium sulfate technology now enables the use of low cost, 5-7-% sulfur fuels without the associated sulfur penalty. The MET technology can reduce generation costs by 25% or more on a typical coal fired unit and does not require any capital outlay by the generator. In addition, this concept can also serve as the cornerstone of a Phase 2 SO{sub 2} compliance strategy, or provide the winning edge in a bid for generation assets. This paper will outline this unique commercial and technical solution and provide economic examples of this cost-cutting strategy.

  15. Preschoolers' Maternal Support and Cognitive Competencies as Predictors of Elementary Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedemann, Joachim; Faber, Gunter

    1992-01-01

    Reports a longitudinal study of the link between home variables (mainly maternal support), cognitive prerequisites of preschoolers, and later school achievement (spelling, reading, and arithmetic). Maternal support significantly affected competencies and academic achievement. Cognitive competencies predicted later academic achievement; achievement…

  16. The Geneva Reduction and Analysis Pipeline for High-contrast Imaging of planetary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelberg, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present GRAPHIC, a new angular differential imaging reduction pipeline where all geometric image operations are based on Fourier transforms. To achieve this goal the entire pipeline is parallelized making it possible to reduce large amounts of observation data without the need to bin the data. The specific rotation and shift algorithms based on Fourier transforms are described and performance comparison with conventional interpolation algorithm is given. Tests using fake companions injected in real science frames demonstrate the significant gain obtained by using geometric operations based on Fourier transforms compared to conventional interpolation. This also translates in a better point spread function and speckle subtraction with respect to conventional reduction pipelines, achieving detection limits comparable to current best performing pipelines. Flux conservation of the companions is also demonstrated. This pipeline is currently able to reduce science data produced by Very Large Telescope (VLT)/NACO, Gemini/NICI, VLT/SPHERE, and Subaru/SCExAO.

  17. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  18. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  19. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  20. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  1. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  2. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  3. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  4. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  5. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  6. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  7. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  8. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  9. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  10. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  11. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  12. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  13. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  14. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  15. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  16. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  17. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  18. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  19. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  20. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  1. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  2. Graphite Oxide: Structure, Reduction and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei

    This thesis proposes a modified structure model for graphite oxide (GO), an important precursor in graphene chemistry, develops a new strategy to convert GO back to graphene-like structure, and demonstrates its possible applications in both water purification and supercapacitor technologies. GO, a nontraditional compound first obtained from graphite oxidation over 150 years ago, is now becoming an important player in the production of graphene-based materials, which has high technological relevance. GO structure and reduction have been vigorously investigated, but its precise chemical structure still remains obscure, and the complete restoration of the sp2 carbon lattice has not yet been achieved. In our work, solid state 13C NMR (MAS) analysis offered a piece of evidence for five or six-membered ring lactol structure existing in GO that had never been assigned before, leading to a modified Lerf-Klinowski model for GO. A three-step reduction strategy, involving sodium borohydride (NaBH4), sulfuric acid, and high temperature thermal annealing, described in the thesis, successfully reduced GO back to chemically converted graphene (CCG) with the lowest heteroatom abundance among all those previously reported. In addition to the chemical significance of graphene/CCG production, GO and its derivatives were used as novel adsorbents in water purification. GO-coated sand showed higher retention than ordinary sand for both Rhodamine B and mercuric ion (Hg2+) contaminants in water. Further functionalization of GO with thiophenol resulted in better adsorption capacity toward Hg2+ than that of activated carbon. In addition, free-standing films of GO were treated and reduced with a CO 2 laser beam into different conductive reduced GO (RGO) patterns, and directly used as supercapacitor devices which showed good cyclic stability and energy storage capacities comparable to that of existing thin film ultracapacitors. GO turned out to be a solid electrolyte with anisotropic proton

  3. Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Stephen; McKitrick, Ross

    2005-02-01

    The ``hockey stick'' shaped temperature reconstruction of Mann et al. (1998, 1999) has been widely applied. However it has not been previously noted in print that, prior to their principal components (PCs) analysis on tree ring networks, they carried out an unusual data transformation which strongly affects the resulting PCs. Their method, when tested on persistent red noise, nearly always produces a hockey stick shaped first principal component (PC1) and overstates the first eigenvalue. In the controversial 15th century period, the MBH98 method effectively selects only one species (bristlecone pine) into the critical North American PC1, making it implausible to describe it as the ``dominant pattern of variance''. Through Monte Carlo analysis, we show that MBH98 benchmarks for significance of the Reduction of Error (RE) statistic are substantially under-stated and, using a range of cross-validation statistics, we show that the MBH98 15th century reconstruction lacks statistical significance.

