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Sample records for achnatherum hymenoides roem

  1. Mutualistic interactions between granivorous heteromyid rodents and a preferred food resource, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granivorous heteromyid rodent species and Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) are both widely distributed throughout North American deserts. The vast majority (~95%) of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurs from seed clusters cached in shallowly-buried scatterhoards by heteromyids, espe...

  2. Effects of seed-caching desert rodents on seedling survival of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to consuming seeds, many small mammals also cache seeds in shallowly buried scatterhoards, and seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from these caches. Scatterhoards made by desert heteromyid rodents provide the primary source of seedling re...

  3. Seed-caching by heteromyid rodents enhances seedling survival of a desert grass, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from shallowly buried seed caches (i.e., scatterhoards) made by granivorous animals. Scatterhoarding by desert heteromyid rodents facilitates the vast majority of seedling recruitment in Indian ricegrass (Achnatheru...

  4. Dormancy-Status Pool Dynamics in Indian Ricegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides [Roem. & Schult] Barkworth) (Poaceae), a rangeland species native to western North America, is limited by persistent mechanical and physiological dormancy. We previously selected high (HD 3-15) and low-dormancy (LD 6-6) lines from the cv. Rimr...

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yuelong; Luo, Changxin; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS). We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO), using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress. PMID:27023614

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yuelong; Luo, Changxin; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS). We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO), using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including "oxidation reduction", "transcription factor activity", and "ion channel transporter". Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress. PMID:27023614

  7. Delta 13C predicts water deficit sensitivity in Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. from a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern apples [Malus x domestica (Borkh.)] are thought to have originated in western China from the progenitor species, Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. Due to many generations of selection for traits associated with high fruit quality, our current breeding germplasm has become dangerously narrow....

  8. [Effects of methyl jasmonate treatments and endophyte infection on growth of Achnatherum sibiricum].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun-hua; Lu, Yu; Li, Xia; Zhou, Yong; Ren, An-zhi; Gao, Yu-bao

    2015-04-01

    We used Achnatherum sibiricum, a native grass as test material and application of methyl jasmonate (MJ) to simulate herbivory, and compared the growth and physiological characters of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) plants. The results showed that MJ treatment significantly decreased the shoot growth, but significantly increased the concentrations of defensive substances such as total phenolic and lignin, and decreased the size of aphid population. Endophyte infection significantly increased the tiller number, total phenolic and lignin contents in the shoot. As for shoot biomass and total phenolic in the root, they were affected by MJ treatment. Without MJ treatment, no significant differences were found in shoot biomass or root phenolic content whether the plants were infected by endophyte or not. With MJ treatment, the shoot biomass was significantly lower and the shoot phenolic content was significantly higher in EI plants than in EF plants. Endophyte infection significantly increased resistance of the host plant to aphids, and the beneficial effect was enhanced by MJ treatments, after three applications with MJ, there were no aphids on EI plants. Overall, endophyte infection could alter the allocation pattern of the host plant between growth and defense, and MJ treatments further strengthened the defensive ability of the host plant at the cost of growth. PMID:26259457

  9. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  10. Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

    2015-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties. PMID:25501262

  11. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    PubMed

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  12. Production of ribosome-inactivating protein from hairy root cultures of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.

    PubMed

    di Toppi, L S; Gorini, P; Properzi, G; Barbieri, L; Spanò, L

    1996-09-01

    Transformed root lines of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. (Cucurbitaceae) were established by inoculation of in vitro grown plantlets with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 1855. Cloned lines of hairy roots were tested for the presence of ribosome-inactivating proteins; crude extracts inhibited protein synthesis in a reaction mixture based on rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Inhibitory activity increased during culture period, reaching a maximum value in the stationary phase. No activity could be detected in the culture medium, nor in extracts from callus and/or suspension cultures. A ribosome-inactivating protein having specific activity of 62,100 U mg protein(-1) and a molecular mass of 26-28,000 Da was purified to homogeneity. The protein showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes. The results demonstrate that hairy root cultures can be successfully utilized for the in vitro production of ribosome-inactivating proteins. PMID:24178273

  13. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongmei; Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiuyan; Tu, Ya; Jiao, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Depressive order is one of the most common psychiatric diseases, and Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis has shown many bioactivities in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (HPLC-ECD). Western blotting was performed to investigate the effects of essential oil on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in rats' brain. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of essential oil were estragole (6.16 %), β-elemene (24.91 %), β-cubebene (14.29 %), and γ-elemene (8.05 %). The results from the FST and TST demonstrated that the immobility time could be significantly reduced by essential oil (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the OFT. Additionally, the contents of DA, NE, 5-HT, and BDNF in the hippocampus of CMS rats could be increased by treatment with essential oil at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. All these results suggested that essential oil could be considered as a new candidate for curing depressive disorders. PMID:25465853

  14. Two distinct Epichloë species symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians, drunken horse grass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Swoboda, Ginger A; Young, Carolyn A; Sugawara, Koya; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schardl, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Achnatherum inebrians, colloquially known as drunken horse grass, is associated with livestock toxicity in northern China. Epichloë gansuensis (Eg) was described from endophyte isolates from A. inebrians in Sunan County, Gansu Province, whereas a morphologically distinct variety, E. gansuensis var. inebrians (Ei), was described based on two isolates from A. inebrians seeds collected in Urumqi County, Xinjiang Province. Genome sequencing and alkaloid analyses also distinguish these taxa; the Ei isolates produce neurotropic lysergic acid amides (ergot alkaloids), and an Eg isolate produces paxilline (an indole-diterpene alkaloid). To better elucidate the taxonomic diversity of Epichloë spp. symbiotic with A. inebrians, we surveyed eight populations in Xinjiang, Gansu and Inner Mongolia provinces of China and analyzed their genotypes by multiplex PCR for alkaloid biosynthesis genes and mating-type genes. Genotypes consistent with Ei were present in all eight populations, of which they dominated seven. The Ei isolates were all mating type A and tested positive for the ergot alkaloid gene, dmaW. In contrast Eg isolates were all mating type B and had the indole-diterpene gene, idtG. The genome was sequenced from an Ei isolate from seeds collected in Xiahe County, Gansu, and compared to that of the varietal ex type isolate from Urumqi. Alkaloid genes and four different housekeeping genes were nearly identical between the two sequenced Ei isolates and were distinct from a sequenced Eg isolate. Phylogenetic analysis placed Ei, Eg and Epichloë sibirica into respective subclades of a clade that emanated from the base of the Epichloë phylogeny. Given its chemotypic, genotypic, morphological and phylogenetic distinctiveness, its widespread occurrence in rangelands of northern China, and its importance in livestock toxicity, we propose raising Ei to species rank as Epichloë inebrians. PMID:25911697

  15. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis. PMID:27376077

  16. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:21928376

  17. Influence of plant invasion on seed chemistry of winterfat, green rabbitbrush, freckled milkvetch, indian ricegrass and cheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant invasions have proven detrimental to numerous ecosystem processes; however, limited information exists on how plant invasions affect seed nutrients. We quantified nutrients in seeds of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus), winterfat (Krasch...

