Science.gov

Sample records for achieving transformational materials

  1. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2016-07-12

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  2. Modeling of transformation toughening in brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    LeSar, R.; Rollett, A.D. ); Srolovitz, D.J. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-01-24

    Results from modeling of transformation toughening in brittle materials using a discrete micromechanical model are presented. The material is represented as a two-dimensional triangular array of nodes connected by elastic springs. Microstructural effects are included by varying the spring parameters for the bulk, grain boundaries, and transforming particles. Using the width of the damage zone and the effective compliance (after the initial creation of the damage zone) as measures of fracture toughness, we find that there is a strong dependence of toughness on the amount, size, and shape of the transforming particles, with the maximum toughness achieved with the higher amounts of the larger particles.

  3. Overlapping illusions by transformation optics without any negative refraction material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2016-01-11

    A novel method to achieve an overlapping illusion without any negative refraction index material is introduced with the help of the optic-null medium (ONM) designed by an extremely stretching spatial transformation. Unlike the previous methods to achieve such an optical illusion by transformation optics (TO), our method can achieve a power combination and reshape the radiation pattern at the same time. Unlike the overlapping illusion with some negative refraction index material, our method is not sensitive to the loss of the materials. Other advantages over existing methods are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the performance of the proposed devices.

  4. Overlapping illusions by transformation optics without any negative refraction material

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to achieve an overlapping illusion without any negative refraction index material is introduced with the help of the optic-null medium (ONM) designed by an extremely stretching spatial transformation. Unlike the previous methods to achieve such an optical illusion by transformation optics (TO), our method can achieve a power combination and reshape the radiation pattern at the same time. Unlike the overlapping illusion with some negative refraction index material, our method is not sensitive to the loss of the materials. Other advantages over existing methods are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the performance of the proposed devices. PMID:26751285

  5. Steps toward Transformation: One College's Achieving the Dream Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawna; Bower, Beverly L.

    2016-01-01

    Tarrant County College's Achieving the Dream transformation has not only changed the college but all who engaged in the initiative. In four years, through ATD TCC became a college with one purpose, one goal, and one focus--student success through data informed decision making. From TCC Chancellor Dr. Erma Johnson Hadley to campus administrators,…

  6. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  7. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  8. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  9. Transforming Space in the Curriculum Materials Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transforming space to facilitate and compliment learning has become an integral component in the redesign and renovation of academic libraries. This article offers a framework of discussion based on the redesign and renovation of the existing curriculum materials center at East Carolina University Joyner Library. The curriculum materials center,…

  10. Joint transform correlator employing electron trapping materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong X.; Storti, George M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1992-07-01

    Quantex's electron trapping (ET) materials are investigated as an integrated spatial light modulator (SLM) at the filter plane in a joint transform correlator (JTC). The ET based spatial light modulator can detect visible incoherent light, store an image pattern, and modulate the incoming coherent infrared light. Such a JTC architecture eliminates the electronic-to-optical and optical-to-electronic conversion between the square law detector and the next SLM in a joint transform correlator.

  11. Institutional Inertia to Achieving Diversity: Transforming Resistance into Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Nancy P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the problem of resistance to diversity as manifested in some institutions of higher education. It explores the mutually reinforcing dynamic between individuals and institutions in perpetuating existing structures and offers a pathway for transforming resistance into celebration of diversity by identifying sites where change can…

  12. NSF ADVANCE: Institutional Transformation to Achieve Faculty Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, E. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF ADVANCE initiative is designed to enhance gender equity in academic science and engineering faculty. One of its components - Institutional Transformation - has the goal of establishing strategies and policies that will revolutionize institutional climate so that diverse faculty flourish. The University of Texas at El Paso is one of 19 institutions to currently hold a 5-year grant under the Institutional Transformation program. This poster presentation highlights practices from the participating institutions. Two general aspects of the program are: 1) co-principal investigators are a blend of administrators and active researchers. This blend ensures a bottom-up, top-down approach to presenting gender equity to faculty. 2) Many of the investigators have diversity as their research focus, which is intended to result in rigorous, peer-reviewed dissemination of institutional results. Specific effors for all institutions relate to recruitment, retention, and advancement of female faculty and, by establishing equitable conditions, to improvement of the workplace for all faculty. To aid recruitment, institutions have committed faculty involved in the search process, including training of search committees in diversity strategies and interaction with candidates. A close working relationship with the campus EO officer is essential. Retention strategies center on mentoring, monetary support for research, and policy implementation. Policies focus on work-family balance. Advancement of females to important administrative and non-administrative leadership roles is the third focus. Workshops and seminars on leadership skills are common in the various institutions. Finally, a central theme of the program is that, in addition to specific strategies, institutions must articulate diversity as a core value and reflect on the means to actualize this value. More information on the NSF ADVANCE program, including links to the Institutional Transformation grantees, may be found on

  13. Reductions in transformer losses achieved by staggering lamination layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albir, R. S.; Moses, A. J.

    1989-05-01

    The total loss of identical 3-phase, 3-limb, mitred and staggered cores assembled from 0.3 mm thick, conventional high permeability and laser scribed grain oriented silicon iron have been compared. The croes built from conventional material produced the best improvements when staggered and these were chosen to carry out further investigation to examine the effect of the stacking number and the T-joint design on the power loss of the cores. The power loss generally increased as the stagger length was increased, but an optimum stagger length range was determined at which the power loss was lowest. The percentage improvement in the power loss due to the introduction of the staggered technique is dependent upon the orientation of the material and the T-joint design. The best loss reduction compared to a mitred core of the same rating was around 5% using a core assembled from conventional material.

  14. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement.

  15. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. PMID:25432618

  16. Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks—structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio ν>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with ν≈0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.

  17. [Problems and solutions on transformation of scientific research achievements of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai-Pin; Ren, Yu-Lan; Li, Ji; Chen, Liang; Shu, Hong-Ping; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-08-01

    With more and more attention and investment on acupuncture scientific researches, considerable outcomes and achievements has been acquired, but the shortcoming of low transformation rate of acupuncture research achievements is gradually exposed. Nowadays there is no related report on this problem, so based on achievement translational research in other areas and practical situation of acupuncture, the existing problems and solutions are analyzed. As a result, the existing problems include (1) the research content is mainly basic research and clinical research but less acupuncture device research, leading to limited transformation efficiency; (2) the evaluation system and transformation pattern are still needed to be perfect. The solutions are (1) to properly evaluate the research achievements of acupuncture, (2) to advocate the concept and method of translational medicine, (3) to reform the policy and system, and (4) to establish valid platforms covering research, outcomes and transformation.

  18. Changing Apples into Pears--Transforming Existing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hayley J.; Smith, Alison J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the prereading material for an introductory banking course at the Loughborough University Business School (United Kingdom) was transformed into a distance learning package. Highlights include a review of relevant literature; a transformation model; and evaluation of the transformation process and of the distance learning package.…

  19. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  20. Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…

  1. Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    In this timely and thoughtful book, Andrew Zucker argues that technology can and will play a central role in efforts to achieve crucial education goals, and that it will be an essential component of further improvement and transformation of schools. The book is marked not only by Zucker's cutting-edge sophistication about digital technologies, but…

  2. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  3. Does Leadership Matter? Examining the Relationship among Transformational Leadership, School Climate, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy; Grigsby, Bettye; Peters, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, school climate, and student mathematics and reading achievement. Survey data were collected from a purposeful sample of elementary school principals and a convenience sample of his or her respective teachers located in a small suburban…

  4. School and Community Wellness: Transforming Achievement Using a Holistic Orientation to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Rick; Beck, Ellen; Alvarado, Jose Luis; Pang, Valerie Ooka

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive school and community wellness plan was developed and implemented to transform "Lemon Grove Academy" for the Sciences and Humanities, an urban school, where student achievement and faculty satisfaction has soared. The school has become the center for the local neighborhood where culture, language, and equity are valued.…

  5. Shear Transformation Zones in Granular Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Behringer, R. P.

    2004-11-01

    An important issue for a number of systems, including granular materials and molecular solids is how to describe plastic deformation at the microscale. Recently, Falk, Langer and Lemaitre have proposed a scheme for irreversible (plastic) microscopic processes that is based on the idea of non-affice localized deformations. The basic idea is to examine that part of microscopic deformations that cannot be describe in terms of a smooth affine deformation. The rms difference between affine and non-affine deformations is called D^2. We have measured D^2 for a 2D granular Couette flow, in which photoelastic particles contained in an annulus are sheared by an inner rotating wheel. We find that the rate of production of D^2 scales with the local radially dependent shear rate, γ, and that D^2 is directly proportionally to the locally determinded diffusivity, D. Distributions of D^2 for various r's have a universal form P(D^2) ∝ D^2 exp (D^2/D_o).

  6. Electromagnetic concentrators with reduced material parameters based on coordinate transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Lan; Ma, Junxian; Wang, Changtao; Cui, Jianhua; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang

    2008-07-21

    Omni-directional electromagnetic field concentrators have been recently reported by Marco Rahm et al. [Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008)] based on form-invariant coordinate transformations related to its Jacobi transformation matrix. Using transverse-electric wave illumination, we reduced the complex material parameters of the concentrator for future practical implementation. Concentrators with different set of permittivity and permeability tensors are proposed. The electromagnetic concentrating performance and the scattering properties at the inner and outer boundary of these concentrators are theoretically and numerically analyzed. Finally we obtain a set of material tensors for a concentrator that simultaneously has perfect matched interior and exterior interfaces.

  7. Enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of a phase-transforming material.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao; Chen, Xian; Dabade, Vivekanand; Shield, Thomas W; James, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Materials undergoing reversible solid-to-solid martensitic phase transformations are desirable for applications in medical sensors and actuators, eco-friendly refrigerators and energy conversion devices. The ability to pass back and forth through the phase transformation many times without degradation of properties (termed 'reversibility') is critical for these applications. Materials tuned to satisfy a certain geometric compatibility condition have been shown to exhibit high reversibility, measured by low hysteresis and small migration of transformation temperature under cycling. Recently, stronger compatibility conditions called the 'cofactor conditions' have been proposed theoretically to achieve even better reversibility. Here we report the enhanced reversibility and unusual microstructure of the first martensitic material, Zn45Au30Cu25, that closely satisfies the cofactor conditions. We observe four striking properties of this material. (1) Despite a transformation strain of 8%, the transformation temperature shifts less than 0.5 °C after more than 16,000 thermal cycles. For comparison, the transformation temperature of the ubiquitous NiTi alloy shifts up to 20 °C in the first 20 cycles. (2) The hysteresis remains approximately 2 °C during this cycling. For comparison, the hysteresis of the NiTi alloy is up to 70 °C (refs 9, 12). (3) The alloy exhibits an unusual riverine microstructure of martensite not seen in other martensites. (4) Unlike that of typical polycrystal martensites, its microstructure changes drastically in consecutive transformation cycles, whereas macroscopic properties such as transformation temperature and latent heat are nearly reproducible. These results promise a concrete strategy for seeking ultra-reliable martensitic materials.

  8. Transformation of CO2 to Value-Added Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Rebecca Shu Hui; Luo, He-Kuan; Braunstein, Pierre; Hor, T. S. Andy

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an attractive C1 resource because it is cheap and abundant and its more extensive use would be beneficial for the environment. However, its high thermodynamic stability and poor reactivity have seriously limited its utilization as a ready carbon source. The scientific challenges facing CO2 transformation are accordingly very attractive. This paper summarizes recent advances made in transformation of CO2 to value-added high-molecular-weight materials such as polymers, star-shaped molecules and nanocarbons.

  9. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  10. Challenges in Materials Transformation Modeling for Polyolefins Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shih-Yaw; Swogger, Kurt W.

    2004-06-01

    Unlike most published polymer processing and/or forming research, the transformation of polyolefins to fabricated articles often involves non-confined flow or so-called free surface flow (e.g. fiber spinning, blown films, and cast films) in which elongational flow takes place during a fabrication process. Obviously, the characterization and validation of extensional rheological parameters and their use to develop rheological constitutive models are the focus of polyolefins materials transformation research. Unfortunately, there are challenges that remain with limited validation for non-linear, non-isothermal constitutive models for polyolefins. Further complexity arises in the transformation of polyolefins in the elongational flow system as it involves stress-induced crystallization process. The complicated nature of elongational, non-linear rheology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics make the development of numerical methods very challenging for the polyolefins materials forming modeling. From the product based company standpoint, the challenges of materials transformation research go beyond elongational rheology, crystallization kinetics and its numerical modeling. In order to make models useful for the polyolefin industry, it is critical to develop links between molecular parameters to both equipment and materials forming parameters. The recent advances in the constrained geometry catalysis and materials sciences understanding (INSITE technology and molecular design capability) has made industrial polyolefinic materials forming modeling more viable due to the fact that the molecular structure of the polymer can be well predicted and controlled during the polymerization. In this paper, we will discuss inter-relationship (models) among molecular parameters such as polymer molecular weight (Mw), molecular weight distribution (MWD), long chain branching (LCB), short chain branching (SCB or comonomer types and distribution) and their affects on shear and

  11. Closing the Student Achievement Gap in California's Elementary Schools: A Lead Teachers' Perspective on Transformational Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    This study has tackled the thorny problem of closing the Student Achievement Gap (SAG) in California's elementary schools. To address that problem, an "Integrated" form of educational leadership called Transformational Instructional Leadership (TIL), a form grounded in "best practices" of Transformational and Instructional leadership, was…

  12. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  13. What have health care reforms achieved in Turkey? An appraisal of the "Health Transformation Programme".

    PubMed

    Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Çakar, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Poor health status indicators, low quality care, inequity in the access to health services and inefficiency due to fragmented health financing and provision have long been problems in Turkey's health system. To address these problems a radical reform process known as the Health Transformation Programme (HTP) was initiated in 2003. The health sector reforms in Turkey are considered to have been among the most successful of middle-income countries undergoing reform. Numerous articles have been published that review these reforms in terms of, variously, financial sustainability, efficiency, equity and quality. Evidence suggests that Turkey has indeed made significant progress, yet these achievements are uneven among its regions, and their long-term financial sustainability is unresolved due to structural problems in employment. As yet, there is no comprehensive evidence-based analysis of how far the stated reform objectives have been achieved. This article reviews the empirical evidence regarding the outcomes of the HTP during 10 years of its implementation. Strengthening the strategic purchasing function of the Social Security Institution (SSI) should be a priority. Overall performance can be improved by linking resource allocation to provider performance. More emphasis on prevention rather than treatment, with an effective referral chain, can also bring better outcomes, greater efficiency gains and contribute to sustainability. PMID:26183890

  14. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  15. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  16. TRANSTRAIN: A program to compute strain transformations in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, R.

    1990-07-01

    Over the years, the solid rocket motor community has made increasing use of composite materials for thermal and structural applications. This is particularly true of solid rocket nozzles, which have used carbon phenolic and, increasingly, carbon-carbon materials to provide structural integrity and thermal protection at the high temperatures encountered during motor burn. To evaluate the degree of structural performance of nozzles and their materials and to verify analysis models, many subscale and full-scale tests are run. These provide engineers with valuable data needed to optimize design and to analyze nozzle hardware. Included among these data are strains, pressures, thrust, temperatures, and displacements. Recent nozzle test hardware has made increasing use of strain gauges embedded in the carbon composite material to measure internal strains. In order to evaluate strength, these data must be transformed into strains along the fiber directions. The fiber-direction stresses can then be calculated. A computer program written to help engineers correctly manipulate the strain data into a form that can be used to evaluate structural integrity of the nozzle is examined.

  17. Transformation of layered polyoxometallate cluster salts into mesoporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, B.T.; Isbester, P.K.; Munson, E.J.; Stein, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1999-02-01

    A new approach to the formation of mesoporous materials has been developed, based on a two-step salt-gel'' synthesis, in which mesoporous aluminophosphates, galloaluminophosphates, and aluminosilicates have been created. The first step involves pre-organizing charged inorganic clusters (MO[sub 4]Al[sub 12](OH)[sub 24](H[sub 2]O)[sub 12][sup 7+], M = Al or Ga) into a layered mesoscopic material with oppositely charged organic surfactant molecules. In the second step, phosphate or silicate linker molecules are added, which diffuse through the cluster/surfactant salt, react with the clusters, and transform the layered precursor into a non-lamellar mesostructured material. Removal of the surfactant from the alumino- and galloaluminophosphates by anion-exchange and from the aluminosilicates by calcination results in mesoporous materials with BET surface areas up to 630, 455, and 431 m[sup 2]/g, respectively. Direct condensation by calcination of polyoxoaluminate cluster salts without additional linkers produces nanometer-sized one-dimensional strings.

  18. TRANSTRAIN: A program to compute strain transformations in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, the solid rocket motor community has made increasing use of composite materials for thermal and structural applications. This is particularly true of solid rocket nozzles, which have used carbon phenolic and, increasingly, carbon-carbon materials to provide structural integrity and thermal protection at the high temperatures encountered during motor burn. To evaluate the degree of structural performance of nozzles and their materials and to verify analysis models, many subscale and full-scale tests are run. These provide engineers with valuable data needed to optimize design and to analyze nozzle hardware. Included among these data are strains, pressures, thrust, temperatures, and displacements. Recent nozzle test hardware has made increasing use of strain gauges embedded in the carbon composite material to measure internal strains. In order to evaluate strength, these data must be transformed into strains along the fiber directions. The fiber-direction stresses can then be calculated. A computer program written to help engineers correctly manipulate the strain data into a form that can be used to evaluate structural integrity of the nozzle is examined.

  19. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

    2009-10-11

    As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

  20. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  1. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  2. Principals' Perspectives on How Transformational, Instructional, and Managerial Leadership Practices Influence Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of a global school reform movement, defining the extent of a principal's influence on teacher effectiveness and student achievement is essential. A principal must be more than a manager, but also a transformational and an instructional leader. This concurrent mix methods study incorporated guided interviews and an online survey…

  3. Phosphate sludge: thermal transformation and use as lightweight aggregate material.

    PubMed

    Loutou, M; Hajjaji, M; Mansori, M; Favotto, C; Hakkou, R

    2013-11-30

    Phosphate sludge generated from beneficiation plants of Moroccan phosphate rocks was investigated at 900-1200 °C by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Mixtures of the phosphate sludge and a swelling clay (up to 30 wt.%) were investigated and their properties (shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength) were measured as a function of temperature and clay addition. The results showed that gehlenite neoformed from lime of decomposed carbonates and breakdown products of clay minerals and that fluorapatite (original mineral) resisted heating until fusion. The measured properties were mainly controlled by temperature, and the effect of clay addition was less regular, except for water absorption. Considering the mixtures densities (1.44-3.02 g/cm(3)), lightweight agglomerates can be produced at 900 or 1100 °C, but their compressive strengths were relatively low (2-4.5 MPa). Based on SiO2-Al2O3-Fluxes diagram and taking account of the chemical composition of the materials used, the production of expanded aggregates requires clay additions as high as 80 wt.%.

  4. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  5. Diversity and Achievement: Is Success in Higher Education a Transformative Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robyn; Heagney, Margaret; Hewitt, Lesley; Crosling, Glenda; Devos, Anita

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal project examining how a group of students from diverse backgrounds succeeded in higher education. The project explored participants' pathways into higher education, how they managed their studies, and their reflections at course completion. In this paper, the concept of perspective transformation is used…

  6. The Hands-On Guide to School Improvement: Transform Culture, Empower Teachers, and Raise Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle-Robins, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    This no-nonsense handbook from a working principal helps school leaders bring transformational change to struggling or underperforming schools. Based on the wisdom and experience gained during the author's years as a teacher and principal in Chicago public schools, the book shows you how to become a visionary leader and build a culture of respect…

  7. The Effects of Color vs. Black and White Learning Materials on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Verletta M.

    This paper examines and summarizes the findings of recent research literature on the effects of color versus black and white learning materials on academic achievement in order to determine if the effect of the color variable is significant enough to warrant the added expense of purchasing colored instructional materials for primary school…

  8. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  9. How Technology Can Transform Student Achievement: An Interview with Dr. Michele Hancock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, Michele Hancock, EdD, became the 14th superintendent of the Kenosha Unified School District (KUSD), the third largest Wisconsin school district, with 42 schools and a student population of almost 23,000 students. She arrived with a strong vision to improve student achievement by adjusting educational methods to harmonize with the new…

  10. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  11. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations in Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Marzari, Nicola

    2011-08-31

    The aim of this project is to develop and apply computational materials science tools to determine and predict critical properties of hydrogen storage materials. By better understanding the absorption/desorption mechanisms and characterizing their physical properties it is possible to explore and evaluate new directions for hydrogen storage materials. Particular emphasis is on the determination of the structure and thermodynamics of hydrogen storage materials, the investigation of microscopic mechanisms of hydrogen uptake and release in various materials and the role of catalysts in this process. As a team we have decided to focus on a single material, NaAlH{sub 4}, in order to fully be able to study the many aspects of hydrogen storage. We have focused on phase stability, mass transport and size-dependent reaction mechanisms in this material.

  12. Achieving clinical statement interoperability using R-MIM and archetype-based semantic transformations.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozgur; Dogac, Asuman

    2009-07-01

    Effective use of electronic healthcare records (EHRs) has the potential to positively influence both the quality and the cost of health care. Consequently, sharing patient's EHRs is becoming a global priority in the healthcare information technology domain. This paper addresses the interoperability of EHR structure and content. It describes how two different EHR standards derived from the same reference information model (RIM) can be mapped to each other by using archetypes, refined message information model (R-MIM) derivations, and semantic tools. It is also demonstrated that well-defined R-MIM derivation rules help tracing the class properties back to their origins when the R-MIMs of two EHR standards are derived from the same RIM. Using well-defined rules also enable finding equivalences in the properties of the source and target EHRs. Yet an R-MIM still defines the concepts at the generic level. Archetypes (or templates), on the other hand, constrain an R-MIM to domain-specific concepts, and hence, provide finer granularity semantics. Therefore, while mapping clinical statements between EHRs, we also make use of the archetype semantics. Derivation statements are inferred from the Web Ontology Language definitions of the RIM, the R-MIMs, and the archetypes. Finally, we show how to transform Health Level Seven clinical statement instances to EHRcom clinical statement instances and vice versa by using the generated mapping definitions.

  13. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  14. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  15. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  16. Classical electrodynamics in material media and relativistic transformation of magnetic dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the relativistic transformation of the magnetic dipole moment and disclose its physical meaning, shedding light on the related difficulties in the physical interpretation of classical electrodynamics in material media.

  17. An Investigation of Ferrite and Nanocrystalline Core Materials for Medium-Frequency Power Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Selami; Sefa, Ibrahim; Altin, Necmi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, two transformers are designed using the ferrite N87 and the nanocrystalline core materials for the same power level and operating frequency. The operating frequency is defined as 10 kHz, which is suitable for both materials. Modeling and simulation studies have been performed with the same finite element analysis software and the obtained results have been reported. The nanocrystalline and the ferrite N87 core materials have been compared according to both electrical and mechanical parameters. In these comparisons, many features such as core and winding losses, flux distributions, leakage flux, efficiency, and both electrical and mechanical performance have been reported comparatively in the case of rectangular waveform excitation of the transformer. Obtained results show that the weight and the volume of the transformer are reduced and more compact transformer is designed by using the nanocrystalline core material. In addition, besides the core loss, winding losses are also reduced in this design.

  18. Does Transformational Leadership Encourage Teachers' Use of Digital Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Acker, Frederik; Kreijns, Karel; van Buuren, Hans

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into how to promote teachers' use of digital learning materials (DLMs) in their pedagogical practices we adopted the Integrated Model of Behaviour Prediction to investigate the relationships between organizational and teacher-related variables. A representative sample of 772 teachers from primary, secondary or vocational education…

  19. Characterization, Modeling, and Energy Harvesting of Phase Transformations in Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenda

    Solid state phase transformations can be induced through mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading in ferroelectric materials that are compositionally close to morphotropic phase boundaries. Large changes in strain, polarization, compliance, permittivity, and coupling properties are typically observed across the phase transformation regions and are phenomena of interest for energy harvesting and transduction applications where increased coupling behavior is desired. This work characterized and modeled solid state phase transformations in ferroelectric materials and assessed the potential of phase transforming materials for energy harvesting applications. Two types of phase transformations were studied. The first type was ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic observed in lead indium niobate lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) and driven by deviatoric stress, temperature, and electric field. The second type of phase transformation is ferroelectric to antiferroelectric observed in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and driven by pressure, temperature, and electric field. Experimental characterizations of the phase transformations were conducted in both PIN-PMN-PT and PZT in order to understand the thermodynamic characteristics of the phase transformations and map out the phase stability of both materials. The ferroelectric materials were characterized under combinations of stress, electric field, and temperature. Material models of phase transforming materials were developed using a thermodynamic based variant switching technique and thermodynamic observations of the phase transformations. These models replicate the phase transformation behavior of PIN-PMN-PT and PZT under mechanical and electrical loading conditions. The switching model worked in conjunction with linear piezoelectric equations as ferroelectric/ferroelastic constitutive equations within a finite element framework that solved the mechanical and electrical field equations

  20. Potential of organic filter materials for treating greywater to achieve irrigation quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Hylander, Lars D; Vinnerås, Björn; Pell, Mikael; Oborn, Ingrid; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this literature review were to: (i) evaluate the impact of greywater generated in rural communities, with the emphasis on Jordanian conditions, on soil, plant and public health and assess the need for treatment of this greywater before it is used for irrigation, and (ii) assess the potential of different types of organic by-products as carrier material in different filter units for removal of pollutants from greywater. Greywater with high BOD5, COD, high concentrations of SS, fat, oil and grease and high levels of surfactants is commonly found in rural areas in Jordan. Oxygen depletion, odour emission, hydrophobic soil phenomena, plant toxicity, blockage of piping systems and microbiological health risks are common problems associated with greywater without previous treatment. Organic by-products such as wood chips, bark, peat, wheat straw and corncob may be used as carrier material in so-called mulch filters for treating wastewater and greywater from different sources. A down-flow-mode vertical filter is a common setup used in mulch filters. Wastewaters with a wide range of SS, cBOD5 and COD fed into different mulch filters have been studied. The different mulch materials achieved SS removal ranging between 51 and 91%, a BOD5 reduction range of 55-99.9%, and COD removal of 51-98%. Most types of mulches achieved a higher organic matter removal than that achieved by an ordinary septic tank. Bark, peat and wood chips filters removed organic matter better than sand and trickling filters, under similar conditions. Release of filter material and increase in COD in the effluent was reported using some mulch materials. In conclusion, some mulch materials such as bark, peat and woodchips seem to have a great potential for treatment of greywater in robust, low-tech systems. They can be expected to be resilient in dealing with variable low and high organic loads and shock loads.