  4. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  5. Does Source Reduction Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, David

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and…

  6. Drag reduction of a blunt trailing-edge airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jonathon Paul

    Wind-tunnel experimentation and Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes simulations were used to analyze simple, static trailing-edge devices applied to an FB-3500-1750 airfoil, a 35% thick airfoil with a 17.5% chord blunt trailing edge, in order to mitigate base drag. The drag reduction devices investigated include Gurney-type tabs, splitter plates, base cavities, and offset cavities. The Gurney-type tabs consisted of small tabs, attached at the trailing edge and distributed along the span, extending above the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The Gurney-type devices were determined to have little drag reduction capabilities for the FB-3500-1750 airfoil. Splitter plates, mounted to the center of the trailing edge, with lengths between 50% and 150% of the trailing-edge thickness and various plate angles (0° and +/-10° from perpendicular) were investigated and shown to influence the lift and drag characteristics of the baseline airfoil. Drag reductions of up to 50% were achieved with the addition of a splitter plate. The base cavity was created by adding two plates perpendicular to the trailing edge, extending from the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The base cavity demonstrated possible drag reductions of 25%, but caused significant changes to lift, primarily due to the method of device implementation. The offset cavity, created by adding two splitter plates offset from the upper and lower surfaces by 25% of the trailing-edge thickness, was shown to improve on the drag reductions of the splitter plate, while also eliminating unsteady vortex shedding prior to airfoil stall.

  7. Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, Adam; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We aim to evaluate the suitability of four electrodes previously used in clinical experiments for peripheral nerve electrical block applications. Approach. We evaluated peripheral nerve electrical block using three such clinical nerve cuff electrodes (the Huntington helix, the Case self-sizing Spiral and the flat interface nerve electrode) and one clinical intramuscular electrode (the Memberg electrode) in five cats. Amplitude thresholds for the block using 12 or 25 kHz voltage-controlled stimulation, onset response, and stimulation thresholds before and after block testing were determined. Main results. Complete nerve block was achieved reliably and the onset response to blocking stimulation was similar for all electrodes. Amplitude thresholds for the block were lowest for the Case Spiral electrode (4 ± 1 Vpp) and lower for the nerve cuff electrodes (7 ± 3 Vpp) than for the intramuscular electrode (26 ± 10 Vpp). A minor elevation in stimulation threshold and reduction in stimulus-evoked urethral pressure was observed during testing, but the effect was temporary and did not vary between electrodes. Significance. Multiple clinical electrodes appear suitable for neuroprostheses using peripheral nerve electrical block. The freedom to choose electrodes based on secondary criteria such as ease of implantation or cost should ease translation of electrical nerve block to clinical practice.

  8. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  9. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  10. Investigation and evaluation of ultrasound reactor for reduction of fungi from sewage*

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jahed, Gholam Reza; Sheikhi, Razieh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the application of ultrasound reactor technology (USRT) as a disinfectant for reduction of fungi from sewage effluent. Fungi are carbon heterotrophs that require preformed organic compounds as carbon sources. USRT is an attractive means to improve water quality because of the system simplicity and no production of toxic by-products. An ultrasound reactor produces strong cavitation in aqueous solution causing shock waves and reactive free radicals by the violent collapse of the cavitation bubble. These effects should contribute to the physical disruption of microbial structures and inactivation of organisms. There was significant reduction in fungal growth, with decreased fungal growth with increasing USRT. In this study, ultrasound irradiation at a frequency of 42 kHz was used to expose suspensions of fungi to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of the ultrasound reactor. Also, this study showed that in this system more than 99% reduction of sewage fungi was achieved after 60 min. PMID:17610329

  11. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  12. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  13. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced. PMID:24110820