  18. Endophyte-Mediated Effects on the Growth and Physiology of Achnatherum sibiricum Are Conditional on Both N and P Availability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Ren, Anzhi; Han, Rong; Yin, Lijia; Wei, Maoying; Gao, Yubao

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of endophyte–grass associations are conditional on nitrogen (N) availability, but the reported responses of these associations to N are inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency is caused, at least in part, by phosphorus (P) availability. In this experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Achnatherum sibiricum subjected to four treatments comprising a factorial combination of two levels of N (N+ vs. N−, i.e. N supply vs. N deficiency) and two levels of P (P+ vs. P−, i.e. P supply vs. P deficiency) availability. The results showed that A. sibiricum–Neotyphodium associations were conditional on both N and P availability, but more conditional on N than P. Under N+P− conditions, endophyte infection significantly improved acid phosphatase activity of EI plants, such that the biomass of EI plants was not affected by P deficiency (i.e. similar growth to N+P+ conditions), and resulted in more biomass in EI than EF plants. Under N−P+ conditions, biomass of both EI and EF decreased compared with N+P+; however, EI biomass decreased slowly by decreasing leaf N concentration more rapidly but allocating higher fractions of N to photosynthetic machinery compared with EF plants. This change of N allocation not only improved photosynthetic ability of EI plants but also significantly increased their biomass. Under N−P− conditions, EI plants allocated higher fractions of N to photosynthesis and had greater P concentrations in roots, but there was no significant difference in biomass between EI and EF plants. Our results support the hypothesis that endophyte–grass interactions are dependent on both N and P availability. However, we did not find a clear cost of endophyte infection in A. sibiricum. PMID:23185245

  19. Genetic diversity and structure of Neotyphodium species and their host Achnatherum sibiricum in a natural grass-endophyte system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ren, Anzhi; Ci, Huacong; Gao, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    Achnatherum sibiricum (Poaceae) is a perennial bunchgrass native to the Inner Mongolia Steppe of China. This grass is commonly infected by epichloë endophytes with high-infection frequencies. Previously, we identified two predominant Neotyphodium spp., N. sibiricum and N. gansuense. In the present study, genetic diversity and structure were analyzed for the two predominant Neotyphodium spp. as well as the host grass. We obtained 103 fungal isolates from five populations; 33 were identified as N. sibiricum and 61 as N. gansuense. All populations hosted both endophytic species, but genetic variation was much higher for N. gansuense than for N. sibiricum. The majority of fungal isolates were haploid, and 13% of them were heterozygous at one SSR locus, suggesting hybrid origins of those isolates. Significant linkage disequilibrium of fungal SSR loci suggested that both fungal species primarily propagate by clonal growth through plant seeds, whereas variation in genetic diversity and the presence of hybrids in both endophytic species revealed that although clonal propagation was prevalent, occasional recombination might also occur. By comparing genetic differentiation among populations, we found around 4-7-fold greater differentiation of endophyte populations than host populations, implying more restricted gene flow of endophytes than hosts. We proposed that endophyte infection of A. sibiricum might confer the host some selective advantages under certain conditions, which could help to maintain high-endophyte-infection frequencies in host populations, even when their gene flows do not match each other. Furthermore, we suggested that the same genotype of endophyte as well as host should be confirmed if the objective of the study is to know the influence of endophyte or host genotype on their symbiotic relationship, instead of just considering whether the plant is infected by an endophyte or not, since endophytes from the same host species could exhibit high levels of

  20. Co-production of biochar, bio-oil and syngas from halophyte grass (Achnatherum splendens L.) under three different pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Yue, Yan; Pang, Renzhong; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hao

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, pyrolysis of Achnatherum splendens L. was performed under three different pyrolysis temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) to investigate the characteristics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. Biochar yield decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas syngas yield increased from 34% to 54% when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700°C. Maximum bio-oil yield (27%) was obtained at 500°C. The biochar were characterized for elemental composition, surface, and adsorption properties. The results showed that obtained biochar could be used as a potential soil amendment. The bio-oil and syngas co-products will be evaluated in the future as bioenergy sources. Overall, our results suggests that A. splendens L. could be utilized as a potential feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production through pyrolytic route. PMID:27035478

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of a GNA-like lectin from Chinese Narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. Chinensis Roem).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi M; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Wen Y; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Qi P

    2011-06-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding Narcissus tazetta lectin (NTL) was isolated from Chinese narcissus (N. tazetta var. Chinensis Roem). The open reading frame (ORF) was 519 bp long and encoded 172 amino acids with a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.27 and a calculated molecular mass of 18.6 kDa. Conserved domain analysis indicated that it possessed three D-(+)-mannose-binding sites, presumed to be similar to those of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-like lectins. A recombinant (glutathione S-transferase) GST-NTL fusion protein of around 40 kDa was successfully synthesized in vitro. Lysates of cells expressing this recombinant protein exhibited significant hemagglutinating activity [418 hemagglutinating units (HU)], as did the purified protein (265 HU). Sugar specificity assays suggested that mannose is the only sugar that significantly inhibits this hemagglutinating activity, confirming that NTL is a member of the GNA-like lectin family. NTL is highly transcribed in flowers, leaves and roots, but less so in scales. However, similar levels of the NTL protein were observed in all four of these organs by western blotting. A fluorescent NTL-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was found to be primarily localized in the vacuole of transformed onion epidermal cells, indicating that NTL may be a vacuolar storage protein. This is the first study in which the function of NTL has been examined and provides a considerable body of data concerning its physiological role in Chinese narcissus. The results obtained may be useful in the molecular engineering of plants with enhanced tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, they may be relevant to medical applications of lectins. PMID:21261630

  2. [Spatial distribution patterns of soil organic carbon under Elacagnus angustifolia--Achnatherum splendens community in an arid area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Chi, Ting; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song; Zhang, Ming-Juan; Yang, Xue-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the relationships of soil organic carbon (SOC) content with root biomass and soil moisture content as well as the accumulation mechanisms of SOC under the Elacagnus angustifolia-Achnatherum splenden community in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of Northwest China. The results showed that the SOC content decreased gradually with increasing soil depth, and changed gently in both horizontal and vertical directions. The correlations of the SOC content and its affecting factors varied with soil depth. In 0-30 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly negatively correlated with soil moisture content; in 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture content and root biomass. Partial regression analysis indicated that the root biomass density in 0-30 cm soil layer contributed significantly to the variance of SOC content. In 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was mainly affected by root system and soil moisture content; in 30-60 cm layer, no significant correlations were observed between the SOC content and the root biomass and soil moisture content. There was an obvious difference in the accumulation mechanism of SOC in different soil layers and at different locations of E. angustifolia--A. splendens community. PMID:24483063

  3. Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods for analysis of ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum).

