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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  2. Sesquiterpenes from Achillea pannonica Scheele.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ingrid; Glasl, Sabine; Presser, Armin; Haslinger, Ernst; Jurenitsch, Johann

    2003-01-01

    From dichloromethane extracts of flowerheads of Achillea pannonica Scheele three sesquiterpenes were isolated and identified: 11,13-dehydrodesacetylmatricarin, (6E)-5-tigloxy-9-hydroxynerolidol and alpha-longipin-2-en-1-one. The structures were determined by MS, IR and NMR spectroscopic analyses, (6E)-5-Tigloxy-9-hydroxynerolidol is reported here for the first time. Additionally spathulenol, a compound of the essential oil was identified using GC-MS and GC-FTIR.

  3. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  4. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  5. Highly hydroxylated guaianolides of Achillea asiatica and Middle European Achillea species.

    PubMed

    Glasl, S; Presser, A; Gunbilig, D; Werner, I; Narantuya, S; Haslinger, E; Jurenitsch, J; Kubelka, W

    2001-12-01

    From flower heads of Achillea asiatica (L.) Serg., three new guaianolides were isolated by repeated column chromatography and HPLC. The constitution and the stereochemistry of these new, labile compounds were determined by MS, one ((1)H, (13)C, selective (1)H-TOCSY and (1)H-NOESY) and two-dimensional NMR experiments ((1)H, (1)H-COSY, (1)H, (13)C-HSQC, (1)H, (13)C-HMBC). The substances were identified as 8 alpha-angeloxy-2 alpha, 4 alpha,10 beta-trihydroxy-6 beta H,7 alpha H, 11 beta H-1(5)-guaien-12,6 alpha-olide (1), 8 alpha-angeloxy-1 beta,2 beta:4 beta,5 beta-diepoxy-10 beta-hydroxy-6 beta H, 7 alpha H, 11 beta H-12,6 alpha-guaianolide (2) and 8 alpha-angeloxy-4 alpha,10 beta-dihydroxy-2-oxo-6 beta H,7 alpha H, 11 beta H-1(5)-guaien-12,6 alpha-olide (3). They were also detected in Middle European species (Achillea collina, Achillea ceretanica (2x and 4x), Achillea roseoalba, Achillea asplenifolia) by HPLC, TLC and off line MS and have not been described before. The possibility that these compounds might be products of an oxidation process is discussed.

  6. Surface rejuvenating effect of Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Pain, S; Altobelli, C; Boher, A; Cittadini, L; Favre-Mercuret, M; Gaillard, C; Sohm, B; Vogelgesang, B; André-Frei, V

    2011-12-01

    Proopiomelanocortin is a precursor peptide that gives rise to several neuropeptides including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin. POMC-derived peptides have been shown to be synthesized in human epidermis where they modulate numerous skin functions. Because we previously observed that melanocortin receptor-2 and μ-opioid receptor 1, the respective receptors for ACTH and β-endorphin decreased with ageing in human epidermis, we have selected an active ingredient (INCI name: Achillea millefolium extract) able to upregulate receptor expressions. The aim of the present work was first to evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and second to evaluate its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo. Results show an improved expression profile of cytokeratin 10, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin in cultured skin biopsies as well as an increased epidermal thickness. In vivo, a 2-month treatment with A. millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule. PMID:21711463

  7. Carotenoid composition of the flowers of Mimulus lewisii and related species: Implications regarding the prevalence and origin of two unique, allenic pigments.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2015-05-01

    The genus Mimulus has been used as a model system in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary studies and contains many species with carotenoid pigmented flowers. However, the detailed carotenoid composition of these flowers has never been reported. In this paper the floral carotenoid composition of 11 Mimulus species are characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and chemical methods with a particular focus on the genetic model species, Mimulus lewisii. M. lewisii flowers have five major carotenoids: antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and the unique allenic carotenoids, deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This carotenoid profile is consistent with the expression levels of putative carotenoid biosynthetic genes in the M. lewisii flower. The other 10 species possess the same five carotenoids or a subset of these. Comparison of the carotenoid profiles among species in a phylogenetic context provides new insights into the biosynthesis and evolution of deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This work also lays the foundation for future studies regarding transcriptional control of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Mimulus flowers.

  8. Guaianolide-endoperoxide and monoterpene-hydroperoxides from Achillea nobilis.

    PubMed

    Kastner, U; Breuer, J; Glasl, S; Baumann, A; Robien, W; Jurenitsch, J; Rücker, G; Kubelka, W

    1995-02-01

    From flower heads of Achillea nobilis two chrysanthemol derivatives (1, 2), tanaparthin-beta-peroxide (3), and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (4) were isolated by repeated column chromatography and HPLC. Structure elucidation has been performed by means of MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR experiments.