  14. Replacement, reduction and refinement.

    PubMed

    Flecknell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    , especially when combined with the labyrinthine processes of the various regulatory authorities. The principle of Reduction would appear less contentious, but its application has highlighted the difficulties of providing appropriate expert statistical advice, especially in academic research facilities. In some instances, concern to implement Reduction strategies can result in the use of too few animals, which leads to inconclusive results, and wasteful experiments. It is in the area of Refinement, however, that major problems have arisen. Much of our judgement of what represents Refinement is based on little more than common sense. We make assumptions about animals and their feelings that often have little scientific basis. In many instances we may be correct, but these assumptions may become incorporated into institutional or national policies, without any attempt to verify them. To give an example - it is reasonable to assume that animals will experience pain after a surgical procedure, so pain-relieving drugs should be given to prevent this. We have some idea of the appropriate dose of analgesics for most animals, but effective pain relief requires that dose given is adjusted to meet the requirements of the individual animal. Requiring every animal to have the same dose of the same drug after any surgical procedure is not the best way of dealing with post-operative pain. Discussion of these problems should not detract from the very significant progress that has been made in the 40 or so years since Russell and Burch set out their guiding principles. What is needed now is greater academic focus on this area, not only to work on new methods of implementing the 3Rs, but also to disseminate current "Best Practice", and to revise this advice as further progress is made. PMID:12098013

  15. Reduction of chemical reaction networks through delay distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, Manuel; Leier, André; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate modelling and simulation of dynamic cellular events require two main ingredients: an adequate description of key chemical reactions and simulation of such chemical events in reasonable time spans. Quite logically, posing the right model is a crucial step for any endeavour in Computational Biology. However, more often than not, it is the associated computational costs which actually limit our capabilities of representing complex cellular behaviour. In this paper, we propose a methodology aimed at representing chains of chemical reactions by much simpler, reduced models. The abridgement is achieved by generation of model-specific delay distribution functions, consecutively fed to a delay stochastic simulation algorithm. We show how such delay distributions can be analytically described whenever the system is solely composed of consecutive first-order reactions, with or without additional "backward" bypass reactions, yielding an exact reduction. For models including other types of monomolecular reactions (constitutive synthesis, degradation, or "forward" bypass reactions), we discuss why one must adopt a numerical approach for its accurate stochastic representation, and propose two alternatives for this. In these cases, the accuracy depends on the respective numerical sample size. Our model reduction methodology yields significantly lower computational costs while retaining accuracy. Quite naturally, computational costs increase alongside network size and separation of time scales. Thus, we expect our model reduction methodologies to significantly decrease computational costs in these instances. We anticipate the use of delays in model reduction will greatly alleviate some of the current restrictions in simulating large sets of chemical reactions, largely applicable in pharmaceutical and biological research.

  16. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  17. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  18. Phosphorus reductions following riparian restoration in two agricultural watersheds in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Meals, D W; Hopkins, R B

    2002-01-01

    Achievement of management goals for Lake Champlain (Vermont/New York, USA and Quebec, Canada) will require significant reductions of phosphorus (P) loads from agriculture, the dominant diffuse source in the basin. Cost-effective P reduction strategies must be based on reliable treatment techniques beyond basic erosion control and animal waste storage practices. The Lake Champlain Basin Agricultural Watersheds National Monitoring Program (NMP) Project evaluates the effectiveness of low-cost livestock exclusion, streambank protection, and riparian restoration practices in reducing concentrations and loads of diffuse-source pollutants from grazing land at the watershed level. Treatment and control watersheds in northwestern Vermont have been monitored since 1994 according to a paired-watershed design. Monitoring includes continuous stream discharge recording, flow-proportional sampling for total P and other pollutants, and documentation of land use and agricultural management activities. Strong statistical calibration between the control and treatment watersheds has been achieved. Landowner participation in the land treatment program was entirely voluntary and all treatments were 100% cost-shared by the project and cooperators. Installation of riparian fencing, alternative water supplies, protected stream crossings, and streambank bioengineering was completed in 1997 at a cost of less than US$40,000. The paired-watershed design was effective in controlling for the influence of extreme variations in precipitation and streamflow over six years of monitoring. Two years of post-treatment data have documented significant reductions in P concentrations and loads from both treated watersheds. Reductions of approximately 20% in mean total P concentration and approximately 20-50% in mean total P load have been observed, with greater reductions occurring in the watershed receiving more extensive treatment. The effectiveness of riparian zone restoration in P reduction tended to