  1. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  2. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  3. Fuel salt and container material studies for MOSART transforming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Zagnitko, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Subbotin, V.; Gordeev, M.; Panov, A.; Toropov, A.

    2013-07-01

    A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycling and Transmuting system without and with Th support (MOSART) fuelled with different compositions of actinide tri-fluorides (AnF{sub 3}) from used LWR fuel. New fast-spectrum design options with homogeneous core and fuel salts with high enough solubility for AnF{sub 3} are being examined because of new goals. The flexibility of single fluid MOSART concept with Th support is underlined, particularly, possibility of its operation in self-sustainable mode (Conversion Ratio: CR=1) using different loadings and make up. The paper summarizes the most current status of fuel salt and container material data for the MOSART concept received within ISTC-3749 and ROSATOM-MARS projects. Key physical and chemical properties of various fluoride fuel salts are reported. The issues like salt purification, the electroreduction of U(IV) to U(III) in LiF-ThF{sub 4} and the electroreduction of Yb(III) to Yb(II) in LiF-NaF are detailed.

  4. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  5. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  6. Fourier transform profilometry for water waves: how to achieve clean water attenuation with diffusive reflection at the water surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przadka, A.; Cabane, B.; Pagneux, V.; Maurel, A.; Petitjeans, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present a study of the damping of capillary-gravity waves in water containing pigments. The practical interest comes from a recent profilometry technique (FTP for Fourier Transform Profilometry) using fringe projection onto the liquid-free surface. This experimental technique requires diffusive reflection of light on the liquid surface, which is usually achieved by adding white pigments. It is shown that the use of most paint pigments causes a large enhancement of the damping of the waves. Indeed, these paints contain surfactants which are easily adsorbed at the air-water interface. The resulting surface film changes the attenuation properties because of the resonance-type damping between capillary-gravity waves and Marangoni waves. We study the physicochemical properties of coloring pigments, showing that particles of the anatase (TiO2) pigment make the water surface light diffusive while avoiding any surface film effects. The use of the chosen particles allows to perform space-time resolved FTP measurements on capillary-gravity waves, in a liquid with the damping properties of pure water.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Relative Achievement of a First Grade Group Using Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program Material and a First Grade Using Traditional Mathematics Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budgy, Joseph Vincent

    Reported are the results of a study which compared achievement following use of Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program (GCMP) materials with achievement following traditional materials. Growth in mathematical competency was used to compare treatment groups, groups subdivided by intelligence, and groups determined by sex. Three elementary school…

  8. Novel Material Designed to Achieve Greater Tunability of Magnetic Dynamo Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casara, J. G.; Brown, E.

    2013-12-01

    We propose to use a novel material for dynamo experiments, creating suspensions of magnetic particles in liquid metals. These suspensions combine the conductive nature of liquid metals with the magnetic permeabilities of the particles, allowing much higher magnetic Reynolds numbers than previous liquid-metal experiments. Additionally, by adjusting the packing fraction φ of non-magnetic or magnetic particles in suspension, we can tune the viscosity and permeability respectively, thus achieving independent control of Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers over a wide range of parameter space. We will report rheology measurements showing that liquid metal suspensions of 10μm diameter iron powders in a eutectic mixture of gallium and indium exhibit Newtonian viscosity with the expected increase in viscosity with φ up to φ = 0.22. Preliminary investigation into the magnetic properties of these suspensions has suggested that magnetic permeabilities are proportional to the packing fraction and inherent permeability of the suspended particles. These results confirm that the resulting Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers will be highly tunable and straightforward to predict based on the proportions and properties of the suspension materials. The flow curve for suspensions of iron powder in eutectic gallium and indium exhibit Newtonian-like behavior for packing fractions φ below φ = 0.22. The viscosities of suspensions of iron powder in a eutectic mixture of gallium and indium follow a Krieger-Dougherty curve, providing more evidence that the material behaves in a Newtonian-like manner.

  9. Design strategies for achieving high triplet energy electron transporting host materials for blue electrophosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Vecchi, Paul A.; Qiao, Hong; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-12-01

    High efficiency small molecule organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) based on light emission from an electrophosphorescent dopant dispersed in an organic host matrix are well known. Achieving blue phosphorescent OLEDs is particularly challenging because the host triplet energy should ideally be > 2.8 eV to prevent back-transfer of energy from the dopant to the host matrix resulting in loss of efficiency. A design strategy for developing new host materials with high triplet energies by using phosphine oxide (P=O) moieties as points of saturation in order to build sublimable, electron transporting host materials starting from small, wide bandgap molecular building blocks (i.e., biphenyl, phenyl, naphthalene, octafluorobiphenyl, and N-ethylcarbazole) is described. Electrophosphorescent OLEDs using the organic phosphine oxide compounds as host materials for the sky blue organometallic phosphor, iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2’) picolinate (FIrpic) give maximum external quantum efficiencies of ~ 8% and maximum luminance power efficiencies up to 25 lm/W.

  10. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2005-03-29

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  11. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2007-11-27

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  12. Transformation optical design of a bending waveguide by use of isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojiong; Lin, Zhifang; Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2009-11-01

    Based on the effective medium theory, we designed a simplified transformation media bending waveguide by use of only three kinds of isotropic material in an alternating layered structure. The design can be used to guide incoming waves smoothly along the bending part of a waveguide with slight distortions. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate its functionality.

  13. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  14. Research Opportunities Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration from the Transformation of the Former Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Szofran, Frank; Bassler, Julie A.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Cook, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Program established a strong research capability through partnerships between NASA and the scientific research community. With the announcement of the vision for space exploration, additional emphasis in strategic materials science areas was necessary. The President's Commission recognized that achieving its exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as "enabling technologies." Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were: advanced structures, advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity systems; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis, biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. Mission success may depend upon use of local resources to fabricate a replacement part to repair a critical system. Future propulsion systems will require materials with a wide range of mechanical, thermophysical, and thermochemical properties, many of them well beyond capabilities of today's materials systems. Materials challenges have also been identified by experts working to develop advanced life support systems. In responding to the vision for space exploration, the Microgravity Materials Science Program aggressively transformed its research portfolio and focused materials science areas of emphasis to include space radiation shielding; in situ fabrication and repair for life support systems; in situ resource utilization for life support consumables; and advanced materials for exploration, including materials science for space propulsion systems and for life support systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the scientific community of these new research directions and opportunities to utilize their materials science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  15. What Is More Important for Fourth-Grade Primary School Students for Transforming Their Potential into Achievement: The Individual or the Environmental Box in Multidimensional Conceptions of Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Steinbach, Julia; Obergriesser, Stefanie; Matthes, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Multidimensional models of giftedness specify individual and environmental moderators or catalysts that help transform potential into achievement. However, these models do not state whether the importance of the "individual boxes" and the "environmental boxes" changes during this process. The present study examines whether,…

  16. A Study of Relationship between Principals' Self-Reported Degree of Transformational Leadership and Students' Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A non-experimental research study was performed in which the researcher investigated the relationship between principals' use of transformational leadership practices and students' reading and mathematics achievement. A sample of principals from 2,500 randomly selected elementary, middle, and high schools in New York State were recruited…

  17. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Report "Transforming the High School Experience: How New York City's New Small Schools Are Boosting Student Achievement and Graduation Rates"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Transforming the High School Experience: How New York City's New Small Schools Are Boosting Student Achievement and Graduation Rates" examined whether winning an admissions lottery for a small school of choice improved high school students' progress toward graduation and graduation rates. The study analyzed data on more than 21,000 students in…

  18. The Effects of Aural versus Notated Instructional Materials on Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Jazz Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the…

  19. Fast Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Crystalline Materials and Dynamic Phase Transformations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Ren Liang; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Spoerke, Erik David; Pan, Wei; Zuo, Jian Min

    2016-04-13

    Atomic-scale phenomena fundamentally influence materials form and function that makes the ability to locally probe and study these processes critical to advancing our understanding and development of materials. Atomic-scale chemical imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a powerful approach to investigate solid crystal structures. Inefficient X-ray emission and collection, however, require long acquisition times (typically hundreds of seconds), making the technique incompatible with electron-beam sensitive materials and study of dynamic material phenomena. Here we describe an atomic-scale STEM-EDS chemical imaging technique that decreases the acquisition time to as little as one second, a reduction of more than 100 times. We demonstrate this new approach using LaAlO3 single crystal and study dynamic phase transformation in beam-sensitive Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) lithium ion battery cathode material. By capturing a series of time-lapsed chemical maps, we show for the first time clear atomic-scale evidence of preferred Ni-mobility in LNMO transformation, revealing new kinetic mechanisms. These examples highlight the potential of this approach toward temporal, atomic-scale mapping of crystal structure and chemistry for investigating dynamic material phenomena.

  20. Meta-lens design with low permittivity dielectric materials through smart transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhyun; Shin, Dongheok; Choi, Seungjae; Yoo, Do-Sik; Seo, Ilsung; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-09-01

    We report here a design method based on smart transformation optics (STO) to control the range of the permittivity values of the materials required to manufacture transformation optics devices. In particular, we show that it is possible to reduce the maximum electric permittivity value required to realize a STO device with certain functionality by means of a simple conceptual elastic stretching process. We illustrate the design procedure with two types of collimator meta-lens designs, which we call warping space collimator meta-lens and half fisheye collimator meta-lens, respectively. We provide design examples of these two types of lenses with the help of COMSOL Multiphysics software. These two design examples are fabricated with commonly available dielectric materials by means of 3D printing technology. For the functional verification of these two collimator lenses, we provide measurement results obtained with transverse electric waves of frequency range 7-13GHz.

  1. Interfacial Donor-Acceptor Engineering of Nanofiber Materials To Achieve Photoconductivity and Applications.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ling

    2015-10-20

    Self-assembly of π-conjugate molecules often leads to formation of well-defined nanofibril structures dominated by the columnar π-π stacking between the molecular planes. These nanofibril materials have drawn increasing interest in the research frontiers of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, as the nanofibers demonstrate one-dimensionally enhanced exciton and charge diffusion along the long axis, and present great potential for varying optoelectronic applications, such as sensors, optics, photovoltaics, and photocatalysis. However, poor electrical conductivity remains a technical drawback for these nanomaterials. To address this problem, we have developed a series of nanofiber structures modified with different donor-acceptor (D-A) interfaces that are tunable for maximizing the photoinduced charge separation, thus leading to increase in the electrical conductivity. The D-A interface can be constructed with covalent linker or noncovalent interaction (e.g., hydrophobic interdigitation between alkyl chains). The noncovalent method is generally more flexible for molecular design and solution processing, making it more adaptable to be applied to other fibril nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes. In this Account, we will discuss our recent discoveries in these research fields, aiming to provide deep insight into the enabling photoconductivity of nanofibril materials, and the dependence on interface structure. The photoconductivity generated with the nanofibril material is proportional to the charge carriers density, which in turn is determined by the kinetics balance of the three competitive charge transfer processes: (1) the photoinduced electron transfer from D to A (also referred to as exciton dissociation), generating majority charge carrier located in the nanofiber; (2) the back electron transfer; and (3) the charge delocalization along the nanofiber mediated by the π-π stacking interaction. The relative rates of these charge transfer processes can be tuned by

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Low-k Dielectric Material on Patterned Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Jeffrey Chorkeung; Tan, Hao; Huang, Maggie Yamin; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Handong; Shen, Zexiang; Mai, Zhihong

    2012-11-01

    With many of research on Fourier transform IR (FTIR) on low-k materials, our experiments extended the FTIR spectroscopy application to characterization and analysis of the low-k dielectric thin film properties on patterned wafers. FTIR spectra on low-k materials were successfully captured under three sampling modes: reflection, attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and mapping mode. ATR mode is more suitable for CHx band than reflection mode due to its higher sensitivity in this range. FTIR spectroscopy signal analysis on mixed structures (metal and low-k dielectric material) on patterned wafers was also investigated with mapping mode. Based on our investigation, FTIR can be used for low-k material studies on patterned wafer.

  3. CORRE: A Framework for Evaluating and Transforming Teaching Materials into Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikoi, Samuel K.; Rowlett, Tania; Armellini, Alejandro; Witthaus, Gabi

    2011-01-01

    Open education resources (OER) are taking centre-stage in many higher educational institutions globally, driven by the need to raise institutional profiles, improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning and achieve universal access to education. Many academics attracted to the idea of turning teaching materials into OER have, however, found…

  4. Fast x-ray microdiffraction techniques for studying irreversible transformations in materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. T.; Trenkle, J. C.; Koerner, L. J.; Barron, S. C.; Walker, N.; Pouliquen, P. O.; Tate, M. W.; Gruner, S. M.; Dufresne, E. M.; Weihs, T. P.; Hufnagel, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    A pair of techniques have been developed for performing time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction on irreversible phase transformations. In one technique capillary optics are used to focus a high-flux broad-spectrum X-ray beam to a 60 {micro}m spot size and a fast pixel array detector is used to achieve temporal resolution of 55 {micro}s. In the second technique the X-rays are focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors to achieve a spatial resolution better than 10 {micro}m and a fast shutter is used to provide temporal resolution better than 20 {micro}s while recording the diffraction pattern on a (relatively slow) X-ray CCD camera. Example data from experiments are presented where these techniques are used to study self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reactions in metal laminate foils.

  5. Fast X-ray microdiffraction techniques for studying irreversible transformations in materials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Trenkle, Jonathan C.; Koerner, Lucas J.; Barron, Sara C.; Walker, Nöel; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Hufnagel, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    A pair of techniques have been developed for performing time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction on irreversible phase transformations. In one technique capillary optics are used to focus a high-flux broad-spectrum X-ray beam to a 60 µm spot size and a fast pixel array detector is used to achieve temporal resolution of 55 µs. In the second technique the X-rays are focused with Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors to achieve a spatial resolution better than 10 µm and a fast shutter is used to provide temporal resolution better than 20 µs while recording the diffraction pattern on a (relatively slow) X-ray CCD camera. Example data from experiments are presented where these techniques are used to study self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reactions in metal laminate foils. PMID:21525656

  6. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  7. Harnessing the Potential of Constructive Develop-Mental Pedagogy to Achieve Transformative Learning in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCusker, Pearse

    2013-01-01

    This project starts with the contention that social work education must challenge students to reframe their knowledge and assumptions to prepare them for working with oppressed groups and develop emancipatory practice. Using transformative learning theory, constructive developmental pedagogy and related approaches, it explored the extent to which…

  8. The Rite of Relocation: Social and Material Transformations in the Midwest US

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Concerns of appropriate housing may arise in older adulthood. Some older adults may make life work in the place we call home; others take steps to voluntarily relocate in anticipation of health and other needs. While moving at any age can be challenging, moving from one’s home in later life also represents multiple reflections: past, present and future selves, control of one’s space and relinquishing the care of one’s space to another person or corporation, family support and family fissures, and the body’s capacities and limitations. Moving is examined as a moment where regimes of value are negotiated through competing semiotic ideologies and at times social roles are transformed. Ethnographic fieldwork occurred from January 2009–May 2012 in the Midwest United States. This paper presents experiences of relocation of material and social role transformation as older adults make this housing, and writ large, life transition. PMID:25506598

  9. Porous coordination polymers as novel sorption materials for heat transformation processes.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Christoph; Henninger, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are inorganic-organic hybrid materials with a permanent three-dimensional porous metal-ligand network. PCPs or MOFs are inorganic-organic analogs of zeolites in terms of porosity and reversible guest exchange properties. Microporous water-stable PCPs with high water uptake capacity are gaining attention for low temperature heat transformation applications in thermally driven adsorption chillers (TDCs) or adsorption heat pumps (AHPs). TDCs or AHPs are an alternative to traditional air conditioners or heat pumps operating on electricity or fossil fuels. By using solar or waste heat as the operating energy TDCs or AHPs can significantly help to minimize primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions generated by industrial or domestic heating and cooling processes. TDCs and AHPs are based on the evaporation and consecutive adsorption of coolant liquids, preferably water, under specific conditions. The process is driven and controlled by the microporosity and hydrophilicity of the employed sorption material. Here we summarize the current investigations, developments and possibilities of PCPs/MOFs for use in low-temperature heat transformation applications as alternative materials for the traditional inorganic porous substances like silica gel, aluminophosphates or zeolites.

  10. Porous coordination polymers as novel sorption materials for heat transformation processes.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Christoph; Henninger, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are inorganic-organic hybrid materials with a permanent three-dimensional porous metal-ligand network. PCPs or MOFs are inorganic-organic analogs of zeolites in terms of porosity and reversible guest exchange properties. Microporous water-stable PCPs with high water uptake capacity are gaining attention for low temperature heat transformation applications in thermally driven adsorption chillers (TDCs) or adsorption heat pumps (AHPs). TDCs or AHPs are an alternative to traditional air conditioners or heat pumps operating on electricity or fossil fuels. By using solar or waste heat as the operating energy TDCs or AHPs can significantly help to minimize primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions generated by industrial or domestic heating and cooling processes. TDCs and AHPs are based on the evaporation and consecutive adsorption of coolant liquids, preferably water, under specific conditions. The process is driven and controlled by the microporosity and hydrophilicity of the employed sorption material. Here we summarize the current investigations, developments and possibilities of PCPs/MOFs for use in low-temperature heat transformation applications as alternative materials for the traditional inorganic porous substances like silica gel, aluminophosphates or zeolites. PMID:23945102

  11. Design of conformal lens by drilling holes materials using quasi-conformal transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouliang; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Junhong; He, Xianshi

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, based on quasi-conformal transformation optics, a 3D conformal lens made of isotropic and non-resonant metamaterial is designed, which can make a cylindrical conformal array behave similarly to a uniform linear array. After discussion and simplification in the two-dimensional model, we realize the proposed lens by utilizing drilling-hole material in the three-dimensional structure. The ring-like shape and forward-only radiation make it possible to equip the lens on a cylindrical device.

  12. LIFE Materials: Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M

    2008-12-19

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical, and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report (Volume 8 - Molten-salt Fuels) is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermo-chemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenges are not insurmountable, and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  13. Tooth splinting with fiber-reinforced composite materials: achieving predictable aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Rappelli, Giorgio; Putignano, Angelo

    2002-08-01

    The need to respond to the ever-increasing patient demand for aesthetics, tissue maintenance, and cost efficiency has resulted in the evolution of techniques and materials that allow predictable restoration of teeth that would otherwise be compromised. The development of synthetic dental materials has allowed the incorporation of fiber-reinforced materials to replace metal splints. These contemporary materials provide increased flexural strength, as well as improved aesthetics, to the restoration. This article describes a conservative tooth splinting procedure using polyethylene fibers as reinforcement for both direct and indirect restorations.

  14. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  15. Identification of material parameters for continuum modeling of phase transformations in multicomponent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umantsev, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The continuum (field theoretic) method has become the method of choice for multiscale structure-formation modeling of very different phase transformations in the past decade. One of the challenges in application of the method to transformations in real materials is to obtain the mesoscopic parameters, which characterize the thermodynamic system of interest. Significant progress has been made in the case of pure systems; however, one would like to know what changes need to be made in the case of binary or multicomponent systems. We consider an exactly solvable case of the linear multicomponent system undergoing a phase transformation and derive equations that relate parameters of the continuum method, like barrier height, gradient energy, and relaxation coefficients, to the measurable quantities, like interface energy, interfacial thickness, and kinetic coefficient. We find that the contribution of chemical interactions in the system can be expressed as the renormalization of the barrier-height parameter of the continuum method and replacement of the latent heat with the chemical modulus. Atomic-scale simulations data for a solid/liquid transition in a binary Cu-Ni system were chosen for comparison with the theory and the fitting yields the estimates for the continuum-method parameters. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the interfacial energy allowed us to shed light on the magnitudes of the internal energy and entropy contributions into the solid/liquid interface.

  16. A structured continuum modelling framework for martensitic transformation and reorientation in shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Davide; Pence, Thomas J

    2016-04-28

    Models for shape memory material behaviour can be posed in the framework of a structured continuum theory. We study such a framework in which a scalar phase fraction field and a tensor field of martensite reorientation describe the material microstructure, in the context of finite strains. Gradients of the microstructural descriptors naturally enter the formulation and offer the possibility to describe and resolve phase transformation localizations. The constitutive theory is thoroughly described by a single free energy function in conjunction with a path-dependent dissipation function. Balance laws in the form of differential equations are obtained and contain both bulk and surface terms, the latter in terms of microstreses. A natural constraint on the tensor field for martensite reorientation gives rise to reactive fields in these balance laws. Conditions ensuring objectivity as well as the relation of this framework to that provided by currently used models for shape memory alloy behaviour are discussed.

  17. A structured continuum modelling framework for martensitic transformation and reorientation in shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Davide; Pence, Thomas J

    2016-04-28

    Models for shape memory material behaviour can be posed in the framework of a structured continuum theory. We study such a framework in which a scalar phase fraction field and a tensor field of martensite reorientation describe the material microstructure, in the context of finite strains. Gradients of the microstructural descriptors naturally enter the formulation and offer the possibility to describe and resolve phase transformation localizations. The constitutive theory is thoroughly described by a single free energy function in conjunction with a path-dependent dissipation function. Balance laws in the form of differential equations are obtained and contain both bulk and surface terms, the latter in terms of microstreses. A natural constraint on the tensor field for martensite reorientation gives rise to reactive fields in these balance laws. Conditions ensuring objectivity as well as the relation of this framework to that provided by currently used models for shape memory alloy behaviour are discussed. PMID:27002064

  18. Cloaking, scattering and coherence properties of epsilon-near-zero materials in transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yang; Ye, Hong; Mao, Hong-wei; Chen, Zhi-hong; Wang, Chun-mei; Zhu, Shou-zheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper shows that epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) / mu-near-zero material can be obtained by using the transformation optics (TO) approach. It shows that when a line is stretched to a cylinder the z component of permittivity and permeability is zero, while the rho and phi components are equal to one. Hence in the presence of a TE mode wave, the cylinder is equivalent to an isotropic ENZ column. We further show that some additional spatial mapping can be applied to eliminate or mimic the scattering of the ENZ cylinder. To verify our proposal, a rigorous analysis based on Maxwell’s equations and numerical simulations based on the finite element method are provided. Finally, cloaking and coherence enhancement are taken as examples to demonstrate potential applications of the ENZ material from the viewpoint of TO.

  19. Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring that teachers are rich in data, rich in information, and rich in the skills that enable them to improve student achievement requires focused attention from leaders at all levels, including federal policymakers. For federal policy to best support teachers' use of data to prepare all students for college and careers, there must be a…

  20. Transforming American Education. A Directory of Research and Practice To Help the Nation Achieve the Six National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    In response to America 2000, a federal strategy to achieve the six National Education Goals established in 1989 by the Administration and the nation's governors), communities in all 50 states are actively developing plans and programs. This directory is meant to be a way of sharing information about successful and promising work going on in…

  1. Computational Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Martensitic Transformations in Nicoal for Self-Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, T. A.; Yamakov, V. I.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Leser, W. P.; Warner, J. E.; Newman, J. A.; Purja Pun, G. P.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes to aero-vehicle management require the utilization of automated health monitoring of vehicle structural components. A novel method is the use of self-sensing materials, which contain embedded sensory particles (SP). SPs are micron-sized pieces of shape-memory alloy that undergo transformation when the local strain reaches a prescribed threshold. The transformation is a result of a spontaneous rearrangement of the atoms in the crystal lattice under intensified stress near damaged locations, generating acoustic waves of a specific spectrum that can be detected by a suitably placed sensor. The sensitivity of the method depends on the strength of the emitted signal and its propagation through the material. To study the transition behavior of the sensory particle inside a metal matrix under load, a simulation approach based on a coupled atomistic-continuum model is used. The simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the particle's pseudoelastic response on its crystallographic orientation with respect to the loading direction and suggest possible ways of optimizing particle sensitivity. The technology of embedded sensory particles will serve as the key element in an autonomous structural health monitoring system that will constantly monitor for damage initiation in service, which will enable quick detection of unforeseen damage initiation in real-time and during onground inspections.

  2. Materials and techniques for achieving clinical excellence with indirect composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Brucia, J J

    2001-01-01

    Indirect resin restoration technology continues to grow at an unbelievable rate. This article has outlined some of the materials available within this category. There are others that the author has not had the opportunity to work with. At this time, the author believes the primary indication for the use of this class of material is esthetic inlays and onlays as well as a well-planned conservative [figure: see text] fixed partial denture in a low stress area. If unclear about the best material to use in a given situation, the dentist should consult the laboratory technician to discuss the technician's experience and confidence with the different systems. Many times the physical properties of the material are not as important as the ability of the technician and his or her experience with the different handling properties of the available systems when examining the short-term and long-term success of the restoration.