    PubMed

    Jarmusch, Alan K; Musso, Ashleigh M; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Jarmusch, Scott A; Weavil, Miranda J; Lovin, Mary E; Ehrmann, Brandie M; Saari, Susanna; Nichols, David E; Faeth, Stanley H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins with an array of biological effects. With this study, we investigated for the first time the application of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as an ionization method for LC-MS analysis of ergot alkaloids, and compared its performance to that of the more established technique of electrospray ionization (ESI). Samples of the grass Achnatherum robustum infected with the ergot producing Epichloë fungus were extracted using cold methanol and subjected to reserved-phase HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-APPI-MS analysis. The ergot alkaloids ergonovine and lysergic acid amide were detected in these samples, and quantified via external calibration. Validation parameters were recorded in accordance with ICH guidelines. A triple quadrupole MS operated in multiple reaction monitoring yielded the lowest detection limits. The performance of APPI and ESI methods was comparable. Both methods were subject to very little matrix interference, with percent recoveries ranging from 82% to 100%. As determined with HPLC-APPI-MS quantification, lysergic acid amide and ergonovine were extracted from an A. robustum sample infected with the Epichloë fungus at concentrations of 1.143±0.051 ppm and 0.2822±0.0071 ppm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between these concentrations and those determined using ESI for the same samples. PMID:26340558

  4. Seasonal variations of water uptake by Achnatherum splendens in Lake Qinghai watershed, based on δD and δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huawu, W.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability is a key ecological factor for plant growth and distribution in arid and semi-arid region. To reveal the characteristics of water uptake patterns by Achnatherum splendens and how it response to changes of water conditions in Lake Qinghai watershed, we analyzed isotopic concentrations (δD and δ18O) of plant stem water and soil water, groundwater and precipitation under the natural and drought treatment habitats. Water uptake by A.splendens was analyzed by direct comparison and multi-source mixing model calculating the plant-use proportions from diverse soil depths. The results showed that large fluctuations were found in the soil moisture and the isotopic contents of soil water in the surface soil layers, directly influenced by precipitation and evaporation. The slope and intercept of evaporative soil water line was evidently smaller than local meteoric water line indicating that the isotopic contents from soil water experienced stronger evaporation fractionation processes; The isotopic concentrations of stem were scattered along the evaporative soil water line exhibiting that the possible water sources extracted from soil water. Water uptake by A.splendens mainly absorbed surface soil water ( 45.1% from 0-10cm in June) at the early growth stage. Large precipitation events significantly impacted the whole soil water content and isotopic contents and resulted in the differences of plant-use proportions by A.splendens were minimal during August and September, which revealed that the roots of A.splendens extracted various depth of soil water when soil availability water was high. Under the drought treatment conditions, A.splendens largely used the surface soil water (0-30cm) in the early July. The absorbed depth transmitted to deep soil layers while the surface soil moisture decreased. However, the acquired depth by A.splendens again shifted from deep to surface soil layers when surface soil moisture sharply increased after the irrigation.

  5. Seed polymorphism in two western Nevada Indian ricegrass communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) is a dominant perennial grass species in salt desert communities and lower elevations of the sagebrush (Artemisia) vegetation zone of western North America. This perennial bunchgrass reaches its heaviest densities on sandy soils and is an important winter f...

  6. Genecology and seed zones for Indian Ricegrass across the southwest USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of rangelands is increasingly critical as biotic and abiotic stress compromise habitat quality. In the Western US, Indian ricegrass [Achnatherum hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Barkworth] is a native, widely distributed, highly desirable species in desert ecosystems. Yet there are ...

  7. Ecosystem services from keystone species: diversionary seeding and seed-caching desert rodents can enhance Indian ricegrass seedling establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass), a native bunchgrass on arid western rangelands, are naturally dispersed by seed-caching rodent species, particularly Dipodomys spp. (kangaroo rats). These animals cache large quantities of seeds when mature seeds are available and recover most of t...

  8. Quercitrin from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. Attenuates Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Toxicity in HepG2 Cells and Mice through Induction of Antioxidant Machinery and Inhibition of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is found in many kinds of vegetables and fruits, and possesses various bioactive properties. The aim of the present study was to elucidate hepatoprotective mechanisms of quercitrin isolated from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. (syn. Cedrela sinensis Juss.), using acetaminophen (APAP)-treated HepG2 cell and animal models. In an in vitro study, quercitrin suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), activity of antioxidant response element (ARE)-reporter gene, and protein levels of NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) in APAP-treated HepG2 cells. In an in vivo study, Balb/c mice were orally administered with 10 or 50 mg/kg of quercitrin for 7 days and followed by the injection with single dose of 300 mg/kg APAP. Quercitrin decreased APAP-caused elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, liver necrosis, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 and inerleukin-1β, and phosphorylation of kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Quercitrin restored protein levels of Nrf2, NQO1 and activities and expressions of CAT, GPx, SOD-2. The results suggested that quercitrin attenuates APAP-induced liver damage by the activation of defensive genes and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory genes via the suppressions of JNK and p38 signaling. PMID:27428996

  9. Quercitrin from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. Attenuates Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Toxicity in HepG2 Cells and Mice through Induction of Antioxidant Machinery and Inhibition of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is found in many kinds of vegetables and fruits, and possesses various bioactive properties. The aim of the present study was to elucidate hepatoprotective mechanisms of quercitrin isolated from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. (syn. Cedrela sinensis Juss.), using acetaminophen (APAP)-treated HepG2 cell and animal models. In an in vitro study, quercitrin suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), activity of antioxidant response element (ARE)-reporter gene, and protein levels of NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) in APAP-treated HepG2 cells. In an in vivo study, Balb/c mice were orally administered with 10 or 50 mg/kg of quercitrin for 7 days and followed by the injection with single dose of 300 mg/kg APAP. Quercitrin decreased APAP-caused elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, liver necrosis, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 and inerleukin-1β, and phosphorylation of kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Quercitrin restored protein levels of Nrf2, NQO1 and activities and expressions of CAT, GPx, SOD-2. The results suggested that quercitrin attenuates APAP-induced liver damage by the activation of defensive genes and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory genes via the suppressions of JNK and p38 signaling. PMID:27428996

  10. Leaf conductance decreased under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) for three perennials in the Nevada desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.S.; DeFalco, L.A.; Wilcox, C.S.; Jordan, D.N.; Coleman, J.S.; Seemann, J.R.; Smith, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    A common response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2) is decreased leaf conductance. Consequently, leaf temperature is predicted to increase under elevated CO2. Diurnal patterns of leaf conductance and temperature were measured for three desert perennials, the C3 shrub Larrea tridentata, C3 tussock grass Achnatherum hymenoides and C4 tussock grass Pleuraphis rigida, at the Nevada Desert FACE facility. Measurements were made on ambient and c. 550 ??mol mol-1 CO2 plots through both a wet and dry year. Reductions in conductance were 35%, 20% and 13% for Pleuraphis, Achnatherum and Larrea, respectively. Decreased conductance occurred throughout the day only for Pleuraphis. Both C3 species had smaller CO2 effects during dry periods than wet. Leaf temperature did not differ significantly between elevated and ambient CO2 for any species. Comparisons of blower-control and nonring plots indicated that the FACE apparatus did not confound our results. All three species exhibited decreased leaf conductance under elevated CO2, although reductions were not uniform during the day or among years. Nonetheless, leaf energy balance was only minimally changed for these microphyllous desert perennials.