  19. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  20. Directing Diarrhoeal Disease Research towards Disease-burden Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lanata, Claudio F.; Black, Robert E.; Walker, Damian G.; Snyder, John D.; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Mahalanabis, Dilip; Fontaine, Olivier; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Rudan, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Despite gains in controlling mortality relating to diarrhoeal disease, the burden of disease remains unacceptably high. To refocus health research to target disease-burden reduction as the goal of research in child health, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative developed a systematic strategy to rank health research options. This priority-setting exercise included listing of 46 competitive research options in diarrhoeal disease and their critical and quantitative appraisal by 10 experts based on five criteria for research that reflect the ability of the research to be translated into interventions and achieved disease-burden reduction. These criteria included the answerability of the research questions; the efficacy and effectiveness of the intervention resulting from the research; the maximal potential for disease-burden reduction of the interventions derived from the research; the affordability, deliverability, and sustainability of the intervention supported by the research; and the overall effect of the research-derived intervention on equity. Experts scored each research option independently to delineate the best investments for diarrhoeal disease control in the developing world to reduce the burden of disease by 2015. Priority scores obtained for health policy and systems research obtained eight of the top 10 rankings in overall scores, indicating that current investments in health research are significantly different from those estimated to be the most effective in reducing the global burden of diarrhoeal disease by 2015. PMID:19507747

  1. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  2. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-07-28

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  3. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  4. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  5. Experimental assessment of drag reduction by traveling waves in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auteri, F.; Baron, A.; Belan, M.; Campanardi, G.; Quadrio, M.

    2010-11-01

    We experimentally assess the capabilities of an active, open-loop technique for drag reduction in turbulent wall flows recently introduced by Quadrio et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 627, 161 (2009)]. The technique consists of generating streamwise-modulated waves of spanwise velocity at the wall, which travels in the streamwise direction. A proof-of-principle experiment has been devised to measure the reduction of turbulent friction in a pipe flow, in which the wall is subdivided into thin slabs that rotate independently in the azimuthal direction. Different speeds of nearby slabs provide, although in a discrete setting, the desired streamwise variation of transverse velocity. Our experiment confirms the available DNS results, and in particular, demonstrates the possibility of achieving large reductions of friction in the turbulent regime. Reductions up to 33% are obtained for slowly forward-traveling waves; backward-traveling waves invariably yield drag reduction, whereas a substantial drop of drag reduction occurs for waves traveling forward with a phase speed comparable to the convection speed of near-wall turbulent structures. A Fourier analysis is employed to show that the first harmonics introduced by the discrete spatial waveform that approximates the sinusoidal wave are responsible for significant effects that are indeed observed in the experimental measurements. Practical issues related to the physical implementation of this control scheme and its energetic efficiency are briefly discussed.

  6. Electro-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    McLarnon, C.R.

    1989-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides have been linked to a broad range of air pollution problems including acid rain and the atmospheric production of photochemical ozone. Over twenty million tons of nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere each year as a result of the high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Efforts to control nitrogen oxides emissions have lagged because of the generally low discharge concentrations of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust and because nitrogen oxides are more difficult to remove due to their lower reactivity. No catalyst has yet been found that will achieve significant reduction of nitrogen oxides in an oxidizing environment. Oxygen in the exhaust stream competes with nitrogen oxides for the active catalyst sites. Also, the dissociated oxygen atoms produced by decomposition of nitrogen oxides deactivate the surface of the catalyst. Externally applied electric fields have been used to control oxygen adsorption on metal and semi-conductor surfaces. In this investigation, a stream containing nitric oxide has been subjected to intense electric fields in the presence of catalyst materials including steel, stainless steel, and gold plated stainless steel wools and glass wool. The electric fields have been generated using DC, AC and rectified AC potentials in the range of 0--20 KV. The effect of parameters such as inlet nitric oxide concentration, oxygen and water content, gas residence time and temperature have also been studied.

  7. [Current significance of keratopathia neuroparalytica].

    PubMed

    Weidlich, R; Burkert, W

    1980-01-01

    Among the complications after surgical interventions carried out on the Ganglion semilunare because of a trigeminal neuralgia the reason why Keratopathia neuroparalytica plays a role is the fact that it very frequently leads to partial or total blindness of the affected eye. The pathogenesis of the keratopathy is still being disputed. The appraisal of the various surgical methods in trigeminal neuralgia always includes the frequent occurrence of a keratopathy. Among the 171 patients who were operated on in Halle because of trigeminal neuralgia in the last ten years no keratopathy was observed. In 12 cases a reduction or removal of the corneal reflex was brought about. On 8 patients a postganglionic intradural operation was carried out, all others received an electro-coagulation. The co-operation with the ophthalmologist is indispensable both prophylactically and therapeutically. PMID:6970469