  3. A Revolution in the Making: Advances in Materials That May Transform Future Exploration Infrastructures and Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Dicus, Dennis L.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal to provide safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable research, human exploration, and the commercial development of space; and to conduct human and robotic missions to planets and other bodies in our solar system. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology necessary to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. This paper discusses those materials best suited for aerospace vehicle structure and highlights the enormous potential of one revolutionary new material, carbon nanotubes.

  4. Reactions and Surface Transformations of a Bone-Bioactive Material in a Simulated Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radin, S.; Ducheyne, P.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive program to investigate the expeditious in vitro formation of three-dimensional bone-like tissue is currently underway at the University of Pennsylvania. The study reported here forms a part of that program. Three-dimensional bone-like tissue structures may be grown under the simulated microgravity conditions of NASA designed Rotating Wall Bioreactor Vessels (RWV's). Such tissue growth will have wide clinical applications. In addition, an understanding of the fundamental changes that occur to bone cells under simulated microgravity would yield important information that will help in preventing or minimizing astronaut bone loss, a major health issue with travel or stay in space over long periods of time. The growth of three-dimensional bone-like tissue structures in RWV's is facilitated by the use of microcarriers which provide structural support. If the microcarrier material additionally promotes bone cell growth, then it is particularly advantageous to employ such microcarriers. We have found that reactive, bone-bioactive glass (BBG) is an attractive candidate for use as microcarrier material. Specifically, it has been found that BBG containing Ca- and P- oxides upregulates osteoprogenitor cells to osteoblasts. This effect on cells is preceded by BBG reactions in solution which result in the formation of a Ca-P surface layer. This surface further transforms to a bone-like mineral (i.e., carbonated crystalline hydroxyapatite (c-HA)). At normal gravity, time-dependent, immersion-induced BBG reactions and transformations are greatly affected both by variations in the composition of the milieu in which the glass is immersed and on the immersion conditions. However, the nature of BBG reactions and phase transformations under the simulated microgravity conditions of RWV's are unknown, and must be understood in order to successfully use BBG as microcarrier material in RWV'S. In this paper, we report some of our recent findings in this regard using

  5. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  6. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films.

    PubMed

    Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2015-06-24

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of "materials that compute", we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

  7. Recent achievements on inorganic electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Croguennec, Laurence; Palacin, M Rosa

    2015-03-11

    The lithium-ion battery technology is rooted in the studies of intercalation of guest ions into inorganic host materials developed ca. 40 years ago. It further turned into a commercial product, which will soon blow its 25th candle. Intense research efforts during this time have resulted in the development of a large spectrum of electrode materials together with deep understanding of the underlying structure-property relationships that govern their performance. This has enabled an ever increasing electrochemical yield together with the diversification of the technology into several subfamilies, tailoring materials to application requirements. The present paper aims at providing a global and critical perspective on inorganic electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries categorized by their reaction mechanism and structural dimensionality. Specific emphasis is put on recent research in the field, which beyond the chemistry and microstructure of the materials themselves also involves considering interfacial chemistry concepts alongside progress in characterization techniques. Finally a short personal perspective is provided on some plausible development of the field. PMID:25679823

  8. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-06-01

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of “materials that compute”, we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling “materials that compute”.

  9. Corrosion issues in joining lightweight materials: A review of the latest achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemor, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    Multimaterials assemblies and, in particular, assemblies made of lightweight components are of utmost relevance in many technical applications. These assemblies include multimetal, metal-polymer, metal-adhesive, and metal-composites combinations, among others. Presently, the transportation sector is looking for lighter materials that allow for reducing fuel consumption and the environmental footprint. Aluminum and magnesium alloys, as well as composites and polymers, are considered strategic for such purposes, and their joining in metal-metal or hybrid assemblies has been explored to develop lightweight components. These multimaterial assemblies are often exposed to aggressive environments in which moisture and aggressive species are present. Under these conditions corrosion phenomena are a major source of material failures. Depending on the nature of the metals and nonmetals and of the joining process, the mechanism and extent of corrosion can vary significantly. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of corrosion in joined materials and to know which counter-measures can be adopted to mitigate corrosion events in the system of concern. This chapter aims at reviewing the latest results of studies focused in corrosion issues in the joining of lightweight materials. It describes the most common corrosion phenomena observed in joined materials, and it emphasizes corrosion issues in assemblies that combine different metals and that combine metals with nonmetals. Moreover, it overviews the state-of-the-art in corrosion protection strategies that can be applied and, finally, it overlooks the future trends.

  10. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films.

    PubMed

    Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of "materials that compute", we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute". PMID:26105979

  11. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of “materials that compute”, we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling “materials that compute”. PMID:26105979

  12. Why the Velocities of Material Bodies Cannot Achieve the Speed of Light in a Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.

    A possible cause of the finiteness of the velocity of tangible objects is demonstrated without reference to the provisions of the special theory of relativity. A condition is formulated on the basis of which the assumption of the movement of tangible objects at any prescribed velocities proves to be self-contradictory in instances when the prescribed velocities of the objects exceed a certain value. This condition consists of the presence of interaction signals and carrier particles in material bodies that (signals and particles) are propagated at a velocity greater than any prescribed velocity of the material bodies.

  13. Bridging Research on Learning and Student Achievement: The Role of Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph A.; Van Scotter, Pamela; Coulson, Doug

    2007-01-01

    For decades the National Science Foundation has been funding the development of instructional materials whose design is based upon the recommendations of educational research. These recommendations include the idea that learning be sequenced and organized using an experiential learning cycle or an instructional model such as the Biological Science…

  14. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  15. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared

  16. Amazingly resilient Indigenous people! Using transformative learning to facilitate positive student engagement with sensitive material.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore

    2013-12-01

    If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.

  17. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  18. Stepwise Transformation of the Molecular Building Blocks in a Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-06-05

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal–organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd2(COO)6]2– molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S)2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size.

  19. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Crassostrea gigas and Pecten maximus reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A

    2012-11-01

    Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted

  20. Chloroplast transformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Yin, Wei-Bo; Hu, Zan-Min

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the developmental history and current research status of chloroplast transformation and introduce the merits of chloroplast transformation as compared with the nuclear genome transformation. Furthermore, according to the chloroplast transformation achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we introduce the preparation of explants, transformation methods, system selection, identification methods of the transplastomic plants, and experimental results. The technical points, the bottleneck, and the further research directions of the chloroplast transformation are discussed in the notes.

  1. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A. Maslova, Olga A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.

    2015-10-27

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru{sub 256}, Rh{sub 256}, Pd{sub 256}) accumulate next storage energies: E{sub Ru} = 2.27 eV/at, E{sub Rh} = 1.67 eV/at, E{sub Pd} = 3.02 eV/at.

  2. Pressure-driven transformation of the ordering in amorphous network-forming materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Anita; Salmon, Philip S.

    2016-06-01

    The pressure-induced changes to the structure of disordered oxide and chalcogenide network-forming materials are investigated on the length scales associated with the first three peaks in measured diffraction patterns. The density dependence of a given peak position does not yield the network dimensionality, in contrast to metallic glasses where the results indicate a fractal geometry with a local dimensionality of ≃5 /2 . For oxides, a common relation is found between the intermediate-range ordering, as described by the position of the first sharp diffraction peak, and the oxygen-packing fraction, a parameter that plays a key role in driving changes to the coordination number of local motifs. The first sharp diffraction peak can therefore be used to gauge when topological changes are likely to occur, events that transform network structures and their related physical properties.

  3. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-07-22

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models with short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.

  4. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    DOE PAGES

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-07-22

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models withmore » short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.« less

  5. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Our goal is to develop materials that compute by using non-linear oscillating chemical reactions to perform spatio-temporal recognition tasks. The material of choice is a polymer gel undergoing the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The novelty of our approach is in employing hybrid gel-piezoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) to couple local chemo-mechanical oscillations over long distances by electrical connection. Our modeling revealed that (1) interaction between the MEMS units is sufficiently strong for synchronization; (2) the mode of synchronization depends on the number of units, type of circuit connection (serial of parallel), and polarity of the units; (3) each mode has a distinctive pattern in phase of oscillations and generated voltage. The results indicate feasibility of using the hybrid gel-piezoelectric MEMS for oscillator based unconventional computing.

  6. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodology of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.

  7. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    DOE PAGES

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodologymore » of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.« less

  8. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  9. Fermentative production of lactic acid from renewable materials: recent achievements, prospects, and limits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of renewable materials for the production of versatile chemical resources have gained considerable attention recently, as this offers an alternative to the environmental problems caused by the petroleum industry and the limited supply of fossil resources. Therefore, the concept of utilizing biomass or wastes from agricultural and industrial residues to produce useful chemical products has been widely accepted. Lactic acid plays an important role due to its versatile application in the food, medical, and cosmetics industries and as a potential raw material for the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. Currently, the fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has increased because of the prospects of environmental friendliness and cost-effectiveness. In order to produce lactic acid with high yield and optical purity, many studies focus on wild microorganisms and metabolically engineered strains. This article reviews the most recent advances in the biotechnological production of lactic acid mainly by lactic acid bacteria, and discusses the feasibility and potential of various processes. PMID:25077706

  10. Fermentative production of lactic acid from renewable materials: recent achievements, prospects, and limits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of renewable materials for the production of versatile chemical resources have gained considerable attention recently, as this offers an alternative to the environmental problems caused by the petroleum industry and the limited supply of fossil resources. Therefore, the concept of utilizing biomass or wastes from agricultural and industrial residues to produce useful chemical products has been widely accepted. Lactic acid plays an important role due to its versatile application in the food, medical, and cosmetics industries and as a potential raw material for the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. Currently, the fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has increased because of the prospects of environmental friendliness and cost-effectiveness. In order to produce lactic acid with high yield and optical purity, many studies focus on wild microorganisms and metabolically engineered strains. This article reviews the most recent advances in the biotechnological production of lactic acid mainly by lactic acid bacteria, and discusses the feasibility and potential of various processes.

  11. Structural transformation of Sb-based high-speed phase-change material.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Yamada, Noboru; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kifune, Kouichi

    2012-12-01

    The crystal structure of a phase-change recording material (the compound Ag(3.4)In(3.7)Sb(76.4)Te(16.5)) enclosed in a vacuum capillary tube was investigated at various temperatures in a heating process using a large Debye-Scherrer camera installed in BL02B2 at SPring-8. The amorphous phase of this material turns into a crystalline phase at around 416 K; this crystalline phase has an A7-type structure with atoms of Ag, In, Sb or Te randomly occupying the 6c site in the space group. This structure was maintained up to around 545 K as a single phase, although thermal expansion of the crystal lattice was observed. However, above this temperature, phase separation into AgInTe(2) and Sb-Te transpired. The first fragment, AgInTe(2), reliably maintained its crystal structure up to the melting temperature. On the other hand, the atomic configuration of the Sb-Te gradually varied with increasing temperature. This gradual structural transformation can be described as a continuous growth of the modulation period γ. PMID:23165592

  12. Scheme for Achieving a Topological Photonic Crystal by Using Dielectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Long-Hua; Hu, Xiao

    2015-06-01

    We derive in the present work topological photonic states purely based on conventional dielectric material by deforming a honeycomb lattice of cylinders into a triangular lattice of cylinder hexagons. The photonic topology is associated with a pseudo-time-reversal (TR) symmetry constituted by the TR symmetry supported in general by Maxwell equations and the C6 crystal symmetry upon design, which renders the Kramers doubling in the present photonic system. It is shown explicitly for the transverse magnetic mode that the role of pseudospin is played by the angular momentum of the wave function of the out-of-plane electric field. We solve Maxwell equations and demonstrate the new photonic topology by revealing pseudospin-resolved Berry curvatures of photonic bands and helical edge states characterized by Poynting vectors.

  13. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  14. Detection of exposure damage in composite materials using Fourier transform infrared technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.

    2010-09-01

    Goal: to detect the subtle changes in laminate composite structures brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. Compare sensitivity of an array of NDI methods, including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), to detect subtle differences in composite materials due to deterioration. Inspection methods applied: ultrasonic pulse echo, through transmission ultrasonics, thermography, resonance testing, mechanical impedance analysis, eddy current, low frequency bond testing & FTIR. Comparisons between the NDI methods are being used to establish the potential of FTIR to provide the necessary sensitivity to non-visible, yet significant, damage in the resin and fiber matrix of composite structures. Comparison of NDI results with short beam shear tests are being used to relate NDI sensitivity to reduction in structural performance. Chemical analyses technique, which measures the infrared intensity versus wavelength of light reflected on the surface of a structure (chemical and physical information via this signature). Advances in instrumentation have resulted in hand-held portable devices that allow for field use (few seconds per scan). Shows promise for production quality assurance and in-service applications on composite aircraft structures (scarfed repairs). Statistical analysis on frequency spectrums produced by FTIR interrogations are being used to produce an NDI technique for assessing material integrity. Conclusions are: (1) Use of NDI to assess loss of composite laminate integrity brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. (2) Degradation trends between SBS strength and exposure levels (temperature and time) have been established for different materials. (3) Various NDI methods have been applied to evaluate damage and relate this to loss of integrity - PE UT shows greatest sensitivity. (4) FTIR shows promise for damage detection and calibration to predict structural integrity (short beam shear). (5

  15. Modeling the viscoplastic micromechanical response of two-phase materials using fast Fourier transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Lee, Sukbin; Rollett, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    A viscoplastic approach using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method for obtaining local mechanical response is utilized to study microstructure-property relationships in composite materials. Specifically, three-dimensional, two-phase digital materials containing isotropically coarsened particles surrounded by a matrix phase, generated through a Kinetic Monte Carlo Potts model for Ostwald ripening, are used as instantiations in order to calculate the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension. The effects of the morphology of the matrix phase, the volume fraction and the contiguity of particles, and the polycrystallinity of matrix phase, on the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension are examined. It is found that the first moments of the stress and strain rate fields have a different dependence on the particle volume fraction and the particle contiguity from their second moments. The average stresses and average strain rates of both phases and of the overall composite have rather simple relationships with the particle volume fraction whereas their standard deviations vary strongly, especially when the particle volume fraction is high, and the contiguity of particles has a noticeable effect on the mechanical response. It is also found that the shape of stress distribution in the BCC hard particle phase evolves as the volume fraction of particles in the composite varies, such that it agrees with the stress field in the BCC polycrystal as the volume of particles approaches unity. Finally, it is observed that the stress and strain rate fields in the microstructures with a polycrystalline matrix are less sensitive to changes in volume fraction and contiguity of particles.

  16. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  17. Science in the community: An ethnographic account of social material transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stuart Henry

    This dissertation is about the learning and use of science at the level of local community. It is an ethnographic account, and its theoretical approach draws on actor-network theory as well as neo-Marxist practice theory and the related notion of situated cognition. This theoretical basis supports a work that focuses on the many heterogeneous transformations that materials and people undergo as science is used to help bring about social and political change in a quasi-rural community. The activities that science becomes involved in, and the hybrid formations as it encounters local issues are stressed. Learning and knowing as outcomes of community action are theorized. The dissertation links four major themes throughout its narrative: scientific literacy, representations, relationships and participatory democracy. These four themes are not treated in isolation. Different facets of their relation to each other are stressed in different chapters, each of which analyze different particular case studies. This dissertation argues for the conception of a local scientific praxis, one that is markedly different than the usual notion of science, yet is necessary for the uptake of scientific information into a community.

  18. Formation of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole reversible transformation products in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions: batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-01

    Soil-aquifer processes have proven to work as a natural treatment for the attenuation of numerous contaminants during artificial recharge of groundwater. Nowadays, significant scientific effort is being devoted to understanding the fate of pharmaceuticals in subsurface environments, and to verify if such semipersistent organic micropollutants could also be efficiently removed from water. In this context we carried out a series of batch experiments involving aquifer material, selected drugs (initial concentration of 1 μg/L and 1 mg/L), and denitrifying conditions. Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole exhibited an unreported and peculiar behavior. Their concentrations consistently dropped in the middle of the tests but recovered toward the end, which suggest a complex effect of denitrifying conditions on aromatic amines. The transformation products Nitro-Diclofenac and 4-Nitro-Sulfamethoxazole were detected in the biotic experiments, while nitrite was present in the water. Their concentrations developed almost opposite to those of their respective parent compounds. We conjecture that this temporal and reversible effect of denitrifying conditions on the studied aromatic amines could have significant environmental implications, and could explain at least partially the wide range of removals in subsurface environments reported in literature for DCF and SMX, as well as some apparent discrepancies on SMX behavior. PMID:22534360

  19. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. PMID:27423407

  20. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body.

  1. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach. PMID:25291891

  2. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach.

  3. A comparison of literature-based and content-based guided reading materials on elementary student reading and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guns, Christine

    Guided reading, as developed by Fountas and Pinnell (2001), has been a staple of elementary reading programs for the past decade. Teachers in the elementary school setting utilize this small group, tailored instruction in order to differentiate and meet the instructional needs of the students. The literature shows academic benefit for students who have special needs, such as learning disabilities, autism, and hearing impairments but consideration of academic impact has not been investigated for regular education students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the academic impact of the use of content-related (Group C) and the traditional literature-based (Group L) reading materials. During the Living Systems and Life Processes unit in science, two teachers self-selected to utilized science-related materials for guided reading instruction while the other three teacher participants utilized their normal literature-based guided reading materials. The two groups were compared using an ANCOVA in this pre-test/post-test design. The dependent variables included the Reading for Application and Instruction assessment (RAI) and a Living Systems and Life Processes assessment (LSA). Further analysis compared students of different reading levels and gender. The data analyses revealed a practical but not statistical significance for students in science performance. It was discovered that below level male and female students performed better on the LSA when provided with content-related guided reading materials. As far as reading achievement is concerned, students in both groups had comparable results. The teachers provided guided reading instruction to their students with fidelity and made adjustments to their practices due to the needs of their students. The content-related teachers utilized a larger number of expository texts than the literature-based teachers. These teachers expressed the desire to continue the practice of providing the students with

  4. Imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy of the boundary layer plume from laser irradiated polymers and carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Roberto I.

    The high-energy laser (HEL) lethality community needs for enhanced laser weapons systems requires a better understanding of a wide variety of emerging threats. In order to reduce the dimensionality of laser-materials interaction it is necessary to develop novel predictive capabilities of these events. The objective is to better understand the fundamentals of laser lethality testing by developing empirical models from hyperspectral imagery, enabling a robust library of experiments for vulnerability assessments. Emissive plumes from laser irradiated fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRP), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and porous graphite targets were investigated primarily using a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Polymer and graphite targets were irradiated with a continuous wave (cw) fiber lasers. Data was acquired with a spectral resolution of 2 cm-1 and spatial resolution as high as 0.52 mm2 per pixel. Strong emission from H2O, CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons were observed in the MWIR between 1900-4000 cm-1. A single-layer radiative transfer model was developed to estimate spatial maps of temperature and column densities of CO and CO2 from the hyperspectral imagery of the boundary layer plume. The spectral model was used to compute the absorption cross sections of CO and CO2, using spectral line parameters from the high temperature extension of the HITRAN. Also, spatial maps of gas-phase temperature and methyl methacrylate (MMA) concentration were developed from laser irradiated carbon black-pigmented PMMA at irradiances of 4-22 W/cm2. Global kinetics interplay between heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion kinetics are shown from experimental observations at high spatial resolutions. Overall the boundary layer profile at steady-state is consistent with CO being mainly produced at the surface by heterogeneous reactions followed by a rapid homogeneous combustion in the boundary layer towards buoyancy.

  5. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  6. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  7. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions.

  8. Microbial mediated retention/transformation of organic and inorganic materials in freshwater and marine ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are globally connected by hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Microorganisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems form the basis of food webs, mediate essential element cycles, decompose natural organic matter, transform inorganic nutrients and metals, and degrad...

  9. From flab to fab: transforming surgical waste into an effective bioactive coating material.

    PubMed

    Luo, Baiwen; Yuan, Shaojun; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong; Lim, Thiam Chye; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-03-11

    Cellular events are regulated by the interaction between integrin receptors in the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hence, ECM, as a material, can potentially play an instructive role in cell-material interactions. Currently, adipose tissue in the form of lipoaspirate is often discarded. Here, it is demonstrated how our chemical-free decellularization method could be used to obtain ECM from human lipoaspirate waste material. These investigations show that the main biological components are retained in the lipoaspirate-derived ECM (LpECM) material and that this LpECM material could subsequently be used as a coating material to confer bioactivity to an otherwise inert biodegradable material (i.e., polycaprolactone). Overall, lipoaspirate material, a complex blend of endogenous proteins, is effectively used a bioactive coating material. This work is an important stepping-stone towards the development of biohybrid scaffolds that contain cellular benefits without requiring the use of additional biologics based on commonly discarded lipoaspirate material.

  10. The Influence of the Material of the Transformer Core on Characteristics of the Selected DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Krzysztof; Zarębski, Janusz

    In the paper the influence of the ferromagnetic material used for the construction of the core of the impulse-transformer on the characteristics of a half-bridge converter is considered. The investigated network is described and some results of measurements are shown. On the basis of the obtained characteristics of the investigated converters some suggestions for the designers of such circuits are formulated.

  11. Genetic transformation of Knufia petricola A95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We established a protoplast-based system to transfer DNA to Knufia petricola strain A95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (SAB) system. To test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of A95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. Of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum were most effective in producing protoplasts. This mixture was equally effective on the melanin-minus mutant and the type-strain. Protoplasts produced using lysing enzymes were mixed with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and plasmid pCB1004 which contains the hygromycin B (HmB) phosphotransferase (hph) gene under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans trpC. Integration and expression of hph into the A95 genome conferred hygromycin resistance upon the transformants. Two weeks after plating out on selective agar containing HmB, the protoplasts developed cell-walls and formed colonies. Transformation frequencies were in the range 36 to 87 transformants per 10 μg of vector DNA and 106 protoplasts. Stability of transformation was confirmed by sub-culturing the putative transformants on selective agar containing HmB as well as by PCR-detection of the hph gene in the colonies. The hph gene was stably integrated as shown by five subsequent passages with and without selection pressure. PMID:25401079

  12. Commute time distance transformation applied to spectral imagery and its utilization in material clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, James A.; Messinger, David W.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2012-07-01

    Spectral image analysis problems often begin by applying a transformation that generates an alternative representation of the spectral data with the intention of exposing hidden features not discernable in the original space. We introduce and demonstrate a transformation based on a Markov-chain model of a random walk on a graph via application to spectral image clustering. The random walk is quantified by a measure known as the average commute time distance (CTD), which is the average length that a random walker takes, when starting at one node, to transition to another and return to the starting node. This distance metric has the important characteristic of increasing when the number of paths between two nodes decreases and/or the lengths of those paths increase. Once a similarity graph is built on the spectral data, a transformation based on an eigendecomposition of the graph Laplacian matrix is applied that embeds the nodes of the graph into a Euclidean space with the separation between nodes equal to the square-root of the average commute time distance. This is referred to as the Commute Time Distance transformation. As an example of the utility of this data transformation, results are shown for standard clustering algorithms applied to hyperspectral data sets.

  13. Genetic transformation of Knufia petricola A95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions.

    PubMed

    Noack-Schönmann, Steffi; Bus, Tanja; Banasiak, Ronald; Knabe, Nicole; Broughton, William J; Den Dulk-Ras, H; Hooykaas, Paul Jj; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    We established a protoplast-based system to transfer DNA to Knufia petricola strain A95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (SAB) system. To test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of A95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. Of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum were most effective in producing protoplasts. This mixture was equally effective on the melanin-minus mutant and the type-strain. Protoplasts produced using lysing enzymes were mixed with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and plasmid pCB1004 which contains the hygromycin B (HmB) phosphotransferase (hph) gene under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans trpC. Integration and expression of hph into the A95 genome conferred hygromycin resistance upon the transformants. Two weeks after plating out on selective agar containing HmB, the protoplasts developed cell-walls and formed colonies. Transformation frequencies were in the range 36 to 87 transformants per 10 μg of vector DNA and 10(6) protoplasts. Stability of transformation was confirmed by sub-culturing the putative transformants on selective agar containing HmB as well as by PCR-detection of the hph gene in the colonies. The hph gene was stably integrated as shown by five subsequent passages with and without selection pressure.

  14. The Effects of Realistic Versus Nonrealistic Play Materials on Young Children's Symbolic Transformation of Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey

    This study compared the influence of two play environments on young children's make-believe object transformation behaviors. One environment contained traditional realistic play props; the other contained nonrealistic objects. Subjects were 32 Caucasian children, 17 boys and 15 girls, between 40 and 73 months of age, from working- or middle-class…

  15. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  16. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  17. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues. PMID:26120091

  18. Gel-like properties of MCM-41 material and its transformation to MCM-50 in a caustic alkaline surround

    SciTech Connect

    Saputra, Hens; Othman, Raihan; Sutjipto, A.G.E.; Muhida, R.; Ani, M.H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCM-41 material transforms gradually into MCM-50 lamellar gel upon controlled exposure to 6 M KOH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of MCM-50 ordered gel structure occurs at KOH weight content of 40-70 wt. %. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCM gel phase shows pseudoplastic behavior and possesses homogeneous matrix texture. -- Abstract: MCM-41 material, prepared by sol-gel method, reveals gel-like properties in a caustic alkaline environment, i.e., 6 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte. The gellation of MCM-41 starts at a KOH weight ratio of 40 wt.%. The structural change of the material is verified with X-Ray diffractograms and supported by observation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). As the KOH weight ratio increases, the MCM-41 hexagonal arrays structure gradually transforms into MCM-50 lamellar structure before disappearing completely at 80 wt.% KOH. The MCM gel phase is further characterized by rotational viscometry and texture analysis. The gel phase shows shear thinning or pseudoplastic behavior and possesses homogeneous matrix structure.