  9. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species. PMID:22615655

  10. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  11. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use.

  12. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root. PMID:27165527

  13. Achillea schurii Flowers: Chemical, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Investigations.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Filip, Lorena; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tiperciuc, Brînduşa; Vlase, Laurian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the phenolic profile, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Achillea schurii Sch.-Bip., an endemic species from Romania that has not been investigated yet. The chromatographic profile of the phenolic components was obtained using the HPLC-MS method, while the total polyphenol, flavonoid, caffeic acid derivative contents were quantified using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methods: DPPH radical scavenging, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c, and direct detection of plant-derived free radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The antimicrobial test was performed using the disk diffusion assay. The phenolic profile has revealed high amounts of isoquercitrin, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin. The A. schurii extract exhibited a good antioxidant capacity, and high phenolic contents (76.93 mg/g polyphenols, 18.61 mg/g flavonoids and 41.48 mg/g caffeic acid derivatives, respectively). The antimicrobial tests reveal a remarkable inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Considering the above, A. schurii may be deemed to offer good perspectives for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. PMID:27529204

  14. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279

  15. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug.

  16. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug. PMID:17689902

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy as a tool for chemotaxonomic investigations within the Achillea millefolium group.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ingrid; Glasl, Sabine; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2006-01-01

    An FT-IR-based method for the rapid characterization and identification of Achillea species was developed. With the IR spectra of the CH2Cl2 extracts of A. aspleniifolia, A. collina, A. millefolium, A. millefolium ssp. sudetica, A. pannonica, A. pratensis, A. roseoalba, A. setacea, and A. styriaca, a spectrum library was created. This database allowed the identification of the respective taxa by comparison of IR spectra. Moreover, information concerning dominant structural elements of sesquiterpene constituents was obtained, providing hints about the composition of a plant sample of unknown origin.

  19. Essential Oil Chemical Composition and Headspace Volatiles Profile of Achillea coarctata from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kostevski, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Stamenković, Jelena G; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles profile of Achillea coarctata Poir. from Serbia. The inflorescences, stems and leaves, and the aerial parts of A. coarctata were analyzed separately. Germacrene D, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the aerial parts essential oil; 1,8-cineole, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and α-terpineol were the most dominant compounds in the inflorescence essential oil, while the most abundant components in the stem and leaf oil were germacrene D, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and ledol. The percentages of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the aerial parts were the same, while there were differences in distribution of these compound classes in inflorescence and stem and leaf essential oils. The major components of the headspace volatiles were the same for aerial parts, inflorescence and stem and leaves: 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and α-pinene. PMID:27396214

  20. Composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica All. from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Lanfranchi, Don-Antoine; Prado, Soizic; Baldovini, Nicolas; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2006-08-23

    The essential oil of Achillea ligustica from Corsica was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds representing 94.0% of the oil were tentatively identified. The main constituents were the camphane derivatives, representing >30% (camphor, 21.3%; borneol, 6.2%; bornyl acetate, 3.5%) of the whole oil, and santolina alcohol (19.3%). The enantiomeric distribution of 8 chiral constituents was determined by GC-MS using two enantioselective stationary phases (DIME-beta-CD and Lipodex-E). Racemic santolina alcohol, required for optimization of the enantioselective GC conditions, was prepared by an original two-step synthesis from 2,5-dimethylhexa-2,4-diene. The whole essential oil was tested for its antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria using a paper disk method. The results show a promising activity against Streptomyces species. PMID:16910724

  1. Sources of Variation in Leaf Shape among Two Populations of Achillea Lanulosa

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitch, J.

    1992-01-01

    Achillea lanulosa has complex, highly dissected leaves that vary in shape and size along an altitudinal gradient. Plants from a high and an intermediate altitude population were clonally replicated and grown in a controlled environment at warm and cool conditions under bright light. There were genetic differences among populations and among individuals within populations in leaf size and shape. Heritabilities for leaf size and shape characters were moderate. Leaves of the lower altitude population were larger and differed from the higher altitude plants in both coarse and fine shape. Plastic response to temperature of the growth environment paralleled the genetic differentiation between low and high altitude populations. There was no apparent trade-off between genetic control over morphology and the capacity for directional plastic response to the environment. Differences in leaf dissection and size at contrasting altitudes in this species are the result of both genetic divergence among populations and of acclimative responses to local environments. PMID:1541395