  11. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  12. Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao; Li, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense were compared with Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae at a range of temperatures and pH values, and on carbon and nitrogen amended media. N. gansuense was able to grow at 10-30 degrees C, but not at 5 degrees C, and slowly at 35 degrees C. The optimal temperature for both N. gansuense and N. coenophialum was 25 degrees C, but that of E. festucae was 20-25 degrees C. The optimal pH ranges for mycelial growth of N. gansuense, N. coenophialum and E. festucae were 5-9, 5-9 and 5-7, respectively. The Neotyphodium and Epichloë endophytes varied in their ability to grow on media containing different carbon and nitrogen nutrients. The preference of N. gansuense for carbon source was sucrose>glucose, lactose, sorbitol, inulin, maltose, mannitol, starch, fructose>xylose. Growth of all three endophytes tested was significantly improved by peptone, tryptone, casein, yeast extract and l-proline. Yeast extract, peptone, casein, tryptone, l-proline, potassium nitrate, ammonium oxalic acid and l-leucine significantly improved growth of N. gansuense. However, ammonium nitrite was not utilized at all by any tested endophyte. N. gansuense grew significantly better on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and oat meal agar (OMA) than on corn meal agar (CMA) and drunken-horse-grass agar (DA), and most slowly on water agar (WA) and saltwater nutrient agar (SNA). PMID:16962754

  13. Variation in the establishment of a non-native annual grass influences competitive interactions with Mojave Desert perennials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Nowak, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts, the highly variable timing of resource availability also influences non-native plant establishment, thus modulating their impacts on native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native Mojave Desert perennials-Larrea tridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida-in either winter or spring. For comparison, additional plots were prepared for the same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species as neighbors. Growth of perennials declined when Bromus was established in winter because Bromus stands had 2-3 months of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, water potentials for the perennials were not significantly reduced, suggesting that direct competition for water may not be the major mechanism driving reduced perennial growth. The impact of Bromus on Larrea was lower than for the two perennial grasses, likely because Larrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This result contrasts with the perennial grasses, whose phenology completely overlaps with (Achnatherum) or closely follows (Pleuraphis) that of Bromus. In comparison, Bromus plants established in spring were smaller than those established in winter and thus did not effectively reduce growth of the perennials. Growth of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors also did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but stands of these native annuals did not achieve the high biomass of Bromus stands that were necessary to reduce perennial growth. Seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship of native annuals produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus; thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert

  14. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    SciTech Connect

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  15. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were

  16. Ecosystem services from keystone species: diversionary seeding and seed-caching desert rodents can enhance Indian ricegrass seedling establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longland, William; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), a native bunchgrass common to sandy soils on arid western rangelands, are naturally dispersed by seed-caching rodent species, particularly Dipodomys spp. (kangaroo rats). These animals cache large quantities of seeds when mature seeds are available on or beneath plants and recover most of their caches for consumption during the remainder of the year. Unrecovered seeds in caches account for the vast majority of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment. We applied three different densities of white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds as “diversionary foods” to plots at three Great Basin study sites in an attempt to reduce rodents' over-winter cache recovery so that more Indian ricegrass seeds would remain in soil seedbanks and potentially establish new seedlings. One year after diversionary seed application, a moderate level of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurred at two of our study sites in western Nevada, although there was no recruitment at the third site in eastern California. At both Nevada sites, the number of Indian ricegrass seedlings sampled along transects was significantly greater on all plots treated with diversionary seeds than on non-seeded control plots. However, the density of diversionary seeds applied to plots had a marginally non-significant effect on seedling recruitment, and it was not correlated with recruitment patterns among plots. Results suggest that application of a diversionary seed type that is preferred by seed-caching rodents provides a promising passive restoration strategy for target plant species that are dispersed by these rodents.

  17. Lignocellulosic Fermentation of Wild Grass Employing Recombinant Hydrolytic Enzymes and Fermentative Microbes with Effective Bioethanol Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saprativ P.; Ghosh, Arabinda; Gupta, Ashutosh; Das, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) studies of steam exploded and alkali pretreated different leafy biomass were accomplished by recombinant Clostridium thermocellum hydrolytic enzymes and fermentative microbes for bioethanol production. The recombinant C. thermocellum GH5 cellulase and GH43 hemicellulase genes expressed in Escherichia coli cells were grown in repetitive batch mode, with the aim of enhancing the cell biomass production and enzyme activity. In batch mode, the cell biomass (A600 nm) of E. coli cells and enzyme activities of GH5 cellulase and GH43 hemicellulase were 1.4 and 1.6 with 2.8 and 2.2 U·mg−1, which were augmented to 2.8 and 2.9 with 5.6 and 3.8 U·mg−1 in repetitive batch mode, respectively. Steam exploded wild grass (Achnatherum hymenoides) provided the best ethanol titres as compared to other biomasses. Mixed enzyme (GH5 cellulase, GH43 hemicellulase) mixed culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehatae) system gave 2-fold higher ethanol titre than single enzyme (GH5 cellulase) single culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) system employing 1% (w/v) pretreated substrate. 5% (w/v) substrate gave 11.2 g·L−1 of ethanol at shake flask level which on scaling up to 2 L bioreactor resulted in 23 g·L−1 ethanol. 91.6% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21.2% purification efficiency. PMID:24089676

  18. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Mutreja, Ruchi; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Goyal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L. PMID:21811671

  19. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-02-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  20. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java

    PubMed Central

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-01-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  1. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  2. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  3. A systematic review of wild burro grazing effects on Mojave Desert vegetation, USA.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R

    2008-06-01

    Wild burros (Equus asinus), protected by the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act on some federal lands but exotic animals many ecologists and resource mangers view as damaging to native ecosystems, represent one of the most contentious environmental management problems in American Southwest arid lands. This review synthesizes the scattered literature about burro effects on plant communities of the Mojave Desert, a center of burro management contentions. I classified 24 documents meeting selection criteria for this review into five categories of research: (i) diet analyses directly determining which plant species burros consume, (ii) utilization studies of individual species, (iii) control-impact comparisons, (iv) exclosure studies, and (v) forage analyses examining chemical characteristics of forage plants. Ten diet studies recorded 175 total species that burros consumed. However, these studies and two exclosure studies suggested that burros preferentially eat graminoid and forb groups over shrubs. One study in Death Valley National Park, for example, found that Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass) was 11 times more abundant in burro diets than expected based on its availability. Utilization studies revealed that burros also exhibit preferences within the shrub group. Eighty-three percent of reviewed documents were produced in a 12-year period, from 1972 to 1983, with the most recent document produced in 1988. Because burros remain abundant on many federal lands and grazing may interact with other management concerns (e.g., desert wildfires fueled by exotic grasses), rejuvenating grazing research to better understand both past and present burro effects could help guide revegetation and grazing management scenarios. PMID:18379838

  4. A Systematic Review of Wild Burro Grazing Effects on Mojave Desert Vegetation, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.