  19. James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials Lecture: Transformation optics shapes metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendry, John

    2013-03-01

    Metamaterials offer a huge range of new electromagnetic properties: negative refraction, spatial inhomogeneity to name only two. To exploit the possibilities offered in this new world we need a new design tool. Maxwell's equations are exact at the classical level but lack transparency; Snell's law is elegantly visual, an aid to the imagination, but fails to account for many vital aspects of electromagnetism. Transformation optics retains an intuitive appeal, replacing the rays of Snell's law with the field lines of Maxwell whose equations is represents exactly.

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis Of Plastic Capsule Materials Exposed To Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, J R; Steckle, Jr., W P; Elliot, N; Ebey, P S; Nobile, A; Nikroo, A; Cook, R C; Letts, S A

    2005-06-16

    Planar samples of varying thicknesses of both CH and CD glow discharge polymer have been measured with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy before and after exposure to deuterium-tritium (DT) gas at elevated temperature and pressure. Planar samples of polyimide films made from both hydrogenated and deuterated precursors have also been examined by FTIR before and after DT exposure. The post-exposure FTIR spectra demonstrated no measurable exchange of hydrogen with deuterium or tritium for either polymer. Evidence for oxidation of the glow discharge polymer due to atmospheric oxygen was the only chemical change indicated by the FTIR data.

  1. Blending materials composed of boron, nitrogen and carbon to transform approaches to liquid hydrogen stores.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Sean M; Bowden, Mark; Karkamkar, Abhijeet; Parab, Kshitij; Neiner, Doinita; Autrey, Tom; Ishibashi, Jacob S A; Chen, Gang; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Dixon, David A

    2016-04-14

    Mixtures of hydrogen storage materials containing the elements of boron, nitrogen, carbon, i.e., isomers of BN cyclopentanes are examined to find a 'fuel blend' that remains a liquid phase throughout hydrogen release, maximizes hydrogen storage density, minimizes impurities and remains thermally stable at ambient temperatures. We find that the mixture of ammonia borane dissolved in 3-methyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborolidine (compound B) provide a balance of these properties and provides ca. 5.6 wt% hydrogen. The two hydrogen storage materials decompose at a faster rate than either individually and products formed are a mixture of molecular trimers. Digestion of the product mixture formed from the decomposition of the AB + B fuel blend with methanol leads to the two corresponding methanol adducts of the starting material and not a complex mixture of adducts. The work shows the utility of using blends of materials to reduce volatile impurities and preserve liquid phase.

  2. Biological effects and comparative cytotoxicity of thermal transformed asbestos-containing materials in a human alveolar epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Giantomassi, Federica; Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Santarelli, Lory; Tomasetti, Marco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Lucarini, Guendalina; Governa, Mario; Pugnaloni, Armanda

    2010-09-01

    Asbestos fibres can be transformed into potentially non-hazardous silicates by high-temperature treatment via complete solid-state transformation. A549 cells were exposed to standard concentrations of raw cement asbestos (RCA), chrysotile and cement asbestos subjected to an industrial process at 1200 degrees C (Cry_1200 and KRY.AS, respectively), raw commercial grey cement (GC). Cell growth rate and viability (MTT test) were detected in vitro. RCA and KRY.AS subjected to comprehensive microstructural study by electron microscopy were further in vitro assayed to compare their cytotoxic potential by morphostructural studies, proliferation index (Ki-67 antigen), apoptosis induction (AO/EB staining) assays and detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the fluorescent DCFA dye. More severe cytotoxic damage was induced by RCA than by KRY.AS after each incubation period. Exposure to KRY.AS and GC resulted in comparable cell growth rates and cytotoxic effects. Cells incubated with RCA showed greater apoptotic induction and ROS production and a lower cell proliferation index than those exposed to KRY.AS. Chrysotile asbestos and RCA subjected to heat treatment underwent complete microstructure transformation. The final product of heat treatment of cement asbestos, KRY.AS, was considerably more inert and had lower cytotoxic potential than the original asbestos material in all in vitro tests.

  3. Laboratory illustrations of the transformations and deposition of inorganic material in biomass boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1995-08-01

    Boilers fired with certain woody biomass fuels have proven to be a viable, reliable means of generating electrical power. The behavior of the inorganic material in the fuels is one of the greatest challenges to burning the large variety of fuels available to biomass combustors. Unmanageable ash deposits and interactions between ash and bed material cause loss in boiler availability and significant increase in maintenance costs. The problems related to the behavior of inorganic material now exceed all other combustion-related challenges in biomass-fired boilers. This paper reviews the mechanisms of ash deposit formation, the relationship between fuel properties and ash deposit properties, and a series of laboratory tests in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor designed to illustrate how fuel type, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions impact ash deposit properties.

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Viscoelasticity of Phase-Transforming Material

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Wang, L; Vaughan, M

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation and modulus dispersion are typically associated with shear stress and strain. Time-dependent volume changes accompanying pressure variations can give rise to bulk modulus attenuation and dispersion. Phase transformations in a two-phase region are candidates for such phenomena. Here we report laboratory data that are consistent with bulk modulus softening as pressure is cycled in a region of coexisting olivine and spinel. We use Fay70For30 olivine as our sample. Experiments are performed in a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus (Deformation DIA) using synchrotron (NSLS) X-ray radiation as the probing tool. Pressure is up to 12 GPa and temperature is up to 1450 C. Measurements were carried out within the binary loop where the olivine and spinel phases coexist. We apply a uniaxial oscillation stress onto the sample and Young's modulus and Q{sup -1} are measured at frequencies of 0.1-0.01 Hz. Our results indicate that the sinusoidal force applied to the sample in olivine-ringwoodite region has much lower bulk modulus and higher Q{sup -1} than in the single-phase regions. Our data are consistent with the diffusion controlled model of (Jackson, I., 2007. Physical origins of anelasticity and attenuation in rock, In: Price, G.D. (Ed.) Mineral Physics. Treatise On Geophysics. Elsevier), where the characteristic time decreases with decreasing strain.

  5. An exploratory study of the viscoelasticity of phase-transforming material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Wang, Liping; Vaughan, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Attenuation and modulus dispersion are typically associated with shear stress and strain. Time-dependent volume changes accompanying pressure variations can give rise to bulk modulus attenuation and dispersion. Phase transformations in a two-phase region are candidates for such phenomena. Here we report laboratory data that are consistent with bulk modulus softening as pressure is cycled in a region of coexisting olivine and spinel. We use Fay70For30 olivine as our sample. Experiments are performed in a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus (Deformation DIA) using synchrotron (NSLS) X-ray radiation as the probing tool. Pressure is up to 12 GPa and temperature is up to 1450 °C. Measurements were carried out within the binary loop where the olivine and spinel phases coexist. We apply a uniaxial oscillation stress onto the sample and Young's modulus and Q-1 are measured at frequencies of 0.1-0.01 Hz. Our results indicate that the sinusoidal force applied to the sample in olivine-ringwoodite region has much lower bulk modulus and higher Q-1 than in the single-phase regions. Our data are consistent with the diffusion controlled model of [Jackson, I., 2007. Physical origins of anelasticity and attenuation in rock, In: Price, G.D. (Ed.) Mineral Physics. Treatise On Geophysics. Elsevier], where the characteristic time decreases with decreasing strain.

  6. Copper sludge from printed circuit board production/recycling for ceramic materials: a quantitative analysis of copper transformation and immobilization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-08-01

    The fast development of electronic industries and stringent requirement of recycling waste electronics have produced a large amount of metal-containing waste sludge. This study developed a waste-to-resource strategy to beneficially use such metal-containing sludge from the production and recycling processes of printed circuit board (PCBs). To observe the metal incorporation mechanisms and phase transformation processes, mixtures of copper industrial waste sludge and kaolinite-based materials (kaolinite and mullite) were fired between 650 and 1250 °C for 3 h. The different copper-hosting phases were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the sintered products, and CuAl2O4 was found to be the predominant hosting phase throughout the reactions, regardless of the strong reduction potential of copper expected at high temperatures. The experimental results indicated that CuAl2O4 was generated more easily and in larger quantities at low-temperature processing when using the kaolinite precursor. Maximum copper transformations reached 86% and 97% for kaolinite and mullite systems, respectively, when sintering at 1000 °C. To monitor the stabilization effect after thermal process, prolonged leaching tests were carried out using acetic acid with an initial pH value of 2.9 to leach the sintered products for 20 days. The results demonstrated the decrease of copper leachability with the formation of CuAl2O4, despite different sintering behavior in kaolinite and mullite systems. This study clearly indicates spinel formation as the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering copper sludge with aluminosilicate materials, and suggests a promising and reliable technique for reusing metal-containing sludge as ceramic materials.

  7. First-Generation College Students and Undergraduate Research: Narrative Inquiry into the University of Arizona's Ronald E. McNair Achievement Program and the Phenomenon of Student Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of first-generation college students enrolling in colleges and universities across the US, so too is the need to begin preparing such underrepresented students for graduate school and a career in academia. As a phenomenological case study of student transformation, this dissertation examines the experience of nine…

  8. Copper-containing ceramic precursor synthesis: Solid-state transformations and materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Eckles, William E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Andras, Maria T.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Richman, Robert M.; Sabat, Michael L.; Power, Michael B.; Gordon, Edward M.; Barron, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Three copper systems with relevance to materials technology are discussed. In the first, a CuS precursor, Cu4S1O (4-methylpyridine)(sub 4)- (4-MePy), was prepared by three routes: reaction of Cu2S, reaction of CuBr-SMe2, and oxidation of copper powder with excess sulfur in 4-methylpyridine by sulfur. In the second, copper powder was found to react with excess thiourea (H2NC(S)NH2) in 4-methylpyridine to produce thiocyanate (NCS(-)) complexes. Three isolated and characterized compounds are: Cu(NCS)(4-MePy)(sub 2), a polymer, (4-MePy-H)(Cu(NCS)(sub 3)(4-MePy)(sub 2)), a salt, and t-Cu(NCS)(sub 2)(4-MePy)(sub 4). Finally, an attempt to produce a mixed-metal sulfide precursor of Cu and Ga in N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) resulted in the synthesis of a Cu-containing polymer, Cu(SO4)(N-MeIm). The structures are presented; the chemistry will be briefly discussed in the context of preparation and processing of copper-containing materials for aerospace applications.

  9. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  10. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  11. Characterization of a Structural Transformation of Carbon Nanotube Materials by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Y.; Burger, A.; Zhu, S.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes and carbon microstructure materials synthesized on Si substrates by pulsed laser vaporization have been measured in the range of 50/cm to 4500/cm with the excitation of He-Ne laser. It is found that the formation of nanotubes depends strongly on the growth temperatures and high quality multi-wall and single-wall nanotubes were produced at 700 and 990 C, respectively. The Raman spectra of one sample grown at 700 C were found to be dependent on the excitation intensity. The spectra of the sample suggest that the structure is similar to that of multi-wall nanotubes at low excitation intensity (2.5 kW/sq cm) and it converts to the structure of single-wall nanotubes at higher intensity (25 kW/sq cm). Measurements taken while cycling the light intensity indicate a reversible structural transition.

  12. Structural transformations in hull material clad by nitrogen stainless steel using various methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Mushnikova, S. Yu.; Khar'kov, O. A.; Kalinin, G. Yu.; Yampol'skii, V. D.

    2014-02-01

    Specimens of a 10N3KhDMBF shipbuilding hull steel were clad by a 04Kh20N6G11M2AFB nitrogen austenitic steel using various treatment conditions, which included hot rolling, austenitic facing, and explosive welding followed by hot rolling and heat treatment. Between the base and cladding materials, an intermediate layer with variable concentrations of chromium, manganese, and nickel was found, in which a martensitic structure was formed. In all the cases, the strength of bonding of the cladding layer to the hull steel (determined in tests for shear to fracture) was fairly high (σsh = 437-520 MPa). The only exception was the specimen produced by unidirectional facing without subsequent hot rolling (σsh = 308 MPa), in which nonfusions between the faced beads of stainless steel were detected.

  13. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2015-01-21

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  14. Development of Competency-Based Web Learning Material and Effect Evaluation of Self-Directed Learning Aptitudes on Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate competency-based web learning material (CBWLM) for the college practicum Microprocessor Laboratory. After using the CBWLM for 8 weeks, this study investigates CBWL's learning effects and self-directed learning aptitudes (SDLAs) as well as exploring the influence of SDLA on learning effects based on the…

  15. Transforming Spatial Reasoning Skills in the Upper-Level Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom Through Curricular Materials Informed by Cognitive Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geosciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may be unable to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. As a group of geoscience faculty members and cognitive psychologists, we have developed a set of curricular materials for Mineralogy, Sedimentology & Stratigraphy, and Structural Geology courses. These materials are designed to improve students' spatial skills, and in particular to improve students' abilities to reason about spatially complex 3D geological concepts and problems. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate STEM education by removing one significant barrier to success in the STEM disciplines. The curricular materials we have developed are based on several promising teaching strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research on spatial thinking. These strategies include predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy. We have conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these materials in strengthening the spatial skills of students in upper-level geoscience courses at three universities. Our methodology relies on a pre- and post-test study design, with several tests of spatial thinking skills administered at the beginning and end of each semester. In 2011-2012, we used a "business as usual" approach to gather baseline data, measuring how much students' spatial thinking skills improved in response to the existing curricula. In the two subsequent years we have incorporated our new curricular materials, which can be found on the project website: http://serc.carleton.edu/spatialworkbook/activities.html Structural Geology

  16. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  17. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The thermal transformation of Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) and safe recycling as secondary raw materials (SRM).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, A F; Foresti, E; Lesci, I G; Roveri, N; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti; Dondi, M; Zapparoli, M

    2009-03-15

    This work describes the high temperature reaction sequence of commercial Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) Cerafiber, Superwool, Rock wool and Glass wool which may be used as substitute for asbestos in some industrial applications. Knowledge of the reaction path and transformation sequence is very important to assess whether carcinogenic crystalline phases are formed during devitrification, which may occur when used as insulators. In addition, knowledge about the nature of the phases formed at high temperature is mandatory to assess if thermally transformed MMVF can be safely recycled as secondary raw material (SRM). In this scenario, this study provides useful information for the optimization of the industrial annealing process aimed to attain a safe, recyclable product. The results of this work show that one of the high-temperature products of Cerafiber and Superwool is cristobalite which is classified as a carcinogenic. It was possible to define the temperature interval at which Cerafiber and Superwool fibers can be safely used as thermal insulators (e.g. insulators in tunnel and/or roller kilns, etc.). As cristobalite is formed in both synthetic fiber products at temperatures higher than 1200 degrees C, their use should be limited to devices operating at lower temperatures. Rock and Glass wool melt upon thermal treatment. As far as the industrial process of inertization is concerned, a maximum firing temperature of 1100 and 600 degrees C is required to melt Rock wool and Glass wool, respectively, with the high-temperature products that can be safely recycled as SRM. Recycling of these products in stoneware tile mixtures were subsequently attempted. The addition of 1-2 wt.% of the melts of Rock and Glass wool gave promising results in terms of viscous sintering reactions and resistance to staining with the only weak characteristic being the color properties of the fired bodies which tend to worsen. PMID:18675512

  19. Rupture process of oceanic transform faults linked to material variability: local observations and models of the Gofar Fault, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Liu, Y.; Behn, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    seismogenic zone are consistent with porosity values of 0.1 to 0.6% for water saturated gabbro. Combined, these observations and models provide convincing evidence for extreme along-strike heterogeneity in material properties that likely has a first order influence on the frictional properties of the fault zone. Specifically, the location of a stationary rupture barrier that sustains only small-magnitude seismicity and temporal variation in the shear modulus during swarm events appears to correspond with a deep low velocity zone that extends throughout the entire lower crust. Additionally, the along-strike distribution of large earthquakes provides some evidence for changes in the seismogenic width of the fault with proximity to the ridge-transform intersection. By combining these new observations and models, we seek to identify variations in material properties that allow RTFs to slip largely aseismically, rupturing only a small fraction of the thermally determined fault area in large mainshock earthquakes.

  20. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  1. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation. PMID:25994377

  2. Potent, transient inhibition of BCR-ABL with dasatinib 100 mg daily achieves rapid and durable cytogenetic responses and high transformation-free survival rates in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, suboptimal response or intolerance to imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil P.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop; Rousselot, Philippe; Llacer, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac; Enrico, Alicia; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Silver, Richard T.; Khoury, Hanna Jean; Müller, Martin C.; Lambert, Alexandre; Matloub, Yousif; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves intermittent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition and is approved for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. To better assess durability of response to and tolerability of dasatinib, data from a 2-year minimum follow-up for a dose-optimization study in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia are reported here. Design and Methods In a phase 3 study, 670 chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, intolerance, or suboptimal response to imatinib were randomized to dasatinib 100 mg once-daily, 50 mg twice-daily, 140 mg once-daily, or 70 mg twice-daily. Results Data from a 2-year minimum follow-up demonstrate that dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates comparable to those in the other treatment arms, and reduces the frequency of key side effects. Comparable 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were observed (80% and 91%, respectively, for 100 mg once daily, and 75%–76% and 88%–94%, respectively, in other arms). Complete cytogenetic responses were achieved rapidly, typically by 6 months. In patients treated with dasatinib 100 mg once daily for 6 months without complete cytogenetic response, the likelihood of achieving such a response by 2 years was 50% for patients who had achieved a partial cytogenetic response, and only 8% or less for patients with minor, minimal, or no cytogenetic response. Less than 3% of patients suffered disease transformation to accelerated or blast phase. Conclusions Intermittent kinase inhibition can achieve rapid and durable responses, indistinguishable from those achieved with more continuous inhibition. PMID:20139391

  3. Biaxial flexural strength and phase transformation of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and Y-TZP core materials after thermocycling and mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Bankoğlu Güngör, Merve; Aydın, Cemal; Karakoca Nemli, Seçil; Turhan Bal, Bilge; Tıraş, Tülay

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and mechanical loading on the biaxial flexural strength and the phase transformation of one Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and two Y-TZP core materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty disc-shaped specimens were obtained from each material. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (control, thermocycled, and mechanically loaded). Thermocycling was subjected in distilled water for 10000 cycles. Mechanical loading was subjected with 200 N loads at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100000 times. The mean biaxial flexural strength and phase transformation of the specimens were tested. The Weibull modulus, characteristic strength, 10%, 5% and 1% probabilities of failure were calculated using the biaxial flexural strength data. RESULTS The characteristic strengths of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 specimens were significantly higher in all groups compared with the other tested materials (P<.001). Statistical results of X-ray diffraction showed that thermocycling and mechanical loading did not affect the monoclinic phase content of the materials. According to Raman spectroscopy results, at the same point and the same material, mechanical loading significantly affected the phase fraction of all materials (P<.05). CONCLUSION It was concluded that thermocycling and mechanical loading did not show negative effect on the mean biaxial strength of the tested materials. PMID:25006387

  4. Awakening Sleepy Knowledge: Transformative Learning in Action. Final Report of the Transformative Learning through Environmental Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York Univ., Toronto (Ontario).

    This document summarizes and presents materials produced during a qualitative international study of the role of transformative learning in achieving sustainable societies and global responsibility that included the following activities: case studies of experiences with transformative learning in seven countries; international survey and workshop;…

  5. Development of a carburizing and quenching simulation tool: A material model for low carbon steels undergoing phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bammann, D.; Prantil, V.; Kumar, A.

    1996-06-24

    An internal state variable formulation for phase transforming alloy steels is presented. We have illustrated how local transformation plasticity can be accommodated by an appropriate choice for the corresponding internal stress field acting between the phases. The state variable framework compares well with a numerical micromechanical calculation providing a discrete dependence of microscopic plasticity on volume fraction and the stress dependence attributable to a softer parent phase. The multiphase model is used to simulate the stress state of a quenched bar and show qualitative trends in the response when the transformation phenomenon is incorporated on the length scale of a global boundary value problem.

  6. Assessment of material blending distribution for electrospun nanofiber membrane by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and image cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunthornvarabhas, Jackapon; Thumanu, Kanjana; Limpirat, Wanwisa; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-09-01

    Electrospun nanofibers between starch and polyethylene oxide were successfully prepared to be used as a template for wound healing application. Material blending ratios and fabrication conditions were optimized to determine the ability to control material spatial for further development. A fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) mapping system and purposed modified image clustering analysis were adopted to evaluate the material homogeneity of a sheet of homogeneous composite nanofibers. The fabrication conditions and material blending ratios both have an influence on the material distribution and optimum points were observed from this technique. This study showed the possibility of using a quick and non-destructive technique and a modified image cluster analysis technique to evaluate the homogeneity of the electrospun nanofiber sheet.

  7. Why Small Differences Matter: Elucidation of the Mechanisms Underlying the Transformation of 2OH- and 3OH-Carbamazepine in Contact with Sand Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a worldwide used antiepileptic drug, which is metabolized to a large extent in the human body to several metabolites, including 10,11-dihydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (DiOHCBZ), 2-hydroxycarbamazepine (2OHCBZ), and 3-hydroxycarbamazepine (3OHCBZ). 2OHCBZ and 3OHCBZ were previously detected in raw and treated wastewater revealing their widespread emission into the aquatic environment, eventually leading to the contamination of drinking water resources. Sand filtration is frequently applied in drinking water treatment for the removal of inorganic species and suspended particles but has been shown to be capable of removing trace organic contaminants. This study focuses on the elucidation of the (bio)transformation mechanisms of 2OHCBZ and 3OHCBZ in contact with material taken from a rapid sand filter of a German waterworks. Despite their similar structure, which differs only in the position of the phenolic OH moiety, both compounds underwent distinct transformation reactions leading to the formation of a variety of transformation products (TPs). The main biochemical reactions thereby included enzymatic transformation of 2OHCBZ resulting in the formation of a reactive iminoquinone intermediate (2OHCBZ) and nitration via peroxynitrite (2OHCBZ and 3OHCBZ) as well as formation of radicals leading to dimerization (3OHCBZ). Further transformation reactions included hydroxylation, ring cleavage, loss of carbamoyl group, and decarboxylation, as well as O-methylation. PMID:26302402

  8. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments.

  9. Photolysis of light-transforming polymer materials on the basis of europium(III) nitrate with 1,10-phenanthroline and anthranilic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Zadorozhnaya, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    Light-transforming polymer materials on the basis of europium(III) nitrate with 1,10-phenanthroline and anthranilic acid, having an intense luminescence in the 400-650 nm spectral range, were obtained. It is shown that the photostability of the polymer materials on the basis of the obtained compositions is higher than of polymer materials activated by europium(III) compounds. Luminescent and photochemical characteristics of the obtained polymer compositions are determined by the molar ratio of the dopants: the maximum luminescence intensity and photostability is characteristic for the polymeric material containing europium(III) nitrate with 1,10-phenanthroline and anthranilic acid at a molar ratio of 1: 2.

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap Means Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgren, Chris; Sappington, Neil E.

    2015-01-01

    Educating students in public schools has never been at a higher priority. As this nation enters the informational-based economy public schools are going to be required to educate far more students at a higher and more rigorous level. Inspired by theories of educational equity, this study sought to explore the problem that not all students in…

  11. Application considerations for variable volts per turn power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, J.A. )

    1994-01-01

    Power transformer tap changing, either under load or when the transformer is de-energized, can be achieved by tapping the winding other than that which is experiencing the voltage change to be compensated. Thus the transformer has a variable volts per turn or variable excitation. The design technique is well known to transformer manufacturers but the author's experience is that it is not widely understood, nor are its advantages appreciated by transformer users. A search for papers revealed a surprising lack of material on this subject. The intent of this tutorial paper is to familiarize transformer users with the principles of designing variable volts per turn transformers and with performance differences from the usual constant volts per turn design, and with the economic advantages of reduced losses and reduced initial cost that is often possible with a variable volts per turn transformer design.

  12. A continuum mechanics approach to modeling and simulating engineering materials undergoing phase transformation using the evolving micro-structural model of inelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adedoyin, Adetokunbo Adelana

    Heat treatment for the purpose of material strengthening is accompanied by residual stresses and distortion. During these processing steps, steel alloys experience a phase change that in turn modify their overall mechanical response. To properly account for the cumulative composite behavior, the mechanical response, transformation kinetics and subsequent interaction of each phase have to be properly accounted for. Of interest to material designers and fabricators is modeling and simulating the evolutionary process a part undergoes for the sake of capturing the observable residual stress states and geometric distortion accumulated after processing. In an attempt to capture the aforementioned physical phenomena, this investigation is premised upon a consistent thermodynamic framework. Following this, the single phase Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity state variable model is extended to accommodate the occurrence of multiphases, affirming that the interaction between coexisting phases is through an interfacial stress. Since the efficacy of a multiphase model is dependent on its ability to capture the behavior of constituents phases and their subsequent interaction, we introduce a physically based self-consistent strain partitioning algorithm. With synthesis of the aforementioned ideas, the additional transformation induced plasticity is numerically accounted for by modifying each phase's flowrule to accommodate an interfacial stress. In addition, for simulating the cohabitation of two phases, the mechanical multiphase model equations is coupled with a previously developed non-diffusional phase transformation kinetics model. A qualitative assessment of the material response based on a Taylor, Sachs and self-consistent polycrystalline approximation is carried out. Further analysis of the multiphase model and its interaction with transformation kinetics is evaluated.