  2. Sesquiterpenes and flavonoid aglycones from a Hungarian taxon of the Achillea millefolium group.

    PubMed

    Glasl, Sabine; Mucaji, Pavel; Werner, Ingrid; Presser, Armin; Jurenitsch, Johann

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of a dichloromethane extract of flower heads of a Hungarian taxon of the Achillea millefolium group led to the isolation of three flavonoid aglycones, one triterpene, one germacranolide and five guaianolides. Their structures were elucidated by UV-VIS, EI- and CI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods as well as by 2D-NMR studies and by selective 1D-NOE experiments. Besides apigenin, luteolin and centaureidin, beta-sitosterol, 3beta-hydroxy-11alpha,13-dihydro-costunolide, desacetylmatricarin, leucodin, achillin, 8alpha-angeloxy-leucodin and 8alpha-angeloxy-achillin were isolated. Both latter substances are reported here for the first time. Their NMR data were compared with those of the other guaianolides. The stereochemistry of 3beta-hydroxy-11alpha,13-dihydro-costunolide was discussed and compared with data of the literature.

  3. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC).

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds β-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  5. Ethanol Extracts of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum Low Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Shagayegh; Adine, Mohtaram; Javadi, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Azadmehr, Abbas; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Jahanihashemi, Hasan; Saraei, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to determine the lethal and the inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts of Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) and Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain tachyzoites in vitro. Methods: The tachyzoites were treated with concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 mg/mL of A. millefolium and H. perforatum extracts within 10, 30, and 45 minutes in the wells. The mortality rates of tachyzoites treated with extracts were determined by using alkaline methylene blue staining. Also, the tachyzoites in cell cultures were treated with concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL of these extracts. The cell viability, inhibition concentration (IC50), and selectivity were determined from MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Results: In the cell-free in vitro study, all of tachyzoites were killed at concentrations of 100 mg/mL of both extracts while at concentration 10 mg/mL, the mortality was 4.53% − 5.31%. In the cell culture study, the values of the effective concentration (EC50) were 215 and 153 μg/mL and the selectivities were 0.73 and 0.69 for the A. millefolium and the H. perforatum extracts, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that neither extracts has any significant effect on the tachyzoites of T. gondii in cell cultures. PMID:27280052

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a new germacrane derivative from Achillea pannonica.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Tubaro, A; Kastner, U; Glasl, S; Jurenitsch, J; Della Loggia, R

    2001-10-01

    The topical anti-inflammatory activity of a germacrane derivative [1,4-dihydroxy-germacra-5E-10(14)-diene; DHGD] isolated from Achillea pannonica Scheele (Asteraceae) was investigated employing the Croton oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear. Its effects on the oedematous response and on leukocytes infiltration are described. The germacrane derivative significantly inhibited ear oedema in a dose-dependent manner, with an ID(50) of 0.40 micromol/cm(2). DHGD (0.75 micromol/cm(2)) provoked a global inhibition of the oedematous response (61 %) higher than that induced by an equimolar dose of indomethacin (43 %) within 24 hours; the reduction induced by hydrocortisone (0.10 micromol/cm(2)) was 68 %. The effect of DHGD (61 % inhibition) was higher than that of the equimolar dose of indomethacin (51 % inhibition) also on granulocytes recruitment at the site of inflammation. Hydrocortisone (0.10 micromol/cm(2)) reduced the cellular infiltrate by 44 %.

  7. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.): pharmaceutical quality of commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Benedek, B; Rothwangl-Wiltschnigg, K; Rozema, E; Gjoncaj, N; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Kopp, B; Glasl, S

    2008-01-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, hepato-biliary disorders, as an appetite enhancing drug, against skin inflammations and for wound healing due to its antiphlogistic, choleretic and spasmolytic properties. The main pharmacologically active principles were shown to be the essential oil (antimicrobial), proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones (antiphlogistic), dicaffeoylquinic acids (choleretic) and flavonoids (antispasmodic). In order to assess the pharmaceutical quality of the drug we evaluated the content of these bioactive compounds in 40 commercial drug samples. The essential oil and the proazulenes were analysed according to the European Pharmacopoeia, whereas the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids was determined by solid phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC. This comprehensive survey revealed that the quality of the drug material was very heterogenous, and only 50% of the samples met the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. Moreover, this study gives information about the content of phenolic compounds in the drug and allowed to establish tentative reference values which may be used as additional parameters in the quality control of the drug.