    2008-06-01

    Wild burros ( Equus asinus), protected by the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act on some federal lands but exotic animals many ecologists and resource mangers view as damaging to native ecosystems, represent one of the most contentious environmental management problems in American Southwest arid lands. This review synthesizes the scattered literature about burro effects on plant communities of the Mojave Desert, a center of burro management contentions. I classified 24 documents meeting selection criteria for this review into five categories of research: (i) diet analyses directly determining which plant species burros consume, (ii) utilization studies of individual species, (iii) control-impact comparisons, (iv) exclosure studies, and (v) forage analyses examining chemical characteristics of forage plants. Ten diet studies recorded 175 total species that burros consumed. However, these studies and two exclosure studies suggested that burros preferentially eat graminoid and forb groups over shrubs. One study in Death Valley National Park, for example, found that Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass) was 11 times more abundant in burro diets than expected based on its availability. Utilization studies revealed that burros also exhibit preferences within the shrub group. Eighty-three percent of reviewed documents were produced in a 12-year period, from 1972 to 1983, with the most recent document produced in 1988. Because burros remain abundant on many federal lands and grazing may interact with other management concerns (e.g., desert wildfires fueled by exotic grasses), rejuvenating grazing research to better understand both past and present burro effects could help guide revegetation and grazing management scenarios.

  5. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  6. A mast-seeding desert shrub regulates population dynamics and behavior of its heteromyid dispersers.

    PubMed

    Auger, Janene; Meyer, Susan E; Jenkins, Stephen H

    2016-04-01

    Granivorous rodent populations in deserts are primarily regulated through precipitation-driven resource pulses rather than pulses associated with mast-seeding, a pattern more common in mesic habitats. We studied heteromyid responses to mast-seeding in the desert shrub blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), a regionally dominant species in the Mojave-Great Basin Desert transition zone. In a 5-year study at Arches National Park, Utah, USA, we quantified spatiotemporal variation in seed resources in mast and intermast years in blackbrush-dominated and mixed desert vegetation and measured responses of Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus flavescens (plains pocket mouse). In blackbrush-dominated vegetation, blackbrush seeds comprised >79% of seed production in a mast year, but 0% in the first postmast year. Kangaroo rat abundance in blackbrush-dominated vegetation was highest in the mast year, declined sharply at the end of the first postmast summer, and then remained at low levels for 3 years. Pocket mouse abundance was not as strongly associated with blackbrush seed production. In mixed desert vegetation, kangaroo rat abundance was higher and more uniform through time. Kangaroo rats excluded the smaller pocket mice from resource-rich patches including a pipeline disturbance and also moved their home range centers closer to this disturbance in a year of low blackbrush seed production. Home range size for kangaroo rats was unrelated to seed resource density in the mast year, but resource-poor home ranges were larger (P < 0.001) in the first postmast year, when resources were limiting. Blackbrush seeds are higher in protein and fat but lower in carbohydrates than the more highly preferred seeds of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and have similar energy value per unit of handling time. Kangaroo rats cached seeds of these two species in similar spatial configurations, implying that they were equally valued as stored food resources. Blackbrush mast

  7. The effect of increased temperature and altered precipitation on plants in an arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertin, T. M.; Reed, S.; Belnap, J.

    2011-12-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to strongly affect arid and semi-arid landscapes where plant communities are assumed to already experience high temperatures and low water availability. Here we investigated the effect of elevated temperature and altered precipitation regimes on plant physiology, community composition, phenology and growth on the Colorado Plateau. The ecosystem is dominated by the native perennial grasses Pleuraphis jamesii and Achnatherum hymenoides and the shrub Atriplex confertifolia and has well-formed biological soil crusts. The invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum is also present. In 2005, five blocks of four 2m by 2.5m plots were established, and within each block plots were randomly assigned to ambient or elevated temperature (soil surface temperature of +2°C above ambient) and ambient or elevated precipitation (1.5 mm precipitation pulses applied three times weekly during summer) in full-factorial. In 2009 the temperature treatment was increased to +4°C. Additionally, five new blocks were established with the plots randomly assigned ambient or elevated temperature (again, +2°C was used) and ambient or elevated precipitation (summertime large bi-weekly watering to counteract negative effects the lamps may have had on soil moisture) in full-factorial. Throughout 2010 and 2011 the phenological state of the dominate plant species was recorded weekly. At the end of May 2010 and 2011 biomass accumulation, reproductive output and vegetative cover were assessed. Additionally, diurnal foliar gas exchange, foliar fluorescence and xylem pressure potential were measured on the dominant plant species three times throughout the spring and summer of 2011. Elevated temperature had no effect on carbon fixation or foliar physiology of A. confertifolia or P. jamesii, though A. hymenoides carbon fixation was negatively affected by elevated temperature with the +4°C treatment causing a greater reduction in fixation than the +2°C treatment. The

  8. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Hemostatic potential of latex proteases from Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex. Roem. and Schult. and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex. F.A. Zorn) Forsberg.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maheshwari Kumari; Usha, R; Hithayshree, K R; Bindhu, O S

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological properties exhibited by latex of plants are due to various biologically active compounds including several proteolytic enzymes. Present study evaluates hemostatic potential of Tabernaemontana divaricata and Artocarpus altilis from Apocynaceae and Moraceae families respectively. The latex of these plants were initially subjected to dialysis and crude extracts were estimated for proteolytic activity using casein as the substrate. Mean caseinolytic activity for 100 μg of latex protein was found to be 56.16 ± 0.57 and 45 ± 0.3 U/h for T. divaricata and A. altilis respectively. Caseinolytic activity by both the plant extracts was higher than standard proteases, papain and trypsin. However the difference was significant (p < 0.05) with papain alone. Crude enzymes (CE) from both plants exhibited coagulant activity on human platelet poor plasma by recalcification time. A significant reduction in clotting time was exhibited by T. divaricata compared to A. altilis (p < 0.05). These results were further substantiated with fibrinogen agarose plate assay. Crude enzyme of both plants also hydrolyzed blood clot. Mean % of thrombolysis by T. divaricata was 80.75 ± 1.2 and that of A. altilis was 70.24 ± 1.52. Inhibition studies confirmed cysteine protease nature of CE. Comparative analysis revealed T. divaricata to be the best among the two for its hemostatic potential. This study scientifically validates the use of latex from these plants in the management of fresh cuts or wounds. PMID:25603786

  10. Studies on cytotoxic, hydroxyl radical scavenging and topoisomerase inhibitory activities of extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. and Schult.