  13. Postassembly Transformation of a Catalytically Active Composite Material, Pt@ZIF-8, via Solvent-Assisted Linker Exchange.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Casey J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-02-15

    2-Methylimidazolate linkers of Pt@ZIF-8 are exchanged with imidazolate using solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) to expand the apertures of the parent material and create Pt@SALEM-2. Characterization of the material before and after SALE was performed. Both materials are active as catalysts for the hydrogenation of 1-octene, whereas the hydrogenation of cis-cyclohexene occurred only with Pt@SALEM-2, consistent with larger apertures for the daughter material. The largest substrate, β-pinene, proved to be unreactive with H2 when either material was employed as a candidate catalyst, supporting the contention that substrate molecules, for both composites, must traverse the metal-organic framework component in order to reach the catalytic nanoparticles.

  14. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  15. Topochemical Transformations of CaX2 (X=C, Si, Ge) to Form Free-Standing Two-Dimensional Materials.

    PubMed

    Pratik, Saied Md; Nijamudheen, A; Datta, Ayan

    2015-12-01

    Topochemical transformations of layered materials CaX2 (X=Si, Ge) are the method of choice for the high-yield synthesis of pristine, defect-free two-dimensional systems silicane and germanane, which have advanced electronic properties. Based on solid-state dispersion-corrected calculations, mechanisms for such transformations are elucidated that provide an in-depth understanding of phase transition in these layered materials. While formation of such layered materials is highly favorable for silicane and germanane, a barrier of 1.2 eV in the case of graphane precludes its synthesis from CaC2 topochemically. The energy penalty required for distorting linear acetylene into a trans-bent geometry accounts for this barrier. In contrast it is highly favorable in the heavier analogues, resulting in barrierless topochemical generation of silicane and germanane. Photochemical generation of the trans-bent structure of acetylene in its first excited state (S1 ) can directly generate graphane through a barrierless condensation. Unlike the buckled structure of silicene, the phase-h of CaSi2 with perfectly planar silicene layers exhibits the Dirac cones at the high symmetry points K and H. Interestingly, topochemical acidification of the cubic phase of calcium carbide is predicted to generate the previously elusive platonic hydrocarbon, tetrahedrane.

  16. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  17. High-resolution solid-state NMR study of the occurrence and thermal transformations of silicon-containing species in biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.C.C.; Emmerich, F.G.; Bonagamba, T.J.

    2000-03-01

    The occurrence of silicon in two kinds of biomass (rice hulls and endocarp of babassu coconut) and the thermal transformations taking place in these materials under heat treatments are studied here. The authors report also the production, characterization, and study of carbonaceous materials with high SiC content through the carbothermal reduction of silica, using these natural precursors. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si room temperature high-resolution solid-state NMR measurements are used in the characterization and study of the materials as well as the process of SiC formation. Important conclusions about the nature of silicon in these types of biomass and the effects of heat treatments on the structure of silicon-containing species are derived from the results presented. It is shown that silicon in these materials occurs in two distinct forms: amorphous hydrated silica and organically bound silicon species. The influence of spin-lattice relaxation dynamics on the NMR spectra is discussed, evidencing the role played by the paramagnetic defects produced in the materials through pyrolysis.

  18. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  19. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  20. Properties of the humic-like material arising from the photo-transformation of L-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Berto, Silvia; De Laurentiis, Elisa; Tota, Tiziana; Chiavazza, Enrico; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Minella, Marco; Isaia, Marco; Brigante, Marcello; Vione, Davide

    2016-03-01

    The UVB photolysis of L-tyrosine yields species with fluorescence and absorption spectra that are very similar to those of humic substances. By potentiometric measurements, chemical modeling and the application of NMR, mass spectrometry and laser flash photolysis, it was possible to get insights into the structural and chemical properties of the compounds derived by the L-tyrosine phototransformation. The photolytic process follows aromatic-ring hydroxylation and dimerization. The latter is presumably linked with the photoinduced generation of tyrosyl (phenoxy-type) radicals, which have a marked tendency to dimerize and possibly oligomerize. Interestingly, photoinduced transformation gives compounds with protogenic and complexation capabilities similar to those of the humic substances that occur naturally in surface waters. This finding substantiates a new and potentially important abiotic (photolytic) pathway for the formation of humic compounds in surface-water environments.

  1. SISGR -- Domain Microstructures and Mechanisms for Large, Reversible and Anhysteretic Strain Behaviors in Phase Transforming Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu U.

    2013-12-06

    This four-year project (including one-year no-cost extension) aimed to advance fundamental understanding of field-induced strain behaviors of phase transforming ferroelectrics. We performed meso-scale phase field modeling and computer simulation to study domain evolutions, mechanisms and engineering techniques, and developed computational techniques for nanodomain diffraction analysis; to further support above originally planned tasks, we also carried out preliminary first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defects and domain walls to complement meso-scale computations as well as performed in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments to guide theoretical development (both without extra cost to the project thanks to XSEDE supercomputers and DOE user facility Advanced Photon Source).

  2. Future utilization of space: Silverton Conference on material science and phase transformations in zero-gravity, summary of proceeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The importance of zero gravity environment in the development and production of new and improved materials is considered along with the gravitational effects on phase changes or critical behavior in a variety of materials. Specific experiments discussed include: fine scale phase separation in zero gravity; glass formation in zero gravity; effects of gravitational perturbations on determination of critical exponents; and light scattering from long wave fluctuations in liquids in zero gravity. It is concluded that the space shuttle/spacelab system is applicable to various fields of interest.

  3. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  4. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-07-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  5. Plastic flows and phase transformations in materials under compression in diamond anvil cell: Effect of contact sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Biao; Levitas, Valery I.; Zarechnyy, Oleg M.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of coupled plastic flows and strain-induced phase transformations (PTs) under high pressure in a diamond anvil cell is performed with the focus on the effect of the contact sliding between sample and anvils. Finite element software abaqus is utilized and a combination of Coulomb friction and plastic friction is considered. Results are obtained for PTs to weaker, equal-strength, and stronger high pressure phases, using different scaling parameters in a strain-controlled kinetic equation, and with various friction coefficients. Compared to the model with cohesion, artificial shear banding near the constant surface is eliminated. Sliding and the reduction in friction coefficient intensify radial plastic flow in the entire sample (excluding a narrow region near the contact surface) and a reduction in thickness. A reduction in the friction coefficient to 0.1 intensifies sliding and increases pressure in the central region. Increases in both plastic strain and pressure lead to intensification of strain-induced PT. The effect of self-locking of sliding is revealed. Multiple experimental phenomena are reproduced and interpreted. Thus, plastic flow and PT can be controlled by controlling friction.

  6. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  7. Micro-shock Wave Assisted Plant Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Datey, Akshay; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Gopalan, Jagadeesh

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are developed by transforming the desired DNA to plant. There are various methods employed to achieve the required transformation in plants. Agrobacterium mediated transformation and Biolistics or particle bombardment method are the most commonly used methods.

  8. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Periodic mesoporous hydridosilica--synthesis of an "impossible" material and its thermal transformation into brightly photoluminescent periodic mesoporous nanocrystal silicon-silica composite.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuoying; Henderson, Eric J; Dag, Ömer; Wang, Wendong; Lofgreen, Jennifer E; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Brodersen, Peter M; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-04-01

    There has always been a fascination with "impossible" compounds, ones that do not break any rules of chemical bonding or valence but whose structures are unstable and do not exist. This instability can usually be rationalized in terms of chemical or physical restrictions associated with valence electron shells, multiple bonding, oxidation states, catenation, and the inert pair effect. In the pursuit of these "impossible" materials, appropriate conditions have sometimes been found to overcome these instabilities and synthesize missing compounds, yet for others these tricks have yet to be uncovered and the materials remain elusive. In the scientifically and technologically important field of periodic mesoporous silicas (PMS), one such "impossible" material is periodic mesoporous hydridosilica (meso-HSiO(1.5)). It is the archetype of a completely interrupted silica open framework material: its pore walls are comprised of a three-connected three-dimensional network that should be so thermodynamically unstable that any mesopores present would immediately collapse upon removal of the mesopore template. In this study we show that meso-HSiO(1.5) can be synthesized by template-directed self-assembly of HSi(OEt)(3) under aqueous acid-catalyzed conditions and after template extraction remains stable to 300 °C. Above this temperature, bond redistribution reactions initiate a metamorphic transformation which eventually yields periodic mesoporous nanocrystalline silicon-silica, meso-ncSi/SiO(2), a nanocomposite material in which brightly photoluminescent silicon nanocrystallites are embedded within a silica matrix throughout the mesostructure. The integration of the properties of silicon nanocrystallinity with silica mesoporosity provides a wealth of new opportunities for emerging nanotechnologies.

  10. Na2 BaMQ4 (M=Ge, Sn; Q=S, Se): Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials with Excellent Performances and that Undergo Structural Transformations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kui; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-01

    Infrared nonlinear optical (IR NLO) materials with excellent performances are particularly important in laser technology. However, to design and synthesize an efficient IR NLO material with a balance between the optical band gap and the NLO coefficient is still a huge challenge. With this in mind, four new IR NLO materials Na2 BaSnS4 , Na2 BaSnSe4 , Na2 BaGeS4 , and Na2 BaGeSe4 were successfully designed and synthesized. The compounds exhibit excellent properties with a suitable balance of band gap and NLO coefficient measured for Na2 BaSnS4 (3.27 eV and about 17×KDP, that is, about 17 times that of KH2 PO4 (KDP)) and Na2 BaGeS4 (3.7 eV and about 10×KDP), demonstrating that the systems satisfy the key requirements as promising IR NLO candidates. Remarkably, the new compounds also undergo a novel structural transformation from tetragonal to trigonal systems, the first time that this has been reported for quaternary metal chalcogenides.

  11. The Role of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams in Materials Design for High Strength Oil and Gas Transmission LinePipe Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2006-01-01

    The economical movement of gas and oil to the marketplace requires transmission pipelines to be designed to operate at higher pressures with improved toughness over a variety of temperature ranges. To meet the higher strength and toughness specification requirements of these transmission pipelines, appropriate materials and processes must be used in their design and construction. This includes selection of appropriate alloy composition, processing routes, microstructure control, and cost. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram is a tool that can be used to select alloy composition and processing route in order to obtain a specific, desirable microstructure for transmission pipeline steels in a cost effective manner. In the past, CCT diagrams were developed experimentally under laboratory conditions and thus not practical for commercial pipeline design considerations. However, with the vast data available and improved computational tools, reasonably accurate computer generated CCT diagrams can be produced quickly. These computer generated diagrams can give a materials design engineer, a reasonable understanding of the effect of subjecting a given alloy to various processing routes and hence the resultant microstructures. Since final microstructure is a key variable in determining the final pipeline steel material properties, the chosen alloy/processing route and its effect on the final microstructure needs to be understood. This paper will discuss the role of CCT diagrams in the design of steels (cost, alloy, processing, and microstructure) for oil and gas transmission pipelines. Examples of computer generated CCT diagrams for various API alloy designs are included.

  12. Na2 BaMQ4 (M=Ge, Sn; Q=S, Se): Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials with Excellent Performances and that Undergo Structural Transformations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kui; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-01

    Infrared nonlinear optical (IR NLO) materials with excellent performances are particularly important in laser technology. However, to design and synthesize an efficient IR NLO material with a balance between the optical band gap and the NLO coefficient is still a huge challenge. With this in mind, four new IR NLO materials Na2 BaSnS4 , Na2 BaSnSe4 , Na2 BaGeS4 , and Na2 BaGeSe4 were successfully designed and synthesized. The compounds exhibit excellent properties with a suitable balance of band gap and NLO coefficient measured for Na2 BaSnS4 (3.27 eV and about 17×KDP, that is, about 17 times that of KH2 PO4 (KDP)) and Na2 BaGeS4 (3.7 eV and about 10×KDP), demonstrating that the systems satisfy the key requirements as promising IR NLO candidates. Remarkably, the new compounds also undergo a novel structural transformation from tetragonal to trigonal systems, the first time that this has been reported for quaternary metal chalcogenides. PMID:27100773

  13. Unusual entanglement transformation properties of the quantum radiation through one-dimensional random system containing left-handed-materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2008-10-13

    The quantum radiation through the multilayer structures containing the left-handed materials is investigated based on the Green-function approach to the quantization of the phenomenological Maxwell theory. Emphasis is placed on the effect of randomness on the generation and transmission of entangled-states. It is shown that some unusual properties appear for the present systems in comparison with those of the conventional dielectric structures. The quantum relative entropy is always enhanced with the increase of random degree due to the existence of nonlocalized mode in the present systems, while the maximal entanglement can be observed only at some certain randomness for the conventional dielectric structures. In contrast to exponential decrease in the conventional systems, the entanglement degrades slowly with the increase of disorder and thickness of the sample near the nonlocalized mode after transmission through the present systems. This will benefit the quantum communication for long distances.

  14. Seismic velocity constraints on the material properties that control earthquake behavior at the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar transform faults, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Emily; Lizarralde, Dan; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Collins, John A.

    2012-11-01

    Mid-ocean ridge transform faults (RTFs) vary strongly along strike in their ability to generate large earthquakes. This general observation suggests that local variations in material properties along RTFs exert a primary control on earthquake rupture dynamics. We explore these relationships by examining the seismic structure of two RTFs that have distinctly different seismic coupling. We determine the seismic velocity structure at the Gofar and Quebrada faults on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) using P wave traveltime tomography with data from two active-source wide-angle refraction lines crossing the faults. We image low-velocity zones (LVZs) at both faults, where P wave velocities are reduced by as much as 0.5-1.0 km/s (˜10-20%) within a several kilometer wide region. At the Gofar fault, the LVZ extends through the entire crust, into the seismogenic zone. We rule out widespread serpentinization as an explanation for the low velocities, owing to the lack of a corresponding signal in the locally measured gravity field. The reduced velocities can be explained if the plate boundary region is composed of fault material with enhanced fluid-filled porosity (1.5-8%). Local seismic observations indicate that the high-porosity region lies within a ˜10 km long portion of the fault that fails in large swarms of microearthquakes and acts as a barrier to the propagation of large (M ˜ 6.0) earthquakes. Tomographic images of fault structure combined with observed earthquake behavior suggest that EPR transform segments capable of generating large earthquakes have relatively intact gabbro within the seismogenic zone, whereas segments that slip aseismically or via earthquake swarms are composed of highly fractured, ≥2 km wide damage zones that extend throughout the crust.

  15. Adsorption Behavior of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Graphene Materials Explored by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-19

    Adsorption isotherms of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) were studied using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Chemical reduction of GO resulted in a greater extent of carbon adsorption with a higher degree of isotherm nonlinearity, suggesting that heterogeneous adsorption sites were additionally created by GO reduction. Two protein-like and two humic-like components were identified from EPS by EEM-PARAFAC. Adsorption of protein-like components was greater than that of humic-like components, and the preferential adsorption was more pronounced for GO versus rGO. Adsorption of protein-like components was more governed by site-limiting mechanisms than humic-like components as shown by the higher isotherm nonlinearity. 2D-COS provided further information on the adsorption of secondary protein structures. Adsorption of the EPS structures related to amide I and aromatic C-C bands was greater for rGO versus GO. Protein structures of EPS were more favorable for adsorption in the order of α-helix → amide II → β-sheet structures with increasing site limitation. Our results revealed successful applicability of EEM-PARAFAC and 2D-COS in examining the adsorption behavior of heterogeneous biological materials on graphene materials.

  16. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  17. Bioglass 45S5 transformation and molding material in the processing of biodegradable poly-DL-lactide scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Sara

    When bone is damaged, a scaffold can temporarily replace it in the site of injury and incite bone tissue to repair itself. A biodegradable scaffold resorbs into the body, generating non-toxic degradation products as new tissue reforms; a bioactive scaffold encourages the surrounding tissue to regenerate. In the present study, we make composite biodegradable and bioactive scaffolds using poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA), a biodegradable polymer, and incorporate Bioglass 45S5 (BG) to stimulate scaffold bioactivity. BG has an interesting trait when immersed in body fluid, a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite, similar to the inorganic component of bone, forms on its surface. It is of utmost importance to understand the fate of BG throughout the scaffold’s processing in order to assess the scaffold’s bioactivity. In this study, the established different stages of BG reactivity have been verified by monitoring pH during BG dissolution experiments and by conducting an elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The composite scaffolds are synthesized by the solvent casting and particulate leaching technique and their morphology assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To understand the transformations occurred in BG during scaffold synthesis, BG as received, as well BG treated in acetone and water (the fluids involved in scaffold processing) are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results are then compared with BG extracted from scaffolds after processing. BG has been determined to start reacting during the scaffold processing. In addition, its reactivity is influenced by BG particle size. The study suggests that the presence of the polymer provides a reactive environment for BG due to pH effects. Teflon molds in scaffold fabrication are inert and biocompatibile, but their stiffness presents a challenge during de-molding. Silicone-based and polyurethane molds

  18. Two cases of spatial transformations

    PubMed Central

    Silveirinha, Mário G.; Giovampaola, Cristian Della; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Here, we give an overview of our work on two topics related to the theme of spatial transformations in wave theory, namely the concepts of transformation electronics and ‘digital’ metamaterials. In the first topic, we show that the notion of transformation optics can be extended to other physical phenomena such as tailoring the effective mass of charged carriers, e.g. electrons, in specially designed semiconductor superlattices. We discuss how the combination of thin layers of electronic materials with different effective mass of electrons may lead to bulk composite structures in which the effective mass of electrons may exhibit extreme anisotropy. For the second case, we show that any desired electromagnetic permittivity can, in principle, be engineered with proper combinations of two deeply subwavelength building blocks with relative permittivity values whose real parts have opposite signs. Owing to the presence of a plasmonic resonance between the two building blocks with oppositely signed dielectric constants, the achieved effective relative permittivity for the bulk composite may have values outside the range defined by the two permittivity values of the building blocks. We discuss some of the salient features of these two spatial transformation phenomena. PMID:26217063

  19. Two cases of spatial transformations.

    PubMed

    Silveirinha, Mário G; Giovampaola, Cristian Della; Engheta, Nader

    2015-08-28

    Here, we give an overview of our work on two topics related to the theme of spatial transformations in wave theory, namely the concepts of transformation electronics and 'digital' metamaterials. In the first topic, we show that the notion of transformation optics can be extended to other physical phenomena such as tailoring the effective mass of charged carriers, e.g. electrons, in specially designed semiconductor superlattices. We discuss how the combination of thin layers of electronic materials with different effective mass of electrons may lead to bulk composite structures in which the effective mass of electrons may exhibit extreme anisotropy. For the second case, we show that any desired electromagnetic permittivity can, in principle, be engineered with proper combinations of two deeply subwavelength building blocks with relative permittivity values whose real parts have opposite signs. Owing to the presence of a plasmonic resonance between the two building blocks with oppositely signed dielectric constants, the achieved effective relative permittivity for the bulk composite may have values outside the range defined by the two permittivity values of the building blocks. We discuss some of the salient features of these two spatial transformation phenomena. PMID:26217063

  20. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  1. WORKING WITH ALKALINE MATERIALS TO ACHIEVE A CLASS B, CLASS A, AND/OR A BIOSOLIDS THAT DOES NOT ATTRACT VECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA ar...

  2. Multi-wavelength and time-domain diffuse optical tomography data processing by using a material basis and Mellin-Laplace transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Di Sieno, Laura; Berger, Michel; Puszka, Agathe; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-03-01

    In order to increase sensitivity in the depth of diffusive media and to separate chromophores with distinct spectral signatures, we developed a method to process time-domain/multi-wavelength diffuse optical acquisitions: 3D Reconstructions of chromophore concentrations are performed with an algorithm based on the use of Mellin-Laplace Transform and material basis. A noise weighted data matching term is optimized by using the conjugated gradients method without expressing the Jacobian matrix of the system. As the algorithm uses reference measurements on a known medium, it does not require measurements or computations of the instrument response function of the system. Validations are performed in the reflectance geometry on a tissue-mimicking phantom composed of intralipid and black ink and a cylindrical blue dye inclusion with a radius of 4mm located at 15mm in depth. The optical tomography setup includes a laser whose picosecond pulses are injected via an optical fiber to the probed diffusive medium and the light collected by two fibers (located 15mm apart from the source), is sent to a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) connected to a Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) board. The source and two detectors scan the surface of the medium so as to provide 30 source-detector couples, 900 time-bins and 5 wavelength signals. 3D reconstructions performed on the black ink and blue dye materials on a mesh of around 10000 nodes show that we are able to detect, localize and determine the composition of the inclusion and the background.

  3. Nontensorial Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Meca, C.; Barceló, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present an alternative version of transformation optics that allows us to mold the flow of light without rotating or scaling the electromagnetic fields. The resulting media experience unusual force densities, are nonreciprocal, and exhibit loss or gain. Because of these singular features, a variety of effects and devices unreachable by standard transformation optics can be achieved, including reflectionless light compression, optical modes with arbitrary in-plane polarization, and special isolators.

  4. Catalytic coherence transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  5. A Multi-omics Approach to Understand the Microbial Transformation of Lignocellulosic Materials in the Digestive System of the Wood-Feeding Beetle Odontotaenius disjunctus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceja Navarro, J. A.; Karaoz, U.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Adkins, J.; Mayali, X.; Blackwell, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Odontotaenius disjuctus is a wood feeding beetle that processes large amounts of hardwoods and plays an important role in forest carbon cycling. In its gut, plant material is transformed into simple molecules by sequential processing during passage through the insect's digestive system. In this study, we used multiple 'omics approaches to analyze the distribution of microbial communities and their specific functions in lignocellulose deconstruction within the insect's gut. Fosmid clones were selected and sequenced from a pool of clones based on their expression of plant polymer degrading enzymes, allowing the identification of a wide range of carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Comparison of metagenomes of all gut regions demonstrated the distribution of genes across the beetle gut. Cellulose, starch, and xylan degradation genes were particularly abundant in the midgut and posterior hindgut. Genes involved in hydrogenotrophic production of methane and nitrogenases were more abundant in the anterior hindgut. Assembled contigs were binned into 127 putative genomes representing Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and Nematodes. Eleven complete genomes were reconstructed allowing to identify linked functions/traits, including organisms with cellulosomes, and a combined potential for cellulose, xylan and starch hydrolysis and nitrogen fixation. A metaproteomic study was conducted to test the expression of the pathways identified in the metagenomic study. Preliminary analyses suggest enrichment of pathways related to hemicellulosic degradation. A complete xylan degradation pathway was reconstructed and GC-MS/MS based metabolomics identified xylobiose and xylose as major metabolite pools. To relate microbial identify to function in the beetle gut, Chip-SIP isotope tracing was conducted with RNA extracted from beetles fed 13C-cellulose. Multiple 13C enriched bacterial groups were detected, mainly in the midgut. Our multi-omics approach has allowed us to characterize the contribution of

  6. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  7. Transforming Australia's HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV'.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Bill

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'.

  8. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  9. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  10. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  11. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  12. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  13. Organelle transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  14. Triple transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farrukh I.; Schinn, Dustin S.

    2013-08-01

    A new business plan that enables policy transformation and resource mobilization at the national and international level, while improving access to resources, will allow the Green Climate Fund to integrate development goals and action on climate change.

  15. Organelle transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future. PMID:22610643

  16. Materials Frontiers to Empower Quantum Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette Jane; Sarrao, John Louis; Richardson, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This is an exciting time at the nexus of quantum computing and materials research. The materials frontiers described in this report represent a significant advance in electronic materials and our understanding of the interactions between the local material and a manufactured quantum state. Simultaneously, directed efforts to solve materials issues related to quantum computing provide an opportunity to control and probe the fundamental arrangement of matter that will impact all electronic materials. An opportunity exists to extend our understanding of materials functionality from electronic-grade to quantum-grade by achieving a predictive understanding of noise and decoherence in qubits and their origins in materials defects and environmental coupling. Realizing this vision systematically and predictively will be transformative for quantum computing and will represent a qualitative step forward in materials prediction and control.

  17. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Taccetta-Chapnick, M

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition.

  18. Step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for investigating chemical reactions of energy-related materials. Final report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Eyring, E.M.

    1997-11-04

    Two step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were purchased with URI-DOE funds by the University of Utah. These infrared spectrometers have been used to carry out the following investigations: the determination of strength of adsorption of organic molecules at the liquid-solid interface of coated attenuated total reflectance (ATR) elements, the kinetic study of the photoinitiated polymerization of a dental resin, the exploration of the kinetics of photochemical reactions of organic molecules in solution, and the development of a stopped-flow FTIR interface for measuring rates and mechanisms of reactions in solution that are not photoinitiated and do not have convenient ultraviolet-visible spectral features.

  19. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

  20. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  1. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  2. Transformational plasmon optics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate efficiently molding surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based on transformation optics. SPPs are surface modes of electromagnetic waves tightly bound at metal-dielectric interfaces, which allow us to scale optics beyond the diffraction limit. Taking advantage of transformation optics, here we show that the propagation of SPPs can be manipulated in a prescribed manner by careful control of the dielectric material properties adjacent to a metal. Since the metal properties are completely unaltered, this methodology provides a practical way for routing light at very small scales. For instance, our approach enables SPPs to travel at uneven and curved surfaces over a broad wavelength range, where SPPs would normally suffer significant scattering losses. In addition, a plasmonic 180 degrees waveguide bend and a plasmonic Luneburg lens with simple designs are presented. The unique design flexibility of the transformational plasmon optics introduced here may open a new door to nano optics and downscaling of photonic circuits.

  3. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of eutectic transformation was examined to find guidelines to the best material combinations to examine. The heats of transformation were measured calorimetrically, and the volume changes of expanding solid mixtures and homogeneous liquid solutions, especially during the transformation between the two states at fixed temperature, were measured by changes in X-ray absorption. Heat flow models appropriate to storage in phase change materials were developed along with efficient calculating procedures so that the relative importance of the problems associated with energy storage density, heat conduction, and similar properties could be assessed.