  8. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Pirmohammadi, Masoumeh; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Ali; Bagheri, Akbar; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Hasan; Pirmohammadi, Maryam; Tavassoli, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mosquito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection. Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition. Results: The mean assessed protection time and efficacy for A. vermiculata was 2.16 and 3.16 hours respectively and the obtained ED50 and ED90 for this plant was 5.67 and 63 μl/cm2 respectively. The figured for S. hortensis was 4.16 and 5 hours respectively. ED50 and ED90 for this plant were 5.63 and 45.75μl/cm2 respectively. Conclusion: Results of investigation showed that S. hortensis plant has an acceptable protection time, therefore, this plant could be considered as a good herbal repellent against anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:27308278

  9. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  10. Chemical composition and anxiolytic evaluation of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch essential oil in rat

    PubMed Central

    Majnooni, M. B.; Mohammadi-Farani, A.; Gholivand, M. B.; Nikbakht, M. R.; Bahrami, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal based remedies are used worldwide to treat psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse the essential oil composition of Achillea Wilhemsii C. Koch (Asteraceae) and to evaluate its anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety in rat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the main compounds of the oil were p-ocimen (23%), 1, 8-cineole (20.8%) and carvone (19.13%). The EPM results showed that 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of the oil significantly (P<0.05) increased the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms of the maze while it did not change the total number of entries in the maze arms. These effects were not reversed with 2 mg/kg flumazenil and 5 mg/kg naloxone. We concluded that a minimum dose of 1 mg/kg of the oil has anxiolytic effects which are not probably mediated through GABA and opioid receptors. PMID:24082896

  11. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  13. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  14. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile extracts of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2011-10-01

    In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800

  16. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  17. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L.

  18. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  19. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1β and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has a role in β- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1β and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1β and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1β and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1β and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1β and iNOS gene over expression which can have a β-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  20. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A

  1. [Experimental study of the effect of the phytomixture made of leaves of Plantago major L. and Achillea millenfolium L. on the secretion activity of the stomach in dogs].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author used plants with an obvious anti-ulcerous effect, which are often jointly included in gastroenterological phytomixtures. It was shown that the extract from leaves of Plantago major L. has a stimulating effect on gastric secretion, mostly on parietal cells. The extract from Achillea millenfolium L. reduced aggressive properties and enhanced protective properties of gastric juice. The common effect was demonstrated by the increased acid production and enhanced protective properties of gastric mucus. PMID:16255542

  2. [Experimental study of the effect of the phytomixture made of leaves of Plantago major L. and Achillea millenfolium L. on the secretion activity of the stomach in dogs].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author used plants with an obvious anti-ulcerous effect, which are often jointly included in gastroenterological phytomixtures. It was shown that the extract from leaves of Plantago major L. has a stimulating effect on gastric secretion, mostly on parietal cells. The extract from Achillea millenfolium L. reduced aggressive properties and enhanced protective properties of gastric juice. The common effect was demonstrated by the increased acid production and enhanced protective properties of gastric mucus.

  3. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  4. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract.

  5. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, Osman Tuncay; Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Temel, Hamdi; Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar

    2015-09-30

    Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  6. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment. PMID:23512438

  7. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  8. Combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the isolation and characterization of polar guaianolides from Achillea asiatica.

    PubMed

    Glasl, S; Gunbilig, D; Narantuya, S; Werner, I; Jurenitsch, J

    2001-11-30

    Four polar guaianolides, 8alpha-angeloxy-2alpha,4alpha, 10beta-trihydroxy-6betaH,7alphaH, 11betaH-1(5)-guaien- 12,6alpha-olide; 8alpha-angeloxy-1beta,2beta:4beta,5beta-diepoxy- 10beta-hydroxy-6betaH,7alphaH,11betaH-12,6alpha-guaianolide; 8alpha-angeloxy-4alpha, 10beta-dihydroxy-2-oxo-6betaH, 7alphaH, 11betaH- 1(5)-guaien- 12,6alpha-olide and 8-desacetyl-matricarin, were isolated from Achillea asiatica and characterized by TLC, MS, IR, HPLC and diode array detection. Purified extracts were separated by means of flash chromatography. HPLC separations were achieved using different methanol-water gradients as mobile phase and LiChrospher 100-RP8 5 microm or Zorbax SB-C8 3.5 microm as stationary phases. The chromatographical data are compared to those of the proazulene 8alpha-tigloxy-artabsin which shows antiinflammatory effects. By means of these characteristics the identification of the guaianolides with potential antiphlogistic properties is also possible from other sources.

  9. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

  10. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4β,10α-dihydroxy-5β,7β,8βH-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8α-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect.