    PubMed

    Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Agrawal, Satyam Kumar; Saxena, A K; Arora, Saroj

    2008-08-01

    In the present investigation, the cytotoxic, hydroxyl radical scavenging and topoisomerase inhibition activities of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae) were evaluated. The extracts from leaves of the plant were prepared with different solvents viz. chloroform, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. In, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, with cell lines viz HCT-15 (Colon), HT-29 (Colon), 502713 (Colon), MCF-7 (Breast), PC- 3 (Prostrate), it was observed that the ethyl acetate extract was effective against only one colon cell line (502713) at the lowest dose i.e. 10 micro g/ml, whereas the chloroform extract was effective against all the three colon cancer cell lines, at 30 microg/ ml. In order to evaluate the mechanism of cytotoxicity of these extracts, they were assessed for their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals in plasmid nicking assay with pBR322. It was observed that all the extracts effectively inhibited the unwinding of supercoiled DNA except hexane extract, which showed the least effect. Since the expression of topo enzymes is linked with cell proliferation so the extracts were also checked for topo I and topo II inhibitory activities. It was noticed that ethyl acetate extract selectively showed inhibition of topo II in topoisomerase II relaxation assay. PMID:18577413

  11. Characterizing water use efficiency (WUE) and water deficit responses in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. and Malus steversii Ledeb.) M. Roem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced availability of water for agricultural use has been forecast for much of the planet. This is due in part to global warming, which has contributed to numerous cycles of drought worldwide, and due in part to greater urban demand for water in large metropolitan areas. Strategic improvement of...

  12. Serviceberry [Amerlanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem(Rosaceae)] leaf exhibits mammalian alpha glucosidase activity and suppresses postprandial glycemic response in a mouse model of diet induced obesity/hyperglycemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several plant-based remedies offer cost-effective management of diabetes, but few plant species adapted to North America have been validated for their antidiabetic properties. One such species is serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), found in Browning, MT, which has been traditionally used by the Am...

  13. Revegetation of disturbed winter fat communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indian ricegrass (Achnnatherum hymenoides), squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) and ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia (Kochia prostrate). Three years of drought largely denuded initial successes though. Currently, additional revegetation efforts are under way using a variety of seed species and methodologies,...

  14. THE RESPONSE OF THURBER'S NEEDLEGRASS TO FALL PRESCRIBED BURNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) is an important component of many sagebrush communities in the Intermountain West. Prescribed fall burning is often implemented in sagebrush plant communities to mimic historic wildfires, improve wildlife habitat, and increase lives...

  15. Registration of Arsenal meadow bromegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (ARS) announces the release of the cultivar 'Arsenal' meadow bromegrass [Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult. (excluded)] for use on semiarid rangelands and non-irrigated pastures as a rapid establishing forage grass with early spring growth, good fall nut...

  16. Generating Literary Appreciation (Among High School and College Students). Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeming, Robert F., Ed.

    The seminar summarized in this report was held at the University of Wisconsin (Milwaukee) in July 1970 as part of the summer program of the Center for Twentieth Century Studies. Moderator for the seminar, for which the general topic was the appreciation of literature as one of the arts, was Robert F. Roeming, director of the Center. Each of the…

  17. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in Malus sieversii, a wild progenitor species of domesticated apple.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malus sieversii (Lebed.)M. Roem. is a wild progenitor species of the domesticated apple. It is found across a mountainous region of central Asia and has been the focus of several collection expeditions by the USDA. This study used SSR variation at seven loci to estimate diversity and differentiat...

  19. Differentially expressed drought-responsive genes in Malus sieversii roots may contribute to this species' adaptation to arid environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding naturally evolved adaptation to arid climates may be a key factor in developing crops that can thrive during extreme climate fluctuations. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. is a wild apple species that has adapted to harsh environments in Kazakhstan, including extreme cold and dry reg...

  20. Characterization and Cryopreservation of Malus sieversii Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kazakhstan is one of the centers of origin and evolution of apple (Malus). The main forest species is Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., representatives of which have important traits such as disease and insect resistance, cold hardiness, and fruit quality. The area of these unique wild forests is c...

  1. Creating a cryobank for germplasm of fruit and berry crops: methodological recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genetic resources are a national treasure in each country. They serve as a basis for developing new and improving existing varieties of plants. In Kazakhstan, a wide selection of cultivated and wild forms grow unique fruit and berry crops, including apple (Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., Ma...

  2. Effects of Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus) invasion on ecosystem processes in the Texas Coastal Sandsheet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Texas has experienced increases of several invasive grasses including tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus [L.] P. Beauv. ex Roem & Schult.). There is relatively little research concerning the effects of tanglehead on ecosystem processes such as energy cycling, nutrient cycling, and microbial soi...

  3. Instability of development and fractal architecture in dryland plants as an index of grazing pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.; Wachocki, B.; Freeman, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental instability has been used to monitor the well-being of natural populations exposed to physical, chemical and biological stressors. Here, we use developmental instability to assess the impact of grazing on Chrysothamnus greenii and Seriphidium novumshrubs, and Oryzopsis hymenoidesgrass, common in the arid intermountain west of the U.S.A. Statistical noise in allometric relations was used as an indicator of developmental instability arising from grazing-induced stress. Unpalatable species that are not grazed (Chrysothamnus greenii) or species that are dormant during the winter–spring grazing period (Oryzopsis hymenoides) show lower allometric variability under high grazing pressure. Palatable species (Seriphidium novum) exhibit high developmental instability under low and high grazing pressure. Grazing pressure imposed by presumably co-adapted wild herbivores enhances developmental stability in species habituated to moderate grazing, likeOryzopsis hymenoides, but stresses plants such as Chrysothamnus greenii that prefer disturbed environments. These grazing effects are probably due to the impact grazing has on competitive relationships and not to the direct action of the herbivore on the plants.

  4. Subcellular localization of tryptophan decarboxylase, strictosidine synthase and strictosidine glucosidase in suspension cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus and Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L H; Blom, T J; Verpoorte, R

    1993-08-01

    The subcellular localization of tryptophan decarboxylase, strictosidine synthase and strictosidine glucosidase in suspension cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. et Schult, was investigated. It was found that tryptophan decarboxylase is an extra-vacuolar enzyme, whereas strictosidine synthase is active inside the vacuole. Strong indications were obtained for the localization of strictosidine glucosidase on the outside of the tonoplast. The results suggest that tryptamine is transported into the vacuole where it is condensed with secologanin to form strictosidine, and that strictosidine passes the tonoplast and is subsequently hydrolysed outside the vacuole. PMID:24201788

  5. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J.; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China’s grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  6. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China's grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  7. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  8. Vobasinyl-iboga bisindole alkaloids, potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Tabernaemontana divaricata root.