  8. Model Reduction in Groundwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, W. W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Model reduction has been shown to be a very effective method for reducing the computational burden of large-scale simulations. Model reduction techniques preserve much of the physical knowledge of the system and primarily seek to remove components from the model that do not provide significant information of interest. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is a model reduction technique by which a system of ordinary equations is projected onto a much smaller subspace in such a way that the span of the subspace is equal to the span of the original full model space. Basically, the POD technique selects a small number of orthonormal basis functions (principal components) that span the spatial variability of the solutions. In this way the state variable (head) is approximated by a linear combination of these basis functions and, using a Galerkin projection, the dimension of the problem is significantly reduced. It has been shown that for a highly discritized model, the reduced model can be two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the original model and runs 1,000 faster. More importantly, the reduced model captures the dominating characteristics of the full model and produces sufficiently accurate solutions. One of the major tasks in the development of the reduced model is the selection of snapshots which are used to determine the dominant eigenvectors. This paper discusses ways to optimize the snapshot selection. Additionally, the paper also discusses applications of the reduced model to parameter estimation, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental design in groundwater modeling.

  9. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  10. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostka, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis.

  11. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kostka, J E; Nealson, K H

    1995-10-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis. PMID:11539843

  12. 40 CFR 63.78 - Early reduction demonstration evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation. 63.78 Section 63.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... reduction demonstration evaluation. (a) The permitting authority will evaluate an early reduction... been achieved; or (4) The emission of hazardous air pollutants or the performance of emission...

  13. Competing Explanations of Class Size Reduction Effects: The California Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Mitchell, Ross E.

    Competing explanations of class size reduction effects on student academic achievement were tested using student, teacher, and school data collected from nearly 700 classrooms in over 70 schools during the first 3 years of implementation of California's (K-3) Class Size Reduction Program. Five major hypotheses were tested: (1) overall impact of…

  14. Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, Steven W.

    2007-01-01

    This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…

  15. A Two-Dimensional Analysis of Achievement Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    1985-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between college student achievement and two other dimensions: cognitive complexity and the concreteness or abstractness of selected concepts. Although the level of abstractness alone did not influence achievement, the cognitive complexity of the item and the interaction of the two main effects was significant.…

  16. The Impact of Learning Time on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin; Wassmer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    As schools aim to raise student academic achievement levels and districts wrangle with decreased funding, it is essential to understand the relationship between learning time and academic achievement. Using regression analysis and a data set drawn from California's elementary school sites, we find a statistically significant and positive…

  17. The Achievement Impacts of Arkansas Open-Enrollment Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jonathan N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Arkansas charter schools on the academic achievement of participating students. Our findings are that charter schools have small but statistically significant, negative impacts on student achievements for both math and literacy. Such negative effects, however, tend to decline with the number of years of charter…

  18. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  19. Differences in Middle School Science Achievement by School District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Matthew James; Maxwell, Gerri M.; Holland, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in Texas middle school student achievement in science by school district enrollment size. Quantitative research utilized analysis of variance to determine whether significant differences existed between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8th grade science results and four school…

  20. Robert M. Finley Middle School: Building Community, Respect, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Robert M. Finley Middle School, a school that is considered by the entire Glen Cove, New York, community as important and successful. Gaps in student achievement have decreased significantly and all student achievement has improved over the last five years in this school, where nearly half of the 652 students are from…

  1. Student Participation and Parental Involvement in Relation to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…

  2. PV Inverter Products Manufacturing and Design Improvements for Cost Reduction and Performance Enhancements: Final Subcontract Report, November 2003 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.

    2004-04-01

    The specific objectives of this subcontracted development work by Xantrex Technology Inc. were to: (1) Capture the newest digital signal processor (DSP) technology to create high-impact,''next generation'' power conversion equipment for the PV industry; (2) Create a common resource base for three PV product lines. This standardized approach to both hardware and software control platforms will provide significant market advantage over foreign competition; (3) Achieve cost reductions through increased volume of common components, reduced assembly labor, and the higher efficiency of producing more products with fewer design, manufacturing, and production test variations; (4) Increase PV inverter product reliability. Reduce inverter size, weight and conversion losses. The contract goals were to achieve an overall cost reduction of 10% to 20% for the three inverters and with no compromise in performance. The cost of the 10-kW inverter was reduced by 56%, and the cost of the 25-kW inverter was reduced by 53%. The 2.5-kW inverter has no basis for comparison, but should benefit equally from this design approach. Not only were the contract cost reduction goals exceeded by a wide margin, but the performance and reliability of the products were also enhanced. The conversion efficiency improvement, as reflected in the 50% conversion loss reduction, adds significant value in renewable energy applications. The size and weight reductions also add value by providing less cumbersome product solutions for system designers.