  11. Variation in terpene and linear-chain hydrocarbon content in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) germplasm from the Rhaetian Alps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pecetti, Luciano; Tava, Aldo; Romani, Massimo; Cecotti, Roberto; Mella, Mariella

    2012-10-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is a herbaceous species common in the Alpine region of Europe and used in folk medicine since antiquity. Its organs are rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, two subclasses of plant terpenoids with relevant ecological significance, which were reported as valuable markers for the traceability of mountain dairy products. The variability in chemical composition of yarrow germplasm may be related with its genetic diversity, accounting for possible differences in medical properties, and supporting its use as a specific territorial marker. Aim of this work was to assess the leaf chemical composition of 16 yarrow populations collected at altitudes exceeding 1600 m in three valleys of the Rhaetian Alps, Italy, and jointly evaluated in a lowland site. The most abundant compounds detected generally differed from those of the germplasm from other countries. A trend of valley-specific pattern of composition was evident. However, the variability among individual populations was even more remarkable, regardless of their valley of origin. The concentrations of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes discriminated the populations in multivariate analysis. A few prevailing chemotypes were characterized, which differed from those previously reported in the literature. The geographic isolation from other germplasms, and the local ecotypization, likely originated a chemically distinct gene pool. PMID:23081927

  12. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  13. Chemical composition and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica growing wild in Lipari (Aeolian Islands, Sicily).

    PubMed

    Rouis, Zyed; Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts and flowers of Achillea ligustica All., collected in Lipari (Aeolian Islands) was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. (Z)-Chrysanthenyl acetate was the most abundant component of both oils (29.6% in A1 and 27.8% in F1), followed by viridiflorol (16.8% in A1 and 21.6% in F1), bornyl acetate (8.7% in A1 and 11.6% in F1) and 1,8-cineole (7.4% in A1 and 9.3% in F1). A comparison was made of the composition of the different populations studied so far. Futhermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the oil was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative determination of sesquiterpenoids in Achillea species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, mass-spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Glasl, S; Kastner, U; Jurenitsch, J; Kubelka, W

    1999-06-11

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as a universal analysis system in order to determine and quantify antiphlogistic sesquiterpenoids in different Achillea species. Identification was performed by HPLC and diode array detection as well as by monitoring the HPLC fractions by TLC and MS. Using santonin as internal standard, HPLC separations were achieved with a methanol-water gradient system using RP 8 LiChrospher 100 (5 microm) as stationary phase. For validation, sample analyses were performed, using the two tetraploid species A. collina and A. pratensis. The method allows the identification and quantification of the main compounds achillicin, 8alpha-tigloxy-artabsin, 8alpha-angeloxy-artabsin, arglanin and santamarin with variation coefficients between 3.4 and 4.7% (total content) using santonin as internal standard. For the different compounds recovery was found between 81 and 107% performing multiple analyses of A. collina and A. pratensis.

  15. In vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Elçi, Pınar; Sarper, Meral; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of Achillea species are the most important native economic plants of Anatolia. They include highly bioactive compounds, so they have therapeutic applications. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to investigate in vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts (Turkish name: Beyaz civanperÇemi). Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extracts was analyzed by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content methods. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of the extracts onhuman prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. mRNA expression levels of pro-apoptotic (bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (bcl-2) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that extracts exhibited a remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol extract was higher than that of the water extract. As time and concentration were increased, the methanol extract exhibited a more powerful cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer cells, the levels of mRNA expression of the bax and caspase-3 genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In HGF cells, there were no cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction triggered by the extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract had more powerful anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects than the water extract. The extracts could be good anti-oxidant sources, and they might include anti-cancer compounds triggering the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. PMID:26664020

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  17. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Said, Mansour S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M.; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  18. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  19. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  20. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  1. Sequential developmental programmes for retractor muscles of a caenogastropod: reappraisal of evolutionary homologues

    PubMed Central

    Page, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in the development of shell-attached retractor muscles in gastropods are of fundamental importance to theories about the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this molluscan class. Development of the shell-attached retractor muscle (columellar muscle) in a caenogastropod has been studied at the ultrastructural level to test the hypothesis of homology with the post-torsional left retractor muscle (larval velar retractor) in vetigastropod larvae. The vetigastropod muscle has been implicated in the generation of ontogenetic torsion, a morphogenetic twist between body regions that is important to theories about early gastropod evolution. Two shell-attached retractor muscles develop sequentially in the caenogastropod, Polinices lewisii, which is a pattern that has been also identified in previous ultrastructural studies on a vetigastropod and several nudibranch gastropods. The pattern may be a basal and conserved characteristic of gastropods. I found that the first-formed retractor in larvae of P. lewisii is comparable to the larval velar retractor that exists at the time of ontogenetic torsion in the vetigastropod, Haliotis kamtschatkana. However, the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii is derived exclusively from part of the second-formed muscle, which is comparable to the second-formed pedal muscle system in the vetigastropod. I conclude that the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii, is not homologous to the larval velar retractor of the vetigastropod, H. kamtschatkana.