  4. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  5. Wavelet transform: fundamentals, applications, and implementation using acousto-optic correlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Koay, J.; Litynski, Daniel M.; Das, Pankaj K.

    1995-10-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of interest in the use of wavelets to supplement or replace conventional Fourier transform signal processing. This paper provides a review of wavelet transforms for signal processing applications, and discusses several emerging applications which benefit from the advantages of wavelets. The wavelet transform can be implemented as an acousto-optic correlator; perfect reconstruction of digital signals may also be achieved using acousto-optic finite impulse response filter banks. Acousto-optic image correlators are discussed as a potential implementation of the wavelet transform, since a 1D wavelet filter bank may be encoded as a 2D image. We discuss applications of the wavelet transform including nondestructive testing of materials, biomedical applications in the analysis of EEG signals, and interference excision in spread spectrum communication systems. Computer simulations and experimental results for these applications are also provided.

  6. Achieving Science Literacy through Transformation of Multimodal Textual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knain, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In her article "Framing New Research in Science Literacy and Language Use: Authenticity, Multiple Discourses, and the "Third Space"," Carolyn S. Wallace presented a model of science literacy that frames language in science to teaching principles in a powerful way. The model would however be enhanced if two additional concepts are made explicit,…

  7. Achieving Transformative Sustainability Learning: Engaging Head, Hands and Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipos, Yona; Battisti, Bryce; Grimm, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development echoes many scholars' calls to re-envision education for sustainability. Short of a complete overhaul of education, the paper seeks to propose learning objectives that can be integrated across existing curricula. These learning objectives are organized by head, hands and…

  8. RF transformer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  9. Learning and the transformative potential of citizen science.

    PubMed

    Bela, Györgyi; Peltola, Taru; Young, Juliette C; Balázs, Bálint; Arpin, Isabelle; Pataki, György; Hauck, Jennifer; Kelemen, Eszter; Kopperoinen, Leena; Van Herzele, Ann; Keune, Hans; Hecker, Susanne; Suškevičs, Monika; Roy, Helen E; Itkonen, Pekka; Külvik, Mart; László, Miklós; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Bonn, Aletta

    2016-10-01

    The number of collaborative initiatives between scientists and volunteers (i.e., citizen science) is increasing across many research fields. The promise of societal transformation together with scientific breakthroughs contributes to the current popularity of citizen science (CS) in the policy domain. We examined the transformative capacity of citizen science in particular learning through environmental CS as conservation tool. We reviewed the CS and social-learning literature and examined 14 conservation projects across Europe that involved collaborative CS. We also developed a template that can be used to explore learning arrangements (i.e., learning events and materials) in CS projects and to explain how the desired outcomes can be achieved through CS learning. We found that recent studies aiming to define CS for analytical purposes often fail to improve the conceptual clarity of CS; CS programs may have transformative potential, especially for the development of individual skills, but such transformation is not necessarily occurring at the organizational and institutional levels; empirical evidence on simple learning outcomes, but the assertion of transformative effects of CS learning is often based on assumptions rather than empirical observation; and it is unanimous that learning in CS is considered important, but in practice it often goes unreported or unevaluated. In conclusion, we point to the need for reliable and transparent measurement of transformative effects for democratization of knowledge production. PMID:27185104

  10. Learning and the transformative potential of citizen science.

    PubMed

    Bela, Györgyi; Peltola, Taru; Young, Juliette C; Balázs, Bálint; Arpin, Isabelle; Pataki, György; Hauck, Jennifer; Kelemen, Eszter; Kopperoinen, Leena; Van Herzele, Ann; Keune, Hans; Hecker, Susanne; Suškevičs, Monika; Roy, Helen E; Itkonen, Pekka; Külvik, Mart; László, Miklós; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Bonn, Aletta

    2016-10-01

    The number of collaborative initiatives between scientists and volunteers (i.e., citizen science) is increasing across many research fields. The promise of societal transformation together with scientific breakthroughs contributes to the current popularity of citizen science (CS) in the policy domain. We examined the transformative capacity of citizen science in particular learning through environmental CS as conservation tool. We reviewed the CS and social-learning literature and examined 14 conservation projects across Europe that involved collaborative CS. We also developed a template that can be used to explore learning arrangements (i.e., learning events and materials) in CS projects and to explain how the desired outcomes can be achieved through CS learning. We found that recent studies aiming to define CS for analytical purposes often fail to improve the conceptual clarity of CS; CS programs may have transformative potential, especially for the development of individual skills, but such transformation is not necessarily occurring at the organizational and institutional levels; empirical evidence on simple learning outcomes, but the assertion of transformative effects of CS learning is often based on assumptions rather than empirical observation; and it is unanimous that learning in CS is considered important, but in practice it often goes unreported or unevaluated. In conclusion, we point to the need for reliable and transparent measurement of transformative effects for democratization of knowledge production.

  11. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  12. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  13. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  14. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  15. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  16. The transformation behaviour of bulk nanostructured NiTi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, F.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Martins, I.; Correia, J. B.; Oliveira, M.; Gaffet, E.; Wang, T.-Y.; Lattemann, M.; Suffner, J.; Hahn, H.

    2009-11-01

    The phase transformation behaviour of bulk nanostructured NiTi shape memory alloys, produced by an innovative approach called MARES (mechanically activated reactive extrusion synthesis), was investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. For the experimental conditions used, a suitable adjustment of the NiTi matrix composition was achieved after ageing at 500 °C for 7 h. The aged materials showed a homogeneous dispersion of Ni4Ti3 precipitates embedded in a B2-NiTi matrix. Under this condition the B2-NiTi matrix has undergone a \\mathrm {B2 \\leftrightarrow R \\leftrightarrow B19'} two-stage phase transformation. This was attributed to the complex microstructural evolution during MARES processing, i.e. formation of large-scale and small-scale heterogeneities. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of the solution-treated materials showed the existence of equiaxed nanocrystals in the nanocrystalline NiTi matrix.

  17. Characterization of organic material in ice core samples from North America, Greenland, and Antarctica using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzano, V.; Grannas, A. M.; Sleighter, R. L.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Historically, it has been an analytical challenge to detect and identify the organic components present in ice cores, due to the low abundance of organic carbon. In order to detect and characterize the small amounts of organic matter in ice cores, ultra high resolution instrumentation is required. Here we report the use of ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, coupled with electrospray ionization, to identify the molecular formulas and compound classes of organic matter in both modern and ancient ice core and glacial samples from Wyoming, Greenland, and Antarctica. A suite of 21 samples were analyzed and thousands of distinct molecular species were identified in each sample, providing clues to the nature and sources of organic matter in these regions. Major biochemical classes of compounds were detected such as lignins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and condensed aromatic compounds. We will compare the nature of the organic matter present in the samples in order to determine the differences in dominant organic compound classes and in heteroatom (nitrogen and sulfur) abundance. By analyzing these differences, it is possible to investigate the historical patterns of organic matter deposition/source, and begin to investigate the influence of climate change, volcanism, and onset of the industrial revolution on the nature of organic matter preserved in ice cores.

  18. Dynamically tunable transformation thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Meca, Carlos; Barceló, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the introduction of transformation thermodynamics has provided a way to design thermal media that alter the flow of heat according to any spatial deformation, enabling the construction of novel devices such as thermal cloaks or concentrators. However, in its current version, this technique only allows static deformations of space. Here, we develop a space–time theory of transformation thermodynamics that incorporates the possibility of performing time-varying deformations. This extra freedom greatly widens the range of achievable effects, providing an additional degree of control for heat management applications. As an example, we design a reconfigurable thermal cloak that can be opened and closed dynamically, therefore being able to gradually adjust the temperature distribution of a given region.

  19. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  20. Hamlet's Transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  1. Novel and potential application of cryopreservation to plant genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhibo; Yin, Zhenfang; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The world population now is 6.7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. Such a rapid growing population has tremendously increased the challenge for food security. Obviously, it is impossible for traditional agriculture to ensure the food security, while plant biotechnology offers considerable potential to realize this goal. Over the last 15 years, great benefits have been brought to sustainable agriculture by commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Further development of new GM crops will with no doubt contribute to meeting the requirements for food by the increasing population. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on novel and potential application of cryopreservation to genetic transformation. The major progresses that have been achieved in this subject include (1), long-term storage of a large number of valuable plant genes, which offers a good potential for further development of novel cultivars by genetic transformation; (2), retention of regenerative capacity of embryogenic tissues and protoplasts, which ensures efficient plant regeneration system for genetic transformation; (3), improvement of transformation efficiency and plant regeneration of transformed cells; (4), long-term preservation of transgenic materials with stable expression of transgenes and productive ability of recombinant proteins, which allows transgenic materials to be stored in a safe manner before being analyzed and evaluated, and allows establishment of stable seed stocks for commercial production of homologous proteins. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrate that cryo-technique has an important role to play in the whole chain of genetic transformation. Further studies coupling cryotechnique and genetic transformation are expected to significantly improve development of new GM crops.

  2. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  3. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids. Final report, August 1, 1988--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1996-09-01

    Throughout history, the development of stronger materials has enabled the realization of countless technological advances. Unfortunately, any increase in strength is rarely achieved without concomitant decreases in toughness and ductility: a fact which severely limits the utility of materials such as ultrahigh-strength alloy steels. Typical precipitation-strengthened stainless steels have very little toughness at high strength levels. In the last decade, however, several investigators have reported exceptionally large fracture toughness values in high-strength precipitation-hardened metastable austenitic steels. This remarkable achievement is directly attributable to the process of transformation toughening. This report describes studies on tranformations and enhancement of plane-strain ductility in high strength steels.

  4. Transformation of wetlands in the NE part of the Tuchola Pinewoods over the last 200 years on the basis of cartographic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2015-04-01

    Transformation of wetlands is conditioned by climatic, geological, hydrological and biotic as well as anthropogenic factors. Dynamic changes in lake and river systems in Northern Poland occurred at the time of the dead ice blocks melting and permafrost decay. Over the following periods of time, these changes tended to be more evolutionary. The disappearance of lakes and formation of wetlands occurred in the process of slow shallowing by filling lake basins with biogenic sediments. Only in the last few hundred years the process has been disturbed and significantly remodelled by human activity. A particularly important role was played by reclamation which led to the drainage of many wetlands and disappearance of lakes. Draining of wetlands has led to an increase in the participation of birch, oak, maple and hornbeam in the stands which in turn might have lead to a change in sedimentation in water bodies. Furthermore, due to mineralisation of peat some micro- and macroelements have become available to plants and incorporated back into circulation in the ecosystem. The goal of the research is to determine the direction and rate of change of wetlands over the last 200 years in the selected test area around Lake Czechowskie in the Tuchola Pinewoods. The study area is located in northern Poland, within the Weichselian glaciation. From earlier studies it is known that in this area over the last 200 years the biggest changes resulted from massive tree felling between the end of the eighteenth century and mid-nineteenth century. At the same time since the mid-eighteenth century, in this area very intensive reclamation works were carried out whose main objective was to convert peatlands into meadows. The biggest changes caused by land reclamation took place between mid-nineteenth and early twentieth century. At the same time, this area was abundant in dams and water mills. This study is based on historical and contemporary maps, including the following: Schr

  5. Electrochemical mechanisms in tin-containing composite materials for negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries: Transformation of the interfacial tin species during the first galvanostatic discharge of Sn[BPO 4] 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Donato E.; Stievano, Lorenzo; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Willmann, Patrick

    The Sn[BPO 4] 0.4 composite material is composed of three main constituents: the electrochemically active Sn 0 species, the BPO 4 buffer matrix, and an interfacial amorphous Sn II borophosphate phase which acts as a link between the other two, improving the cohesion of the whole composite. In this paper, we report an investigation of the effect of the reaction time on structure and size of this interfacial layer formed between the Sn 0 and the BPO 4 particles. 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy shows an increase in the amount of the oxidized Sn II species with the increase of the reaction time following a quasi-kinetic profile. Operando Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the study of the transformation of the interface at the beginning of the first electrochemical cycle, indicating that the big irreversible loss during the first discharge is closely related to the increase of the amount of Sn II in the amorphous interface.

  6. Spacecraft transformer and inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

  7. Transforming Schools: Illusion or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the claim that appropriately trained heads can motivate teachers and students to achieve challenging targets and transform the prospects of future generations. Theory derived from the leadership literature is tested against the experience of three headteachers in the field. Case study evidence is used to examine how Hillside…

  8. Transforming the optical landscape.

    PubMed

    Pendry, J B; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rongkuo

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetism provides us with some of the most powerful tools in science, encompassing lasers, optical microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging scanners, radar, and a host of other techniques. To understand and develop the technology requires more than a set of formal equations. Scientists and engineers have to form a vivid picture that fires their imaginations and enables intuition to play a full role in the process of invention. It is to this end that transformation optics has been developed, exploiting Faraday's picture of electric and magnetic fields as lines of force, which can be manipulated by the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of surrounding materials. Transformation optics says what has to be done to place the lines of force where we want them to be.

  9. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  7. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  8. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  9. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  10. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  11. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  12. Materials Informatics: Fast Track to New Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, Kim F.; Peurrung, Loni M.; Marder, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for new materials development focus on either deeper fundamental-level studies or generation of large quantities of data. The data challenge in materials science is not only the volume of data being generated by many independent investigators, but its heterogeneity and also its complexity that must be transformed, analyzed, correlated and communicated. Materials informatics addresses these issues. Materials informatics is an emerging information-based field combining computational, statistical, and mathematical approaches with materials sciences for accelerating discovery and development of new materials. Within the informatic framework, the various different forms of information form a system architecture, an iterative cycle for transforming data into knowledge.

  13. Quantum transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1998-01-09

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative {partial_derivative}{sub q} replaced by {partial_derivative}{sub q} with dq = dq/{radical}1{minus}{beta}{sup 2}(q), where {beta}{sup 2}(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above {open_quotes}quantum transformation{close_quotes}, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) {minus} E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures {kappa}{sub W} and {kappa}{sub Q} which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form ({partial_derivative}{sub q}{sup 2} + {kappa}{sub W}){psi} = 0.

  14. Effects of Forming Induced Phase Transformation on Crushing Behavior of TRIP Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, results of finite element crash simulation are presented for a TRIP steel side rail with and without considering the phase transformation during forming operations. A homogeneous phase transformation model is adapted to model the mechanical behavior of the austenite-to-martensite phase. The forming process of TRIP steels is simulated with the implementation of the material model. The distribution and volume fraction of the martensite in TRIP steels may be greatly influenced by various factors during forming process and subsequently contribute to the behavior of the formed TRIP steels during the crushing process. The results indicate that, with the forming induced phase transformation, higher energy absorption of the side rail can be achieved. The phase transformation enhances the strength of the side rail

  15. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  16. Phase transformations in some hafnium-tantalum-titanium-zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Kapoor, D.

    1997-11-01

    Phase transformations in hafnium alloys are of interest as a means of achieving a material which exhibits flow softening and high localized strains during deformation at high strain rates. Hafnium transforms from a body-centered-cubic beta phase to a hexagonal alpha phase upon cooling below 1749{degrees}C. Hafnium-based alloys containing up to 17.5% Ti, up to 17.5% Ta, and up to 7.3% Zr by weight were button-arc melted and, in some cases, hot extruded to obtain a refined grain size. A number of alloys were shown to have beta solvus temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1300{degrees}C and showed evidence of a shear transformation upon water quenching. The Vickers microhardness of the quenched materials are typically above 350 HV as compared to 300 HV or less for materials with an alpha plus beta structure. Quenching dilatometry indicates a martensite start temperature of about 750{degrees}C for the Hf-7.5 Ta-10 Ti-1 Zr alloy and 800{degrees}C or more for the Hf-7.5 Ta-7.5 Ti-1 Zr alloy. Tensile tests at 1 s{sup {minus}1} strain rate show a constant ultimate tensile strength for temperatures up to 600{degrees}C for the above two alloys and a rapid decrease in strength with a further increase in temperature.

  17. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  18. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel; Wurtz, Gregory; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices.

  19. Social Work Education: Achieving Transformative Learning through a Cultural Competence Model for Transformative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Kesha

    2007-01-01

    Migration across national borders has resulted in demographic changes in the United States, causing the country to become more multi-ethnic. This presents considerable challenges for graduate level educators who need to be responsive to the unique academic needs of diverse populations by considering students' previous experiences, values, and…

  20. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  1. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  2. Development of New Absorber Materials to Achieve Organic Photovoltaic Commercial Modules with 15% Efficiency and 20 Years Lifetime: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-498

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    Under this CRADA the parties will develop intermediates or materials that can be employed as the active layer in dye sensitized solar cells printed polymer systems, or small molecule organic photovoltaics.

  3. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]—when the configuration space is the two-sphere S2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S3. It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C3 or C4. We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L2(S2) or L2(S3), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms.

  4. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    SciTech Connect

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis

  5. Efficient Transformation of Oil Palm Protoplasts by PEG-Mediated Transfection and DNA Microinjection

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula A.; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. Conclusions/Significance We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants. PMID:24821306

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  8. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  9. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  10. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  11. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  12. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  13. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  14. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  15. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  16. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  17. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  2. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  3. Anaerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Roopathy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic tempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic microorganisms. In many cases attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions results in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. Trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitrate from trinitrotoluene is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the production of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. This presentation will review the data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT and other nitroaromatics.

  4. 7 transformations of leadership.

    PubMed

    Rooke, David; Torbert, William R

    2005-04-01

    Most developmental psychologists agree that what differentiates one leader from another is not so much philosophy of leadership, personality, or style of management. Rather, it's internal "action logic"--how a leader interprets the surroundings and reacts when his or her power or safety is challenged. Relatively few leaders, however, try to understand their action logic, and fewer still have explored the possibility of changing it. They should, because leaders who undertake this voyage of personal understanding and development can transform not only their own capabilities but also those of their companies. The authors draw on 25 years of consulting experience and collaboration with psychologist Susanne Cook-Greuter to present a typology of leadership based on the way managers personally make sense of the world around them. Rooke and Torbert classify leaders into seven distinct actionlogic categories: Opportunists, Diplomats, Experts, Achievers, Individualists, Strategists, and Alchemists-the first three associated with below-average performance, the latter four with medium to high performance. These leadership styles are not fixed, the authors say, and executives who are willing to work at developing themselves and becoming more self-aware can almost certainly move toward one of the more effective action logics. A Diplomat, for instance, can succeed through hard work and self-reflection at transforming himself into a Strategist. Few people may become Alchemists, but many will have the desire and potential to become Individualists and Strategists. Corporations that help their executives and leadership teams to examine their action logics can reap rich rewards.

  5. Transforming learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    A new Learning and Skills Council for post-16 learning is the latest proposal from the UK Government in its attempt to ensure a highly skilled workforce for the next century. Other aims will be to reduce the variability in standards of the existing post-16 system, coordination and coherence between further education and training, and a reduction in the duplication and layers in contracting and funding. The proposals include: a national Learning and Skills Council, with 40-50 local Learning and Skills Councils to develop local plans; a strengthened strategic role for business in education and training, influencing a budget of #5bn a radical new youth programme entitled `Connexions', with dedicated personal advisors for young people; greater cooperation between sixth forms and colleges; and the establishment of an independent inspectorate covering all work-related learning and training, to include a new role for Ofsted in inspecting the provision for 16-19 year-olds in schools and colleges. It is hoped that this programme will build on the successes of the previous systems and that savings of at least #50m can be achieved through streamlining and the reduction in bureaucracy. The intentions are set out in a White Paper, Learning to Succeed, which is available from the Stationery Office and bookshops, as well as on the website www.dfee.gov.uk/post16. Published in addition to the White Paper was `School Sixth form funding: a consultation paper' (available from DfEE publications, Prolog, PO Box 5050, Sherwood Park, Annesley, Nottingham NG15 0DJ) and `Transition plan for the post-16 education and training and for local delivery of support for small firms' (available from Trevor Tucknutt, TECSOP Division, Level 3, Department for Education and Employment, Moorfoot, Sheffield S1 4PQ). The deadline for comments on both the sixth form consultation document and the White Paper is 15 October 1999. Almost simultaneously with the announcement of the above proposals came the

  6. Parameters of high-temperature superconducting transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, E. P.; Dzhafarov, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Parameters of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) transformer with a core-type magnetic circuit and with coaxial and symmetrical interleaved windings made of the first-generation HTSC wire with a localized magnetic field are considered. The parameters of the most widespread core-type transformer with a coaxial HTSC winding are compared with those of a conventional transformer with a copper wire winding. Advantages of the HTSC transformers, such as reduction in the leakage inductive reactance and the HTSC winding's cross section, volume, and mass, as compared with the same parameters of conventional transformers with a copper wire winding are demonstrated. The efficiency of the HTSC transformers has proven to be determined predominantly by the core loss. In order to increase the efficiency of the HTSC transformer, it is proposed to use the amorphous electrical steel as the material of its magnetic circuit.

  7. An Urban Middle School Case Study of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Cynthia S.; Vaidya, Sheila R.

    2014-01-01

    What does it take to change a school's mathematics achievement profile from low to one that is proficient and advanced? Is this transformed achievement profile sustainable? Such is the story presented here, in this three-phase case study of a K-8 urban charter school's mathematics program. The first phase discusses the school's…

  8. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  9. A Primer of Fourier Transform NMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Roger S.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a new spectroscopic technique that is often omitted from undergraduate curricula because of lack of instructional materials. Therefore, information is provided to introduce students to the technique of data collection and transformation into the frequency domain. (JN)

  10. Efficient pressure-transformer for fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morando, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Fluid transformer utilizes fluid under pressure at one level to drive series of free pistons in positive displacement pump. Pump in turn delivers hydraulic fluid at different pressure level to a load. Transformer is constructed of corrosion resistant materials and is extremely light and compact in relation to capacity.

  11. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  12. Issues in Business Education Programme: Challenges to National Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajisafe, Olatunbosun Emmanuel; Bolarinwa, Kayode Omotayo; Tuke, Edeh

    2015-01-01

    Transformation engenders change, and change denotes a departure from the old order to a new one. National transformation therefore implies fundamental change in the building block of a nation; change in the social, economic, infrastructural and political landscape of a nation. For transformation to be achieved, it must encompass all levels of…

  13. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  14. Hyphenation of Thermal Analysis to Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry) Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization For Studying Composition and Thermal Degradation of Complex Materials.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Christopher P; Miersch, Toni; Schwemer, Theo; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the hyphenation of a thermobalance to an ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (UHR FTICR MS) is presented. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is used for efficient ionization. The evolved gas analysis (EGA), using high-resolution mass spectrometry allows the time-resolved molecular characterization of thermally induced processes in complex materials or mixtures, such as biomass or crude oil. The most crucial part of the setup is the hyphenation between the thermobalance and the APCI source. Evolved gases are forced to enter the atmospheric pressure ionization interface of the MS by applying a slight overpressure at the thermobalance side of the hyphenation. Using the FTICR exact mass data, detailed chemical information is gained by calculation of elemental compositions from the organic species, enabling a time and temperature resolved, highly selective detection of the evolved species. An additional selectivity is gained by the APCI ionization, which is particularly sensitive toward polar compounds. This selectivity on the one hand misses bulk components of petroleum samples such as alkanes and does not deliver a comprehensive view but on the other hand focuses particularly on typical evolved components from biomass samples. As proof of principle, the thermal behavior of different fossil fuels: heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, and a crude oil, and different lignocellulosic biomass, namely, beech, birch, spruce, ash, oak, and pine as well as commercial available softwood and birch-bark pellets were investigated. The results clearly show the capability to distinguish between certain wood types through their molecular patterns and compound classes. Additionally, typical literature known pyrolysis biomass marker were confirmed by their elemental composition, such as coniferyl aldehyde (C10H10O3), sinapyl aldehyde (C11H12O4), retene (C18H18), and abietic acid (C20H30O2). PMID:26024433

  15. Hyphenation of Thermal Analysis to Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry) Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization For Studying Composition and Thermal Degradation of Complex Materials.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Christopher P; Miersch, Toni; Schwemer, Theo; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the hyphenation of a thermobalance to an ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (UHR FTICR MS) is presented. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is used for efficient ionization. The evolved gas analysis (EGA), using high-resolution mass spectrometry allows the time-resolved molecular characterization of thermally induced processes in complex materials or mixtures, such as biomass or crude oil. The most crucial part of the setup is the hyphenation between the thermobalance and the APCI source. Evolved gases are forced to enter the atmospheric pressure ionization interface of the MS by applying a slight overpressure at the thermobalance side of the hyphenation. Using the FTICR exact mass data, detailed chemical information is gained by calculation of elemental compositions from the organic species, enabling a time and temperature resolved, highly selective detection of the evolved species. An additional selectivity is gained by the APCI ionization, which is particularly sensitive toward polar compounds. This selectivity on the one hand misses bulk components of petroleum samples such as alkanes and does not deliver a comprehensive view but on the other hand focuses particularly on typical evolved components from biomass samples. As proof of principle, the thermal behavior of different fossil fuels: heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, and a crude oil, and different lignocellulosic biomass, namely, beech, birch, spruce, ash, oak, and pine as well as commercial available softwood and birch-bark pellets were investigated. The results clearly show the capability to distinguish between certain wood types through their molecular patterns and compound classes. Additionally, typical literature known pyrolysis biomass marker were confirmed by their elemental composition, such as coniferyl aldehyde (C10H10O3), sinapyl aldehyde (C11H12O4), retene (C18H18), and abietic acid (C20H30O2).