    PubMed

    Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Changwijit, Kanokwan; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2006-06-01

    The roots of the Thai medicinal plant, Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult., were investigated for their content of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Bioassay-guided fractionation using the Ellman colorimetric method led to the isolation of two bisindole alkaloids, 19,20-dihydrotabernamine and 19,20-dihydroervahanine A. The compounds showed higher inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase in comparison with galanthamine, a well-known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The inhibitory activity of 19,20-dihydroervahanine A was proved to be specific, reversible and competitive. During the separation process, two inactive bisindole alkaloids, conodurine and tabernaelegantine A, were also isolated. The data suggest that the substitutions at the carbons 11', 12' and 16' might affect the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:16734986

  9. Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies.

    PubMed

    Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Temkitthawon, Prapapan; Chuenchom, Kanchanaporn; Yuyaem, Thitaree; Thongnoi, Warawit

    2003-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In order to search for new AChE inhibitors, 32 plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies were collected. The plant methanolic extracts were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method in 96-welled microplates. The results showed that the methanolic extracts from roots of Stephania suberosa Forman. and Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. at concentration of 0.1 mg/ml inhibited more than 90% of AChE activity. At the same concentration, four extracts, i.e. stems of Piper interruptum Opiz., seeds of Piper nigrum L., rootbarks of Butea superba Roxb. and roots of Cassia fistula L. extracts showed 50-65% inhibitory activity on AChE. The rest of the extracts showed the AChE inhibitory activity below 50%. PMID:14611889

  10. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE. PMID:23327494

  11. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  12. Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L.

    1995-06-01

    Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such as: Chrysothamnus visidiflorus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Gutterezia sarothrae, are now more abundant than prior to the historic introduction of grazing animals. Similar changes are evident in the fossil pollen from the packrat middens. Pine and sagebrush pollen is now far lower than prior to settlement, while Salsola sp. is first recorded following settlement. Ordination of the plant records using Detrended Correspondence Analysis demonstrates that the modem assemblages are substantially different from the presettlement assemblages and that the rates of vegetation change accompanying settlement are far greater than any recorded during the previous 5000 years. These results suggest that the plant communities and rates of vegetation change observed during this century are unlike previous natural communities and rates of vegetation change.

  13. Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Vidiella, P.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    In southeastern Utah, Bromus tectorum occurs where Hilaria jamesii is dominant and rarely where Stipa hymenoides/S. comata dominate. To determine whether this distribution is due to soil characteristics or microhabitat, we transplanted H. jamesii soil to a Stipa site and vice versa during a severe drought (2001) and a wetter year (2002). Additionally, we planted B. tectorum under H. jamesii and Stipa canopies, with or without H. jamesii litter, and with or without herbivory. Bromus tectorum emergence and biomass in reciprocal transplants were similar at both sites; there were no site differences for all microhabitat treatments. Being under a plant canopy increased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Herbivory decreased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Litter increased emergence only under the canopy in 2001 but did not affect survival in 2002. Survival in 2001 was so low that biomass was unattainable; no microhabitat treatments affected biomass in 2002. We found that soil characteristics and microhabitat affected B. tectorum similarly in H. jamesii and Stipa patches, suggesting that these factors do not explain the association between B. tectorum and H. jamesii. However, these relationships may change during wet years when B. tectorum invasions most often occur. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rayno, D.R.; Momeni, M.H.; Sabau, C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away.

  15. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  16. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration in alpine ecosystems in the NE of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Si-Yi; Ma, Yu-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between surface energy flux, evapotranspiration and soil water were poorly understood in the alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a sensitive and vulnerable region to global climate change. For the first time, we continuously measured surface energy flux and soil water content (SWC) and estimated ET using bowen ratio energy balance method in the Qinghai Lake watershed, located in the northeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between 2012 and 2013. The three ecosystems were Kobresia meadow (KMd.), Potentilla fruticosa shrub (PFSh.) and Achnatherum splendens steppe (ASSt.). Results indicated that there was a good negative correlation between ecosystem Bowen ratios and SWC in the growing season for the three ecosystems. Annual ET at KMd. and PFSh. was 16% and 3% less than local annual precipitation, while that at ASSt. was 26% larger than annual precipitation. Average annual ET was 507.9, 493.2 and 413.7 mm at PFSh., KMd. and ASSt., respectively. Fluctuations of daily ET at alpine ecosystems were primarily controlled by solar radiation, especially in the growing season, whereas, at ASSt. where precipitation and SWC was limited, ET was also controlled by water supply.

  17. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  18. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  19. Effect of standardized fruit extract of Luffa cylindrica on oxidative stress markers in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Suchita; Saha, Sudipta; Kaithwas, Gaurav; Saraf, Shubhini A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The ability of Luffa cylindrica Roem fruit extract (LCE) to modulate biochemical parameters was investigated by in vitro studies for its role in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract on isolated goat lenses which were incubated for 72 h at 37°C. Materials and Methods: Test groups contained 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 µg/ml of LCE along with 1 ml of H2O2 (0.5 mM) as cataract inducer. Lenses were examined for morphological variation and transparency periodically during the incubation. Biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content (TPC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Results: SOD, GSH, and TPC levels were found to increase proportionally with the concentration of LCE. However, MDA levels were found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of LCE. Opacity was graded as per “lens opacities classification system III.” Morphological examination suggested that LCE (25 µg/ml) maintained a vision for 44 h. No lens in LCE dose groups developed dense nuclear opacity after 24 h as opposed to 80% in negative control. Conclusion: The results suggest that LCE can delay the onset and/or prevent the progression of cataract which can be attributed to the presence of adequate phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin A and its high nutritional value. This preliminary study can be further synergized by testing LCE against other in vivo and in vitro models of cataract. PMID:26729957

  20. Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México).

    PubMed

    Hernández, T; Canales, M; Avila, J G; Duran, A; Caballero, J; Romo de Vivar, A; Lira, R

    2003-10-01

    The village of Zapotitlán de las Salinas is situated in the Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat gastrointestinal diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. Out of 119 interviews, 44 plant species were registered, of which the following are the most frequently used (listed in descending order): Lippia graveolens H.B. et K. (Verbenaceae), Lantana achyranthifolia Desf. (Verbenaceae), Turnera diffusa (Willd.) ex Schult. (Turneraceae), Lippia oaxacana Rob. et Greenm. (Verbenaceae), Gymnolaena oaxacana (Greenm.) Rydb. (Asteraceae), Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. et Schult. (Boraginaceae), Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Acalypha hederacea Torrey (Euphorbiaceae). From these plants, hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts were prepared in order to assess their antibacterial activity against 14 bacterial strains causing the most common gastrointestinal diseases in Mexican population. All hexane extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. There is a correlation between the frequency of mention (of plant use) and the antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the knowledge of plants most frequently used for gastrointestinal infections in Zapotitlán de las Salinas is supported by scientific rationale. PMID:12963140