  2. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Vela, James P; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - d-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro analysis of enzyme activity we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci, LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). Mimulus lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. Mimulus cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. Mimulus cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNA interference in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus is likely to contribute to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promote reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of 'speciation genes' ('barrier genes') in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  3. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2016-03-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  4. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B.; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Stanley, Lauren E.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  5. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Vela, James P.; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bradshaw, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - D-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro enzyme activity analysis we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci – LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). M. lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. M. cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. M. cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNAi in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus likely contributes to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promotes reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of “speciation genes” (“barrier genes”) in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  6. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general.

  7. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain.

    PubMed

    Løkke, H

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy [2-14C]acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations (P less than or equal to 0.05) in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  8. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ach5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Lai, Erh-Min; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease. The strain Ach5 was isolated from yarrow (Achillea ptarmica L.) and is the wild-type progenitor of other derived strains widely used for plant transformation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:26044425

  10. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  11. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L

    2009-11-17

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  12. [Experience in treating digestive organ diseases with medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Krivenko, V V; Potebnia, G P; Loĭko, V V

    1989-03-01

    Results are reported of treatment of chronic hyposecretory gastritis, chronic hepatocholecystitis and angiocholitis by a herbal complex. The herbal composition included Achillea millefolium, Urtica dioica, Cichorium (aboveground part), Polygonum, Matricaria chamomilla (flowers), Helichrysum arenarium, Calendula (flowers), corn stigmas, Humulus lupulus (racemes) in proportion 3:3:1:1:2:1:1:2:1 respectively. The herbal decoction is to be taken 3 times daily before meals. Diet N 5 (Pevzner scheme) is to be observed. PMID:2750130

  13. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  14. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  15. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  16. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days

  17. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms

  18. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  20. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Grażyna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway. PMID:26364030

  1. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  2. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used.

  3. Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Tunón, H

    2006-01-01

    The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils of citronella, cloves and lily of the valley. They possessed repelling activities of the same magnitude as the reference repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Some major constituents of these oils, e.g. citronellol and geraniol (oil of citronella and lily of the valley) and eugenol (oil of cloves) showed pronounced repelling effects. This was also the case for phenethyl alcohol, a minor component in the oil from lily of the valley. PMID:16360943

  4. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  5. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sokari, Saeed S.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Monzote, Lianet; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen methanolic extracts obtained from thirteen plant species, selected either from ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined. Eight extracts had IC50 values ranging from <12.5 to 37.8 µg/mL against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed antileishmanial activities with IC50 between <12.5–26.9 µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8–5. The other leishmanicidal plant extracts, with IC50 ranging from 18.0 to 29.5 µg/mL, exhibited low selectivity indices. PMID:26357662

  6. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-10-14

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  7. TLC and HPLC characteristics of desacetylmatricarin, leucodin, achillin and their 8alpha-angeloxy-derivatives.

    PubMed

    Glasl, S; Mucaji, P; Werner, I; Jurenitsch, J

    2003-07-01

    Five guaianolides, including two pairs of isomers, from a Hungarian taxon of the Achillea millefolium group were characterized analytically. Different chromatographic systems on TLC and HPLC were developed for the analysis of these compounds. TLC of leucodin, 8alpha-angeloxy-leucodin, achillin, 8alpha-angeloxy-achillin and desacetylmatricarin was performed on silica gel using dichloromethaneacetone and cyclohexane-ethylacetate mixtures as mobile phases. HPLC on stationary phases as LiChrospher RP2, LiChrospher RP8, LiChrospher RP18e, Hypersil BDS C18 and Aquasil C18 required isocratic and gradient systems with different methanol-water mixtures as mobile phases. The presented RF values and retention times allow the identification of the respective 2-oxo-guaianolides which are marker substances for certain non-proazulene containing species. Their TLC and HPLC fingerprints are compared to those of proazulene containing species and are relevant for quality control.

  8. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  9. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Grażyna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway.

  10. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  11. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

  12. Contributions to the study of the genus Hephathus Ribaut, 1952 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-08-12

    In Russia and the adjacent territories, the genus Hephathus includes three species, H. nanus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835), H. freyi (Fieber, 1868) = H. tshakaranus Dlabola, 1957, syn. n., and H. achilleae Mityaev, 1967. They are indistinguishable in genitalia shape, but differ in male calling signal structure and black pattern of face. Photos of habitus and face, drawings of genitalia and male 2(nd) abdominal apodemes, signal oscillograms, and distribution maps for all species are provided. H. orientalis Linnavuori, 1953 is indistinguishable from H. freyi in coloration and genitalia shape; therefore, investigation of male calling signals is necessary for elucidation of its status. Macropsis fergusoni Evans, 1942 from Tasmania and Asmaropsis troilos Linnavuori, 1978 from Eritrea differ from Palaearctic Hephathus in the shape of head, pro-, and mesonotum and apparently belong to other genera.