  16. Transformation and alignment in similarity.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-10-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one representation into the other. We assess RD by defining a simple coding scheme of psychological transformations for the experimental materials. In two experiments, this "concrete" version of RD provides compelling fits of the data and compares favourably with SA. Finally, stepping back from particular models, we argue that perceptual theory suggests that transformations and alignment processes should generally be viewed as complementary, in contrast to the current distinction in the literature. PMID:19720370

  17. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  18. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  19. Genetic transformation of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Juliane; Shao, Ning; Lu, Yinghong; Bock, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the single-celled green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become an invaluable model organism in plant biology and an attractive production host in biotechnology. The genetic transformation of Chlamydomonas is relatively simple and efficient, but achieving high expression levels of foreign genes has remained challenging. Here, we provide working protocols for algal cultivation and transformation as well as for selection and analysis of transgenic algal clones. We focus on two commonly used transformation methods for Chlamydomonas: glass bead-assisted transformation and particle gun-mediated (biolistic) transformation. In addition, we describe available tools for promoting efficient transgene expression and highlight important considerations for designing transformation vectors.

  20. Saturable inductor and transformer structures for magnetic pulse compression

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    Saturable inductor and transformer for magnetic compression of an electronic pulse, using a continuous electrical conductor looped several times around a tightly packed core of saturable inductor material.

  1. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  2. Transformation optics, curvature and beyond (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Martin W.

    2016-04-01

    Although the transformation algorithm is very well established and implemented, some intriguing questions remain unanswered. 1) In what precise mathematical sense is the transformation optics algorithm `exact'? The invariance of Maxwell's equations is well understood, but in what sense does the same principle not apply to acoustics (say)? 2) Even if the fields are transformed in a way that apparently mimic vacuum perfectly, it is easy to construct very simple examples where the impedance of the transformed medium is no longer isotropic and homogeneous. This would seem to imply a fundamental shortcoming in any claim that electromagnetic cloaking has been reduced to technology. 3) Transformations are known to exist that introduce a discrepancy between the Poynting vector and the wave-vector. Does this distinction carry any physical significance? We have worked extensively on understanding a commonality between transformation theories that operates at the level of rays - being interpreted as geodesics of an appropriate manifold. At this level we now understand that the *key* problem underlying all attempts to unify the transformational approach to disparate areas of physics is how to relate the transformation of the base metric (be it Euclidean for spatial transformation optics, or Minkowskian for spacetime transformation optics) to the medium parameters of a given physical domain (e.g. constitutive parameters for electromagnetism, bulk modulus and mass density for acoustics, diffusion constant and number density for diffusion physics). Another misconception we will seek to address is the notion of the relationship between transformation optics and curvature. Many have indicated that transformation optics evinces similarities with Einstein's curvature of spacetime. Here we will show emphatically that transformation optics cannot induce curvature. Inducing curvature in an electromagnetic medium requires the equivalent of a gravitational source. We will propose a scheme

  3. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  4. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  5. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  6. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  7. Implementing wavelet inverse-transform processor with surface acoustic wave device.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenke; Zhu, Changchun; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jingduan

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the implementation schemes of the wavelet inverse-transform processor using surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, the length function of defining the electrodes, and the possibility of solving the load resistance and the internal resistance for the wavelet inverse-transform processor using SAW device. In this paper, we investigate the implementation schemes of the wavelet inverse-transform processor using SAW device. In the implementation scheme that the input interdigital transducer (IDT) and output IDT stand in a line, because the electrode-overlap envelope of the input IDT is identical with the one of the output IDT (i.e. the two transducers are identical), the product of the input IDT's frequency response and the output IDT's frequency response can be implemented, so that the wavelet inverse-transform processor can be fabricated. X-112(0)Y LiTaO(3) is used as a substrate material to fabricate the wavelet inverse-transform processor. The size of the wavelet inverse-transform processor using this implementation scheme is small, so its cost is low. First, according to the envelope function of the wavelet function, the length function of the electrodes is defined, then, the lengths of the electrodes can be calculated from the length function of the electrodes, finally, the input IDT and output IDT can be designed according to the lengths and widths for the electrodes. In this paper, we also present the load resistance and the internal resistance as the two problems of the wavelet inverse-transform processor using SAW devices. The solutions to these problems are achieved in this study. When the amplifiers are subjected to the input end and output end for the wavelet inverse-transform processor, they can eliminate the influence of the load resistance and the internal resistance on the output voltage of the wavelet inverse-transform processor using SAW device.

  8. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  9. Poor, Rural Neighborhoods and Early School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Smith, Cynthia; Eagle, Teresa Hardman

    A study sought to identify the existence of neighborhood effects on school achievement that are independent of social class and family background among students from poor, rural neighborhoods. Ethnographic material yielded a concept of rural West Virginia neighborhoods in which residents expect their encounters to be friendly, informal, almost…

  10. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2004-10-18

    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  11. Genetic transformation of carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    PubMed

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol for explant preparation and genetic transformation of carnation. Node explants from greenhouse-grown plants and leaf explants from in vitro plants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL0 harboring pKT3 plasmid, consisting of GUS and NPTII genes. Explant preparation is an important factor to obtain the transformed plants. The GUS-staining area was located only on the cut end of explants and only explants with a cut end close to the connecting area between node and leaf, produced transformed shoots. The cocultivation medium is also an important factor for the successful genetic transformation of carnation node and leaf explants. High genetic transformation efficiency of node and leaf explants cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens was achieved when the explants were cocultivated on a filter paper soaked with water or water and acetosyringone mixture (AS).

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Thole, Vera; Vain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is an attractive genomics and biological model system for grass research. Recently, the complete annotated genome sequence of the diploid line Bd21 has been released. Genetic transformation technologies are critical for the discovery and validation of gene function in Brachypodium. Here, we describe an efficient procedure enabling the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of diploid and polyploid genotypes of Brachypodium. The procedure relies on the transformation of compact embryogenic calli derived from immature embryos using either chemical selection alone or a combination of chemical and visual screening of transformed tissues and plants. Transformation efficiencies of around 20% can routinely be achieved using this protocol. In the context of the BrachyTAG programme (BrachyTAG.org), this procedure made possible the mass production of Bd21T-DNA mutant plant lines.

  13. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  14. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  15. Optical source transformations.

    PubMed

    Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

    2008-12-22

    Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas.

  16. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  17. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  18. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  19. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  20. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  1. Transformation through Knowledge--Knowledge through Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadena, Felix

    1991-01-01

    Defines systematization as the process of creating critical knowledge (conscientization), a form of transformative research. Explains how systematization contributes to popular education and presents the form components of the process: identifying limits of research, obtaining data, interpretation, and socialization. (SK)

  2. Materials for Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, George

    2009-03-01

    The global dependence on fossil fuels for energy is among the greatest challenges facing our economic, social and political future. The uncertainty in the cost and supply of oil threatens the global economy and energy security, the pollution of fossil combustion threatens human health, and the emission of greenhouse gases threatens global climate. Meeting the demand for double the current global energy use in the next 50 years without damaging our economy, security, environment or climate requires finding alternative sources of energy that are clean, abundant, accessible and sustainable. The transition to greater sustainability involves tapping unused energy flows such as sunlight and wind, producing electricity without carbon emissions from clean coal and high efficiency nuclear power plants, and using energy more efficiently in solid-state lighting, fuel cells and transportation based on plug-in hybrid and electric cars. Achieving these goals requires creating materials of increasing complexity and functionality to control the transformation of energy between light, electrons and chemical bonds. Challenges and opportunities for developing the complex materials and controlling the chemical changes that enable greater sustainability will be presented.

  3. Fatigue of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. . Center for Advanced Materials); Cox, B.N. )

    1993-08-01

    The development of toughened ceramics over the past 10 to 15 years is arguably one of the most important materials breakthroughs of this century. Monolithic and composite ceramic materials having fracture toughnesses up to an order of magnitude higher than those available 20 years ago have been produced using technologies based on scientific understanding and micromechanical models for in situ phase transformation, fiber bridging, ductile-particle toughening, and other toughening mechanisms. The irony of this, however, is that although ceramics can now be seriously considered for many structural applications, they can also, contrary to popular belief, be susceptible to degradation under cyclic fatigue loading. This is true even when the loading is fully compressive. As a result, a great deal of attention is now being paid to ceramic fatigue, largely because of the importance of cyclic loading in many of the potential applications for ceramics, such as gas-turbine and reciprocating engines. However, because the field is in its infancy, only limited fatigue property data have been documented, understanding of salient fatigue mechanisms has not been achieved, and the design of ceramic microstructures for optimum fatigue resistance has yet to be attempted.

  4. Note: Tesla transformer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Unexpected heavy damping in the two winding Tesla pulse transformer is shown to be due to small primary inductances. A small primary inductance is a necessary condition of operability, but is also a refractory inefficiency. A 30% performance loss is demonstrated using a typical "spiral strip" transformer. The loss is investigated by examining damping terms added to the transformer's governing equations. A significant alteration of the transformer's architecture is suggested to mitigate these losses. Experimental and simulated data comparing the 2 and 3 winding transformers are cited to support the suggestion.

  5. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  6. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  7. Design of electromagnetic refractor and phase transformer using coordinate transformation theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Jianhua; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang

    2008-05-12

    We designed an electromagnetic refractor and a phase transformer using form-invariant coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations. The propagation direction of electromagnetic energy in these devices can be modulated as desired. Unlike the conventional dielectric refractor, electromagnetic fields at our refraction boundary do not conform to the Snell's law in isotropic materials and the impedance at this boundary is matched which makes the reflection extremely low; and the transformation of the wave front from cylindrical to plane can be realized in the phase transformer with a slab structure. Two dimensional finite-element simulations were performed to confirm the theoretical results.

  8. Interplay between diffusive and displacive phase transformations: time-temperature-transformation diagrams and microstructures.

    PubMed

    Bouville, Mathieu; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2006-08-01

    Materials which can undergo extremely fast displacive transformations as well as very slow diffusive transformations are studied using a Ginzburg-Landau framework. This simple model captures the essential physics behind microstructure formation and time-temperature-transformation diagrams in alloys such as steels. It also predicts the formation of mixed microstructures by an interplay between diffusive and displacive mechanisms. The intrinsic volume changes associated with the transformations stabilize mixed microstructures such as martensite-retained austenite (responsible for the existence of a martensite finish temperature) and martensite-pearlite.

  9. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

  10. Transforming Cherenkov radiation in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginis, Vincent; Danckaert, Jan; Veretennicoff, Irina; Tassin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution, we explore the generation of light in transformation-optical media. When charged particles move through a transformation-optical material with a speed larger than the phase velocity of light in the medium, Cherenkov light is emitted. We show that the emitted Cherenkov cone can be modified with longitudinal and transverse stretching of the coordinates. Transverse coordinates stretching alters only the dimensions of the cone, whereas longitudinal stretching also changes the apparent velocity of the charged particle. These results demonstrate that the geometric formalism of transformation optics can be used not only for the manipulation of light beam trajectories, but also for controlling the emission of light, here for describing the Cherenkov cone in an arbitrary anisotropic medium. Subsequently, we illustrate this point by designing a radiator for a ring imaging Cherenkov radiator. Cherenkov radiators are used to identify unknown elementary particles by determining their mass from the Cherenkov radiation cone that is emitted as they pass through the detector apparatus. However, at higher particle momentum, the angle of the Cherenkov cone saturates to a value independent of the mass of the generating particle, making it difficult to effectively distinguish between different particles. Using our transformation optics description, we show how the Cherenkov cone and the cut-off can be controlled to yield a radiator medium with enhanced sensitivity for particle identification at higher momentum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 167402 (2014)].

  11. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.

  12. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.

  13. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available. PMID:27661686

  14. Bacterial Transformation and Competition Under Antibiotic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Jonas; Bergman, Andrew; Cleveland, Chris; Cagatay, Tolga; Austin, Robert; Balaszi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    Transformation, the process by which bacteria uptake DNA directly from their environment and incorporate it as their own genetic material, is a form of Horizontal Gene Transfer that occurs throughout nature as an important mechanism for spurring on bacterial evolution. We examine the capacity of bacteria to undergo transformation and will discuss work that has been done by the Austin group using Micro-Habitat Patches (MHPs) to examine the emergence of phenotypes due to horizontal gene transfer.

  15. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  16. Adventures in transformations: TG, TA, oh my! (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) AAVSO made available, through the great volunteer work of Gordon Myers and George Silvis, two very useful tools, Transform Generator and Transform Applier (TG and TA) for transforming instrumental magnitudes to the standard system. I will juxtapose the steps necessary to obtain transformation parameters "the old fashion way" and how can the same result be achieved with these two tools. I will present transformation parameters for the Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) telescope and obtained with the standard field M67. These parameters were applied to photometric results for AE Uma, a short-period, high-amplitude delta Scuti star (Period ~ 0.086 d).

  17. Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated.

  18. Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, G. R.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Mohammadkhani, R.

    2016-03-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes.

  19. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  20. Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in…

  1. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  2. Calcium carbonate phase transformations during the carbonation reaction of calcium heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate overbased nanodetergents preparation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaocong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Feng; Chen, Dongzhong; Fang, Jianglin; Zhao, Min

    2011-07-01

    The preparation and application of overbased nanodetergents with excess alkaline calcium carbonate is a good example of nanotechnology in practice. The phase transformation of calcium carbonate is of extensive concern since CaCO(3) serves both as an important industrial filling material and as the most abundant biomineral in nature. Industrially valuable overbased nanodetergents have been prepared based on calcium salts of heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate by a one-step process under ambient pressure, the carbonation reaction has been monitored by the instantaneous temperature changes and total base number (TBN). A number of analytical techniques such as TGA, DLS, SLS, TEM, FTIR, and XRD have been utilized to explore the carbonation reaction process and phase transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate. An enhanced understanding on the phase transformation of calcium carbonate involved in calcium sulfonate nanodetergents has been achieved and it has been unambiguously demonstrated that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) transforms into the vaterite polymorph rather than calcite, which would be of crucial importance for the preparation and quality control of lubricant additives and greases. Our results also show that a certain amount of residual Ca(OH)(2) prevents the phase transformation from ACC to crystalline polymorphs. Moreover, a vaterite nanodetergent has been prepared for the first time with low viscosity, high base number, and uniform particle size, nevertheless a notable improvement on its thermal stability is required for potential applications.

  3. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  4. STEM Career Changers' Transformation into Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Catherine; Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Paska, Lawrence M.

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the transformation (professional growth) of career-changing women scientists who decided to become teachers. Drawing upon Mezirow's Transformative Learning Theory, we tracked their transformation for 3 years. Our findings revealed multiple identities, disorientation, a perceived sense of meaninglessness, loss and eventual regain in confidence, gain in pedagogical knowledge and skill, and changed perceptions of the social roles of science teachers and scientists. Driven by personal choice or need (financial, intellectual), such transformations were achieved through active pursuit of meaning in one's work, critical assessment of assumptions, planning, and trying on the unfamiliar role of a science teacher. It is argued that such transition entails complex changes in thinking about science teaching and identifying oneself as a science teacher.

  5. Duality of force laws and conformal transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, Dawood

    2011-06-01

    As was first noted by Isaac Newton, the two most famous ellipses of classical mechanics, arising from the force laws F ∝r and F ∝1/r2, can be mapped onto each other by changing the location of the center of force. Less well known is that this mapping can also be achieved by the complex transformation, z →z2. We derive this result and its generalization by writing the Gaussian curvature in its covariant form, and then changing the metric by a conformal transformation which mimics this mapping of the curves. We indicate how the conserved Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector for the 1/r2 force law transforms under this transformation, and compare it with the corresponding quantities for the linear force law. Our main aim is to present this duality by introducing concepts from differential geometry.

  6. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  7. Program Transformation in HATS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.

    1999-02-24

    HATS is a general purpose syntax derivation tree based transformation system in which transformation sequences are described in special purpose language. A powerful feature of this language is that unification is an explicit operation. By making unification explicit, an elegant framework arises in which to express complex application conditions which in turn enables refined control strategies to be realized. This paper gives an overview of HATS, focusing especially on the framework provided by the transformation language and its potential with respect to control and general purpose transformation.

  8. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  9. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  10. Transforming plastic surfaces with electrophilic backbones from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Samuel; Bowen, Raffick A R; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a simple nonaqueous reaction scheme for transforming the surface of plastics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The chemical modification is achieved by base-catalyzed trans-esterification with polyols. It is permanent, does not release contaminants, and causes no optical or mechanical distortion of the plastic. We present contact angle measurements to show successful modification of several types of plastics including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polycarbonate (PC). Its applicability to blood analysis is explored using chemically modified PET blood collection tubes and found to be quite satisfactory. We expect this approach will reduce the cost of manufacturing plastic devices with optimized wettability and can be generalized to other types of plastic materials having an electrophilic linkage as its backbone.

  11. Studies on the controllable transformation of ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hui; Ma, Miaorui; Qin, Mei; Yang, Lijuan; Wei, Yu

    2010-09-15

    Ferrihydrite was prepared by two different procedures. Ferrihydrite-1 was prepared by dropping NaOH solution into Fe(III) solution. Ferrihydrite-2 was prepared by adding Fe(III) and NaOH solutions into a certain volume of water simultaneously. Our earlier results obtained at {approx}100 {sup o}C have shown that the structure of ferrihydrite-2 favors its solid state transformation mechanism. Further research reveals that the structure of ferrihydrite-2 favors its dissolution re-crystallization mechanism at a temperature of {<=}60 {sup o}C. Based on the transformation mechanism of ferrihydrite at different temperatures, the controllable transformation from ferrihydrite to various iron (hydr)oxides such as lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite and magnetite can be achieved by adjusting the pH, transformation temperature, transformation time, the amount of Fe(II) as well as the preparation procedures of ferrihydrite. The results in the present paper give a nice example that the transformation of a precursor can be controlled with the help of mechanism. - Graphical abstract: The transformations from ferrihydrite to lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite or magnetite can be controlled with the help of mechanism.

  12. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 k

  13. Experiential Graduate Education: An Experiment in Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiken, Marilyn

    1997-01-01

    Describes an organizational learning course based on transformative learning theory that illustrates approaches to developing constructive learning environments, enhancing team learning, examining mental models, supporting systems thinking, and achieving personal mastery. (SK)

  14. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  15. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  16. Transformational Leadership in Special Education: Leading the IEP Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    Using the principles of transformational leadership, IEP teams become effective tools to ensure student success and achievements. There is a difference of teams that are simply chaired and those that are lead. Teams with transformational leaders promote the best efforts of all participants including parents and students to effectively deliver…

  17. Creating a Safe Environment for Women's Leadership Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debebe, Gelaye

    2011-01-01

    This study used qualitative data to describe how transformational learning was achieved in a women-only training (WOT) program. The article argues that an environment conducive to transformational learning for women was created from the harmonious coalescing of the presence of all-women participants and instructors with gender-sensitive teaching…

  18. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  19. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, J.R.; Basile, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry. Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography-Fourier Transform Interferometry.

  1. Transformative Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Transformative learning has usually been defined as transformations of meaning perspectives, frames of reference, and habits of mind--as proposed initially by Jack Mezirow. However, several authors have found this definition too narrow and too cognitively oriented, and Mezirow has later emphasized that emotional and social conditions are also…

  2. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  3. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  4. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  5. Two Different Squeeze Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.

  6. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  7. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  8. Determination of the stretch tensor for structural transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Song, Yintao; Tamura, Nobumichi; James, Richard D.

    2016-08-01

    Structural transformations in crystalline solids are increasingly the basis of the functional behavior of materials. Recently, in diverse alloy systems, both low hysteresis and reversibility of phase transformations have been linked to the satisfaction of the nongeneric conditions of compatibility between phases. According to the Cauchy-Born rule, these conditions are expressed as properties of transformation stretch tensor. The transformation stretch tensor is difficult to measure directly due to the lack of knowledge about the exact transforming pathway during the structural change, and the complicating effects of microstructure. In this paper we give a rigorous algorithmic approach for determining the transformation stretch tensor from X-ray measurements of structure and lattice parameters. For some traditional and emerging phase transformations, the results given by the algorithm suggest unexpected transformation mechanisms.

  9. Heat storage in alloy transformations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall, C E; Gueceri, S I; Farkas, D; Labdon, M B; Nagaswami, N; Pregger, B

    1981-03-01

    A study conducted to determine the feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media is described. The study had the following major elements: (1) the identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements, (2) the development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients, (3) the development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase-change materials, and (4) the identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases have been determined. A new method employing x-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data that are obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase-change media. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide has been identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were considered.

  10. Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation.

    PubMed

    Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2015-04-21

    Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic-solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic-solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance. PMID:25848021

  11. Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic–solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic–solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance. PMID:25848021

  12. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  13. Application of inverse, strict conformal transformation to design waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y G; Wang, N; Ong, C K

    2010-05-01

    Integration of transformation optics with development of metamaterials offers great opportunities to create exotic material with electromagnetic functionality absent from nature. It has already led to several significant advancements in physical conceptions and technological applications such as invisible cloaking. Unfortunately practical application is often restricted by the complex requirements on material properties imposed by the general optical transformation theory. It is therefore necessary to relax the stringent requirements of materials properties in order to practicably use the power of transformation optics to design exotic optical devices. Development of new coordinate transformation mathematics to compromise between the stringent materials properties and the ultimate performance required by a useful novel device is required. In this work the authors employed strict conformal transformation to design physical materials that could guide light in a predetermined way. A simple and efficient numerical approach based on unusual inverse transformation is proposed here to quickly solve partial differential equations and construct the mapping relationship. The results showed that a transformed optical device could be made by purely using isotropic dielectric materials. Two application examples were numerically proposed to verify the versatility of conformal transformation and the robustness of the inverse approach. One was a 90 degrees waveguide beam bend, and the other was a waveguide-type beam splitter or coupler.

  14. Educational transformation in upper-division physics: The Science Education Initiative model, outcomes, and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Wilcox, Bethany; Caballero, Marcos D.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Pollock, Steven J.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] In response to the need for a scalable, institutionally supported model of educational change, the Science Education Initiative (SEI) was created as an experiment in transforming course materials and faculty practices at two institutions—University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and University of British Columbia. We find that this departmentally focused model of change, which includes an explicit focus on course transformation as supported by a discipline-based postdoctoral education specialist, was generally effective in impacting courses and faculty across the institution. In CU's Department of Physics, the SEI effort focused primarily on upper-division courses, creating high-quality course materials, approaches, and assessments, and demonstrating an impact on student learning. We argue that the SEI implementation in the CU Physics Department, as compared to that in other departments, achieved more extensive impacts on specific course materials, and high-quality assessments, due to guidance by the physics education research group—but with more limited impact on the departmental faculty as a whole. We review the process and progress of the SEI Physics at CU and reflect on lessons learned in the CU Physics Department in particular. These results are useful in considering both institutional and faculty-led models of change and course transformation.

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    'Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic', as the late Arthur C Clarke wrote. So what does it take to do magic by technology? Transformation optics has developed some tantalizing ideas and the first practical demonstrations of 'pure and applied magic'. Transformation optics gathers an unusual mix of scientists, ranging from practically-minded engineers to imaginative theoretical physicists and mathematicians or hybrids of all three. The engineers have been developing new materials with extraordinary electromagnetic properties, from materials for microwaves, to be used in radar or wireless technology, to materials for terahertz radiation and visible light. These materials typically are composites—they consist of artificial structures much smaller than the wavelength that act like man-made atoms, apart being much larger in size. The properties of these artificial atoms depend on their shapes and sizes and so they are tunable, in contrast to most real atoms or molecules. This degree of control is what makes these materials—called metamaterials—so interesting. Such new-won freedom invites the other side of the spectrum of scientists, the theorists, to dream. Just imagine there are no practical limits on electromagnetic materials—what could we do with them? One exciting application of metamaterials has been Veselago's idea of negative refraction, dating back to the 1960s. Metamaterials have breathed life into Veselago's idea, culminating in recent optical demonstrations (see for example [1,2]). Another application is cloaking, developing ideas and first experimental demonstrations for invisibility devices [3]. It turns out that both negative refraction and cloaking are examples where materials seem to transform the geometry of space. Any optical material appears to change light's perception of space, as countless optical illusions prove, but the materials of transformation optics act in more specific ways: they appear to perform

  16. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    information. Using a novel specimen geometry, we also achieved repeated switching between the amorphous and crystalline phases enabling in situ study of structural change after phase cycling, which is relevant to device performance. We also observed the coupling between the phase transformations and the evolution of morphology on the nanometer scale, revealing the gradual development of striations in uniform films and preferential melting at sharp edges in laser-heated nanopatterned GST. This nonuniform melting, interpreted through simulation as being a direct result of geometrical laser absorption effects, appears to be responsible for a marked loss in morphological stability even at moderate laser intensities and may be an important factor in the longevity of nanostructured phase change materials in memory applications.

  17. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  18. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  19. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  20. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  1. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  2. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  4. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  5. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  7. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  10. Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different—though physically equivalent—waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mitigated by measuring the average motion of the system's center of mass for a portion of the inspiral, and applying the opposite transformation to the waveform data. More generally, controlling the BMS transformations will be necessary to eliminate the gauge ambiguity inherent in gravitational-wave data for both numerical and analytical waveforms. Open-source code implementing BMS transformations of waveforms is supplied along with this paper in the supplemental materials.