  1. Phenylethanoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides with melanogenesis inhibitory activity from the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Kamei, Iyori; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A methanol extract of the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. (Amaryllidaceae) demonstrated inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the extract, four new phenylethanoid glycosides, tazettosides A–D (1–4), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, tazettoside E (5), were isolated along with 23 known compounds (6–28). Of the isolates, 1 (IC50 = 22.0 μM) and 4 (82.5 μM), 3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthridine (13, IC50 = 28.5 μM), 5,6-dihydrobicolorine (14, 23.7 μM), tazettine (16, 60.8 μM), benzyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18, 27.8 μM), 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (21, 74.6 μM), 3-phenylpropyl β-D-glucopyranoside (22, 59.0 μM), and cinnamyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (24, 88.0 μM) showed inhibitory effects without notable cytotoxicity at the effective concentrations. PMID:26475459

  2. Biology of Chiloloba orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  4. Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota in a dryland ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Housman, D.C.; Yeager, C.M.; Darby, B.J.; Sanford, R.L., Jr.; Kuske, C.R.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems have long been considered to have a highly heterogeneous distribution of nutrients and soil biota, with greater concentrations of both in soils under plants relative to interspace soils. We examined the distribution of soil resources in two plant communities (dominated by either the shrub Coleogyne ramosissima or the grass Stipa hymenoides) at two locations. Interspace soils were covered either by early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs) or by later successional BSCs (dominated by nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacteria and lichens). For each of the 8 plant type??crust type??locations, we sampled the stem, dripline, and 3 interspace distances around each of 3 plants. Soil analyses revealed that only available potassium (Kav) and ammonium concentrations were consistently greater under plants (7 of 8 sites and 6 of 8 sites, respectively). Nitrate and iron (Fe) were greater under plants at 4 sites, while all other nutrients were greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites. In contrast, calcium, copper, clay, phosphorus (P), and zinc were often greater in the interspace than under the plants. Soil microbial biomass was always greater under the plant compared to the interspace. The community composition of N-fixing bacteria was highly variable, with no distinguishable patterns among microsites. Bacterivorous nematodes and rotifers were consistently more abundant under plants (8 and 7 sites, respectively), and fungivorous and omnivorous nematodes were greater under plants at 5 of the 8 sites. Abundance of other soil biota was greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites, but highly correlated with the availability of N, P, Kav, and Fe. Unlike other ecosystems, the soil biota was only infrequently correlated with organic matter. Lack of plant-driven heterogeneity in soils of this ecosystem is likely due to (1) interspace soils covered with BSCs, (2) little incorporation of above-ground plant litter into soils, and/or (3) root deployment

  5. Using the Electromagnetic Induction Method to Connect Spatial Vegetation Distributions with Soil Water and Salinity Dynamics on Steppe Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Li, X.; Wu, H.

    2014-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, plant growth and productivity are obviously affected by soil water and salinity. But it is not easy to acquire the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil water and salinity by traditional field methods because of the heterogeneity in their patterns. Electromagnetic induction (EMI), for its rapid character, can provide a useful way to solve this problem. Grassland dominated by Achnatherum splendens is an important ecosystem near the Qinghai-Lake watershed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in northwestern China. EMI surveys were conducted for electrical conductivity (ECa) at an intermediate habitat scale (a 60×60 m experimental area) of A. splendens steppe for 18 times (one day only for one time) during the 2013 growing season. And twenty sampling points were established for the collection of soil samples for soil water and salinity, which were used for calibration of ECa. In addition, plant species, biomass and spatial patterns of vegetation were also sampled. The results showed that ECa maps exhibited distinctly spatial differences because of variations in soil moisture. And soil water was the main factor to drive salinity patterns, which in turn affected ECa values. Moreover, soil water and salinity could explain 82.8% of ECa changes due to there was a significant correlation (P<0.01) between ECa, soil water and salinity. Furthermore, with higher ECa values closer to A. splendens patches at the experimental site, patterns of ECa images showed clearly temporal stability, which were extremely corresponding with the spatial pattern of vegetation. A. splendens patches that accumulated infiltrating water and salinity and thus changed long-term soil properties, which were considered as "reservoirs" and were deemed responsible for the temporal stability of ECa images. Hence, EMI could be an indicator to locate areas of decreasing or increasing of water and to reveal soil water and salinity dynamics through repeated ECa surveys.

  6. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance. PMID:24735050

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

  8. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  9. Effect of cold stratification treatments on germination of drought tolerant shrubs seeds.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Zafer; Temel, Fatih; Gokturk, Askin; Yahyaoglu, Zeki

    2007-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine effects of different durations (20, 40, 60 days and control) of cold stratification treatments on seed germination and to overcome dormancy in seeds of twelve different drought tolerant plants. The species used in this study were Arbutus andrachne L., Cistus creticus L., Colutea armena Bois. Huet., Cotinus coggygria Scop., Cotoneaster numullaria Fisch. and Mey, Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Jasminum fruticans L., Paliurus spina-christii Mill., Punica granatum L., Pyracantha coccinea Roem., Rhus coriaria L., and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. The seeds were sown in polyethylene pots under greenhouse and on seedbeds under open field conditions. Statistical design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Germinated seeds were counted and observed periodically for 90 days after sowing to determine germination percentages (GP) and germination rates (GR). While the highest GP were determined according to duration of cold stratification under greenhouse conditions for each species were 44.2% for 60 days, 2.5% for 20 days, 85.6% for 60 days, 13.5% for 20 and 60 days, 64.3% for 20 days, 11.2% for 60 days, 8.2% for 20 days and 14.1% for 20 days for Cotinus coggygria, Cotoneaster numullaria, Jasminum fruticans, Paliurus spina-christii, Pyracantha coccinea, Punica granatum, Rhus coriaria and Ziziphus jujuba respectively The highest GP were 16.5% forArbutus andrachne and 91.3% for Colutea armena for 20 days cold stratified seeds and sown under open field conditions. Furthermore, the highest GP were obtained from seeds of Cistus creticus (27.5%) and Elaeagnus angustifolia (56.2%) in control sowing. PMID:17929764

  10. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Foundation species are structurally dominant members of ecological communities that can stabilize ecological processes and influence resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Being common, they are often overlooked for conservation but are increasingly threatened from land use change, biological invasions, and over-exploitation. The pattern of foundation species abundances over space and time may be used to guide decision-making, particularly in protected areas for which they are iconic. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify the important environmental influences on the abundance patterns of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in protected-area sagebrush steppe. We then predicted bunchgrass abundances along gradients of topography, disturbance, and invasive annual grass abundance. We used model predictions to prioritize the landscape for implementation of a management and restoration decision-support tool. Models were fit to categorical estimates of grass cover obtained from an extensive ground-based monitoring dataset. We found that remnant stands of abundant wheatgrass and bluegrass were associated with steep north-facing slopes in higher and more remote portions of the landscape outside of recently burned areas where invasive annual grasses were less abundant. These areas represented only 25% of the landscape and were prioritized for protection efforts. Needlegrass was associated with south-facing slopes, but in low abundance and in association with invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Abundances of all three species were strongly negatively correlated with occurrence of another invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae). The rarity of priority bunchgrass stands underscored the extent of degradation and the need for prioritization. We found no evidence that insularity reduced invasibility; annual grass invasion represents