  13. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  14. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance.

  15. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  16. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  17. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  18. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  19. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants.

  20. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  1. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  2. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  3. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  4. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  5. Getting the smell of it--odour cues structure pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. Creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. Manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. Image credit: Robert Junker and Anna-Amelie Larue. In Focus: Larue, A.-A.C., Raguso, R.A. & Junker, R.R. (2015) Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 396-408. Pollinators use multiple cues to locate suitable flowers, and recent studies argue that flower volatiles are more important than previously believed. However, the role of volatiles is seldom separated from other cues. Larue, Raguso & Junker (2015) manipulated the volatile profile of two plants that are normally visited by different pollinators. Achillea millefolium is normally not visited by honeybees and bumblebees, but these pollinator groups did visit plants that were sprayed with volatiles from Cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense, on the other hand, was less visited by honeybees and bumblebees when sprayed with volatiles from A. millefolium. These findings highlight the potential role of volatiles in structuring pollinator communities on plants. PMID:26899420

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  7. Survival and Reduction of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in a Fresh Cold-Pressed Juice Treated with Antimicrobial Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Hatab, Shaimaa; Athanasio, Renata; Holley, Richard; Rodas-Gonzalez, Argenis; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the survival of 7 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in fresh cold-pressed juice and the antimicrobial efficacy of 4 essential oils (EO: achillea, rosemary, sage, and thyme). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each EO was determined using microdilution assays evaluated at pH levels 4 and 7; as well as at 4 and 25 °C; daily for up to 5 d. Results indicated that 5 of 7 serotypes survived well in cold-pressed raw juice for at least 4 d at 4 °C and pH 3.5 with no significant (P > 0.05) reduction in viability. The EO showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against the 7 STEC. The MIC and MBCs were lowest for thyme (2 μg/L) and highest for sage (15 to 25 μg/L). The antimicrobial activity was enhanced at low pH and temperature. Data showed that although the top 7 STEC could survive low pH and temperature in vitro and in cold-pressed juices, EO, especially from thyme and rosemary, reduced STEC to an undetectable level at 4 °C, suggesting that they could be used as natural antimicrobials in juice. PMID:27399584

  8. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn.

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds.

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  11. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  12. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  14. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  15. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  16. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  17. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  18. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  19. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria. PMID:27650980

  20. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  1. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  2. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  3. Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment. PMID:21402904

  4. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  5. A population genetic model to infer allotetraploid speciation and long-term evolution applied to two yarrow species.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Lan-Wei; Vogl, Claus

    2013-07-01

    Allotetraploid speciation, that is, the generation of a hybrid tetraploid species from two diploid species, and the long-term evolution of tetraploid populations and species are important in plants. We developed a population genetic model to infer population genetic parameters of tetraploid populations from data of the progenitor and descendant species. Two yarrow species, Achillea alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x, arose by allotetraploidization from the diploid progenitors, A. acuminata-2x and A. asiatica-2x. Yet, the population genetic process has not been studied in detail. We applied the model to sequences of three nuclear genes in populations of the four yarrow species and compared their pattern of variability with that in four plastid regions. The plastid data indicated that the two tetraploid species probably originated from multiple independent allopolyploidization events and have accumulated many mutations since. With the nuclear data, we found a low rate of homeologous recombination or gene conversion and a reduction in diversity relative to the level of both diploid species combined. The present analysis with a novel probabilistic model suggests a genetic bottleneck during tetraploid speciation, that the two tetraploid species have a long evolutionary history, and that they have a small amount of genetic exchange between the homeologous genomes. PMID:23574432

  6. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    PubMed

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  7. Getting the smell of it--odour cues structure pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. Creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. Manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. Image credit: Robert Junker and Anna-Amelie Larue. In Focus: Larue, A.-A.C., Raguso, R.A. & Junker, R.R. (2015) Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 396-408. Pollinators use multiple cues to locate suitable flowers, and recent studies argue that flower volatiles are more important than previously believed. However, the role of volatiles is seldom separated from other cues. Larue, Raguso & Junker (2015) manipulated the volatile profile of two plants that are normally visited by different pollinators. Achillea millefolium is normally not visited by honeybees and bumblebees, but these pollinator groups did visit plants that were sprayed with volatiles from Cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense, on the other hand, was less visited by honeybees and bumblebees when sprayed with volatiles from A. millefolium. These findings highlight the potential role of volatiles in structuring pollinator communities on plants.