  3. NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan cost reduction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost reduction studies were performed for the LCF459 turbotip fan for application with the YJ97-GE-100 gas generator in a multimission V/STOL research and technology aircraft. A 20 percent cost reduction of the research configuration based on the original preliminary design was achieved. The trade studies performed and the results in the area of cost reduction and weight are covered. A fan configuration is defined for continuation of the program through the detailed design phase.

  4. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  5. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  6. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  7. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  8. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  9. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  10. Quantifying Significance of MHC II Residues.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lu, Ruoshui; Wang, Lusheng; Andreatta, Massimo; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a cell-surface protein mediating immune recognition, plays important roles in the immune response system of all higher vertebrates. MHC molecules are highly polymorphic and they are grouped into serotypes according to the specificity of the response. It is a common belief that a protein sequence determines its three dimensional structure and function. Hence, the protein sequence determines the serotype. Residues play different levels of importance. In this paper, we quantify the residue significance with the available serotype information. Knowing the significance of the residues will deepen our understanding of the MHC molecules and yield us a concise representation of the molecules. In this paper we propose a linear programming-based approach to find significant residue positions as well as quantifying their significance in MHC II DR molecules. Among all the residues in MHC II DR molecules, 18 positions are of particular significance, which is consistent with the literature on MHC binding sites, and succinct pseudo-sequences appear to be adequate to capture the whole sequence features. When the result is used for classification of MHC molecules with serotype assigned by WHO, a 98.4 percent prediction performance is achieved. The methods have been implemented in java (http://code.google.com/p/quassi/). PMID:26355503

  11. Acrylamide reduction in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Hanley, A B; Offen, C; Clarke, M; Ing, B; Roberts, M; Burch, R

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of the formation of acrylamide in fried and baked foods containing high levels of starch and the amino acid asparagine, prompted widespread concern. Both processed and home cooked foods are affected and this has led to the increased study of variations in cooking and processing conditions to minimize formation. While changes in cooking protocols have been in part successful, particularly when lower frying and baking temperatures are used, pretreatments to reduce levels of acrylamide by prevention of formation or acceleration of destruction have been investigated. In this study, a range of pretreatments of grilled potato were investigated and compared with surface washing to remove asparagine and reducing sugars. Synergies were observed between different treatments, and reductions of up to 40% were achieved in a non-optimized system. PMID:16438313

  12. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  13. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  14. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low achieving (LA), and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph writing and topic sentence tasks. Tests of differences between LD and LA Ss revealed that spelling was the only formal feature which was significantly higher in the LA group.…

  15. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  16. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  17. LDRD report nonlinear model reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.; Heinstein, M.

    1997-09-01

    The very general problem of model reduction of nonlinear systems was made tractable by focusing on the very large subclass consisting of linear subsystems connected by nonlinear interfaces. Such problems constitute a large part of the nonlinear structural problems encountered in addressing the Sandia missions. A synthesis approach to this class of problems was developed consisting of: detailed modeling of the interface mechanics; collapsing the interface simulation results into simple nonlinear interface models; constructing system models by assembling model approximations of the linear subsystems and the nonlinear interface models. These system models, though nonlinear, would have very few degrees of freedom. A paradigm problem, that of machine tool vibration, was selected for application of the reduction approach outlined above. Research results achieved along the way as well as the overall modeling of a specific machine tool have been very encouraging. In order to confirm the interface models resulting from simulation, it was necessary to develop techniques to deduce interface mechanics from experimental data collected from the overall nonlinear structure. A program to develop such techniques was also pursued with good success.

  18. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  19. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  20. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    achieved. The physical changes in the rotor wake and aerodynamics associated with these reductions were also examined. It was found that using ACFs for active control does not significantly affect rotor trim. It was also observed that all flap deflection schedules were accompanied by a small rotor power penalty. In pioneering the computational study of the simultaneous rotor noise and vibration problem, this work represents a significant contribution to the field and serves as an important precursor to future rotorcraft research.