  11. Quantum decoration transformation for spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz, F. F.; Rodrigues, F. C.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2016-09-01

    It is quite relevant the extension of decoration transformation for quantum spin models since most of the real materials could be well described by Heisenberg type models. Here we propose an exact quantum decoration transformation and also showing interesting properties such as the persistence of symmetry and the symmetry breaking during this transformation. Although the proposed transformation, in principle, cannot be used to map exactly a quantum spin lattice model into another quantum spin lattice model, since the operators are non-commutative. However, it is possible the mapping in the "classical" limit, establishing an equivalence between both quantum spin lattice models. To study the validity of this approach for quantum spin lattice model, we use the Zassenhaus formula, and we verify how the correction could influence the decoration transformation. But this correction could be useless to improve the quantum decoration transformation because it involves the second-nearest-neighbor and further nearest neighbor couplings, which leads into a cumbersome task to establish the equivalence between both lattice models. This correction also gives us valuable information about its contribution, for most of the Heisenberg type models, this correction could be irrelevant at least up to the third order term of Zassenhaus formula. This transformation is applied to a finite size Heisenberg chain, comparing with the exact numerical results, our result is consistent for weak xy-anisotropy coupling. We also apply to bond-alternating Ising-Heisenberg chain model, obtaining an accurate result in the limit of the quasi-Ising chain.

  12. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  13. TRANSFORMATION TOUGHENING IN CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A. G.; Marshall, D. B.; Burlingame, N. H.

    1980-12-01

    The origin of transformation toughening in ceramics is examined using two separate approaches: one based on the stress field ahead of the crack and the other on the changes in thermodynamic potential during a crack increment. Both approaches yield essentially similar predictions of trends in toughness with particle size, temperature, composition, etc. The stress intensity analysis provides fully quantitative predictions of the toughness. These indicate that the shielding of the crack by the transformation zone only develops in the presence of a transformed wake, leading to R-curve behavior.

  14. Illusion optics: Optically transforming the nature and the location of electromagnetic emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Jianjia; Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz Lustrac, André de

    2015-02-28

    Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by using the powerful concept of transformation electromagnetics. In this study, we define a spatial coordinate transformation that shows the possibility of designing a device capable of producing an illusion on an antenna radiation pattern. Indeed, by compressing the space containing a radiating element, we show that it is able to change the radiation pattern and to make the radiation location appear outside the latter space. Both continuous and discretized models with calculated electromagnetic parameter values are presented. A reduction of the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for a possible physical fabrication of the device with achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained from existing well-known metamaterials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. Full wave numerical simulations using Finite Element Method are performed to demonstrate the performances of such a device.

  15. Temperature-Dependent Transformation Thermotics: From Switchable Thermal Cloaks to Macroscopic Thermal Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Shen, Xiangying; Wu, Zuhui; Huang, Junying; Chen, Yixuan; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping

    2015-11-01

    The macroscopic control of ubiquitous heat flow remains poorly explored due to the lack of a fundamental theoretical method. Here, by establishing temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for treating materials whose conductivity depends on temperature, we show analytical and simulation evidence for switchable thermal cloaking and a macroscopic thermal diode based on the cloaking. The latter allows heat flow in one direction but prohibits the flow in the opposite direction, which is also confirmed by our experiments. Our results suggest that the temperature-dependent transformation thermotics could be a fundamental theoretical method for achieving macroscopic heat rectification, and it could provide guidance both for the macroscopic control of heat flow and for the design of the counterparts of switchable thermal cloaks or macroscopic thermal diodes in other fields like seismology, acoustics, electromagnetics, and matter waves. PMID:26588397

  16. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-08-01

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle X-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of reprogramming DNA strands modifies the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. Moreover, we mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective reprogramming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.

  17. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-05-25

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle x-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of re-programming DNA strands modifiesmore » the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. We mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective re-programming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.« less

  18. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-05-25

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle x-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of re-programming DNA strands modifies the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. We mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective re-programming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.

  19. Advances in the Natural transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, F. B. M.; Silambarasan, R.

    2012-11-01

    The literature review of the Natural transform and the existing definitions and connections to the Laplace and Sumudu transforms are discussed in this communication. Along with the complex inverse Natural transform and Heaviside's expansion formula, the relation of Bessel's function to Natural transform (and hence Laplace and Sumudu transforms) are defined.

  20. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  1. Career Motivation Achievement Planning: C-MAP. A User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Helen; And Others

    This user's guide provides materials on the Career Motivation and Achievement Planning (C-MAP) Inventory for use with ninth and twelfth grade students. Chapter 1 discusses the purpose and uses of this assessment of long-range career commitment, short-range motivation to achieve on a particular task, and level of education and career aspiration.…

  2. Numerical computation for a new way to reduce vibration and noise due to magnetostriction and magnetic forces of transformer cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lihua; Yang, Qingxin; Yan, Rongge; Li, Yongjian; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Weili; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    Magnetostriction (MS) caused by the global magnetization of limbs and yokes and magnetic forces are the undisputed causes of the vibration and noise in power transformer cores. This paper presents a novel way to reduce the vibration and noise, in which nanocrystalline soft magnetic composite (NSMC) material with high permeability is used to fill the step-lap joint gaps of the power transformer magnetic cores. In order to numerically predict the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 3-D magneto-mechanical strong coupled model including MS and magnetic anisotropy of steel sheet was founded. Then, the numerical model was applied to analyze the step-lap joint region of the corner of magnetic cores. The analysis results illustrated that the deformation and noise of core with NSMC are lower than with the traditional epoxy damping material. Moreover, the validity of the proposed new way was verified by the simplified step-lap joint cores, which were achieved based on Epstein Frames.

  3. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  4. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  5. Fourier transform infrared imaging of bone.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) is a technique that can be used to analyze the material properties of bone using tissue sections. In this chapter I describe the basic principles of FTIR and the methods for capturing and analyzing FTIR images in bone sections.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    'Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic', as the late Arthur C Clarke wrote. So what does it take to do magic by technology? Transformation optics has developed some tantalizing ideas and the first practical demonstrations of 'pure and applied magic'. Transformation optics gathers an unusual mix of scientists, ranging from practically-minded engineers to imaginative theoretical physicists and mathematicians or hybrids of all three. The engineers have been developing new materials with extraordinary electromagnetic properties, from materials for microwaves, to be used in radar or wireless technology, to materials for terahertz radiation and visible light. These materials typically are composites—they consist of artificial structures much smaller than the wavelength that act like man-made atoms, apart being much larger in size. The properties of these artificial atoms depend on their shapes and sizes and so they are tunable, in contrast to most real atoms or molecules. This degree of control is what makes these materials—called metamaterials—so interesting. Such new-won freedom invites the other side of the spectrum of scientists, the theorists, to dream. Just imagine there are no practical limits on electromagnetic materials—what could we do with them? One exciting application of metamaterials has been Veselago's idea of negative refraction, dating back to the 1960s. Metamaterials have breathed life into Veselago's idea, culminating in recent optical demonstrations (see for example [1,2]). Another application is cloaking, developing ideas and first experimental demonstrations for invisibility devices [3]. It turns out that both negative refraction and cloaking are examples where materials seem to transform the geometry of space. Any optical material appears to change light's perception of space, as countless optical illusions prove, but the materials of transformation optics act in more specific ways: they appear to perform

  7. Entropy, materials, and posterity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.

    1977-01-01

    Materials and energy are the interdependent feedstocks of economic systems, and thermodynamics is their moderator. It costs energy to transform the dispersed minerals of Earth's crust into ordered materials and structures. And it costs materials to collect and focus the energy to perform work - be it from solar, fossil fuel, nuclear, or other sources. The greater the dispersal of minerals sought, the more energy is required to collect them into ordered states. But available energy can be used once only. And the ordered materials of industrial economies become disordered with time. They may be partially reordered and recycled, but only at further costs in energy. Available energy everywhere degrades to bound states and order to disorder - for though entropy may be juggled it always increases. Yet industry is utterly dependent on low entropy states of matter and energy, while decreasing grades of ore require ever higher inputs of energy to convert them to metals, with ever increasing growth both of entropy and environmental hazard. Except as we may prize a thing for its intrinsic qualities - beauty, leisure, love, or gold - low-entropy is the only thing of real value. It is worth whatever the market will bear, and it becomes more valuable as entropy increases. It would be foolish of suppliers to sell it more cheaply or in larger amounts than their own enjoyment of life requires, whatever form it may take. For this reason, and because of physical constraints on the availability of all low-entropy states, the recent energy crises is only the first of a sequence of crises to be expected in energy and materials as long as current trends continue. The apportioning of low-entropy states in a modern industrial society is achieved more or less according to the theory of competitive markets. But the rational powers of this theory suffer as the world grows increasingly polarized into rich, over-industrialized nations with diminishing resource bases and poor, supplier nations

  8. Materials Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The Materials and Structures for High Performance project has made excellent progress in the development of advanced high-temperature materials and computational materials science tools to enable high-performance, hgh-efficiency, and environmentally compatible propulsion systems. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) systems with 2700 O F temperature capability are initially being developed for low NO, combustor liners and turbine vanes. The feasibility of pushing CMC technologies to 3000 O F through revolutionary concepts is also being pursued. Achieving fuel savings of 8 to 15 percent requires higher turbine inlet temperatures as well as reductions in engine weight. An advanced disk alloy has been evaluated for application in future engines. Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC s) will enable 3200 O F turbine rotor inlet temperature capability. Advanced alloy development and the development of computational tools for the design of these future alloys will further enable attainment of these goals. Innovative lightweight materials, and structural and nozzle aerodynamic concepts are also being developed to reduce the weight of engine static structures to contribute toward overall fuel savings. Rig tests will demonstrate long-term durability of CMC linersand vanes and advanced turbine airfoil alloy systems, as well as fabricability of components with the highest payoff potential using the lightweight materials and structures concepts being developed.

  9. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  10. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  11. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  12. Optical nonsubsampled contourlet transform.

    PubMed

    Han, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Li; Pu, Xiujuan; Cheng, Wanqi; Liu, Xia

    2016-09-20

    The nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is a fully shift-invariant, multiscale, and multidirectional expansion implemented in optics using the Fourier transform of its filters. In this paper, we propose a novel optical NSCT filter design method and the corresponding post-processing method to avoid the use of holographic techniques. The novel optical NSCT filter has real and non-negative Fourier transforms. The input image is placed in the input plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and these real and non-negative Fourier transform NSCT filters are placed in the frequency plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator. Next, the NSCT result is captured by a CCD in the output plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and its perfect reconstruction is theoretically possible, which is demonstrated by both simulation and optical experiment. PMID:27661604

  13. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  14. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  15. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees.

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Selection of Transformed Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  18. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and the MSMS approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, solvation free energy and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus

  19. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  20. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  1. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  2. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  3. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  4. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-02

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  5. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  6. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation: rice transformation.

    PubMed

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Torrizo, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a common soil bacterium with natural capacity for trans-kingdom transfer of genetic information by transferring its T-DNA into the eukaryotic genome. In agricultural plant biotechnology, combination of non-phytopathogenic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with modified T-DNA and vir-genes in a binary vector system is the most widely utilized system for genetic improvement in diverse plant species and for gene function validation. Here we have described a highly efficient A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for indica and japonica rice cultivars based on an immature embryo system.

  8. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  9. Hospital transformation and organisational learning.

    PubMed

    Ho, W

    1999-12-01

    Kwong Wah Hospital was founded by the charity organisation Tung Wah Group of Hospitals some 88 years ago, with management transfer to the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Capitalizing both from the traditional caring culture of its founder, as well as opportunities in the new management environment, the hospital has scored remarkable successes in service quality, community partnership, organisational effectiveness, and staff development. Underpinning these transformations were Structure, Process, People, and Culture strategies. The learning imperative is heavily mandated or the success of each of these strands of development. Indeed, the embodiment of a learning organisation culture provides the impetus in sustaining the change momentum, towards achieving the Vision of becoming a 'Most Preferred Hospital' in Hong Kong. PMID:10673847

  10. Investigation into the effect of transformer oil on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, N.E.; McGrath, P.B.; Burns, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several thermoplastics and an epoxy were exposed to a variety of conditions to determine the effect of chemical environment on the materials. Weight gain measurements of the samples were made after exposure to low humidity, ambient air, 90 C air, ambient transformer oil, and 90 C transformer oil. Two materials that performed well in these tests were polyetherimide (Ultem) and amine cured bisphenol-A epoxy. It was found that Noryl, a thermoplastic combination of high impact polystyrene and polyphenyleneoxide, was unsuitable for use in transformer oil, as it suffered substantial physical degradation. Polystyrene and high impact polystyrene (rubber modified polystyrene) performed poorly in both ambient and 90{degree} transformer oil tests, with the rubber modified material exhibiting a much greater weight gain. Both high and low density polyethylene also showed large weight gains in hot transformer oil.

  11. New Community Schools and the Measurement of Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Allan, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The New Community Schools initiative was introduced in Scotland in 1998 with the aims of improving participation, raising achievement, improving health and transforming communities. The success of the initiative was evaluated in terms of the stated aims. In relation to improving participation and raising achievement, this was straightforward:…

  12. A School Transformed: The Case of Norman S. Weir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Christine L.; Hagopian, Gloria; Efimba, Maloke O.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Norman S. Weir Elementary School, Paterson (New Jersey), which epitomizes the transformation that occurs when the Comer School Development Program is implemented well. The school has risen from being one of the lowest achieving schools in its district to one of the highest achievers. The role of the principal is highlighted. (SLD)

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-Assisted Transformation-Efficient Reaction (CRATER) for Near-Perfect Selective Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Greenberg, Daniel T.; Takahashi, Jack R.; Thompson, Kirsten A.; Maheshwari, Akshay J.; Kent, Ryan E.; McCutcheon, Griffin; Shih, Joseph D.; Calvet, Charles; Devlin, Tyler D.; Ju, Tina; Kunin, Daniel; Lieberman, Erica; Nguyen, Thai; Tran, Forrest; Xiang, Daniel; Fujishima, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing by providing unprecedented DNA-targeting specificity. Here we demonstrate that this system can be also applied in vitro to fundamental cloning steps to facilitate efficient plasmid selection for transformation and selective gene insertion into plasmid vectors by cleaving unwanted plasmid byproducts with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-Cas9 nuclease complex. Using fluorescent and chromogenic proteins as reporters, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage excludes multiple plasmids as well as unwanted ligation byproducts resulting in an unprecedented increase in the transformation success rate from approximately 20% to nearly 100%. Thus, this CRISPR/Cas9-Assisted Transformation-Efficient Reaction (CRATER) protocol is a novel, inexpensive, and convenient application to conventional molecular cloning to achieve near-perfect selective transformation.

  14. Granular media in transformation: dynamics and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre; Sauret, Alban; SVI, CNRS/Saint-Gobain Team

    2015-11-01

    Sintering, glass melting and other industrially relevant processes turn batches of grains into continuous end products. Such processes involve complex and mostly misunderstood chemical and physical transformations of the granular packing. Affecting the contact network, physicochemical reactions entail mechanical rearrangements. But such reorganizations may also trigger new potential reactions. Granular reactive systems are strongly coupled and need investigations for achieving industrial optimizations. This study is focused on how transformations appearing on its components affect the response of the granular packing. Inert brass disks and grains undergoing well-known transformations like volume decrease are mixed and then confined in a vertical 2D cell. While the system reacts, the granular packing is regularly photographed with a high-resolution camera. Events largely distributed both spatially and temporally occur around reactive grains. Thanks to image processing, this reorganization process is then analyzed. Spatial and temporal amplitudes of events are quantified as well as their local and global impacts on the granular structure.

  15. An ontological model of the practice transformation process.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arun; Sinha, Atish P

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered medical home is defined as an approach for providing comprehensive primary care that facilitates partnerships between individual patients and their personal providers. The current state of the practice transformation process is ad hoc and no methodological basis exists for transforming a practice into a patient-centered medical home. Practices and hospitals somehow accomplish the transformation and send the transformation information to a certification agency, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance, completely ignoring the development and maintenance of the processes that keep the medical home concept alive. Many recent studies point out that such a transformation is hard as it requires an ambitious whole-practice reengineering and redesign. As a result, the practices suffer change fatigue in getting the transformation done. In this paper, we focus on the complexities of the practice transformation process and present a robust ontological model for practice transformation. The objective of the model is to create an understanding of the practice transformation process in terms of key process areas and their activities. We describe how our ontology captures the knowledge of the practice transformation process, elicited from domain experts, and also discuss how, in the future, that knowledge could be diffused across stakeholders in a healthcare organization. Our research is the first effort in practice transformation process modeling. To build an ontological model for practice transformation, we adopt the Methontology approach. Based on the literature, we first identify the key process areas essential for a practice transformation process to achieve certification status. Next, we develop the practice transformation ontology by creating key activities and precedence relationships among the key process areas using process maturity concepts. At each step, we employ a panel of domain experts to verify the intermediate representations of the

  16. An ontological model of the practice transformation process.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arun; Sinha, Atish P

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered medical home is defined as an approach for providing comprehensive primary care that facilitates partnerships between individual patients and their personal providers. The current state of the practice transformation process is ad hoc and no methodological basis exists for transforming a practice into a patient-centered medical home. Practices and hospitals somehow accomplish the transformation and send the transformation information to a certification agency, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance, completely ignoring the development and maintenance of the processes that keep the medical home concept alive. Many recent studies point out that such a transformation is hard as it requires an ambitious whole-practice reengineering and redesign. As a result, the practices suffer change fatigue in getting the transformation done. In this paper, we focus on the complexities of the practice transformation process and present a robust ontological model for practice transformation. The objective of the model is to create an understanding of the practice transformation process in terms of key process areas and their activities. We describe how our ontology captures the knowledge of the practice transformation process, elicited from domain experts, and also discuss how, in the future, that knowledge could be diffused across stakeholders in a healthcare organization. Our research is the first effort in practice transformation process modeling. To build an ontological model for practice transformation, we adopt the Methontology approach. Based on the literature, we first identify the key process areas essential for a practice transformation process to achieve certification status. Next, we develop the practice transformation ontology by creating key activities and precedence relationships among the key process areas using process maturity concepts. At each step, we employ a panel of domain experts to verify the intermediate representations of the

  17. Classroom Dialogue and Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John A.

    This study reports the application to classroom dialogue of the Thematic and Structural Analysis (TSA) Technique which has been used previously in the analysis of text materials. The TSA Technique identifies themes (word clusters) and their structural relationship throughout sequentially organized material. Dialogues from four Year 8 science…

  18. Continuously tunable optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Dey, P; Paul, J; Bylsma, J; Deminico, S; Karaiskaj, D

    2013-02-01

    A multidimensional optical nonlinear spectrometer (MONSTR) is a robust, ultrastable platform consisting of nested and folded Michelson interferometers that can be actively phase stabilized. The MONSTR provides output pulses for nonlinear excitation of materials and phase-stabilized reference pulses for heterodyne detection of the induced signal. This platform generates a square of identical laser pulses that can be adjusted to have arbitrary time delays between them while maintaining phase stability. This arrangement is ideal for performing coherent optical experiments, such as multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The present work reports on overcoming some important limitations on the original design of the MONSTR apparatus. One important advantage of the MONSTR is the fact that it is a closed platform, which provides the high stability. Once the optical alignment is performed, it is desirable to maintain the alignment over long periods of time. The previous design of the MONSTR was limited to a narrow spectral range defined by the optical coating of the beam splitters. In order to achieve tunability over a broad spectral range the internal optics needed to be changed. By using broadband coated and wedged beam splitters and compensator plates, combined with modifications of the beam paths, continuous tunability can be achieved from 520 nm to 1100 nm without changing any optics or performing alignment of the internal components of the MONSTR. Furthermore, in order to achieve continuous tunability in the spectral region between 520 nm and 720 nm, crucially important for studies on numerous biological molecules, a single longitudinal mode laser at 488.5 nm was identified and used as a metrology laser. The shorter wavelength of the metrology laser as compared to the usual HeNe laser has also increased the phase stability of the system. Finally, in order to perform experiments in the reflection geometry, a simple method to achieve active phase stabilization

  19. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  20. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method. PMID:26191770

  1. Anaerobic transformations and bioremediation of chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J F; Pietari, J M

    2000-02-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic compounds, notably the chlorinated solvents, are common contaminants in soil and groundwater at hazardous waste sites. While these compounds are often recalcitrant, under favorable conditions they can be transformed and degraded through microbially mediated processes. There is great interest in understanding the transformations that are observed at contaminated sites and in manipulating these systems to achieve remediation. An important class of transformations occurs in anaerobic environments. Many of the transformations are reductive, and many yield useful energy to specific anaerobic bacteria. They include reductive dechlorination, dehydrochlorination and dichloroelemination. Of these, reductive dechlorination is often a growth-supporting reaction, while the others may be abiological or catalyzed by biological molecules. The reactions may result in chlorinated products, but there are often reaction sequences leading to completely dechlorinated products. The behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CT), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA) and the chloroethenes, perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), illustrate the range of anaerobic transformations that are possible, as well as the limited transformation that often is seen in the environment. CT undergoes reductive and substitutive reactions that are catalyzed by biological molecules but do not support bacterial growth. The anaerobic degradation of TeCA, which is a major contaminant at a site near Tacoma, WA, USA, provides examples of each type of transformation, and the products formed are consistent with the chlorinated compounds that are found in groundwater extraction wells. A laboratory study, using anaerobic sludge that had been fed chlorinated compounds, a cell-free extract from the sludge, and killed controls, showed that TeCA was transformed to four products and that these were further transformed, suggesting that it might be possible to degrade TeCA to innocuous products

  2. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants. PMID:18551377

  3. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  4. Transformational management style positively affects financial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zwingman-Bagley, C

    1999-01-01

    Two specific examples from the author's experience demonstrate the central theme that positive financial outcomes are a function of a transformational leadership style of management. The article focuses on participation competencies utilizing involvement, empowerment, and accountability. Developing staff and empowering them to make decisions about their work and outcomes are necessary to achieve a high-quality, cost-effective outcome, the key to financial success.

  5. Ultrasonic flaw detection using threshold modified S-transform.

    PubMed

    Benammar, Abdessalem; Drai, Redouane; Guessoum, Abderrezak

    2014-02-01

    Interference noising originating from the ultrasonic testing defect signal seriously influences the accuracy of the signal extraction and defect location. Time-frequency analysis methods are mainly used to improve the defects detection resolution. In fact, the S-transform, a hybrid of the Short time Fourier transform (STFT) and wavelet transform (WT), has a time frequency resolution which is far from ideal. In this paper, a new modified S-transform based on thresholding technique, which offers a better time frequency resolution compared to the original S-transform is proposed. The improvement is achieved by the introduction of a new scaling rule for the Gaussian window used in S-transform. Simulation results are presented and show correct time frequency information of multiple Gaussian echoes under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environment. In addition, experimental results demonstrate better and reliable detection of close echoes drowned in the noise.

  6. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George; Abel, Dave

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  7. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  8. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  9. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  10. On spinors transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We begin showing that for even dimensional vector spaces V all automorphisms of their Clifford algebras are inner. So all orthogonal transformations of V are restrictions to V of inner automorphisms of the algebra. Thus under orthogonal transformations P and T—space and time reversal—all algebra elements, including vectors v and spinors φ, transform as v → xvx-1 and φ → xφx-1 for some algebra element x. We show that while under combined PT spinor φ → xφx-1 remains in its spinor space, under P or T separately φ goes to a different spinor space and may have opposite chirality. We conclude with a preliminary characterization of inner automorphisms with respect to their property to change, or not, spinor spaces.

  11. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  12. Biological materials by design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Dimas, Leon; Adler, David; Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-02-19

    In this topical review we discuss recent advances in the use of physical insight into the way biological materials function, to design novel engineered materials 'from scratch', or from the level of fundamental building blocks upwards and by using computational multiscale methods that link chemistry to material function. We present studies that connect advances in multiscale hierarchical material structuring with material synthesis and testing, review case studies of wood and other biological materials, and illustrate how engineered fiber composites and bulk materials are designed, modeled, and then synthesized and tested experimentally. The integration of experiment and simulation in multiscale design opens new avenues to explore the physics of materials from a fundamental perspective, and using complementary strengths from models and empirical techniques. Recent developments in this field illustrate a new paradigm by which complex material functionality is achieved through hierarchical structuring in spite of simple material constituents. PMID:24451343

  13. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees. PMID:26710553

  14. The quantum Arnold transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.; Guerrero, J.; López-Ruiz, F. F.

    2011-02-01

    Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations, including systems with friction linear in velocity, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This transformation provides a basic (Heisenberg-Weyl) algebra of quantum operators, along with well-defined Hermitian operators which can be chosen as evolution-like observables and complete the entire Schrödinger algebra. It also proves to be very helpful in performing certain computations quickly, to obtain, for example, wavefunctions and closed analytic expressions for time-evolution operators.

  15. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  16. Biolistic transformation of Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kota; Muralikrishna, Narra; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Raghu, Ellendula; Mahender, Aileni; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Yashodahara, Velivela; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time, the optimized conditions for microprojectile bombardment-mediated genetic transformation in Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis L.), a Plantaginaceae medicinal plant species. Transformation was achieved by bombardment of axenic leaf segments with Binary vector pBI121 harbouring β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as a reporter and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a selectable marker. The influence of physical parameters viz., acceleration pressure, flight distance, gap width & macroprojectile travel distance of particle gun on frequency of transient GUS and stable (survival of putative transformants) expressions have been investigated. Biolistic delivery of the pBI121 yielded the best (80.0 %) transient expression of GUS gene bombarded at a flight distance of 6 cm and rupture disc pressure/acceleration pressure of 650 psi. Highest stable expression of 52.0 % was noticed in putative transformants on RMBI-K medium. Integration of GUS and npt II genes in the nuclear genome was confirmed through primer specific PCR. DNA blot analysis showed more than one transgene copy in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for metabolic engineering and production of biopharmaceuticals by transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant. PMID:27186019

  17. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  18. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  19. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  20. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…