  8. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples.

  9. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  10. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.

  11. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  12. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes.

  13. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation

  14. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We

  15. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  16. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  17. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13)C-CO(2) pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13)C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated (13)C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13)C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13)C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13)C in the respired CO(2) was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13)C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community

  18. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  19. Effect of elevated tropospheric ozone on the structure of bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of herbaceous plants native to Germany.

    PubMed

    Dohrmann, Anja B; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2005-12-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., "summer stress" and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres.

  20. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  1. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  2. Stoichiometric response of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Amy M; Schade, John D; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kay, Adam D; Kyle, Marcia; Reich, Peter B; Elser, James J

    2007-04-01

    Human activities have resulted in increased nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations in the biosphere, potentially causing significant changes in many ecological processes. In addition to these ongoing perturbations of the abiotic environment, human-induced losses of biodiversity are also of major concern and may interact in important ways with biogeochemical perturbations to affect ecosystem structure and function. We have evaluated the effects of these perturbations on plant biomass stoichiometric composition (C:N:P ratios) within the framework of the BioCON experimental setup (biodiversity, CO(2), N) conducted at the Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Minnesota. Here we present data for five plant species: Solidago rigida, Achillea millefolium, Amorpha canescens, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis. We found significantly higher C:N and C:P ratios under elevated CO(2) treatments, but species responded idiosyncratically to the treatment. Nitrogen addition decreased C:N ratios, but this response was greater in the ambient CO(2) treatments than under elevated CO(2). Higher plant species diversity generally lowered both C:N and C:P ratios. Importantly, increased diversity also led to a more modest increase in the C:N ratio with elevated CO(2) levels. In addition, legumes exhibited lower C:N and higher C:P and N:P ratios than non-legumes, highlighting the effect of physiological characteristics defining plant functional types. These data suggest that atmospheric CO(2) levels, N availability, and plant species diversity interact to affect both aboveground and belowground processes by altering plant elemental composition.

  3. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 ± 0.36 μg mL(-1) to 0.23 ± 0.67 μg mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 μL cm(-2) and 0.26 μL cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide.

  4. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America.

  5. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  6. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  7. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    PubMed

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo.

  8. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marby, Adel; Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Al-badani, Rwaida A; Alghamdi, Ghanem MA; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these “hidden treasures,” the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities. Materials and Methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated. Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases. PMID:27104031

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  10. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Ayub M. O.; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  13. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  14. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption.

  15. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  16. UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

  17. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658

  18. Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcević, M; Juretić, D; Petrik, J

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect.

  19. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites. PMID:26735047

  20. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or

  1. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area.

  2. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites.

  3. The Glacier National Park GLORIA Project: A new US Target Region for Alpine Plant Monitoring Installed in the Northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, K.; Fagre, D.

    2004-12-01

    caused loose vegetative associations, or micro-communities, that varied with exposure, slope angle, and substrate character. Species that exhibited dominance within the target region were Smelowskia calycina var. americana, Polemonium viscosum, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron compositus var. glabratus, and Potentilla fruticosa L. These species reflected the same variability in percent cover on the four sides of the summit areas as did the vegetation as a whole, but were present on all sides.

  4. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  5. Effects of Dilatancy on the Shearing Behaviour of Root-Permeated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely investigated. However, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the underlying processes that contribute to triggering superficial soil failure in root-permeated soil. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that a period of heavy rainfall in August 2005, affecting an extensive area in Praettigau region in canton Grisons, resulted in numerous shallow landslides of which about half, 26 out of 50 events, occurred in the forest area. Thus, quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is important in order to be able to evaluate the contribution of root reinforcement to slope stability. Root reinforcement has been investigated through different approaches, including laboratory or in-situ shear tests of root-permeated soil, and analytical models of soil-root interaction. Traditional methods, generally, consider roots passing through the shear surface with full development of the roots' tensile strength. However, it has been shown that lateral roots contribute to strength as well, and that roots and soil do not necessarily fail simultaneously, and hence the strengths of both components of root-permeated soil are displacement dependent. A robust inclinable large-scale direct shear apparatus (ILDSA) was constructed in order to evaluate the combined effects of the root system on the shearing behaviour of soil. Two different sets of planted samples, a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a latter set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria, have been prepared in moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland. Planted samples are maintained in shear boxes (500x500x400 mm) inclined at 30°, simulating a slope, and the corresponding natural growth of roots on it. Direct shear tests have

  6. Physics in the Spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite