Djekic, Ljiljana; Jankovic, Jovana; Čalija, Bojan; Primorac, Marija
The study aimed to develop semisolid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) as carriers for oral delivery of aciclovir in hard hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) capsules. Six self-dispersing systems (SD1-SD6) were prepared by loading aciclovir into the semisolid formulations consisting of medium chain length triglycerides (lipid), macrogolglycerol hydroxystearate (surfactant), polyglyceryl-3-dioleate (cosurfactant), glycerol (hydrophilic cosolvent), and macrogol 8000 (viscosity modifier). Their characterization was performed in order to identify the semisolid system with rheological behaviour suitable for filling in hard HPMC capsules and fast dispersibility in acidic and alkaline aqueous media with formation of oil-in-water microemulsions. The optimal SMEDDS was loaded with aciclovir at two levels (2% and 33.33%) and morphology and aqueous dispersibility of the obtained systems were examined by applying light microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), respectively. The assessment of diffusivity of aciclovir from the SMEDDSs by using an enhancer cell model, showed that it was increased at a higher drug loading. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that the SMEDDSs were semisolids at temperatures up to 50°C and physically stable and compatible with HPMC capsules for 3 months storage at 25°C and 4°C. The results of in vitro release study revealed that the designed solid dosage form based on the semisolid SMEDDS loaded with the therapeutic dose of 200mg, may control partitioning of the solubilized drug from in situ formed oil-in-water microemulsion carrier into the sorrounding aqueous media, and hence decrease the risk for precipitation of the drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janković, Jovana; Djekic, Ljiljana; Dobričić, Vladimir; Primorac, Marija
The study investigated the influence of formulation parameters for design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) comprising oil (medium chain triglycerides) (10%), surfactant (Labrasol(®), polysorbate 20, or Kolliphor(®) RH40), cosurfactant (Plurol(®) Oleique CC 497) (q.s. ad 100%), and cosolvent (glycerol or macrogol 400) (20% or 30%), and evaluate their potential as carriers for oral delivery of a poorly permeable antivirotic aciclovir (acyclovir). The drug loading capacity of the prepared formulations ranged from 0.18-31.66 mg/ml. Among a total of 60 formulations, three formulations meet the limits for average droplet size (Z-ave) and polydispersity index (PdI) that have been set for SMEDDSs (Z-ave≤100nm, PdI<0.250) upon spontaneous dispersion in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.2. SMEDDSs with the highest aciclovir loading capacity (24.06 mg/ml and 21.12 mg/ml) provided the in vitro drug release rates of 0.325 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.323 mg cm(-2)min(-1), respectively, and significantly enhanced drug permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), in comparison with the pure drug substance. The results revealed that development of SMEDDSs with enhanced drug loading capacity and oral delivery potential, required optimization of hydrophilic ingredients, in terms of size of hydrophilic moiety of the surfactant, surfactant-to-cosurfactant mass ratio (Km), and log P of the cosolvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keller, M J; Malone, A M; Carpenter, C A; Lo, Y; Huang, M; Corey, L; Willis, R; Nguyen, C; Kennedy, S; Gunawardana, M; Guerrero, D; Moss, J A; Baum, M M; Smith, T J; Herold, B C
Systemic aciclovir and its prodrug valaciclovir are effective in treating and reducing recurrences of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) and reducing transmission. Local aciclovir delivery, if it can achieve and maintain comparable intracellular genital tract levels, may be equally effective in the treatment and suppression of genital HSV. Intravaginal ring (IVR) delivery of aciclovir may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis against HSV acquisition. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics were evaluated in six HIV-negative women with recurrent genital HSV who switched their daily oral valaciclovir suppression to an aciclovir IVR for 7 days (n = 3) or 14 days (n = 3). Blood and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) were collected after oral and IVR dosing to measure aciclovir concentrations and genital swabs were obtained to quantify HSV shedding by PCR. The rings were well tolerated. Median plasma aciclovir concentrations were 110.2 ng/mL (IQR, 85.9-233.5) 12-18 h after oral valaciclovir. Little or no drug was detected in plasma following IVR dosing. Median (IQR) CVL aciclovir levels were 127.3 ng/mL (21-660.8) 2 h after oral valaciclovir, 154.4 ng/mL (60.7-327.5) 12-18 h after oral valaciclovir and 438 ng/mL (178.5-618.5) after 7 days and 393 ng/mL (31.6-1615) after 14 days of aciclovir ring use. Median CVL aciclovir levels 2 h after oral dosing were similar to levels observed 7 (P = 0.99) and 14 (P = 0.75) days after ring use. HSV DNA was not detected in genital swabs and there was no significant change in inflammatory mediators. This first-in-human study demonstrated that an IVR could safely deliver mucosal levels of aciclovir similar to oral valaciclovir without systemic absorption. More intensive site-specific pharmacokinetic studies are needed to determine whether higher local concentrations are needed to achieve optimal drug distribution within the genital tract.
Keller, M. J.; Malone, A. M.; Carpenter, C. A.; Lo, Y.; Huang, M.; Corey, L.; Willis, R.; Nguyen, C.; Kennedy, S.; Gunawardana, M.; Guerrero, D.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.; Smith, T. J.; Herold, B. C.
Objectives Systemic aciclovir and its prodrug valaciclovir are effective in treating and reducing recurrences of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) and reducing transmission. Local aciclovir delivery, if it can achieve and maintain comparable intracellular genital tract levels, may be equally effective in the treatment and suppression of genital HSV. Intravaginal ring (IVR) delivery of aciclovir may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis against HSV acquisition. Methods Tolerability and pharmacokinetics were evaluated in six HIV-negative women with recurrent genital HSV who switched their daily oral valaciclovir suppression to an aciclovir IVR for 7 days (n = 3) or 14 days (n = 3). Blood and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) were collected after oral and IVR dosing to measure aciclovir concentrations and genital swabs were obtained to quantify HSV shedding by PCR. Results The rings were well tolerated. Median plasma aciclovir concentrations were 110.2 ng/mL (IQR, 85.9–233.5) 12–18 h after oral valaciclovir. Little or no drug was detected in plasma following IVR dosing. Median (IQR) CVL aciclovir levels were 127.3 ng/mL (21–660.8) 2 h after oral valaciclovir, 154.4 ng/mL (60.7–327.5) 12–18 h after oral valaciclovir and 438 ng/mL (178.5–618.5) after 7 days and 393 ng/mL (31.6–1615) after 14 days of aciclovir ring use. Median CVL aciclovir levels 2 h after oral dosing were similar to levels observed 7 (P = 0.99) and 14 (P = 0.75) days after ring use. HSV DNA was not detected in genital swabs and there was no significant change in inflammatory mediators. Conclusions This first-in-human study demonstrated that an IVR could safely deliver mucosal levels of aciclovir similar to oral valaciclovir without systemic absorption. More intensive site-specific pharmacokinetic studies are needed to determine whether higher local concentrations are needed to achieve optimal drug distribution within the genital tract. PMID:22556381
Allen, David; Dunn, Louisa
The most common disorder of the facial nerve is acute idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy and there may be significant morbidity or incomplete recovery associated with severe cases. To assess the efficacy of aciclovir or similar agents for treating Bell's palsy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group register (searched April 2003), MEDLINE (from January 1966 to April 2003), EMBASE (from January 1980 to April 2003) and LILACS (from January 1982 to April 2003). We also contacted authors of identified trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of aciclovir or valaciclovir therapy, alone or in combination with any other drug, in patients with Bell's palsy. We identified six randomised trials. Three studies met our inclusion criteria, including 246 patients. One study evaluated aciclovir with corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone, another study evaluated aciclovir alone versus corticosteroid and a further study evaluated valaciclovir with corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone or versus placebo alone. Incomplete recovery after one year: data were not available. An analysis was performed on data reported at the end of the study period in each trial. The results from one study four months after the start of treatment significantly favoured the treatment group, whilst the results of the study three months after the start of treatment significantly favoured the control group. The results from the second study at four months showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups.Adverse events: relevant data were not reported in any of the three trials.Complete facial paralysis six months after start of treatment: only one patient had complete paralysis upon entering one of the studies. This patient was assigned to the control group and the level of recovery attained was not reported.Motor synkinesis or crocodile tears one year after start of treatment: data were available up to a maximum of four months after onset of
Introduction Reports on children with Ramsay Hunt syndrome are limited in the literature, resulting in uncertainty regarding the clinical manifestations and outcome of this syndrome. Treatment for Ramsay Hunt syndrome is usually with antivirals, although there is no evidence for beneficial effect on the outcome of Ramsay Hunt syndrome in adults (insufficient data on children exists). Here, we report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome occurring in a child who inadvertently received a lower dose of aciclovir and steroid administered for shorter than is usual. Our patient made a full recovery. Case presentation A 13-year-old African boy presented to our out-patients department with an inability to move the right side of his face for one week. He had previously been seen by the doctor on call, who prescribed aciclovir 200 mg three times per day and prednisone 20 mg once daily, both orally for five days, with a working diagnosis of Bell's palsy. After commencement of aciclovir-prednisone, while at home, our patient had headache, malaise, altered taste, vomiting after feeds, a ringing sound in his right ear as well as earache and ear itchiness. Additionally, he developed numerous fluid-filled pimples on his right ear. On presentation, a physical examination revealed a right-sided lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy and a healing rash on the right pinna. On direct questioning, our patient admitted having had chicken pox about three months previously. Based on the history and physical examination, Ramsay Hunt syndrome was diagnosed. Our patient was lost to follow-up until 11 months after the onset of illness; at this time, his facial nerve function was normal. Conclusions This case report documents the clinical manifestations and outcome of pediatric Ramsay Hunt syndrome; a condition with few case reports in the literature. In addition, our patient made a full recovery despite inadvertently receiving a lower dose of aciclovir and steroid administered for shorter than is
Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Burke, David; O'Dwyer, John P; Bradley, David; Williams, Jennifer A; Cronin, Simon J; Smyth, Shane; Murphy, Raymond P; Murphy, Sinead M; Wall, Catherine; McCabe, Dominick J H
Patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' are frequently empirically treated with intravenous aciclovir. Increasing urea and creatinine are 'common', but rapidly progressive renal failure is reported to be 'very rare'. To describe the clinical course and outcome of cases of aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) encountered by the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH and to highlight the importance of surveillance and urgent treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH on patients who received IV aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis and developed AKI were analysed. Aciclovir-induced AKI was defined by a consultant nephrologist in all cases as a rise in serum creatinine of > 26 μmol/L in 48 h or by ≥ 1.5 times the baseline value. Renal function, haematocrit, and fluid balance were monitored following AKI onset. Data from 10 patients were analysed. Median time to AKI onset was 3.5 days (range: 1-6 days). Aciclovir was stopped or the dose adjusted. All patients recovered with IV normal saline, aiming for a urine output > 100-150 ml/h. The interval between first rise in creatinine and return to normal levels varied between 5 and 19 days. Liaison neurologists and general physicians need to be aware that aciclovir may cause AKI attributed to distal intra-tubular crystal nephropathy. Daily fluid balance and renal function monitoring are essential because AKI may arise even with intensive pre-hydration. Prognosis is good if identified early and actively treated.
Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Sznitowska, Małgorzata
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were prepared by dissolving Cremophor EL, Tween 20, Tween 80 and Span 80 (1% or 5%) in oils (Miglyol 812 or castor oil). Solubilities of three ophthalmic drugs, namely aciclovir, hydrocortisone and indomethacin were determined in these systems. In addition, the effect of a small amount of water (0.5% and 2%) on solubilization properties of the systems was estimated. Of the three substances, indomethacin showed the best solubility in Miglyol while aciclovir was practically insoluble in this oil. The surfactants usually increased drug solubility in the oily phase. Only Tween 20 was found to decrease the solubility of aciclovir and hydrocortisone in Miglyol. Addition of a small amount of water to the oil/surfactant system increased solubility of hydrocortisone, but not of indomethacin. The results of the current study may be utilized to design a suitable composition of SEDDS and allow continuation of research on this type of drug carriers.
Hasanovic, Amra; Hollick, Caroline; Fischinger, Kerstin; Valenta, Claudia
1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes were prepared by high-pressure homogeniser and coated with two cationic polymers, chitosan (CS) and for the first time Eudragit EPO (EU), respectively. Compared to the control liposomes, the polymeric liposomes showed greater physicochemical stability in terms of mean particle size and zeta potential at room temperature. In the present study, aciclovir and minoxidil have been used as hydrophilic and hydrophobic candidates. In the presence of the drugs, the polymeric liposomes still showed constant particle size and zeta potential. Influences of polymers and model drugs on thermotropic phase transition of DPPC liposomes were studied by micro-differential scanning calorimetry (microDSC). The influences on configuration of DPPC liposomes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to DSC results, cationic polymers had a stabilising effect, whereas aciclovir and minoxidil changed the physical properties of the DPPC bilayers by influencing the main phase transition temperature and erasing the pre-transition. The investigation of CO stretching bands of DPPC at 1736 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra showed that aciclovir has strong hydrogen bonding with CO groups of DPPC, whereas carbonyl groups were free in minoxidil presence. Moreover, the coating of liposomes with CS or EU led to higher skin diffusion for both drugs. This could be explained as an effect of positively charged liposomes to interact stronger with skin negatively charged surface and their possible interactions with structures below the stratum corneum. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Hughes, James; Sanchez, Jorge; Reid, Stewart; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Cowan, Frances; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Fuchs, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Susan; Koblin, Beryl; Zwerski, Sheryl; Rose, Scott; Wang, Jing; Corey, Lawrence
Summary Background Across many observational studies, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with two-fold to three-fold increased risk for HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether HSV-2 suppression with aciclovir would reduce the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Methods We undertook a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial in HIV-negative, HSV-2 seropositive women in Africa and men who have sex with men (MSM) from sites in Peru and the USA. Participants were randomly assigned by block randomisation to twice daily aciclovir 400 mg (n=1637) or matching placebo (n=1640) for 12–18 months, and were seen monthly for dispensation of study drug, adherence counselling and measurement by pill count and self-reporting, and risk reduction counselling, and every 3 months for genital examination and HIV testing. The primary outcome was HIV-1 acquisition and secondary was incidence of genital ulcers. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00076232. Findings 3172 participants (1358 women, 1814 MSM) were included in the primary dataset (1581 in aciclovir group, 1591 in control group). The incidence of HIV-1 was 3.9 per 100 person-years in the aciclovir group (75 events in 1935 person-years of follow-up) and 3.3 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (64 events in 1969 person-years of follow-up; hazard ratio 1.16 [95% CI 0.83–1.62]). Incidence of genital ulcers on examination was reduced by 47% (relative risk 0.53 [0.46–0.62]) and HSV-2 positive genital ulcers by 63% (0.37 [0.31–0.45]) in the aciclovir group. Adherence to dispensed study drug was 94% in the aciclovir group and 94% in the placebo group, and 85% of expected doses in the aciclovir group and 86% in the placebo group. Retention was 85% at 18 months in both groups (1028 of 1212 in aciclovir group, 1030 of 1208 in placebo group). We recorded no serious events related to the study drug. Interpretation Our results show
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a CS20® protective barrier gel containing OGT compared with topical aciclovir and placebo on functional and objective symptoms of labial herpes recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.
Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Coudert, A C; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J P
Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) recurrences but may not alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of CS20 (Acura 24(®) ) protective barrier gel versus topical aciclovir and placebo in resolving functional symptoms in HSV-1 labial recurrences. A prospective, randomized, single-centre, assessor-blinded study of CS20 versus topical aciclovir or placebo. The primary endpoint was the total score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching, and tingling sensations), evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints encompassed objective skin changes (oedema, crusting and erythema), evaluated by specific clinical scores. In a study of 106 patients, compared with placebo, a significant improvement in total functional symptom score was observed after 1 day of treatment in the CS20 group, but only after 7 days of treatment in the topical aciclovir group. Burning sensations were significantly reduced by CS20 compared with aciclovir (Days 1-2) or placebo (Days 1-7). Compared to placebo, CS20 significantly reduced pain intensity on Days 1-6. CS20 induced significant and early improvements in the clinical scores for oedema and crusting compared with placebo. Time to cure was similar for CS20 and aciclovir. The treatments were well tolerated and adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Limitations The single-centre and single-blind design of the study and the preselection of patients. CS20 showed superior effectiveness against functional symptoms (pain and burning) associated with HSV-1 labial recurrences and was similar to aciclovir for time to cure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Singer, Joseph; Shortt, Nicholas; Beasley, Richard; Salih, Shahlaa AL
Introduction Worldwide, about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly referred to as ‘cold sores’, which can last up to 10 days. The most common treatment is aciclovir cream which reduces healing time by just half a day compared with no specific treatment. This is a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey-based topical treatment (Honevo) in reducing the healing time and pain of cold sores, compared with topical aciclovir treatment (Viraban). Methods and analysis This open-label, parallel-group, active comparator superiority RCT will compare the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey with 5% aciclovir cream in the treatment of cold sores in the setting of a pharmacy research network of 60 sites throughout New Zealand. Adults presenting with a cold sore (N=950) will be randomised by pharmacy-based investigators. The pharmacy-based investigators will dispense the investigational product to randomised participants and both study groups apply the treatment five times daily until their skin returns to normal or for 14 days, whichever occurs first. In response to a daily SMS message, participants complete an assessment of their cold sore healing, with reference to a visual guide, and transmit it to the investigators by a smartphone eDiary in real time. The primary outcome variable is time (in days) from randomisation to return to normal skin. Secondary endpoints include total healing time stratified by stage of the lesion at onset of treatment, highest pain severity and time to pain resolution. Ethics and dissemination New Zealand Ethics Registration 15/NTB/93. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, presented at academic meetings and reported to participants. Trial registration number Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000648527, pre-results. SCOTT Registration: 15/SCOTT
Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J-P
Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of genital herpes recurrences but may not always alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of oxygenated glycerol triesters-based CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir and placebo (vehicle) in resolving functional symptoms and in healing of genital herpes recurrences. A prospective randomized controlled, investigator-blinded trial of CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir (reference treatment) and placebo (vehicle) was designed. The primary endpoint was the cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensations). Secondary endpoints included objective skin changes (erythema, papules, vesicles, oedema, erosion/ulceration, crusts), time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment as reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 61 patients were included. CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) was significantly more efficient than topical aciclovir and vehicle for subjective symptoms and pain relief in genital herpes recurrences; additionally, time to heal was significantly shorter with CS 21 than with vehicle, whereas no significantly difference was observed between patients receiving topical aciclovir and vehicle. The treatments under investigation were well tolerated and the adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Overall, these results support the interest of using of CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) in symptomatic genital herpes recurrences. Accordingly, this product offers a valuable alternative in topical management of recurrent genital herpes. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Semprini, Alex; Singer, Joseph; Shortt, Nicholas; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard
Worldwide, about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly referred to as 'cold sores', which can last up to 10 days. The most common treatment is aciclovir cream which reduces healing time by just half a day compared with no specific treatment. This is a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey-based topical treatment (Honevo) in reducing the healing time and pain of cold sores, compared with topical aciclovir treatment (Viraban). This open-label, parallel-group, active comparator superiority RCT will compare the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey with 5% aciclovir cream in the treatment of cold sores in the setting of a pharmacy research network of 60 sites throughout New Zealand. Adults presenting with a cold sore (N=950) will be randomised by pharmacy-based investigators. The pharmacy-based investigators will dispense the investigational product to randomised participants and both study groups apply the treatment five times daily until their skin returns to normal or for 14 days, whichever occurs first. In response to a daily SMS message, participants complete an assessment of their cold sore healing, with reference to a visual guide, and transmit it to the investigators by a smartphone eDiary in real time. The primary outcome variable is time (in days) from randomisation to return to normal skin. Secondary endpoints include total healing time stratified by stage of the lesion at onset of treatment, highest pain severity and time to pain resolution. New Zealand Ethics Registration 15/NTB/93. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, presented at academic meetings and reported to participants. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000648527, pre-results.SCOTT Registration: 15/SCOTT/14 PROTOCOL VERSION: 4.0 (12 June 2017). © Article author(s) (or their employer
Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV
Houston, David M. J.; Bugert, Joachim J.; Denyer, Stephen P.
Background There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and co-administered zinc (II) ions. Materials and methods PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II) salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit. Results Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1) a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1); however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1), whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution. Conclusions The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II) has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores. PMID:28665969
Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer - oral; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...
Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...
... items such as towels and linens in boiling hot water after each use. Do not share utensils, straws, glasses, or other items if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...
Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Júnior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.
The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343
CAMPBELL, PAUL N.
THE BASIC PREMISE OF THIS BOOK IS THAT LEARNING TO READ ORALLY IS OF FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE TO THOSE WHO WOULD FULLY APPRECIATE OR RESPOND TO LITERATURE. BECAUSE READERS MUST INTERPRET LITERATURE ALWAYS FOR THEMSELVES AND OFTEN FOR AN AUDIENCE, THREE ASPECTS OF ORAL INTERPRETATION ARE EXPLORED--(1) THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS, WHICH REQUIRES AN…
Gerson, S J
In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.
The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.
Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana
Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.
Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim
Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas
Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Encouraging Teenagers to Improve Speaking Skills through Games in a Colombian Public School (Motivación de adolescentes para mejorar su expresión oral mediante el juego en un colegio público colombiano)
León, William Urrutia; Cely, Esperanza Vega
Our project was implemented with tenth grade students of a public school located in the Usme Zone in Bogotá. We decided to develop this action research project because we were concerned about our students' difficulties when attempting to speak English. They felt inhibited with activities that involved oral interaction mainly because they were…
Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).
Forbes, Robert J., Ed.
The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews…
With regard to oral cavity, it is known that jaw bone morphology greatly changes with tooth loss. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the muscles attached to the jaw bone and the surrounding vessels and nerves, in connection with the jaw bone morphology after tooth loss. As an example, the height of the mandibular bone decreases to the position of the mylohyoid line after tooth loss. By this marked morphological change in the alveolar area, the lingual nerve and the lingual artery branches running in the sublingual area on the mandibular inner surface becomes located in the area almost the same as the alveolar crest.
Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya
Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.
This brief discussion of the different types of oral contraceptives (OCs) makes abundant use of flow charts, tables, and diagrams to present information and stress specific points. The work begins by defining the different hypothalamic, pituitary, and ovarian hormones and diagramming and describing the menstrual cycle. A discussion of combined OCs defines and diagrams monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills, distinguishes between different dose levels, and describes the mechanisms of action of OCs. Sequential pills and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. The discussion of OCs containing progestins distinguishes between low does pills and high dose pills and describes the use of injectable progestins. A table then lists the dose-dependent side effects of estrogens and progestins. Simple instructions are provided for administering pills beginning on the 1st cycle day and for actions to take in the event a pill is forgotten. A flow chart taking into account age and presence or absence of vascular and gynecologic risk factors indicates which type of OC should be selected. Some advantages of OCs are identified, including maximum effectiveness and prevention of benign breast disease and perhaps of some type of rheumatoid arthritis. Another flow chart, on patient monitoring, identifies the contraindications that should be ruled out before OCs are prescribed and the routine follow-up examinations required for safe use. Other charts list absolute and relative contraindications and possible drug interferences.
... you were taking an oral steroid such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), or prednisone (Rayos), your doctor may ... the following: ketoconazole (Nizoral); oral steroids such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Rayos); and medications for ...
... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...
... Oral Thrush? Oral thrush is a very common yeast infection in babies. It causes irritation in and ... thrush is caused by the overgrowth of a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Most ...
Monda, Lori C.
Recognizing the need for systematic teaching material on oral communication, this program offers a six-week oral communication curriculum for students in grades six through nine. Based on the recognition that oral communication is a process influenced by variables such as context (setting, audience, situation, topic, cultural norms) and function…
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944
Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia
Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.
Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan
Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.
Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B
Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.
Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M
During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel
Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J
Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Cancer Survivor My wish is that in December this year the Oral Cancer Foundation can count on your help to fund [...] Read More OCF Southern California Oral Cancer Walk Wrap-up – 2016 By Brian Hill | 2016-12-14T22:05:33+00:00 October, 2016 | This last weekend the OCF 3rd Annual Southern California ...
... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... website . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer. No studies have shown that screening for oral cavity , pharyngeal , ...
Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F
Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.
... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...
As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.
Kaimenyi, Jacob T
This paper gives general information on the location of Kenya, its demography, economy, organisation of health services, general health policy, health financing, oral health infrastructure, problems that hamper health financing and proposals on how to solve these problems. Further, a summary of health status of the Kenyan people is given based on the results of studies. The mean DMFT for the rural and urban populations is low and there is no evidence of an increase or decrease. Similarly, the prevalence of periodontitis is low (1-10%), with no increase. Ulcerative lesions are rare (0.12%). The most common birth defects are cleft lip and palate. Oral cancer is very low, accounting for 2% of all malignancies. Comparative studies have not demonstrated any dramatic change in the frequency of oral cancer for the last 25 years. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent oral lesion amongst HIV/AIDS patients. In June 2003, Kenya formulated a National Oral Health Policy, which gives direction on how to improve the oral health status of the citizens.
Sádaba, B; Gómez-Guiu, A; Azanza, J R; Ortega, I; Valiente, R
Bilastine (Bilaxten™) is a novel non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) developed in the dosage form of oral tablets and indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. Several clinical trials have been performed in order to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine. The aim of this trial was to study the absolute oral bioavailability of bilastine in humans. Twelve male and female adults were recruited into a single centre for a randomized, single-dose, open-label, controlled two-arm crossover study with a minimum 14-day washout period between the two single doses. Two single doses of bilastine were administered: a 20-mg oral tablet and a 10-mg intravenous formulation. Blood and urine samples were collected between 0 and 72 h post each administration. The clinical trial was carried out under quality assurance and quality control systems with standard operating procedures to ensure that the study was conducted and data generated in compliance with the protocol, Good Clinical Practice standards, International Conference on Harmonisation and other applicable regulations. Oral bioavailability of bilastine was 60.67 % with a 90 % parametric confidence interval of 53.79-67.56. The maximum bilastine concentration was measured 1.31 h after oral administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those observed in previous studies. Tolerance to treatment was good, with no adverse events related to study medication. The absorption of bilastine after oral administration to healthy subjects was rapid. The absolute oral bioavailability was moderate.
Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil
ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934
Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K
The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.
... of substances. The most common causes are food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are more commonly implicated in intraoral hypersensitivity ...
McCann, A L; Bonci, L
Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.
Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel
The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.
Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia
Oral tolerance is a state of systemic unresponsiveness that is the default response to food antigens in the gastrointestinal tract, although immune tolerance can also be induced by other routes, such as the skin or inhalation. Antigen can be acquired directly by intestinal phagocytes, or pass through enterocytes or goblet cell-associated passages prior to capture by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria. Mucin from goblet cells acts on DCs to render them more tolerogenic. A subset of regulatory DCs expressing CD103 is responsible for delivery of antigen to the draining lymph node and induction of Tregs. These DCs also imprint gastrointestinal homing capacity, allowing the recently primed Tregs to home back to the lamina propria where they interact with macrophages that produce IL-10 and expand. Tregs induced by dietary antigen include Foxp3 + Tregs and Foxp3 - Tregs. In addition to Tregs, T cell anergy can also contribute to oral tolerance. The microbiota plays a key role in the development of oral tolerance, through regulation of macrophages and innate lymphoid cells that contribute to the regulatory phenotype of gastrointestinal dendritic cells. Absence of microbiota is associated with a susceptibility to food allergy, while presence of Clostridia strains can suppress development of food allergy through enhancement of Tregs and intestinal barrier function. It is not clear if feeding of antigens can also induce true immune tolerance after a memory immune response has been generated, but mechanistic studies of oral immunotherapy trials demonstrate shared pathways in oral tolerance and oral immunotherapy, with a role for Tregs and anergy. An important role for IgA and IgG antibodies in development of immune tolerance is also supported by studies of oral tolerance in humans. The elucidation of key pathways in oral tolerance could identify new strategies to increase efficacy of immunotherapy treatments for food allergy.
Scully, C; Bedi, R
Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.
Blagojević, Duska; Brkanić, Tatjana; Stojić, Sinisa
Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums). Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.
Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura
Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.
Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.
Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001
Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz
The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.
Lazos, Jerónimo P; Piemonte, Eduardo D; Panico, René L
Ageing produces several changes on the oral cavity, and oral varix (OV) is among the most common, and they are related with some medical diseases; however, this association is not clear. The aim of this article is to offer a review of OV, regarding aetiology, clinical and histological features, associated factors, treatment and its clinical significance. Except for a higher incidence of OV in elder individuals, there is limited evidence that supports its relationship with medical conditions such us cardiovascular diseases or portal hypertension. Also, there is no consensus regarding its pathogenesis, but the hemodynamic theory embodies the most comprehensive approach. The high prevalence in elderly people stresses the need for regular oral examination, but more detailed studies regarding OV in relation to systemic diseases are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya
Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.
Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen
Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…
Journal of Dental Education, 1987
Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)
Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro
Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597
Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro
Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.
... a serious lung infection), cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye), glaucoma (an eye disease) or high pressure in ... that causes a sore on the eyelid or eye surface).tell your doctor if you ... when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens ...
On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.
Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero
Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269
Ion, Daniela I; Setterfield, Jane F
Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common autoimmune T-cell-mediated disease of unknown aetiology affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. Its prevalence varies between 0.5 and 2.2% of the population in epidemiological studies with a peak incidence in the 30-60 years range and with a female predominance of 2:1. Mucosal lichen planus tends to follow a chronic course with acute exacerbations. Spontaneous remission of oral lichen planus (OLP) is uncommon, and indeed mucosal LP may become worse with time. In contrast, cutaneous lichen planus may follow a milder clinical course though some variants may be severe such as those affecting the palms and soles and the scalp and the genital tract in females (vulvovaginal gingival LP) where scarring leads to significant complications. It is important to identify those cases that may be drug induced or be associated with a contact allergic or irritant reaction (lichenoid reaction) or the rarer oral presentation of discoid lupus erythematosus. There is a very small risk of malignancy (approximately 1:200 patients/year) associated with oral lichen planus; thus patients should be informed that long term monitoring via their general dental practitioner is appropriate. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and management of oral lichen planus.
Petty, Walter T., Ed.
This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…
Easley, Jacob J.
Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)
Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.
Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal…
Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team
Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (email@example.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.
... Oral Health and Bone Disease Oral Health and Bone Disease Osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns ... for Healthy Bones Resources For Your Information Skeletal Bone Density and Dental Concerns The portion of the ...
Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi
Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377
Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.
This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…
There is a substantial proportion of the population using fixed metallic oral appliances, such as crowns and bridges, which are composed of various dental alloys. These restorations may be associated with a number of effects on oral health with variable degrees of severity, to review potential effects of using fixed metallic oral appliances, fabricated from various alloys. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using certain combinations of keywords related to the topic. The search revealed that burning mouth syndrome, oral pigmentation, hypersensitivity and lichenoid reactions, and genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are the major potential oral health changes associated with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Certain oral disorders are associated with the use of fixed metallic oral appliances. Patch test is the most reliable method that can be applied for identifying metal allergy, and the simultaneous use of different alloys in the mouth is discouraged.
Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J
Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baharvand, Maryam; Jafari, Soudeh
Oral mucositis is an inflammatory mucosal destruction as a result of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, which in severe cases can impair patients’ quality of life. Moreover, mucosal infection and/or systemic involvement due to compromised immunity leads to delay or discontinuation of the treatment. Many strategies and agents have been suggested for the management of this condition. Because of their lower side effects compared to chemical drugs, general interest in evaluating therapeutic effects of herbs has been increased intensively. Herbal plants apply their effect through different mechanisms of action: antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiseptic, and anticarcinogenic activity. Recently, various natural agents in plants have been noticed in mucositis, which may improve the symptoms through different interventions. The purpose of this review is to focus on the preventive or therapeutic use of herbal medicine to alleviate oral mucositis. PMID:28511530
Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.
Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.
O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M
The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.
Introduction Around 15% to 30% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time. The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oral treatments for athlete's foot? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 335 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 210 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 162 studies and the further review of 48 full publications. Of the 48 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was included. We performed a GRADE evaluation for six PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for one intervention based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of oral antifungals versus placebo and different oral antifungals versus each other.
Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.
The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233
Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael
To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Results indicate that the likelihood of conducting an oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample
Pini, Danielle de Moraes; Fröhlich, Paula Cristina Gil Ritter; Rigo, Lilian
To identify the prevalence of the main oral problems present in special needs children and to relate the underlying conditions with the clinical and demographic variables. The study was based on the physical examination of 47 students from the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais diagnosed as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and intellectual deficit. For data collection, we used a self-administered questionnaire that included indices of dental caries and oral hygiene, Angle classification, malposition of dental groups and oral hygiene habits. The predominant age group was 12-25 years (46.8%) and most patients were male (55.3%). Regarding daily brushing, 63.8% reported brushing their teeth three times a day, and 85.1% did it by themselves. A total of 48.9% were rated as Angle class I, and 25.5% had no type of malocclusion. A high dental carries index (decayed, missing, filled >10) was observed in 44.7%, and 53.2% had inadequate oral hygiene (zero to 1.16). There was a statistically significant difference between cerebral palsy and the act of the participants brushing their teeth by themselves. There was a high decayed-missing-filled teeth index and malocclusion class I, as well as inadequate oral hygiene. The type of underlying condition of the participants influenced the act of brushing teeth by themselves. Conhecer a prevalência dos principais problemas bucais em crianças com necessidades especiais, e relacionar as doenças de base com variáveis clínicas e demográficas. O estudo foi realizado a partir de exame clínico em 47 alunos da Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais com diagnóstico médico de síndrome de Down, paralisia cerebral e deficit intelectual. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado um questionário autoaplicativo com índices de cárie dentária e higiene oral, classificação de Angle, malposição de grupos dentários e hábitos de higiene oral. A faixa etária predominante foi de 12 a 25 anos (46,8%) e a maioria era do sexo
Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.
Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes
Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C
Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes
Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro
Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578
Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S
In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440
Macigo, F G; Gathece, L W; Guthua, S W; Njeru, E K; Wagaiyu, E G; Mulli, T K
To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Case control study. Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.
Nemoto, Renato Paladino; Victorino, Alana Asciutti; Pessoa, Gregory Bittar; Cunha, Lais Lourenção Garcia da; Silva, José Antonio Rodrigues da; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Matos, Leandro Luongo de
Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%), with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years); 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60- to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Cholst, I N; Carlon, A T
This artical examines the risks and benefits associated with use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) by adolescents and the various alternatives and methods of prescribing OCPs. Any adolescent who is either sexually active or contemplating sexual activity should be offered a contraceptive method that is appropriate to her individual needs. The contraceptive needs to be highly effective, safe and within the means and desires of the adolescent. For the majority of teenagers, the contraceptive of choice will be the OCP. The IUD should almost never be prescribed to the adolescent. Most OCPs marketed today are combination pills containing both an estrogen and a progestin in each pill. A variety of contraceptive actions combines to create a contraceptive method that is 99.3-99.9% effective. OCPs provide some protection against the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Oral contraceptives also decrease the incidence of anemia by decreasing the amount and duration of menstrual flow. Ovarian cysts do not form in the ovaries of the OCP user. On the other hand, a serious risk of the use of OCPs is the increased danger of thromboembolic events including deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, and myocardial infarction. The increased risk of myocardial infarction in OCP users is additive with other risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and age. OCP use seems to provide some protection against development of endometrial or ovarian cancer. Oral contraceptives are associated with the development of benign hepatocellular adenomas. A variety of metabolic and hormonal alterations also occur in pill users. Most appropriate for the adolescent is a formulation containing a low dose of estrogen because of the decreased risk of thromboembolic complications. Dysmenorrhea effects more than 1/2 of female adolescents, and can best be treated with ibuprofen.
Sadrameli, Mitra; Mupparapu, Mel
This article deals with identification and descriptions of intraoral and extraoral anatomy of the dental and maxillofacial structures. The anatomic landmarks are highlighted and described based on their radiographic appearance and their clinical significance is provided. Cone beam CT-based images are described in detail using the multiplanar reconstructions. The skull views are depicted via line diagrams in addition to their normal radiographic appearance to make identification of anatomic structures easier for clinicians. The authors cover most of the anatomic structures commonly noted via radiographs and their descriptions. This article serves as a clinician's guide to oral and maxillofacial radiographic anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego
Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.
Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok
Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458
de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny
Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P
To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.
Hobdell, M H
To briefly review the origins of economic globalization and examine the evidence available concerning its possible impact on oral health. Based on Medline searches 1966-1999 and review of Health Wrights: Politics of Health database. SPECIFIC ORAL DISEASES: Dental caries, destructive periodontal diseases, cancrum oris and oral cancer. The reported growing disparity between rich and poor populations, both internationally and nationally, is arguably being exacerbated by economic globalization. Increasing levels of the above specific oral diseases might be attributed, in part, to this economic phenomenon.
Silva, Cléverson O; Almeida, Aroldo Dos Santos; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N
Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in parts of Latin America, often presents with oral lesions involving the gingiva. Nevertheless, the periodontal literature is devoid of references to oral paracoccidioidomycosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis and to contrast clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of the disease. Differential diagnosis and management of oral paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed. From January 1995 to October 2006, the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, were reviewed to identify cases referred because of a clinical diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, race, and occupation), clinical information (oral lesion location), and histopathologic diagnosis. Forty-six cases were identified, and 34 were histopathologically confirmed as paracoccidioidomycosis. Of the remaining 12 cases, one-half were diagnosed as either carcinoma or dysplastic leukoplakia. Of the 34 confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis cases, 45% presented with multiple site involvement, whereas the gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site overall (52%). The gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site in both multiple and single site cases. The majority of patients were men (88%), white (75%), and in their fourth decade of life (47%). Statistical analysis revealed that patients with gingival/alveolar process involvement were demographically indistinguishable from those without. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis has a strong predilection for the gingiva, whereas patients with gingival lesions do not differ from patients lacking such involvement. Early diagnosis of gingival/oral lesions may prevent life-threatening complications of this mycosis.
Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B
Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.
Kilian, M; Chapple, I L C; Hannig, M; Marsh, P D; Meuric, V; Pedersen, A M L; Tonetti, M S; Wade, W G; Zaura, E
For millions of years, our resident microbes have coevolved and coexisted with us in a mostly harmonious symbiotic relationship. We are not distinct entities from our microbiome, but together we form a 'superorganism' or holobiont, with the microbiome playing a significant role in our physiology and health. The mouth houses the second most diverse microbial community in the body, harbouring over 700 species of bacteria that colonise the hard surfaces of teeth and the soft tissues of the oral mucosa. Through recent advances in technology, we have started to unravel the complexities of the oral microbiome and gained new insights into its role during both health and disease. Perturbations of the oral microbiome through modern-day lifestyles can have detrimental consequences for our general and oral health. In dysbiosis, the finely-tuned equilibrium of the oral ecosystem is disrupted, allowing disease-promoting bacteria to manifest and cause conditions such as caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. For practitioners and patients alike, promoting a balanced microbiome is therefore important to effectively maintain or restore oral health. This article aims to give an update on our current knowledge of the oral microbiome in health and disease and to discuss implications for modern-day oral healthcare.
In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…
Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi
The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sehgal, Virendra N; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Aggarwal, Ashok; Sehgal, Shruti
It is important to evaluate the background of oral cavity biology to define morphologic abrasions in oral mucosa following a host of local and/ or systemic disorders. The oral cavity is not only the beginning of the digestive system, but it also plays a significant role in communication; the voice (although the voice is produced in the throat), tongue, lips, and jaw are its essential components to produce the range of sounds. The vestibule and the oral cavity are its major parts, and are usually moist. The lips and the teeth are in approximation, marking its start up. The anatomy of the oral cavity in brief has been reviewed in right prospective for disease related changed morphology, thus facilitating interpretation.
The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…
Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith
The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…
Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M
Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).
The biggest oral health campaign in the United Kingdom is called "National Smile Month" and it starts in May. For this occasion, the occupational medicine team of Kensington Hospital is holding special events highlighting preventive dentistry and oral hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves
The mouth is a complex natural cavity which constitutes the initial segment of the digestive tract. It is an essential actor of the vital functions as nutrition, language, communication. The whole mouth (teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes, tongue) is constantly hydrated and lubricated by the saliva. At any age, a balance becomes established between the bacterial proliferations, the salivary flow, the adapted tissular answer: it is the oral ecosystem. The regulation of this ecosystem participates in the protection of the oral complex against current inflammatory and infectious pathologies (caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, candidiasis). In elderly, the modification of the salivary flow, the appearance of specific pathologies (root caries, edentulism, periodontitis), the local conditions (removable dentures), the development of general pathologies, the development of general pathologies (diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression, the insufficient oral care are so many elements which are going to destabilize the oral ecosystem, to favor the formation of the dental plaque and to weaken oral tissues. The preservation of this ecosystem is essential for elderly: it allows to eat in good conditions and so to prevent the risks of undernutrition. The authors describe the oral physiopathology (oral microflora, salivary secretion) and the strategies to be adopted to protect the balance of the oral ecosystem in geriatric population.
A phonographic study of students' experience of oral presentations in an open learning theology programme constituted three contrasting conceptions of oral presentations--as transmission of ideas; as a test of students' understanding of what they were studying; and as a position to be argued. Each of these conceptions represented a combination of…
Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove
Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)
Gardner, Joel, Ed.
Theme issue shares experiences of librarians who have done oral history projects in school, parish, and university libraries throughout Louisiana. Articles cover the roles of the library and of oral history, how to begin projects, and how to involve students in the production of tapes and their organization for retrieval. (CDD)
Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing
The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566
Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation. PMID:29629322
Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José
Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.
Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696
Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.
... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...
Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud
Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.
Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128
Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T
The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kent, Ray D
Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article.
Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Gürsoy, Mervi; Könönen, Eija; Sintim, Herman O
Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Oral microorganisms form some of the most intricate biofilms, yet c-di-GMP, and c-di-AMP signaling have been rarely studied in oral biofilms. Recent studies demonstrated that, with the aid of bacterial messenger molecules and their analogs, it is possible to activate host innate and adaptive immune responses and epithelial integrity with a dose that is relevant to inhibit bacterial virulence mechanisms, such as fimbriae and exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and host cell invasion. The aim of this perspective article is to present available information on cyclic dinucleotides in oral bacteria and in oral biofilms. Moreover, technologies that can be used to detect cyclic dinucleotides in oral biofilms are described. Finally, directions for future research are highlighted.
En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.
Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini
Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as
Greene, Zelda; O'Donnell, Colm Pf; Walshe, Margaret
Preterm infants (< 37 weeks' postmenstrual age) are often delayed in attaining oral feeding. Normal oral feeding is suggested as an important outcome for the timing of discharge from the hospital and can be an early indicator of neuromotor integrity and developmental outcomes. A range of oral stimulation interventions may help infants to develop sucking and oromotor co-ordination, promoting earlier oral feeding and earlier hospital discharge. To determine the effectiveness of oral stimulation interventions for attainment of oral feeding in preterm infants born before 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA).To conduct subgroup analyses for the following prespecified subgroups.• Extremely preterm infants born at < 28 weeks' PMA.• Very preterm infants born from 28 to < 32 weeks' PMA.• Infants breast-fed exclusively.• Infants bottle-fed exclusively.• Infants who were both breast-fed and bottle-fed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016), Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 25 February 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing a defined oral stimulation intervention with no intervention, standard care, sham treatment or non-oral intervention in preterm infants and reporting at least one of the specified outcomes. One review author searched the databases and identified studies for screening. Two review authors screened the abstracts of these studies and full-text copies when needed to identify trials for inclusion in the review. All review authors independently extracted the data and analysed each study for risk of bias across the five domains of bias. All review authors discussed and analysed the data and
Fonsino, Frank J.
Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)
Blanchet, Pierre J; Rompré, Pierre H; Lavigne, Gilles J; Lamarche, Claude
Dentists may be the first health care professionals to recognize unusual and abnormal oral movements collectively termed oral dyskinesias. The aims of this clinical overview are to raise the dental community's awareness about this important and complex topic and describe the clinical features and management of the main entities. A MEDLINE search of the different entities reported in the English and French literature was conducted. The main findings of a field study on oral dyskinesia were also reviewed. Involuntary movement disorders are often drug related. In other cases, excessive oral movements may occur at any age in relation to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Orofacial dystonia apparently triggered by dental procedures has also been reported. Edentulousness has been associated with oral stereotypes. In a survey of 352 edentulous elderly individuals attending daycare centers, only 7% displayed visible oral sterotypes, and ill-fitting dentures were suggested as a possible triggering factor for the majority. A multidisciplinary evaluation is desirable in the care of individuals with oral dyskinesia and in the selection of those who may benefit from a prosthodontic approach. A good knowledge of potentially offending drugs may allow avoidance of unnecessary procedures.
Ali, Johar; Sabiha, Bibi; Jan, Hanif Ullah; Haider, Syed Adnan; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Saima S
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 2.5% of all new cancer cases and 1.9% of all cancer deaths annually. More than 90% of oral cancers (occurring in the mouth, lip, and tongue) are oral squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate of oral cancer varies widely throughout the world, with an evident prevalence in South Asian countries. This high incidence occurs in correlation with oral cancer-associated behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco use. Researchers have reported that these behaviors lead to genetic variations in tumor suppressor genes (APC, p53), proto-oncogenes (Myc), oncogene (Ras) and genes controlling normal cellular processes (EIF3E, GSTM1). Processes such as segregation of chromosomes, genomic copy number, loss of heterozygosity, telomere stabilities, regulations of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage repairs and defects in notch signaling pathways are involved in causing oral cancer. In order to develop preventive and therapeutic options, it is necessary to comprehend the basic molecular mechanisms forcing oral tumorigenesis. This review examines, in detail, the mechanisms of genetic alteration which are considered to be responsible for the initiation of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V
The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966
Running, Cordelia A
Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth). Another vital component of food flavor is texture, which contributes to palatability, especially if a food's texture violates a person's expectations. Next, chemesthesis is the sense of chemically induced irritancy and temperature, for example spiciness and stinging. All of these sensations are potentially modified by saliva, the chemical and physical media of the mouth. As a person experiences the culmination of these oral sensations, modified through an individual's own unique saliva, the flavors in turn influence both what and how a person eats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Ljungqvist, Olle
Management of the postoperative response to surgical stress is an important issue in major surgery. Avoiding preoperative fasting using preoperative oral carbohydrates (POC) has been suggested as a measure to prevent and reduce the extent to which such derangements occur. This review summarizes the current evidence and rationale for this treatment. A recent review from the Cochrane Collaboration reports enhanced gastrointestinal recovery and shorter hospital stay with the use of POC with no effect on postoperative complication rates. Multiple randomized controlled trials demonstrate improved postoperative metabolic response after POC administration, including reduced insulin resistance, protein sparing, improved muscle function and preserved immune response. Cohort studies in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery have shown that the use of POC as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol is a significant predictor for improved clinical outcomes. Avoiding preoperative fasting with POC is associated with attenuated postoperative insulin resistance, improved metabolic response, enhanced perioperative well-being, and better clinical outcomes. The impact is greatest for patients undergoing major surgeries.
The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309
Piemonte, Eduardo David; Lazos, Jerónimo Pablo; Brunotto, Mabel
Oral cancer represents 2%-5% of all cancers, being one of the 10 most frequent ones. Apart from oral cancer risk factors already described in literature, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, others emerging risk factors have been proposed, such as chronic irritation from dental factors. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of chronic trauma of the oral mucosa (CTOM) in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and cancer. A retrospective study of 406 patients (both sexes; aged between 18 and 80 years; with OPMD and cancer) who attended the Department of Clinical Stomatology A of the National University of Cordoba was performed by non-probabilistic sampling. The association of variables and outcome variable diagnosis, with levels control, OPMD, oral cancer, was evaluated by multinomial regression model. Population under study was represented by 72% of control patients, 16% patients with OPMD and 11% of patients with oral cancer. It was observed a significant association between diagnosis and CTOM (P = 0.000), after adjustment of confounding factors (smoking and drinking habits, sex, cancer inheritance and denture use). Our results suggest that CTOM is, together with other factors, an important risk factor in patients with oral cancer diagnosis, but not for patients with OPMD.
Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.
It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756
... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...
... from entering. Oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... tell you whether you need to use another method of birth control during the first 7 to ...
... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...
Wood, J R
The systemic side effects of oral contraceptives are mentioned, and the incidence and variety of ocular complications are discussed. Experimental studies on the ocular effects of oral contraceptives in laboratory animals have shown only increased permeability of the lens and possibly vascular dilatation. Numerous case reports, however, have been published which describe neuroophthalamic, vascular, retinal and macular, aqueous humor dynamic, cornea and contact lense, lens, color vision, and other miscellaneous effects. These reports are reviewed as are the 6 reported prospective studies. These prospective studies reveal only changes in kerotometry readings. Thus the large number of case reports may represent a low overall incidence or may be normal findings in the population as a whole or may be caused by other systemic factors. Until multicenter prospective studies provide definitive guidelines, the risk associated with oral contraceptive use must be kept in its proper perpsective and ocular histories should contain information on oral contraceptive use.
Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle
Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446
Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra
A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.
Badawi, Maha; Almazrooa, Soulafa; Azher, Fatima; Alsayes, Fatin
Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite that is widely used in the treatment of many benign and malignant conditions. This drug is usually well tolerated but has a number of side effects that vary in incidence. In cases of clinically significant adverse events, hydroxyurea is usually discontinued either temporarily or permanently, depending on treatment need versus harm caused by side effects. Here, we report a case of oral ulceration associated with hydroxyurea treatment in a patient who had chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient rapidly developed an oral ulcer 12 days after administration of the drug. Hydroxyurea was discontinued, and the oral lesion appreciably decreased in size and severity. Physicians and dentists should be aware of the association between hydroxyurea and oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kimura, Mamoru; Maeshima, Takuya; Kubota, Takumi; Kurihara, Hitoshi; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro
Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice. Oligosaccharide HA passed through excised large intestine sacs. Furthermore, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and polysaccharides HA were distributed to the skin of rats following oral administration of high molecular weight HA (300 kDa). The results of the study suggest that orally administered HA is degraded to oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria, and oligosaccharide HA is absorbed in the large intestine and is subsequently distributed throughout the tissues, including the skin.
Meesa, Indu Rekha; Srinivasan, Ashok
The oral cavity is a challenging area in head and neck imaging because of its complex anatomy and the numerous pathophysiologies that involve its contents. This challenge is further compounded by the ubiquitous artifacts that arise from the dental amalgam, which compromise image quality. In this article, the anatomy of the oral cavity is discussed in brief, followed by a description of the imaging technique and some common pathologic abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehuys, Els; Vervaet, Chris
Several technologies to control drug release from oral dosage forms have been developed. Drug release can be regulated in several ways: sustained release, whereby the drug is released slowly over a prolonged period of time, postponed release, whereby drug release is delayed until passage from the stomach into the intestine (via enteric coating), and targeted release, whereby the drug is targeted to a specific location of the gastrointestinal tract. This article reviews the various oral controlled release dosage forms on the market.
Cobelli, Claudio; Dalla Man, Chiara; Toffolo, Gianna; Basu, Rita; Vella, Adrian; Rizza, Robert
The simultaneous assessment of insulin action, secretion, and hepatic extraction is key to understanding postprandial glucose metabolism in nondiabetic and diabetic humans. We review the oral minimal method (i.e., models that allow the estimation of insulin sensitivity, β-cell responsivity, and hepatic insulin extraction from a mixed-meal or an oral glucose tolerance test). Both of these oral tests are more physiologic and simpler to administer than those based on an intravenous test (e.g., a glucose clamp or an intravenous glucose tolerance test). The focus of this review is on indices provided by physiological-based models and their validation against the glucose clamp technique. We discuss first the oral minimal model method rationale, data, and protocols. Then we present the three minimal models and the indices they provide. The disposition index paradigm, a widely used β-cell function metric, is revisited in the context of individual versus population modeling. Adding a glucose tracer to the oral dose significantly enhances the assessment of insulin action by segregating insulin sensitivity into its glucose disposal and hepatic components. The oral minimal model method, by quantitatively portraying the complex relationships between the major players of glucose metabolism, is able to provide novel insights regarding the regulation of postprandial metabolism. PMID:24651807
Warren, R C
Much published research documents continuing racial and ethnic disparities in health, particularly for African Americans, which apply to both oral and systemic diseases. Current research suggests biologically plausible associations between oral and systemic diseases; however, clear cause-and-effect relationships have not been substantiated. Some researchers and health care providers have noted anecdotal associations between oral and systemic health, as well as compounding adverse effects of oral and systemic diseases and dysfunctions. Historically, African American physicians, dentists, and pharmacists have bonded together under one organizational umbrella to combat discrimination, prejudice, and racism directed at them and their patient populations. This coming together has resulted in a more comprehensive clinical, behavioral, economic, and public health decision-making process related to the general health and well-being of their patient populations, such as maximizing health care visits, treatment plans, reimbursements, and oral and systemic health care follow-ups. According to the 1985 Secretary's Task Force Report, the six causes of excess deaths among African Americans were: cardiovascular disease and stroke; cancer; diabetes; cirrhosis; homicide and accidents; and infant mortality. In 1991, HIV/AIDS became the seventh cause of excess deaths. This article summarizes salient information about cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and the social and behavioral factors related to oral and systemic health.
Rabe, T; Runnebaum, B
Oral contraceptives (OCs) were first introduced more than 30 years ago. OC manufacturers have reduced the dosage of synthetic estrogens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol, 100-150 mcg to 20-35 mcg) and progestins to limit their metabolic effects on lipoproteins, carbohydrates, and hemostasis. In addition to protection from pregnancy, OC benefits include lower incidence of painful periods, excessive bleeding, and iron deficiency anemia; reduction of ovarian cysts, benign breast tumors, and pelvic inflammatory disease; and protection against endometrial and ovarian cancers. The risk of a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, venous thromboembolism, and deep vein thrombophlebitis) in OC users is 1-2/100,000 women years. Cardiovascular risk factors include smoking, hypertension, lipid disorders, severe obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular events in first degree relatives before age 40. Thus, women with any of these risk factors should not use OCs. OCs do not increase the risk of breast cancer in women less than 59 years old. They may increase this risk if used over a long duration before the first fullterm pregnancy. OCs may cause a modest increase in cervical neoplasia. Low-dose OCs have a small effect on lipid metabolism. OCs increase serum triglycerides 30-50%. OCs increase insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia increases the cardiovascular risk. Practitioners should evaluate clients before prescribing OCs. They should not prescribe OCs to women with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders, gynecological cancers, and previous cardiovascular disorders. Practitioners should tell clients that smoking is a leading risk factor and about OC's side effects (e.g., menstrual disturbances). The physical exam should include a cervical PAP smear, gynecological exam of the uterus and the ovaries, and a breast exam. Practitioners should test cholesterol and triglycerides before and during OC use. Premenopausal healthy women with no risk
Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral communications. 103.83 Section... AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.83 Oral communications... response to oral requests. Oral opinions or advice by Treasury, the Customs Service, the Internal Revenue...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its own...
Heimer, Brandon Walter; Levinson, Rebecca Sobel; West, Todd H.
Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoicemore » trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.« less
Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie
In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan
Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0
Sanfilippo, J S
Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development
Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.
Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397
Drummer, Olaf H
Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing
Mascolo, Massimo; Siano, Maria; Ilardi, Gennaro; Russo, Daniela; Merolla, Francesco; De Rosa, Gaetano; Staibano, Stefania
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer. PMID:22408457
Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia
Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.
Mouritsen, Ole G
Gastrophysics is the science that pertains to the physical and physico-chemical description of the empirical world of gastronomy, with focus on sensory perception in the oral cavity and how it is related to the materials properties of food and cooking processes. Flavor (taste and smell), mouthfeel, chemesthesis, and astringency are all related to the chemical properties and the texture of the food and how the food is transformed in the oral cavity. The present topical review will primarily focus attention on the somatosensory perception of food (mouthfeel or texture) and how it interacts with basic tastes (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, and umami) and chemesthetic action. Issues regarding diet, nutrition, and health will be put into an evolutionary perspective, and some mention will be made of umami and its importance for (oral) health.
Lousada-Fernandez, Fatima; Rapado-Gonzalez, Oscar; Lopez-Cedrun, Jose-Luis; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes
Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer worldwide. Carcinogenesis is a complex process, in which heterogeneity plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of the current biological and clinical significance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes for diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. We highlight the importance of liquid biopsy—using blood and saliva—which represents a potential alternative to solid biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, liquid biomarkers allow for the real-time monitoring of tumour evolution and therapeutic responses, initiating the era of personalized medicine. However, in oral cancer, the impact of liquid biopsies in clinical settings is still limited, requiring further studies to discover the best scenario for its clinical use.
A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with oral clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this condition is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this condition which has been described as incurable.
A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with oral clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this condition is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this condition which has been described as incurable. PMID:3666555
Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222
Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen
Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613
de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M
Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene
Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G
Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Yenkai; Totsika, Makrina; Morrison, Mark; Punyadeera, Chamindie
Current biomarkers (DNA, RNA and protein) for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers demonstrate biological variations between individuals, rendering them impractical for clinical translation. Whilst these biomarkers originate from the host, there is not much information in the literature about the influence of oral microbiota on cancer pathogenesis, especially in oral cancers. Oral microbiotas are known to participate in disease initiation and progression not only limited to the oral cavity, but also at other distant sites. Due to the close proximity of oral microbiota and oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumours, abundance changes in oral microbiota may provide useful information on tumourigenesis. This review aims to highlight information on the role of oral microbiota in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. An in-depth analysis into the oral microbiota may provide a new avenue to diagnose and treat these patients. PMID:29158828
Xian, Peng; Xuedong, Zhou; Xin, Xu; Yuqing, Li; Yan, Li; Jiyao, Li; Xiaoquan, Su; Shi, Huang; Jian, Xu; Ga, Liao
The human microbiome project (HMP) promoted further understanding of human oral microbes. However, research on the human oral microbiota has not made as much progress as research on the gut microbiota. Currently, the causal relationship between the oral microbiota and oral diseases remains unclear, and little is known about the link between the oral microbiota and human systemic diseases. To further understand the contribution of the oral microbiota in oral diseases and systemic diseases, a Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) was established in the US. The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, and most of the microorganisms are from American populations. Due to individual differences in the microbiome, the HOMD does not reflect the Chinese oral microbial status. Herein, we established a new oral microbiome database-the Oral Microbiome Bank of China (OMBC, http://www.sklod.org/ombc ). Currently, the OMBC includes information on 289 bacterial strains and 720 clinical samples from the Chinese population, along with lab and clinical information. The OMBC is the first curated description of a Chinese-associated microbiome; it provides tools for use in investigating the role of the oral microbiome in health and diseases, and will give the community abundant data and strain information for future oral microbial studies.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160
Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)
.... Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v... Protection Board (``MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon Northover v. Department of Defense...
Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.
Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.
Pellicioli, Ana C A; Martins, Marco A T; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Rados, Pantelis V; Martins, Manoela D
The term leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by different protozoan species of the genus Leishmania. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. To present a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in an elderly patient, discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic process and treatment emphasizing the distinctions from other granulomatous lesions. A 71-year-old male presenting with a symptomatic lesion on the hard and soft palate, which had developed over a period of 6 months was evaluated. The oral exam revealed a lesion with multiple ulcerated nodules on the hard and soft palate extending to the oropharynx. The diagnostic hypothesis was chronic infectious disease (paracoccidioidomycose, tuberculosis and leishmaniasis) or squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. A chest x-ray revealed a normal pulmonary pattern. The Montenegro skin test was positive. The definitive diagnosis was leishmaniasis with exclusive oral manifestation and the patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin. Localized oral mucosa leishmaniasis is an uncommon event in an immunocompetent patient. Dentists play an important role in the diagnosis of oral leishmaniasis, which has systemic repercussions. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Allen, W. Sidney
A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…
Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.
Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458
Havelock, Eric A.
Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…
Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…
Silin, Dmytro S; Lyubomska, Oksana V; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S
As early as 900 years ago, the Bedouins of the Negev desert were reported to kill a rabid dog, roast its liver and feed it to a dog-bitten person for three to five days according to the size and number of bites  . In sixteenth century China, physicians routinely prescribed pills made from the fleas collected from sick cows, which purportedly prevented smallpox. One may dismiss the wisdom of the Bedouins or Chinese but the Nobel laureate, Charles Richet, demonstrated in 1900 that feeding raw meat can cure tuberculous dogs - an approach he termed zomotherapy. Despite historical clues indicating the feasibility of oral vaccination, this particular field is notoriously infamous for the abundance of dead-end leads. Today, most commercial vaccines are delivered by injection, which has the principal limitation that recipients do not like needles. In the last few years, there has been a sharp increase in interest in needle-free vaccine delivery; new data emerges almost daily in the literature. So far, there are very few licensed oral vaccines, but many more vaccine candidates are in development. Vaccines delivered orally have the potential to take immunization to a fundamentally new level. In this review, the authors summarize the recent progress in the area of oral vaccines.
Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.
A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…
Holloway, Joseph E.
The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)
Ewer, P A; Gibbs, J O
A sample of 139 predominantly black, young, low-income patients who had accepted oral contraception at a publicly supported family planning clinic has been analyzed for correlates of oral contraception continuation. Interviews were conducted 10-12 months after the clinic visit; at this time 38% of the patients continued taking oral contraceptives. It was found that patients with the highest continuation rates were 18-24 years old, in the 2-3 parity group, living with their husbands, had low-parity mothers, and were able to fill prescriptions in less time with more convenient methods of transportation. Discontinuers tended to have high-parity mothers, live with parents or head their own households, and to be in the 13-17 or 25-45 year old age groups. Fear of long-term use of oral contraceptives and perceived side effects appeared to be implicated in discontinuation. The rate of discontinuation may be associated with irregular coital experience and less consistent exposure to pregnancy.
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It ...
Francisconi, Carolina Favaro; Caldas, Rogerio Jardim; Oliveira Martins, Lazara Joyce; Fischer Rubira, Cassia Maria; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio
Leukemia is the most common neoplastic disease of the white blood cells which is important as a pediatric malignancy. Oral manifestations occur frequently in leukemic patients and may present as initial evidence of the disease or its relapse. The symptoms include gingival enlargement and bleeding, oral ulceration, petechia, mucosal pallor, noma, trismus and oral infections. Oral lesions arise in both acute and chronic forms of all types of leukemia. These oral manifestations either may be the result of direct infiltration of leukemic cells (primary) or secondary to underlying thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or impaired granulocyte function. Despite the fact that leukemia has long been known to be associated with oral lesions, the available literature on this topic consists mostly of case reports, without data summarizing the main oral changes for each type of leukemia. Therefore, the present review aimed at describing oral manifestations of all leukemia types and their dental management. This might be useful in early diagnosis, improving patient outcomes.
Hoare, Anilei; Marsh, Philip D; Diaz, Patricia I
The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Other strategies such as whole oral microbiome transplantation or modification of community function by enrichment with health-promoting indigenous oral strains may offer more promise, but research in this field is still in its infancy. Any microbial-based therapeutics for oral conditions, however, are likely to be only one component within a holistic preventive strategy that should also aim at modification of the environmental influences responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of microbiome shifts associated with oral dysbiosis.
Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie
Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction.
A pedagogical experiment of giving bonus points based on oral exams in an introductory physics course is described. The orals covered the questions on a written exam that had just been graded and returned to the class. Although the performance of most students on the oral exams was fair at best, the value of bonus point orals would appear to be considerable, even though it may not be applicable to large classes and have other important disadvantages.
Webber, Liana Preto; Martins, Manoela Domingues; de Oliveira, Márcia Gaiger; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.
Webber, Liana Preto; Martins, Manoela Domingues; de Oliveira, Márcia Gaiger; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed. PMID:24963249
Delwel, Suzanne; Binnekade, Tarik T; Perez, Roberto S G M; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Scherder, Erik J A; Lobbezoo, Frank
The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published. To provide a comprehensive literature overview following a systematic approach of the level of oral hygiene and oral health status in older people with dementia with focus on oral soft tissues. A literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. The following search terms were used: dementia and oral health or stomatognathic disease. A critical appraisal of the included studies was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) and Delphi list. The searches yielded 549 unique articles, of which 36 were included for critical appraisal and data extraction. The included studies suggest that older people with dementia had high scores for gingival bleeding, periodontitis, plaque, and assistance for oral care. In addition, candidiasis, stomatitis, and reduced salivary flow were frequently present in older people with dementia. The studies included in the current systematic review suggest that older people with dementia have high levels of plaque and many oral health problems related to oral soft tissues, such as gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets, stomatitis, mucosal lesions, and reduced salivary flow. With the aging of the population, a higher prevalence of dementia and an increase in oral health problems can be expected. It is of interest to have an overview of the prevalence of oral problems in people with dementia. Older people with dementia have multiple oral health problems related to oral soft tissues, such as gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets, mucosal lesions, and reduced salivary flow. The oral health and hygiene of older people with dementia is not sufficient and could be improved with oral care education of formal and informal caregivers and regular professional dental care to people
National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...
The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…
Markopoulos, Anastasios K
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665
Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.
This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Interlocutory Actions in Hearing Proceedings § 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested...
Mayo, Isabel Cantón; Barrioluengo, Elena Pérez
Oral communicative competence enables speakers of a language to interact effectively with each other. Oral communicative competence includes a wide semantic field since the oral expression is a way of expression for the thought and it provides feedback and develops by means of the linguistic function (Vygotsky, 1992; Piaget, 1983a, 1983b; Pinker,…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral information. 1.10 Section 1.10... Disclosure Provisions § 1.10 Oral information. (a) Officers and employees of the Department may, in response to requests, orally provide information contained in records of the Department that are determined to...
Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena
Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…
Swinson, B D; Witherow, H; Amin, M; Kalavrezos, N; Newman, L
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignancy, with a relatively poor prognosis. Treatment of oral cancer has a major impact on afflicted patients because it affects speech, swallowing and mastication. Surgery is the main treatment of oral cancer, as a single modality or combined with radiotherapy. Vigilance is vital for early diagnosis and better overall prognosis.
Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J
Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.
Bearelly, Shethal; Cheung, Steven W
Sensory function in the oral cavity and oropharynx is integral to effective deglutition and speech production. The main hurdle to evaluation of tactile consequences of upper aerodigestive tract diseases and treatments is access to a reliable clinical tool. We propose a rapid and reliable procedure to determine tactile thresholds using buckling monofilaments to advance care. To develop novel sensory testing monofilaments and map tactile thresholds of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures. A prospective cross-sectional study of 37 healthy adults (12 men, 25 women), specifically without a medical history of head and neck surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, was carried out in an academic tertiary medical center to capture normative data on tactile sensory function in oral structures. Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments were constructed by securing nylon monofilament sutures (2-0 through 9-0) in the lumen of 5-French ureteral catheters, exposing 20 mm for tapping action. Buckling force consistency was evaluated for 3 lots of each suture size. Sensory thresholds of 4 oral cavity and 2 oropharyngeal subsites in healthy participants (n = 37) were determined by classical signal detection methodology (d-prime ≥1). In 21 participants, test-retest reliability of sensory thresholds was evaluated. Separately in 16 participants, sensory thresholds determined by a modified staircase method were cross-validated with those obtained by classical signal detection. Buckling forces of successive suture sizes were distinct (P < .001), consistent (Cronbach α, 0.99), and logarithmically related (r = 0.99, P < .001). Test-retest reliability of sensory threshold determination was high (Cronbach α, >0.7). The lower lip, anterior tongue, and buccal mucosa were more sensitive than the soft palate, posterior tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall (P < .001). Threshold determination by classical signal detection and modified staircase methods were highly correlated (r = 0
Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.
Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies. PMID:22988012
Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel
Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
A novel conceptual approach is described that is based on the transfer of hyperpolarization from para-hydrogen in view of generating a population imbalance between the two spin isomers of H 2 O. The approach is analogous to SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) and makes use of the transfer of spin order from para-hydrogen to H 2 O in a hypothetical organometallic complex. The spin order transfer is expected to be most efficient at avoided level crossings. The highest achievable enrichment levels of para- and ortho-water are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mortada, I; Leone, A; Gerges Geagea, A; Mortada, R; Matar, C; Rizzo, M; Hajj Hussein, I; Massaad-Massade, L; Jurjus, A
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, have important extraintestinal manifestations, notably in the oral cavity. These oral manifestations can constitute important clinical clues in the diagnosis and management of IBD, and include changes at the immune and bacterial levels. Aphthous ulcers, pyostomatitis vegetans, cobblestoning and gingivitis are important oral findings frequently observed in IBD patients. Their presentations vary considerably and might be well diagnosed and distinguished from other oral lesions. Infections, drug side effects, deficiencies in some nutrients and many other diseases involved with oral manifestations should also be taken into account. This article discusses the most recent findings on the oral manifestations of IBD with a focus on bacterial modulations and immune changes. It also includes an overview on options for management of the oral lesions of IBD.
Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester
The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506
Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi
There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010-2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in North-Central, North-West, South-East, South-South and South-West geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used for the sample selection. We administered a structured questionnaire to a total of 7,630 participants. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and oral health services utilization pattern of participants was obtained. We interviewed 7, 630 participants (55.6% female). The participants ages ranged between 18 and 81 years, mean age was 37.96 (SD = 13.2). Overall 21.2% of the participants rated their oral health status as very good, 37.1% as good and 27.4% as fair. Only 26.4% reported having visited the dentist at least once prior to the conduct of the survey. More than half of these visits (54.9%) were for treatment purpose. Utilization of oral health services was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with being older, more educated and being engaged in a skilled profession. More educated persons, females and younger persons used toothbrushes for daily tooth cleaning. Age, sex, marital status, level of education and occupation were significantly related to daily frequency of tooth cleaning (p < 0.05). Our results show that while most Nigerian adults have a positive view of their oral health status, majority reported poor oral health utilization habits. Older persons resident in the northern zones of the country and less educated persons displayed
Vasiliou, A; Shankardass, K; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C
Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25-64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and access to dental insurance were examined as effect modifiers. A positive relationship between current stress and poor oral health was observed for both outcomes (oral pain coefficient 0.32, 95 % CI 0.26-0.38; general oral health coefficient 0.28, 95 % CI 0.19-0.36). Effects on oral pain were stronger for the uninsured, while effects on general oral health were stronger with decreasing socioeconomic position. Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health, and that this relationship is modified by dental insurance and socioeconomic position. These findings warrant a greater focus on the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease, including how perceived stress contributes to health inequities in self-reported oral health status. Patients experiencing stressful lives may differentially require closer monitoring and more vigilant maintenance of their oral health, above and beyond that which is needed to achieve a state of health in the oral environment of less stressed individuals. There may be health promoting effects of addressing psychosocial concerns related to dental care - particularly for the poor and uninsured.
van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M
The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.
Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G
Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral
Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A
Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte
This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157
Lee, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Chiang, Hui-Ying
Current oral assessment scales are designed to assess the severity of oral health in cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, no scale is available that assesses the overall oral health situation of patients. However, this type of scale is critical for guiding nursing staff to understand the oral status of postoperative patients and for facilitating the development of patient-centered oral nursing treatments. To develop the oral assessment scale for post-operational patients with oral cancer (OASPOCa) and establish its psychometric properties. The ten associated items of the OASPOCa were determined using a series of five professional council meetings and two verifications of content validity by 5 experts in the field of oral cancer care. A pilot study was conducted on 30 participants and a formal study was conducted on 100 participants at the ICU and the oral and maxillofacial surgery ward at a medical center in southern Taiwan. All of the participants were oral cancer patients who had been admitted to excise tumors of oral cancer. None of the participants had been treated previously for oral cancer using chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity of the OASPOCa were evaluated. A content validity of 1.0 was obtained. The inter-rater reliability assessment in the pilot study yielded ICCs of .97 for two assessment items ("lips" and "tongue") and 1.0 for the remaining eight items. The Cronbach's α coefficient was .72 for the OASPOCa. Further, a statistically significant negative relationship was found between overall oral status and oral comfort level (r = -.93, p < .001). The oral assessment scale for post-operational patients with oral cancer was found to have good reliability and validity. This scale is a reliable tool for assessing the oral status of postoperative oral cancer patients.
Verma, Digvijay; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Dubey, Ashok Kumar
Human oral cavity harbors the second most abundant microbiota after the gastrointestinal tract. The expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD) that was last updated on November 22, 2017, contains the information of approximately 772 prokaryotic species, where 70% is cultivable, and 30% belong to the uncultivable class of microorganisms along with whole genome sequences of 482 taxa. Out of 70% culturable species, 57% have already been assigned to their names. The 16S rDNA profiling of the healthy oral cavity categorized the inhabitant bacteria into six broad phyla, viz. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes constituting 96% of total oral bacteria. These hidden oral micro-inhabitants exhibit a direct influence on human health, from host's metabolism to immune responses. Altered oral microflora has been observed in several diseases such as diabetes, bacteremia, endocarditis, cancer, autoimmune disease and preterm births. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand the oral microbial diversity and how it fluctuates under diseased/perturbed conditions. Advances in metagenomics and next-generation sequencing techniques generate rapid sequences and provide extensive information of inhabitant microorganisms of a niche. Thus, the retrieved information can be utilized for developing microbiome-based biomarkers for their use in early diagnosis of oral and associated diseases. Besides, several apex companies have shown keen interest in oral microbiome for its diagnostic and therapeutic potential indicating a vast market opportunity. This review gives an insight of various associated aspects of the human oral microbiome.
Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K , phytonadione , IV , intravenous , injectable , and oral . The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.
Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar
The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p < 0.01). This study highlighted the importance of improved educational methods for dentists on oral cancer detection and prevention.
Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue
To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.
Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P
The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio
To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.
Sattar, Mohammed; Lane, Majella E
Naratriptan (NAR) is currently used as the hydrochloride salt (NAR.HCl) for the treatment of migraine and is available in tablet dosage forms for oral administration. Buccal drug delivery offers a number of advantages compared with conventional oral delivery including rapid absorption, avoidance of first pass metabolism and improved patient compliance. We have previously prepared and characterised the base form of NAR and shown that it has more favourable properties for buccal delivery compared with NAR.HCl. This study describes the design and evaluation of a range of formulations for oral transmucosal delivery of NAR base. Permeation studies were conducted using excised porcine buccal tissue mounted in Franz cells. Of the neat solvents examined, Transcutol ® P (TC) showed the greatest enhancement effects and was the vehicle in which NAR was most soluble. The mechanisms by which TC might promote permeation were further probed using binary systems containing TC with either buffer or Miglyol 812 ® (MG). Mass balance studies were also conducted for these systems. The permeation of TC as well as NAR was also monitored for TC:MG formulations. Overall, TC appears to promote enhanced membrane permeation of NAR because of its rapid uptake into the buccal tissue. Synergistic enhancement of buccal permeation was observed when TC was combined with MG and this is attributed to the increased thermodynamic activity of NAR in these formulations. Significantly enhanced permeation of NAR was achieved for TC:MG and this was also associated with less TC remaining on the tissue or in the tissue at the end of the experiment. To our knowledge this is the first report where both enhancer and active have been monitored in buccal permeation studies. The findings underline the importance of understanding the fate of vehicle components for rational formulation design of buccal delivery systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.
We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.
Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah
Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing
Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p < 0.001). 2) Severe cases of dry mouth (Grade-2&3) were noted in 20.0% and 64.8% in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively ( p < 0.0001). Candidiasis complication rate was significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.
Sampaio-Maia, B; Caldas, I M; Pereira, M L; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Araujo, R
The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition. In oral pathology, oral microorganisms are associated with several diseases, namely dental caries, periodontal diseases, endodontic infections, and also oral cancer. In systemic diseases, nonoral infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are among the most prevalent pathologies linked with oral cavity microorganisms. The knowledge on how colonization occurs, how oral microbiome coevolves with the host, and how oral microorganisms interact with each other may be a key factor to understand diseases etiology and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou
A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.
Reichart, Peter A; Philipsen, Hans Peter
Oral erythroplakia (OE) is considered a rare potentially malignant lesion of the oral mucosa. Reports entirely devoted to OE are very few, and only two reviews none of which are of recent date have been published. Only the true, velvety, red homogeneous OE has been clearly defined while the terminology for mixed red and white lesions is complex, ill-defined and confusing. A recent case control study of OE from India reported a prevalence of 0.2%. A range of prevalences between 0.02% and 0.83% from different geographical areas has been documented. OE is predominantly seen in the middle aged and elderly. One study from India showed a female:male ratio of 1:1.04. The soft palate, the floor of the mouth and the buccal mucosa is commonly affected. A specific type of OE occurs in chutta smokers in India. Lesions of OE are typically less than 1.5 cm in diameter. The etiology of OE reveals a strong association with tobacco consumption and the use of alcohol. Histopathologically, it has been documented that in OE of the homogenous type, 51% showed invasive carcinoma, 40% carcinoma in situ and 9% mild or moderate dysplasia. Recently, genomic aberrations with DNA aneuploidy has been demonstrated. p53 mutations with different degrees of dysplasia may play a role in some cases of OE. Transformation rates are considered to be the highest among all precancerous oral lesions and conditions. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Data on laser excision are not available. Recurrence rates seem to be high, reliable data are, however, missing. More studies on OE are strongly needed to evaluate a number of so far unanswered questions. The natural history of OE is unknown. Do OEs develop de novo or are they developing from oral leukoplakia through several intermediate stages of white/red lesions? The possible role of fungal infection (Candida micro-organisms) is not clear as is the possible role of HPV co-infection in the development of OE. More data on incidence and prevalence
It is possible that oral contraception (OC) may cause hepatic side effects, such as liver tumors, jaundice, and biliar lithiasis. Carcinogenic side effects of OC depend widely on age, education, marital status, and, apparently, even religion of users. Cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and breast cancer are problems continuously investigated with different results. Contradictory studies have been conducted on the possibility of infections of the urinary tract in OC users, and on the possibility of congenital abnormalities in children of OC users. Statistics concerning OC must be carefully studied, and the balance between advantages and risks carefully weighted. Patients on OC must be regularly surveilled throughout the period of treatment.
Baker, Jonathon L.; Bor, Batbileg; Agnello, Melissa; Shi, Wenyuan; He, Xuesong
Although great strides have been made in understanding the complex bacterial community inhabiting the human oral cavity, for a variety of (mainly technical) reasons the ecological contributions of oral fungi, viruses, phages, and the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group of ultra-small bacteria have remained understudied. Several recent reports have illustrated the diversity and importance of these organisms in the oral cavity, while TM7x and Candida albicans have served as crucial paradigms for CPR species and oral fungi, respectively. A comprehensive understanding of the oral microbiota and its influence on host health and disease will require a holistic view that emphasizes interactions among different residents within the oral community, as well as their interaction with the host. PMID:28089325
Larjava, Hannu; Wiebe, Colin; Gallant-Behm, Corrie; Hart, David A; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari
Our research group is comparing clinical, histological and molecular healing profiles of oral and skin wounds using human and pig models. The goal is to determine the molecular cues that lead to scarless healing in the oral mucosa and use that information to develop scar prevention therapies for skin and prevent aberrant wound healing in the oral cavity. Wound healing in human and pig palatal mucosa is almost identical, and scar formation is reduced in oral wounds compared with skin. The striking difference between these tissues is transient and rapidly resolving inflammation in oral wounds compared with long-lasting inflammation in the skin wounds. Currently, we are looking at wound transcriptomes (genes differentially regulated) and proteomes (a set of proteins) to investigate how these wound healing responses in skin and oral mucosa are regulated at the molecular level.
Yap, T; McCullough, M
The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Glascoe, Alison; Brown, Ronald; Robinson, Grace; Hailu, Kassahun
The oral cavity is a part of the body. The health of the oral cavity affects the health of the entire body. This relationship is reciprocal, as the overall health of an individual will also affect the health of that individual's oral cavity. Periodontal disease is a common, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. It has been proposed that periodontal disease is a risk factor for systemic diseases such as diabetes.
Rajendra Santosh, Arvind Babu; Ogle, Orrett E; Williams, Dwight; Woodbine, Edward F
Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common dental infections and are constantly increasing worldwide. Distribution, occurrence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, odontogenic infections, antibiotic resistance, oral mucosal infections, and microbe-related oral cancer are important to understand the public impact and methods of controlling such disease. Distribution of human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus -related oral cancers in the US population is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bell, Colin S
Oral and maxillofacial surgery has been and will continue to be one of the premiere health care specialties in the United States. Incomes of oral and maxillofacial surgeons are among the highest of any profession in the country. With efficient scheduling, organized business systems, efficient fee schedules, and appropriate use of consultants, oral and maxillofacial surgery can lead to a lifestyle that is relatively stress free, allows a direct route to financial independence, and provides a great public service.
This policy is a compilation of current concepts and scientific evidence required to understand and implement practice-based preventive oral health programs designed to improve oral health outcomes for all children and especially children at significant risk of dental decay. In addition, it reviews cariology and caries risk assessment and defines, through available evidence, appropriate recommendations for preventive oral health intervention by primary care pediatric practitioners.
Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C
Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia.
Bagán-Sebastián, José V
Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762
Baricevic, Marinka; Mravak-Stipetic, Marinka; Majstorovic, Martina; Baranovic, Marijan; Baricevic, Denis; Loncar, Bozana
Oral mucosal lesions can result from irritation caused by orthodontic appliances or malocclusion, but their frequency is not known. To examine the frequency of oral mucosal lesions in wearers of orthodontic appliances in comparison to children with malocclusion. This study comprised 111 subjects: 60 wearers of orthodontic appliances and 51 controls (aged between 6 and 18 years). Type and severity of mucosal lesions, their topography, gingival inflammation, and oral hygiene status were determined by using clinical indices. Mucosal lesions were more present in wearers of orthodontic appliances than in children with malocclusion. Gingival inflammation, erosion, ulceration, and contusion were the most common findings in orthodontic patients. The severity of gingival inflammation was in correlation with oral hygiene status; the poorer oral hygiene, the more severe gingival inflammation was. Better oral hygiene status was found in children during orthodontic treatment than in children with malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment carries a higher risk of mucosal lesions and implies greater awareness of better oral hygiene as shown by the results of this study. Oral hygiene instructions and early treatment of oral lesions are important considerations in better patient's motivation, treatment planning, and successful outcome. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno
Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010
Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John
In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.
Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar
The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p < 0.05); yet, third-grade students performed significantly higher scores in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia for most likely to be precancerous (p = 0.001; p < 0.05). This study highlighted the importance of improved educational methods for dentistry on oral cancer detection and prevention.
Ren, Lian-Jie; Liu, Juan; Ma, Jun-Wei; Yan, Jia-Chen; Yin, Li-Fang
Oral film is a new type of oral preparation. Due to portability, simple preparation process and good clinical compliance, oral films have become the focus of novel drug delivery system in recent years. Meanwhile, oral films have been gradually used in the development of Chinese medicine preparations. According to the application and approval situation of different types of oral films both at home and abroad in recent years, their research and development status was analyzed, including the basic concept, formulation, manufacturing process and quality control, as well as related progress and development prospects of oral films applied in traditional Chinese medicine. Some suggestions on the technical evaluation of oral films were put forward by considering specific requirements from regulatory agencies. This paper could provide some references for the development and evaluation of oral films. Due to the complexity of the drug substances and the particularity of the drug product, the development and application of oral films in traditional Chinese medicine are still faced with opportunity and challenges. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Willershausen, B; Schlösser, E; Ernst, C P
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral-hygiene instruction in improving oral health in 100 patients following oral hygiene instruction, with and without use of an intra-oral camera. The two groups of 50 patients were similar in age and sex distributions, frequency of caries, plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding. Prospective improvements in oral hygiene and compliance were measured by means of plaque levels and gingival bleeding at baseline and four weeks later. While both groups showed a clear reduction in plaque accumulation, the test group benefited from the use of the intra-oral camera. A majority of patients (88 per cent) thought that the extra information provided by the camera was helpful and desirable. This study demonstrates that the intra-oral camera can effectively augment oral-hygiene instruction and help create improvements in patient compliance.
Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412
Faissner, Simon; Gold, Ralf
Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes owing to the approval of new medications, some of which are available as oral formulations. Until now, the four orally available medications, fingolimod, dimethylfumarate (BG-12), teriflunomide, and cladribine have received market authorization, whereas laquinimod is still under development. Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibitor, which is typically used as escalation therapy and leads to up to 60% reduction of the annualized relapse rate, but might also have neuroprotective properties. In addition, there are three more specific S1P agonists in late stages of development: siponimod, ponesimod, and ozanimod. Dimethylfumarate has immunomodulatory and cytoprotective functions and is used as baseline therapy. Teriflunomide, the active metabolite of the rheumatoid arthritis medication leflunomide, targets the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thus inhibiting the proliferation of lymphocytes by depletion of pyrimidines. Here we will review the mechanisms of action, clinical trial data, as well as data about safety and tolerability of the compounds. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Soto, Jaime; Soto, Paula
The well-known problems of classic treatment of the leishmaniases with pentavalent antimony (reduced efficacy), difficulties of administration and increasing frequency and severity of adverse events have stimulated the search for new drugs to treat these diseases. Other injectable, oral and topical drugs have not been consistently effective, especially in the modern World. Beginning in 1998, Indian researchers conducted several trials with hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) in patients with visceral leishmaniasis, and in 1999, clinical studies were initiated in Colombia for cutaneous disease. More than 2500 patients have been treated, including patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal disease and patients coinfected with HIV. Cure rates between 91 and 100% were reached with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days, with no difference between treatment-naive and relapsing patients. Mild gastrointestinal events were present in 35-60% of patients and 10-20% had mild transaminase and creatinine elevations. Miltefosine has potent leishmanicidal activity as a consequence of its interference in parasite metabolic pathways and the induction of apoptosis. Miltefosine is the first effective and safe oral agent with the potential to treat all major clinical presentations of leishmaniasis.
Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth
Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pham, Thuy A V
In the present study, the relationship between the turbidity of mouth-rinse water and oral health conditions, including oral malodor, in patients with (n = 148) and without (n = 231) periodontitis was examined. The turbidity of 20 mL distilled water that the patients rinsed in their mouths 10 times was measured using a turbidimeter. Oral malodor was evaluated using an organoleptic test and Oral Chroma. Oral health conditions, including decayed teeth, periodontal status, oral hygiene status, proteolytic activity of the N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-2-napthilamide (BANA) test on the tongue coating, and salivary flow rate, were assessed. Turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and all oral health parameters in the periodontitis group. In the non-periodontitis group, turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and oral health parameters, including dental plaque, tongue coating, BANA test, and salivary flow rate. The regression analysis indicated that turbidity was significantly associated with methyl mercaptan and the BANA test in the periodontitis group, and with hydrogen sulfide, dental plaque, tongue coating, and salivary flow rate in the non-periodontitis group. The findings of the present study indicate that the turbidity of mouth-rinse water could be used as an indicator of oral health conditions, including oral malodor. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
The availability of both oral and written historical narratives provides the Readers Theater adapter with a rich opportunity to experiment with mixing oral and written narrative styles in documentary form. Those who plan to use such mixing must consider the differences between oral and written narratives. Writers and readers have almost unlimited…
Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N
This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.
Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela
Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.
Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121
Tenório, Jefferson da Rocha; Gonzaga, Amanda Katarinny Goes; Gonçalves, Patrícia Guerra Peixe; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes
Resumo A hiperplasia angiolinfoide com eosinofilia (HALE) é considerada uma lesão vascular benigna rara que acomete, principalmente, o tecido cutâneo e subcutâneo da região de cabeça e pescoço, mas incomum na cavidade oral. Sua etiopatogenia permanece indefinida, sendo descrita como proliferação vascular reacional, malformação vascular ou neoplasia. Tem como principal diagnóstico diferencial a doença de Kimura. Este trabalho relata um caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 50 anos, que exibia aumento de volume nodular na mucosa do lábio superior, com 3 cm de dimensão e 7 anos de evolução. Após a biópsia excisional, o exame histopatológico mostrou lesão bem encapsulada multilobulada com proliferação de capilares sanguíneos com células endoteliais de aspecto epitelioide, infiltrado inflamatório difuso com linfócitos, plasmócitos, inúmeros eosinófilos e presença de folículos linfoides. A análise imuno-histoquímica revelou positividade para CD34 e Ki-67, o que, juntamente com o exame morfológico, direcionou o diagnóstico para HALE. PMID:29930611
Cocetti, Robert A.
The primary goal of the basic course in speech should be to investigate oral communication rather than public speaking. Fundamental to understanding oral communication is some understanding of the oral mind, that operates when orality is the primary means of expression. Since narrative invites action rather than leisurely analysis, the oral mind…
Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A
The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in
Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668
Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.
While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems of adult and fetal origin. Given the similarity of neonatal and fetal oral epithelia with respect to epithelial stratification and density of HIV-susceptible immune cells, we used fetal oral the epithelium as a model for neonatal/infant oral epithelium. We found that cell-free HIV traversed fetal oral and intestinal epithelia and infected HIV-susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes, Langerhans/dendritic cells, and macrophages. To study the penetration of cell-associated virus into fetal oral and intestinal epithelia, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes were added to the surfaces of fetal oral and intestinal epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages, but not lymphocytes, transmigrated across fetal oral epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes transmigrated across fetal intestinal epithelia. In contrast to the fetal oral/intestinal epithelia, cell-free HIV transmigration through adult oral epithelia was inefficient and virions did not infect intraepithelial and subepithelial HIV-susceptible cells. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes did not transmigrate through intact adult oral epithelia. Transmigration of cell-free and cell-associated HIV across the fetal oral/intestinal mucosal epithelium may serve as an initial mechanism for HIV MTCT. PMID:22205732
Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen
Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hahn, Sidney; Michaelis, Joyce
It is important to introduce and facilitate oral activities in the second language classroom with enthusiasm in a climate of mutual support and cooperation. Students should understand that mistakes are inevitable but not fatal, and that each attempt will build greater ease and confidence in using the language for communication. Oral proficiency…
Peters, Rachel L; Dang, Thanh D; Allen, Katrina J
Food allergy continues to be a significant public health concern for which there are no approved treatments and management strategies primarily include allergen avoidance and pharmacological measures for accidental exposures. Food allergy is thought to result from either a failure to establish oral tolerance or the breakdown of existing oral tolerance, and therefore, experimental preventative and treatment strategies are now aimed at inducing specific oral tolerance. This may occur in infancy prior to the development of food allergy through the optimal timing of dietary exposure (primary oral tolerance induction) or as a treatment for established food allergy through oral immunotherapy (secondary oral tolerance induction). Trials examining the effectiveness of early dietary allergen exposure to prevent food allergy have yielded promising results for peanut allergy but not so for other allergens, although the results of several trials are yet to be published. Although infant feeding guidelines no longer advise to avoid allergenic foods and exposure to food allergens orally is an important step in inducing food tolerance by the immune system, evidence regarding the optimal timing, dose and form of these foods into the infant's diet is lacking. Likewise, oral immunotherapy trials appear promising for inducing desensitization; however, the long-term efficacy in achieving sustained desensitization and optimal protocols to achieve this is unknown. More research is needed in this emerging field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gold, Ellen Reid
Uses oral theory to examine the relationship between cognition and orality. Analyzes how the electronic media mimic the kind of interaction between speaker and audience characteristic of preliterate cultures. Argues that Ronald Reagan's effectiveness on television stems from his use of rhetorical structures characteristic of preliterate oral…
Mills, Daniel; Gaer, David C.
A study examined introductions used in competitive oral interpretation events. A total of 97 introductions (from four oral interpretation events at a nationally recognized Midwestern intercollegiate forensic tournament) were analyzed using four categories: Descriptive, Simple Theme, Descriptive and Simple Theme, and Argumentative Theme. Results…
... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.124 Oral... within five business days of the filing of the paper. The request must be filed as a separate paper and... exhibits must be served at least five business days before the oral argument and filed no later than the...
Young, Richard F.
Looks at a sample conversation and examines layers of interpretation that different academic traditions have constructed to interpret it. Reviews studies that have compared the discourse of oral interaction in assessment with oral discourse in contexts outside the assessment. Discusses studies that related ways of speaking to cultural values of…
Eisemon, T O; Patel, V L
Oral rehydration mixtures are readily available in rural Kenya, but the instructions that accompany them are not always clear. Mothers will understand such instructions more readily if they explain the principles of oral rehydration and describe in a logical way the sequence of procedures to be followed.
... location of an oral hearing shall be in one of the following cities: Albuquerque, N.M.; Atlanta, Ga... issues to be tried at the hearing; (ii) An identification of each witness expected to be called by that..., which, unless modified to prevent injustice, shall control the scope of matters to be tried at the oral...
... location of an oral hearing shall be in one of the following cities: Albuquerque, N.M.; Atlanta, Ga... issues to be tried at the hearing; (ii) An identification of each witness expected to be called by that..., which, unless modified to prevent injustice, shall control the scope of matters to be tried at the oral...
... location of an oral hearing shall be in one of the following cities: Albuquerque, N.M.; Atlanta, Ga... issues to be tried at the hearing; (ii) An identification of each witness expected to be called by that..., which, unless modified to prevent injustice, shall control the scope of matters to be tried at the oral...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102 Section 15.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral...
... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.97 Oral... request an oral presentation at any time prior to closing of the appeal record (§ 251.98). A Reviewing... presentations may be open to public attendance, but participation is limited to parties to the appeal. The...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements § 211.16 Oral hearing. If an...
Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.
Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…
Jeon, Eun Hee
This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…
Arens, Karla; Gove, Mary K.; Abate, Ron
Research suggests that oral reading fluency frees up working memory so readers can focus on the meaning of a text, but traditional instruction in oral reading can be problematic in classrooms with students at different reading levels. Differentiating instruction, providing motivation to practice, as well as timely corrective feedback are practical…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral...
Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi
This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a) Any...
Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)
Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori
A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…
... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will...
Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu
Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection.
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.
Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…
Hoare, Anilei; Marsh, Philip D.; Diaz, Patricia I.
SUMMARY The three main oral diseases of humans, that is caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Other strategies such as whole oral microbiome transplantation or modification of community function by enrichment with health-promoting indigenous oral strains may offer more promise but research in this field is still in its infancy. Any microbial-based therapeutics for oral conditions, however, are likely to be only one component within a holistic preventive strategy that should also aim at modification of the environmental influences responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of microbiome shifts associated with oral dysbiosis. PMID:28840820
Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes
Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…
Asnaashari, Mohammad; Zadsirjan, Saeede
In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed. PMID:25653807
Hartman, Maryann; And Others
To dramatize the human resource potential of persons over 65 years old and of the disabled, oral interpretation presentations using oral histories were developed. These presentations were designed to lead to a stimulating exchange of ideas concerning the potential contribution to daily life of the elderly and of the disabled, and to pose questions…
van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F
Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moscicki, Eve K.; Tallal, Paula
Presents study exploring oral reading errors of normally developing readers to determine any developmental differences in learning phoneme-grapheme units; to discover if the grapheme representations of some phonemes are more difficult to read than others; and to replicate results reported by Fowler, et. al. Findings show most oral reading errors…
Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi
High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098
Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi
High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals.
Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…
de Montfort Supple, M
It has been agreed for some time now that reading is primarily a language-based activity and that deficits in oral language will be reflected in deficits in reading ability. This paper explores the association between specific aspects of oral and written language as reflected in current literature and research.
Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.
Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…
AbuHilal, Mohn'd; Walsh, Scott; Shear, Neil
Erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis are uncommon but severe debilitating variants of oral lichen planus. Treatment of these presentations is difficult and challenging. A 44-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic with chronic painful lichen planus-related gingivitis and buccal erosions. She has failed multiple treatments including topical clobetasol and tacrolimus, intralesional corticosteroids and several systemic and immunosuppressive agents. Following completion of three months of treatment with oral apremilast at a dose of 30 mg twice daily, significant improvement was noted in her disease activity. Oral apremilast may be a safe and effective treatment for erosive oral lichen planus.
Serra-Guillén, C; Requena, C; Alfaro, A; Hueso, L; Sanmartín, O; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Botella-Estrada, R; Martorell-Calatayud, A; Guillén, C
Lymphomatoid papulosis is a cutaneous lymphoma with an indolent clinical behaviour characterized by chronic development of recurrent, self-limited lesions appearing as necrotic papules and with a pathology compatible with T cell lymphoma. Mucosal involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis is very rare but has been reported in the literature. It usually appears as ulcers in patients previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis. From a histological perspective it is characterized by an infiltrate of CD 30 positive atypical lymphocytes together with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes and plasma cells. We report the case of a man previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis that developed two ulcerated lesions in the tongue whose biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of oral involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis.
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931
Ross, C B
The challenges to the dental profession include the unemployed dentists, the radical changes to the numbers of dental schools and their intake of new students; and the imbalance which exists on a global scale between oral health personnel and service need and demand. Workforce planning needs clearly defined goals which relate to the nature of disease, the shift from treatment to prevention and consumer expectations. A wide variety of information is required to facilitate communication and co-operation with elements of the political system, the educational system, professional bodies, health service agencies and consumers. It is essential that national planning and monitoring groups be established with membership from dental associations, educational institutions and government. In workforce planning there must be the ability to accept change, to be creative, to be positive, and to be decisive.
Goadsby, P J; Zagami, A S; Donnan, G A; Symington, G; Anthony, M; Bladin, P F; Lance, J W
The efficacy in acute migraine of oral sumatriptan was assessed in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 61 patients (mean age 39 [SD 10] years). 41 completed treatment of four attacks, two with sumatriptan 100 mg and two with placebo. The response rate (reduction in headache from moderate or severe to mild or absent at 2 h) was 51% (45/89) with sumatriptan and 10% (9/93) with placebo (p less than 0.01); rescue medication was needed at 2 h in 41% and 88%, respectively. Of 28 patients headache-free at 24 h, 11 (39%) had recurrent headache within 24 h. There were no substantial side-effects. Thus, sumatriptan is an effective well-tolerated treatment for acute migraine attacks.
Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry
Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080
Singh, Vijendra P; Nettemu, Sunil K; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U
Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.
Singh, Vijendra P.; Nettemu, Sunil K.; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U.
Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions. PMID:29142443
Marthaler, Thomas M
The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Silk, Hugh; Kwok, Amy
Oral health is one of the most unmet health care needs of adolescents. Oral disease can have a profound effect on overall health, including pain, missed school, heart disease, and even death. Adolescents have specific needs pertaining to oral health in addition to the usual lifelong issues of caries management, sports injury prevention, and dental referrals. Teen years are a higher risk time for oral piercings, increased sugar intake, nicotine initiation, and orthodontic considerations. Adolescents need a unique approach to motivate them about their oral health issues. This is particularly important because lifelong health habits are created during these formative years, and prevention opportunities for sealants and varnish are only available at this age. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2017. All rights reserved.
Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D
Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rosebush, Molly S; Rao, Shailaja Kishan; Samant, Sandeep; Gu, Weikuan; Handorf, Charles R; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Nosrat, Christopher A
Oral cancer is arguably the most serious condition that dental providers may encounter in their practice. The relatively poor prognosis associated with oral cancer highlights the importance of the dental team's awareness of the disease. While many characteristics of oral cancer have endured over time, new research is revealing trends that are changing the way we approach its screening, diagnosis and treatment. In this report, we provide a translational overview of oral cancer, including risk factors, signs and symptoms, clinical management, as well as our recent findings on the role of chronic inflammation in the development of the disease. In addition, our recent genetic profiling approach in both cancer cell lines and in patients has identified potential biomarkers, molecular pathways and therapeutic drugs (Velcade and Aspirin) for oral squamous cell carcinomas. This comprehensive review should be of interest to all dental professionals.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. PMID:24525450
Tada, Akio; Shiiba, Masashi; Yokoe, Hidetaka; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Tanzawa, Hideki
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between oral bacterial colonization and oral motor dysfunction. Oral motor dysfunction (swallowing and speech disorders) and detection of oral bacterial species from dental plaque in 55 elderly persons who had remained hospitalized for more than 3 months were investigated and statistically analyzed. The detection rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without a swallowing disorder. A similar result was found with regard to the presence of a speech disorder. About half of subjects who had oral motor dysfunction and hypoalbuminemia had colonization by MRSA and/or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results suggest that the combination of oral motor dysfunction and hypoalbminemia elevated the risk of opportunistic microorganisms colonization in the oral cavity of elderly patients hospitalized over the long term.
Atassi, Farhad; Awartani, Fatin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral hygiene status of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The following indices were used to evaluate the oral hygiene status of patients in orthodontic treatment: gingival bleeding index (GBI), plaque index (PI), and ortho-plaque index (OPI). A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared covering oral hygiene practice, oral hygiene cleaning aids, and number of visits to a dental hygienist. Fifty patients (15-30 years old) were selected for the study from among the orthodontic patients treated at the King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that the PI and OPI were high with mean scores of 65.24 (SD 16.43) and 53.56 (SD 8.74) respectively, while the average GBI was a much lower value at 19.14 (SD 7.95). No significant difference was observed between male and female patients for the PI (p=0.925) and for the OPI (p=0.072), but a significant difference was observed for the GBI at the 5 percent significance level (p=0.033). The result of OPI showed that 20 (40 percent) of the patients had fair oral hygiene, whereas 30 (60 percent) had poor oral hygiene. Only 16 (32 percent) of the participants reported visiting the dental hygienist during their orthodontic treatment, while the remaining 34 (68 percent) did not. The oral home care of the orthodontic patients surveyed was not at an optimal level, which indicated the need to establish an oral hygiene maintenance program. Inadequate oral home care among orthodontic patients may make them more prone to develop gingivitis during orthodontic treatment. It is, therefore, essential that oral hygiene instructions and a hygiene maintenance program not be overlooked during orthodontic treatment.
Fangtham, M; Magder, L S; Petri, M A
We assessed the frequency of oral candidiasis and the association between demographic variables, disease-related variables, corticosteroid treatment, other treatments and the occurrence of oral candidiasis in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. In this large prospective cohort study of 2258 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), demographic and clinical associates of oral candidiasis were estimated by univariate, multivariate and within-person regression models. There were 53,548 cohort visits. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed at 675 visits (1.25%) in 325 (14%) of the patients. In the multivariate analyses, oral candidiasis was associated with African-American ethnicity, SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, a history of bacterial infection, prednisone use and immunosuppressive use. The urine protein by urine dip stick was higher in SLE patients with oral candidiasis. Considering only patients who had candidiasis at some visits in a 'within-person' analysis, candidiasis was more frequent in visits with higher SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, proteinuria by urine dip stick, a history of bacterial infection and prednisone use. The use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a lower risk of oral candidiasis, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.50) in the within-person analysis models. This study identified multiple risk factors for oral candidiasis in SLE. Inspection of the oral cavity for signs of oral candidiasis is recommended especially in SLE patients with active disease, proteinuria, high white blood cell count, taking prednisone, immunosuppressive drugs or antibiotics. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081
Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna
Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.
Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395
Gonzalez-Moles, M A; Gil-Montoya, J A; Ruiz-Avila, I; Bravo, M
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are considered potentially malignant disorders with a cancer incidence of around 1% of cases, although this estimation is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the cancer incidence in a case series of patients with OLP and OLL and to explore clinicopathological aspects that may cause underestimation of the cancer incidence in these diseases. A retrospective study was conducted of 102 patients diagnosed with OLP (n = 21, 20.58%) or OLL (n = 81) between January 2006 and January 2016. Patients were informed of the risk of malignization and followed up annually. The number of sessions programmed for each patient was compared with the number actually attended. Follow-up was classified as complete (100% attendance), good (75-99%), moderate (25-74%), or poor (<25% attendance) compliance. Cancer was developed by four patients (3.9%), three males and one male. One of these developed three carcinomas, which were diagnosed at the follow-up visit (two in lower gingiva, one in floor of mouth); one had OLL and the other three had OLP. The carcinoma developed in mucosal areas with no OLP or OLL involvement in three of these patients, while OLP and cancer were diagnosed simultaneously in the fourth. Of the six carcinomas diagnosed, five (83.3%) were T1 and one (16.7%) T2. None were N+, and all patients remain alive and disease-free. The cancer incidence in OLP and OLL appears to be underestimated due to the strict exclusion criteria usually imposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Patil, P S; Pujar, P; Poornima, S; Subbareddy, V V
To determine the prevalence of oral malodour in Indian children and also to assess the relationship of oral malodour with oral hygiene, gingival health, dental caries, tongue coating, mouth breathing and frequency of tooth brushing. A total number of 900 school children (7-15 years) were included in the study. Children were assessed for the oral malodour, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental caries, tongue coating, mouth breathing and frequency of tooth brushing. The prevalence of oral malodour in Davangere school children was found to be 40.9%. Oral malodour was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with age, mouth breathing, tongue coating, oral hygiene status, gingival status and tooth brushing frequency. Oral malodour was not significantly correlated with gender and caries status. The prevalence of malodour in the population studied was 40.9% and oral health status and oral malodour were associated with one another. The prevalence of oral malodour was considerably high and should not be neglected in children.
Shearer, Dara M.; Thomson, W. Murray
Life course research considers not only the influences on health which act during the lifespan but it is also concerned with factors that act across generations. Rarely are genetics or environment solely responsible for producing individual variation; virtually all characteristics are the result of gene–environment interaction. An increasing interest in life course research and gene–environment interactions is reflected in greater awareness of the role of family history and intergenerational continuity in oral health as a practical, inexpensive approach to categorizing genetic risk for many common, preventable disorders of adulthood (including oral disease). Does the health status of one generation have an effect on that of the next? While researchers in recent years have begun to investigate the inter-generational associations between exposures and disease, little research has been carried out (to date) on the long-term biological, behavioural, psychological, social and environmental mechanisms that link oral health and oral disease risk to exposures acting across generations. This narrative review identifies studies which have contributed to highlighting some of the intergenerational factors influencing oral health. However, there is a need for a wider perspective on intergenerational continuity in oral health, along with a careful evaluation of the factors which contribute to the effect. A comprehensive investigation into the nature and extent of intergenerational transmission of oral health is required. PMID:20636414
Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651
Birenbaum, Thelma Kilinsky; Cunha, Maria Claudia
Co-occurrence of oral language disorders and enuresis in children. To identify and analyze the relationship between instances of oral language disorders and enuresis in children. Clinical, quantitative and qualitative study, with a descriptive/interpretative outline, presented through two distinct situations. "Situation 1" refers to a group of 120 children between 3:0 and 10:0 years old, independently of gender and age, from a philanthropic Institution in Greater São Paulo. "Situation 2" refers specifically to the evaluation of children who have oral language disorders and enuresis. Results indicated that enuretic children present a higher percentage of oral language disorders when compared to non-enuretic children, especially phonological disorders and talking very little. These results support the studies on co-occurrence of enuresis and oral language disorders, presented in papers that attribute a bio-psychic etiology to this co-morbidity. Results indicated a relationship between enuresis and oral language disorders. Considering the interactions among language, body and psyche, it is suggested that speech therapists, when dealing with oral language disorders in children, also investigate the acquisition of their bladder sphincter control, in a bio-psychical approach.
An overview of the demographics and oral health status of the elderly population of India is presented. India is a vast country with a population of one billion people. Of this, people older than 60 years constitute 7.6%, which in actual number is 76 million. There are several factors that affect the oral health of elderly. The dentist:population ratio is 1:27,000 in urban areas and 1:300,000 in rural areas, whereas 80% of the elderly population reside in rural India. Forty per cent of the elderly live below the poverty line and 73% are illiterate. Ninety per cent of the elderly have no social security and the dependency ratio is 12.26. Incidence of oral cancer, which is considered an old-age disease, is highest in India, 13.5% of all body cancers are oral cancers. Preventive dental care is almost nonexistent to the rural masses and very limited in urban areas. Above all, there is no orientation of dental graduates towards the special needs of the geriatric population. Recommendations include: the establishment of Continuing Dental Education programmes on geriatric oral care; inclusion of a geriatric component in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula; initiation of a diploma, certificate and degree courses in geriatric dentistry; research on various aspects of ageing and age-related oral health problems; provision of preventive and curative treatment for various oral diseases to the elderly.
As the public's oral health care needs increase in complexity, there is renewed attention to the ethical dimensions of community oral health decision making and the development of public health ethics in teaching and research in dentistry. Despite their reduction globally, oral diseases persist with a particular distribution pattern that is a reflection of the increasingly widespread inequality in access to community oral health preventive and dental care. This is due to differences in the appropriateness, availability, accessibility, and acceptability of oral health education and the care provided. This article provides an overview of community oral health from an ethical perspective, including the importance of equity, human rights, and social justice in providing oral health care to the underserved. The need for a paradigm shift from highly technical and individualistic dental training curricula is discussed, together with the need to instill a holistic approach to ethical and social responsibility in new dental graduates. It concludes with some possible strategies, using the overarching principles of ethics and bioethics that are applicable to practice among vulnerable populations.
Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.
Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.
Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa
ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232
Johnson, Stephanie; McDonald, J Ted; Corsten, Martin
To determine if awareness of oral cancer screening correlates with socioeconomic status (SES) and to determine if screening for oral cancer correlates with SES. Data were obtained from the 2008 American National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Our primary measure of SES was education; additional measures for SES included income, race, health insurance, and immigration status. We performed a logistic regression analysis, controlling for important demographic characteristics. Awareness of oral cancer screening increases with higher education levels (< grade 9 OR 0.37 [CI 0.29-0.48], grade 9-12 OR 0.53 [CI 0.44-0.65], high school OR 0.68 [CI 0.59-0.77], higher degree OR 1.13 [CI 0.96-1.34]). Similarly, screening for oral cancer increases with higher education levels (< grade 9 OR 0.31 [CI 0.23-0.42], grade 9-12 OR 0.34 [CI 0.26-0.43], high school OR 0.60 [CI 0.52-0.68], higher degree OR 1.41 [CI 1.18-1.67]). We found that race, income, immigration, and health insurance status were statistically significant correlates with oral cancer awareness and screening. Higher SES individuals are more likely to be aware of and screened for oral cancer. This is problematic because oral cancers are more prevalent in low SES groups. Future awareness and screening campaigns should be directed at vulnerable low SES populations.
Zheng, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Shuangshuang; Peng, Xian; Huang, Shi; Zheng, Liwei; Cheng, Lei; Hao, Yuqing; Li, Jiyao; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong
Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial dybiosis between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal bacteria colonized in the oral cavity. Our recent studies have shown that arginine may represent a promising anti-caries agent by modulating microbial composition in an in vitro consortium. However, the effect of arginine on the oral microbiota has yet to be comprehensively delineated in either clinical cohort or in vitro biofilm models that better represent the microbial diversity of oral cavity. Here, by employing a clinical cohort and a saliva-derived biofilm model, we demonstrated that arginine treatment could favorably modulate the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals. Specifically, treatment with arginine-containing dentifrice normalized the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals similar to that of caries-free controls in terms of microbial structure, abundance of typical species, enzymatic activities of glycolysis and alkali-generation related enzymes and their corresponding transcripts. Moreover, we found that combinatory use of arginine with fluoride could better enrich alkali-generating Streptococcus sanguinis and suppress acidogenic/aciduric Streptococcus mutans, and thus significantly retard the demineralizing capability of saliva-derived oral biofilm. Hence, we propose that fluoride and arginine have a potential synergistic effect in maintaining an eco-friendly oral microbial equilibrium in favor of better caries management.
Morgan, John P.; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E.; Roomian, Tamar C.; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E. M.; Barrow, Jane R.; Mumena, Chrispinus H.
ABSTRACT Background: Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. Objective: To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Results: Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. Conclusion: The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is
Morgan, John P; Isyagi, Moses; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E; Roomian, Tamar C; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E M; Barrow, Jane R; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Hackley, Donna M
Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is essential for developing oral disease prevention and management
Kanupuru, Karthik Kumar; Fareed, Nusrath; Sudhir, Kudlur Maheswarappa
To examine the relationship between oral health literacy and oral health by adapting a valid oral health literacy instrument. A random sample of 715 students from 9 institutes was included in the study. Oral health literacy (OHL) was assessed by making the students pronounce a list of 40 words from REALD-99. Oral health status (OHL) was assessed using a modified WHO (1997) proforma. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of independent factors on oral health literacy. The response rate was 97.9%; 15 students refused to participate, leaving 700 participants in the final sample. The mean age of the participants was 20.35±1.66 years. A statistically significant difference was observed in OHL according to the clinical parameters. Caries prevalence was higher among subjects with low OHL with a mean DMFT score of 2.69±1.53, compared with high-OHL students having a mean DMFT of 0.22±0.4. Similarly, oral hygiene status was poor among subjects with low OHL (1.53±0.6). Community periodontal index (CPI) scores were lower (1.06±0.8) in subjects with high OHL than in those with low literacy (CPI: 1.6±0.6). The present study revealed a negative correlation between oral health literacy and clinical parameters measured, that is, higher oral health literacy was associated with better oral health.
Gauba, Arjun; Bal, Ikreet Singh; Jain, Ashish; Mittal, Hitesh Chander
Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student) and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine). Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP) regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and caries activity as per Modified Snyder's test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker's test, Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity. PMID:24403795
Arrais, Joel P; Rosa, Nuno; Melo, José; Coelho, Edgar D; Amaral, Diana; Correia, Maria José; Barros, Marlene; Oliveira, José Luís
The molecular complexity of the human oral cavity can only be clarified through identification of components that participate within it. However current proteomic techniques produce high volumes of information that are dispersed over several online databases. Collecting all of this data and using an integrative approach capable of identifying unknown associations is still an unsolved problem. This is the main motivation for this work. We present the online bioinformatic tool OralCard, which comprises results from 55 manually curated articles reflecting the oral molecular ecosystem (OralPhysiOme). It comprises experimental information available from the oral proteome both of human (OralOme) and microbial origin (MicroOralOme) structured in protein, disease and organism. This tool is a key resource for researchers to understand the molecular foundations implicated in biology and disease mechanisms of the oral cavity. The usefulness of this tool is illustrated with the analysis of the oral proteome associated with diabetes melitus type 2. OralCard is available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/oralcard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko
Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ≥38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination.
The question of whether or not a patient has consented to treatment has recently become significant to all who practise oral and maxillofacial surgery. It is often linked to professional negligence when the outcome differs from the patient's perception or expectation of the operation. Consent may be oral or written, applies to referred patients and all those with physical and mental handicap and religious restrictions. Examples of procedure in discussing consent assist the surgeon to inform without creating fear. Knowledge of the benefits of informed consent and current legal opinion assist the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to avoid the pitfalls of failure to inform.
Kanbe, Yoshitake; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Ohtake, Yoshihito; Yoneya, Takaaki; Ohizumi, Iwao; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Taniguchi, Kenji; Kaiho, Shin-ichi; Nabuchi, Yoshiaki; Araya, Hiroshi; Kawata, Setsu; Morikawa, Kazumi; Jo, Jae-Chon; Kwon, Hee-An; Lim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hak-Yeop
In order to develop orally active pure antiestrogens, we incorporated the carboxy-containing side chains into the 7alpha-position of the steroid scaffold and found that 17-keto derivative CH4893237 (12b) functioned as a pure antiestrogen with its oral activity much superior to clinically used pure antiestrogen, ICI182,780. Results from the pharmacokinetic evaluation indicated that the potent antiestrogen activity at oral dosing in mice attributed to both improved absorption from the intestinal wall and metabolic stability in liver.
Meurman, J. H.
The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.
Blackwood, L; Dobson, J M
To evaluate response to radiotherapy in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. Clinical trial. 36 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanomas. The prescribed radiation dose was 36 Gy given in 4 fractions of 9 Gy at 7-day intervals. The primary radiation source was a linear accelerator. In 25 of 36 dogs, complete remission was achieved, and in 9 dogs, partial remission was achieved. Recurrence of the primary tumor was the cause of euthanasia of 4 dogs. Twenty-one dogs were euthanatized because of metastasis. Radiotherapy was an effective palliative treatment for the primary tumor in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. However, rapid development of metastatic disease remained a major challenge.
Singh, Mabi L; Papas, Athena
One of the major side effects of medications prescribed to elderly patients is the qualitative and quantitative alteration of saliva (salivary hypofunction). Saliva plays a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the oral cavity because of its protective and functional properties, including facilitating speech, swallowing, enhancing taste, buffering and neutralizing intrinsic and extrinsic acid, remineralizing teeth, maintaining the oral mucosal health, preventing overgrowth of noxious microorganisms, and xerostomia. With salivary hypofunction, a plethora of complications arise, resulting in decreased quality of life. The anticholinergic effects of medications can be overcome, and the oral cavity can be restored to normalcy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S
Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.
Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika
More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.
Bhandari, Sudhir; Rattan, Vidya; Panda, Naresh; Vaiphei, Kim; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai
The purpose of this article was to draw attention to a periimplantitis-like clinical presentation of oral malignancy around dental implants, a phenomenon that may develop without any associated risk factors for oral cancer. Such a benign appearance of oral malignancy may lead to delay in the diagnosis and initiation of ensuing treatment. Therefore, chronic nonhealing inflammatory lesions around dental implants should be considered as highly suspicious. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steinberg, Barbara J; Hilton, Irene V; Iida, Hiroko; Iada, Hiroko; Samelson, Renee
Current research shows that women tend to receive less dental care than usual when they are pregnant. In 2012, the first national consensus statement on oral health care during pregnancy was issued, emphasizing both the importance and safety of routine dental care for pregnant women. This article reviews the current recommendations for perinatal oral health care and common oral manifestations during pregnancy. Periodontal disease and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight are also discussed, as is the role played by dental intervention in these adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The incidence of oral candidiasis has increased in the elderly in recent years. Although the increase of the elderly population plays a big role in this rise of oral candidiasis, the broader recognition that elderly people have higher infection rates for oral candidiasis is considered to be also an important factor. Oral candidiasis can be categorized into three types. Pseudomembranous oral candidiasis is characterized by the appearance of white moss, erythematous oral candidiasis by the eruption of erythema, and hyperplastic oral candidiasis by mucosal hyperplasia. Miconazole has been commonly used when treating oral candidiasis. Elderly patients, however, have a tendency to develop oral candidiasis repeatedly. It is therefore critical to take measures to prevent recurrence. We recommend the use an oral moisturizer containing hinokitiol, an antifungal substance, on a regular basis, to help prevent recurrence of oral candidiasis.
Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya
Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.
Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G
Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information
Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Etesam, Farideh; Rohani, Bita
In personal communication we have never seen or heard of hair being detected in the oral cavity. Even Julia Pastrana, the famous "Bearded Lady" of the 1800's, had no record of oral hair, although her entire body was covered with hair. Extensive records of her oral condition, including plaster models of her teeth have been preserved in the Odontological Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London city. She suffered from excessive gingival hyperplasia, but apparently no hair existed within the mouth. Some rodents have oral hair as a normal occurrence, but the condition is apparently limited in the animal kingdom. A case of hair occurring naturally in the mouth has been reported only twice previously. A third case of this rare anomaly is reported here. In this case, multiple hairs were found at the gingival sulcus in the labial, buccal, lingual and palatal tooth surfaces in an 11-year-old boy.
... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Oral and Dental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... States, 2016, table 60 [PDF – 9.8 MB] Dental visits Percent of children aged 2-17 years ...
Merlin, Matilde; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda
Molecular farming is the use of plants for the production of high value recombinant proteins. Over the last 25 years, molecular farming has achieved the inexpensive, scalable and safe production of pharmaceutical proteins using a range of strategies. One of the most promising approaches is the use of edible plant organs expressing biopharmaceuticals for direct oral delivery. This approach has proven to be efficacious in several clinical vaccination and tolerance induction trials as well as multiple preclinical studies for disease prevention. The production of oral biopharmaceuticals in edible plant tissues could revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry by reducing the cost of production systems based on fermentation, and also eliminating expensive downstream purification, cold storage and transportation costs. This review considers the unique features that make plants ideal as platforms for the oral delivery of protein-based therapeutics and describes recent developments in the production of plant derived biopharmaceuticals for oral administration. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.
Journal of Chemical Education, 1978
Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)
de Almeida, O P; Jorge, J; Scully, C; Bozzo, L
Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) is an uncommon, progressive systemic mycosis, potentially fatal if untreated. It is virtually restricted to persons spending time in Latin America. Reports of oral lesions are extremely rare in the English-language literature. Three adults with oral lesions as the first sign of paracoccidioidomycosis are described; this appears to be the largest series in the dental literature. The oral lesions had a characteristic appearance with a granular purpuric surface. The upper gingiva was a typical site, but lesions were also seen in the palate, tongue, and buccal mucosa. Two of the patients proved to have detectable pulmonary involvement. Long-term systemic ketoconazole therapy produced resolution of oral lesions in all cases.
Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges
Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.
Preetha, A; Sujatha, D; Patil, Bharathi A; Hegde, Sushmini
Many systemic diseases exert their influence on oral health. Among these, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common. In this study, 100 patients who were previously diagnosed with GERD were examined following a 12-hour fast and evaluated in terms of the severity (grade) of the disease as well as any oral, dental, and/or salivary pH changes. Results found 11 patients with tooth erosion. These patients were older, and their average mean duration of GERD was longer in comparison to those without erosion. There was an inverse relationship between salivary pH and the GERD duration and grade of severity. As the GERD grade increased, the severity of tooth erosion increased. Patients with erosion also exhibited oral mucosal changes. Thus severe, long-term GERD was found to be potentially detrimental to oral soft tissues, dental structures, and salivary pH, whereas milder forms of the disease did not necessarily cause dental side effects.
... on and call the Board's attention to a recent court or Board opinion which could have an effect on... and one copy to be added to the Record. (l) Failure to attend oral hearing. Failure of an appellant to...
Schlosser, Bethanee J; Pirigyi, Megan; Mirowski, Ginat W
Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissues, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This article reviews common oral manifestations of hematologic conditions starting with disorders of the white blood cells including cyclic hematopoiesis (cyclic neutropenia), leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell dyscrasias, and mast cell disorders; this is followed by a discussion of the impact of red blood cell disorders including anemias and less common red blood cell dyscrasias (sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis, and congenital erythropoietic porphyria) as well as thrombocytopenia. Several nutritional deficiencies exhibit oral manifestations. The authors specifically discuss the impact of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, and C), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and K) and the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin
Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taft, Lois B; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Knutson, Alice Briolat; Tamke, Karolyn; Platt, Jennifer; Bowlds, Tara
Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home participants were slightly older than the community participants (mean ages: 85.5 and 82.4 years, respectively). More women (58%) than men (42%) participated, and 35% of the participants were veterans (eight men one woman). Nursing home and community residents participated in this project, and reciprocal benefits were experienced by participants and listeners alike. Memories of World War II provide a meaningful topic for oral histories. Listening and valuing oral history supports, involves, and validates elders. Oral history has reciprocal benefits that can create a culture to enhance a therapeutic environment.
Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok
This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H
According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to
An increasing number of staff in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) departments take clinical photographs with their personal phones. We report the results of a survey on the use of smartphone photography in OMFS departments in the United Kingdom, and highlight the guidelines that govern their use and the associated ethical and medicolegal implications. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra
Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice.
Mickenautsch, S; Rudolph, M J; Ogunbodede, E O; Chikte, U M
To promote community involvement in the provision of oral health services. The project consisted of a four-week training course in oral health for selected refugees, an oral health survey based on WHO guidelines and conducted by the refugees themselves and the provision of oral health care services to the community by the trained refugees. Liberian refugee camp, Gomoa Buduburam in Ghana. Liberian refugees of all ages. Twelve refugees were given short term training in oral health. In the oral health survey, 196 refugees were clinically examined for dental caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion. DMFT (for dental caries), CPITN (for periodontal disease), and malocclusion scores for selected subjects. Also clinical services rendered. Oral health survey revealed a mean age (+/- SD) of 25.7 (+/- 9.5) years. Only thirty nine (19.9%) of the subjects were caries-free, and total DMFT was 2.5 +/- 2.2. Based on the CPITN, 107 (54.6%) required oral hygiene instructions (OHI), and 41 (20.9%) required prophylactic scaling with OHI. Forty four (22.5%) of the subjects had normal occlusion and 152 (77.5%) mild to severe malocclusion. Periodontal (75.5%), prosthetic (52.5%) interventions and extractions (34.2%) constituted the bulk of the treatment needs required. Clinical treatment was rendered by the trained refugees to 846 patients over a twelve month period. Relief programmes for refugees should emphasise a primary health care approach, focusing on prevention, based on appropriate technology, and promoting involvement by the refugee community in the provision of services.
Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L
Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries.
Seemann, R; Passek, G; Zimmer, S; Roulet, J F
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by bacteria in niches of the oral cavity play a major role in the etiology of bad breath, and can be easily detected by a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). To investigate the effect of an oral hygiene program on VSC levels, Halimeter readings were taken from 55 healthy dental students during a course in oral hygiene training, including instruction on brushing, flossing and professional tooth cleaning. Ten students who received no oral hygiene training served as a negative control. The oral hygiene status was measured using the papillary bleeding index (PBI). PBI and VSC values did not show significant changes during the study period of 10 weeks in the control group. In the test group, PBI values significantly decreased compared to baseline and the control, indicating that the oral hygiene program had a benefit on the oral hygiene status. The VSC values also decreased significantly during the study period compared to baseline and the control. It was concluded that in a group of dental students, a thorough oral hygiene training program was capable of reducing the oral level of VSC Halimeter readings.
Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E
In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.
Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E.
In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets, and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome, and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age, and discuss how oral microbiomes- at the community level, could provide improved assessment in individuals, and populations at risk. PMID:27628595
Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H
Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.
Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613
Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843
Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.
ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031
Edelstein, Burton L
The past decade has witnessed both a proliferation of state oral health plans that include very specific proposals for action and an emergence of federal laws that include support for oral health. This paper provides an overview of state oral health priorities for action as reflected in 40 oral health plans that were developed independently by states. It examines four federal laws - the 2002 Safety Net Improvement Act, the 2009 CHIP Reauthorization Act, the 2009 economic stimulus law, and the 2010 health reform law - to identify opportunities for alignment with action steps proposed in state plans. This analysis identifies 23 categories of activity proposed by states in their action plans and determines that all but six of these activities are now supported by one or more of these four federal laws. State activities undertaken through grants provided under the 2002 Safety Net Improvement Act are analyzed as an example of how states can leverage federal legislation to advance their oral health plans. The paper concludes with consideration of the steps needed for states to promote their oral health plans by leveraging the full capacity of federal legislation. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Moritani, K; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Ninomiya, T; Kiyohara, Y; Yamashita, Y
To assess acetaldehyde (ACH) production by bacteria constituting the oral microbiota and the inhibitory effects of sugar alcohols on ACH production. The predominant bacterial components of the salivary microbiota of 166 orally healthy subjects were determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial ACH production from ethanol or glucose was measured using gas chromatography. In addition, inhibition by four sugars and five sugar alcohols of ACH production was assayed. Forty-one species from 16 genera were selected as predominant and prevalent bacteria based on the following criteria: identification in ≥95% of the subjects, ≥1% of mean relative abundance or ≥5% of maximum relative abundance. All Neisseria species tested produced conspicuous amounts of ACH from ethanol, as did Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis and Prevotella histicola exhibited the ability to produce ACH. In addition, xylitol and sorbitol inhibited ACH production by Neisseria mucosa by more than 90%. The oral microbiota of orally healthy subjects comprises considerable amounts of bacteria possessing the ability to produce ACH, an oral carcinogen. Consumption of sugar alcohols may regulate ACH production by oral microbes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Buchberger, A M S; Baumann, A; Johnson, F; Peters, N; Piontek, G; Storck, K; Pickhard, A
The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the impact of oral anticoagulants on epistaxis with the focus on new oral anticoagulants. The study was conducted at the Department for Ear- Nose- and Throat (ENT), Head and Neck Surgery, Technical University Munich, Germany. All patients presenting in 2014 with the diagnosis of epistaxis to a specialized ENT accident and emergency department were identified and analyzed in clinical data and medication. 600 adult cases, with a median age of 66.6 years were identified with active bleeding. 66.8% of all cases were anticoagulated. Classic oral anticoagulants (COAC) were three times more common in patients than new-generation oral anticoagulants (NOAC). Recurrent bleeding was significantly associated with oral anticoagulants (OAC) (p = 0.014) and bleeding location was most often anterior (p = 0.006). In contrast, severe cases, which required surgery or embolization were significantly more likely in non-anticoagulated middle-aged patients with posterior bleedings (p < 0.05). In our epistaxis cohort, OAC were highly overrepresented (40%) when compared to the general German population (1%) but COAC as well as NOAC played only a minor role in severe courses of epistaxis. Oral anticoagulation, especially with new-generation drugs, is not associated with more complicated and severe courses of epistaxis, but rather with recurrent bleeding. One should keep this information in mind when triaging the patient in the emergency room and when planning further procedures.
Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.
In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888
....304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.304 Purpose of oral argument. Oral argument may be...; or (b) When in the interests of justice oral argument will serve to assist the Board in carrying out...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral and written arguments. 900.9 Section 900.9... Oral and written arguments. (a) Oral argument before judge. Oral argument before the judge shall be in... writing and made part of the transcript. (b) Briefs, proposed findings and conclusions. The judge shall...
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Jivan, Vibha; Meer, Shabnum
Langerhans cells (LCs) are effective antigen-presenting cells that function as "custodians" of mucosa, modifying the immune system to pathogen entry, and tolerance to self-antigen and commensal microbes. A reduction in number of LCs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals may predispose to local mucosal infections. To quantitatively determine the number of oral mucosal LCs in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with/without oral candidiasis (OC) and to define in situ interrelationships between the cells, OC, and HIV infection. Thirty-two periodic acid-Schiff. (PAS) stained histologic sections of palatal HIV/AIDS associated KS with intact oral epithelium were examined for Candida and divided into two groups: . (1) KS coinfected with Candida and. (2) KS noninfected with Candida. Sections were immunohistochemically stained with CD1a. The standard length of surface epithelium was measured and number of positively stained LCs counted per unit length. Control cases included non-Candida infected palatal mucosa overlying pleomorphic adenoma. (PA) and oral mucosa infected with Candida in otherwise healthy individuals. LC number per unit length of surface epithelium was statistically significantly greatest in uninfected PA mucosa and lowest in KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0001). A statistically significant difference was also noted between uninfected PA mucosa and non-Candida infected KS (P = 0.0014), in KS coinfected with Candida and non-infected KS (P = 0.0035), between OC and PA (P = 0.0001), and OC and KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0247). LC numbers are significantly reduced in oral tissues of HIV/AIDS infected patients by Candida infection when compared to oral tissues without.
Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun
Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (∆E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically
Peterson, Douglas E; Ohrn, Kerstin; Bowen, Joanne; Fliedner, Monica; Lees, Judith; Loprinzi, Charles; Mori, Takehiko; Osaguona, Anthony; Weikel, Dianna S; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V
This systematic review analyzed the strength of the literature and defined clinical practice guidelines for the use of oral cryotherapy for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy. A systematic review on relevant oral cryotherapy studies indexed prior to 31 December 2010 was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) using OVID/MEDLINE, with publications selected for review based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings from the reviewed studies were integrated into guidelines based on the overall level of evidence for each intervention. Guidelines were classified into three types: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. Twenty-two clinical studies and two meta-analyses were analyzed. Results were compared with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The recommendation for the use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus fluorouracil (5-FU) was maintained, in agreement with the 2007 guidelines. A suggestion for use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving high-dose melphalan as conditioning regimen with or without total body irradiation for HCST was revised from the 2007 guidelines. No guideline was possible for any other intervention, due to insufficient evidence. The evidence continues to support the use of oral cryotherapy for prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus 5-FU chemotherapy or high-dose melphalan. This intervention is consistent with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The literature is limited by the fact that utilization of a double-blind study design is not feasible. Future studies that compare efficacy of oral cryotherapy with other mucositis agents in patients receiving chemotherapy with relatively short plasma half-lives would be useful.
Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.
Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina
Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p < 0.001). The median oral mucositis severity, assessed using the WHO oral toxicity scale from grade 0-4, experienced in the no group was 2.5 vs. 2 in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Porter, Stephen; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Fedele, Stefano
Potentially malignant oral mucosal disease has some ability to give rise to malignancy of the oral epithelium, that is, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present article provides a succinct review of the possible or probable causes of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions. There is a focus upon studies that examined the causes or etiologic associations with clinically likely or histopathologically detectable oral epithelial dysplasia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diringer, Joel; Phipps, Kathy R
California has virtually no statewide dental public health infrastructure leaving the state without leadership, a surveillance program, an oral health plan, oral health promotion and disease prevention programs, and federal funding. Based on a literature review and interviews with 15 oral health officials nationally, the paper recommends hiring a state dental director with public health experience, developing a state oral health plan, and seeking federal and private funding to support an office of oral health.
Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N
Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18-26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women.
Hellwig, E; Lussi, A
Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.
Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S
The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.
Delemotte, M; Valcarcel, J; Tramini, P
Systematic full-mouth dental examination during pregnancy is an official preventive measure recently advocated by the French Health policy. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the oral health related to some sociodemographic factors among pregnant women, and secondly to propose this dental examination together with the routine antenatal interview. This cross-sectional study combined several medical questionnaires with an oral examination. It concerned all pregnant women attending their routine antenatal interview in the maternity unit of the Montpellier hospital. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Epices index. So that two groups were determined : the deprived group (D), and the non-deprived group (ND). Oral examination revealed that 93% of the women were suffering from at least one oral disease, 74% had a periodontal disease (9% had a periodontitis), and 74% had at least one carious tooth. The mean Epices score was 30.5 and the mean number of carious teeth was significantly higher in the group D (3.4) than in the group ND (2.35), (p=0.02). The prevalence of periodontal disease or periodontitis were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.81 and p=0.99 respectively). After stratification on the degree of dental hygiene knowledge, it was found that knowing about an adequate dental hygiene and specific preventive measures regarding pregnancy could reduce the gap between the oral health status of the two socioeconomic groups. This study showed that performing an oral examination, at the same time than the antenatal interview, could highly improve the knowledge about dental hygiene among pregnant women and the screening of oral diseases, especially for deprived population.
Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.
The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy. PMID:26668446
Bawazir, Omar A
To assess the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral healthcare and oral hygiene products in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the community pharmacies in Riyadh city was done. The survey comprised of 23 closed-ended questions divided into five basic sections. A total of 141 pharmacists participated in this survey. About half of the respondents had not met the dentists practicing close to their pharmacies, nor were they aware of the opening times of the practice. Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised of 10-15% of their total stock. Toothpaste was the most common among the oral healthcare products stocked, followed by toothbrushes and mouth rinses. A total of 93% pharmacists expressed an interest in further developing their oral healthcare knowledge through course attendance or oral health programs. Toothache or mouth ulcers were the most common dental problem for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. Pharmacists advised patients complaining of dental pain to consult a dentist in 43% of cases, dispensed painkiller in 44% of cases, and in 13% of cases dispensed an antibiotic. The community pharmacists in Riyadh are under-used in the promotion of oral health. There is a need for training of pharmacists and providing them with access to information on available dental service and oral health products.
Bawazir, Omar A
Background: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral healthcare and oral hygiene products in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the community pharmacies in Riyadh city was done. The survey comprised of 23 closed-ended questions divided into five basic sections. Results: A total of 141 pharmacists participated in this survey. About half of the respondents had not met the dentists practicing close to their pharmacies, nor were they aware of the opening times of the practice. Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised of 10-15% of their total stock. Toothpaste was the most common among the oral healthcare products stocked, followed by toothbrushes and mouth rinses. A total of 93% pharmacists expressed an interest in further developing their oral healthcare knowledge through course attendance or oral health programs. Toothache or mouth ulcers were the most common dental problem for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. Pharmacists advised patients complaining of dental pain to consult a dentist in 43% of cases, dispensed painkiller in 44% of cases, and in 13% of cases dispensed an antibiotic. Conclusions: The community pharmacists in Riyadh are under-used in the promotion of oral health. There is a need for training of pharmacists and providing them with access to information on available dental service and oral health products. PMID:25628475
Ripollés-de Ramón, Jorge; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Vaello-Checa, Iris; Colmenero-Ruiz, Constantino; Helm, Alexandra; Ciudad-Cabañas, Maria-José; Serrano-Cuenca, Victoriano
Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western World. For decades, vitamin K antagonists used in the prevention of this pathology, such as warfarin or sintrom, were the only oral agents available for long-term anticoagulation, in spite of their disadvantages. Material and Methods An electronic database search was carried out on MedLine and The Cochrane Library Plus, without restrictions on the type of study nor dates, in English and Spanish. Abstracts were reviewed, and complete articles if necessary, considering all articles that included recommendations on DOACs and oral surgery. Results In recent years, the so-called “new oral anticoagulants” have been introduced in clinical practice to treat those patients whose medical conditions require long-term anticoagulant treatment, replacing traditional oral anticoagulants. Conclusions The new oral anticoagulants represent new therapeutic options, with a number of advantages such as poor interaction with food, minor drug interactions, and do not require periodic dose adjustments or routine controls. The purpose of this review is to establish an update on the new oral anticoagulants: Dabigatran, Rivarozaban, Apixaban and Edoxaban. Key words:Novel oral anticoagulants, Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, Apixaban, Edoxaban, bleeding management, oral surgery, Anti-IIa, Anti Xa. PMID:28809374
Lanman, Barry A.; Wendlin, Laura M.
"Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians" is a resource to educators seeking to bring history alive for students at all levels. The anthology opens with chapters on the fundamentals of oral history and its place in the classroom, but its heart lies in nearly two dozen insightful personal essays by educators who have successfully…
Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko
Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Lanman, Barry A., Ed.; Wendling, Laura M., Ed.
This book is an invaluable resource to educators seeking to bring history alive for students at all levels. The anthology opens with chapters on the fundamentals of oral history and its place in the classroom, but its heart lies in nearly two dozen insightful personal essays by educators who have successfully incorporated oral history into their…
Ramalingam, Suganya; Malathi, Narasimhan; Thamizhchelvan, Harikrishnan; Sangeetha, Narasimhan; Rajan, Sharada T
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic T cell mediated disease of oral mucosa, skin, and its appendages with a prevalence of 0.5 to 2.6% worldwide. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) are a group of lesions with diverse aetiologies but have clinical and histological features similar to OLP, thereby posing a great challenge in differentiating both lesions. Mast cells are multifunctional immune cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus by release of certain chemical mediators. Increased mast cell densities with significant percentage of degranulation have been observed as a consistent finding in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The current study was aimed at quantifying the mast cells in histopathological sections of OLP and OLR thereby aiding a means of distinguishing these lesions. The study group involved 21 cases of oral lichen planus, 21 cases of oral lichenoid reactions, and 10 control specimens of normal buccal mucosa. All the cases were stained with Toluidine Blue and routine haematoxylin and eosin and the mast cells were quantified. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and an intergroup analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test. The number of mast cells showed an increased value in oral lichen planus when compared to oral lichenoid reaction and thus an estimation of mast cells count could aid in distinguishing OLP from OLR histopathologically.
Schlede, Eva; Genschow, Elke; Spielmann, Horst; Stropp, Gisela; Kayser, Detlev
The oral acute toxic class method (ATC method) was developed as an alternative to replace the oral LD50 test. The ATC method is a sequential testing procedure using only three animals of one sex per step at any of the defined dose levels. Depending on the mortality rate three but never more than six animals are used per dose level. This approach results in the reduction of numbers of animals used in comparison to the LD50 test by 40-70%. The principle of the oral ATC method is based on the Probit model and it was first evaluated on a biometric basis before a national and subsequently an international ring study were conducted. The results demonstrated an excellent agreement between the toxicity and the animal numbers predicted biometrically and observed in the validation studies. The oral ATC method was adopted as an official test guideline by OECD in 1996 and was slightly amended in 2001. The ATC method has been successfully used in Germany and in 2003 >85% of all tests on acute oral toxicity testing was conducted as oral ATC tests. In member states of the European Union the ATC method is used in the range of 50% of all tests conducted. Meanwhile the oral LD50 test has been deleted by OECD, by the European Union and by the USA, making the use of alternatives to the oral LD50 test mandatory.
Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S
Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Vargas, J. G.
After reviewing the foundations of special relativity and the room left for rival theories, a set of nonrelativistic para-Lorentzian transformations is derived uniquely, based on (a) a weaker first principle, (b) the requirement that the transformations sought do not give rise to the clock “paradox” (in a refined version), and (c) the compliance of the transformations with the classical experiments of Michelson-Morley, Kennedy-Thorndike, and Ives-Stilwell. The corresponding dynamics is developed. Most of the experimental support of special relativity is reconsidered in the light of the new theory. It is concluded that the relativity of simultaneity has so far not been tested.
Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately. Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and
Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Takeshita, Toru
In this brief review, we discuss our previous research on the relationship between the bacterial composition of salivary microbiota and periodontal disease. Analysis using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method and an international comparison suggest that the predominance of the genera Prevotella and Veillonella in the salivary microbiota is attributable to periodontal disease conditions, and that the predominance of the genus Neisseria indicates healthy periodontal conditions. Furthermore, we recently used next-generation sequencing technology to perform a detailed large-scale analysis of the salivary microbiota. An important finding of that study was that high bacterial richness in the salivary microbiota was significantly associated with poor oral health, as indicated by decayed teeth, periodontitis, and poor oral hygiene. Another important result was that relative abundance of predominant bacteria in saliva was significantly associated with oral health-related conditions. Of the two different cohabiting groups of bacteria found in the salivary microbiota, a greater relative abundance of group I bacteria, which include Prevotella and Veillonella species, was associated with poor oral health, high body mass index, and old age. These findings suggest that the salivary microbiota reflects oral and systemic conditions.
Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.
Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.
Kivovics, Márton; Mihályi, Szilvia; Suba, Zsuzsanna; Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs
In the practice of oral surgery correspondence with the pathologist is required in order to identify the lesions in question by histologic examination. By current legal regulations the histological evaluation of removed tissues is mandatory. In the presentation the authors process the data obtained in their Department since 2008. Coincidence of the clinical and histological diagnosis is analysed statistically such is the occurrence of various types of oral mucosa lesions and cysts. In cases of presumed malignancy the biopsies were carried out in a department with adequate oncological background. In indications of autoimmun deseases mainly in cases of Sjögren's syndrome the Department has been requested to carry out minor salivary gland biopsies. Statistical analysis of the findings of the minor salivary gland biopsies will also be discussed. The histological diagnoses have been provided by Prof. Zsuzsanna Suba MD, DMD, PhD of the Semmelweis University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Pathology Unit. In order of prevalence the most common histologically verified lesions were: radicular cyst, fibromas and granulation tissue. In 84.5% of the cases the histological findings confirmed the clinical diagnoses. In 44,5% of the cases Sjögren's syndrome was verified by the minor salivary gland biopsy. Although in most cases the histological examination supported the clinical diagnoses, close cooperation of the oral surgeon and pathologist is essential.
Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S; Jayaraman, Sujatha
Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection limit of the sensor is 0.05 microg L(-1) of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for oral malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 microg L(-1). There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R(2)=0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for oral malodour assessments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Neill, I D; Scully, C
Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Zijlstra, Eric; Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona
Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion's share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.
Rawal, Swati Y; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tipton, David A
Marijuana, prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Marijuana use has been associated with adverse psychosocial and health effects, including effects on oral tissues. Periodontal literature has limited references to the periodontal effects of cannabis use. In this report, we present two cases of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement and review the literature on oral complications of marijuana use. Two asymptomatic males, aged 23 and 42 years, presented independently for oral prophylaxis. Both had an unremarkable medical history and related a history of significant marijuana use of 2-16 years duration. Common findings following oral and periodontal examination were nicotinic stomatitis-like lesions, uvulitis and gingival enlargement. Marginal and papillary gingiva of the anterior dentition were the areas primarily affected by gingival enlargement, while some of these areas exhibited a nodular or "pebbly" appearance. Marijuana-associated gingival enlargement was diagnosed in the reported cases. A review of the literature revealed two other reports of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement, all in young adult males with chronic (2 or more years) cannabis use. These authors reported a resemblance to phenytoin-induced enlargement. Biochemical similarities between phenytoin and cannabis active compounds suggest possible common pathogenetic mechanisms. Uvulitis and nicotinic stomatitis appear to be the two most common of the several oral manifestations of marijuana use. Chronic marijuana use may result in gingival enlargement with clinical characteristics similar to phenytoin-induced enlargement.
Pini, Danielle de Moraes; Fröhlich, Paula Cristina Gil Ritter; Rigo, Lilian
ABSTRACT Objective To identify the prevalence of the main oral problems present in special needs children and to relate the underlying conditions with the clinical and demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the physical examination of 47 students from the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais diagnosed as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and intellectual deficit. For data collection, we used a self-administered questionnaire that included indices of dental caries and oral hygiene, Angle classification, malposition of dental groups and oral hygiene habits. Results The predominant age group was 12-25 years (46.8%) and most patients were male (55.3%). Regarding daily brushing, 63.8% reported brushing their teeth three times a day, and 85.1% did it by themselves. A total of 48.9% were rated as Angle class I, and 25.5% had no type of malocclusion. A high dental carries index (decayed, missing, filled >10) was observed in 44.7%, and 53.2% had inadequate oral hygiene (zero to 1.16). There was a statistically significant difference between cerebral palsy and the act of the participants brushing their teeth by themselves. Conclusion There was a high decayed-missing-filled teeth index and malocclusion class I, as well as inadequate oral hygiene. The type of underlying condition of the participants influenced the act of brushing teeth by themselves. PMID:28076597
Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara
Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694
Al-Hassiny, A; Friedlander, L T; Parachuru, V P B; Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M
As angiogenesis is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders, this study investigated the expression of various vascular markers in oral lichen planus and non-specific oral mucosal inflammatory tissues. Archival specimens of oral lichen planus (n = 15) and inflamed tissues (n = 13) were stained using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and vasohibin. Nine representative sites at the epithelial-connective tissue junction and through the fibrous connective tissue were selected, and automated analysis techniques were used to determine the extent of positivity expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Significance was denoted when P < .05. The expression of pro-angiogenic factors was higher in lichen planus samples compared with inflamed controls. A higher level of CD34 was observed in the deeper parts of the connective tissue of Oral lichen planus (OLP) (P = .04), whereas VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions were higher all through the tissues (respectively, P < .02 and P < .01). The expression of the anti-angiogenic VASH1 was higher in inflamed tissue compared with lichen planus in all sites evaluated (P < .01). The findings indicate that angiogenic factors are differentially expressed in oral lichen planus compared with inflamed controls, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and decreased anti-angiogenic expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diabetes and the oral cavity are closely associated as diabetes physiopathology affects the mouth and the oral manifestations are numerous and varied. These need to be searched systematically at every clinical examination as they are not only comorbidity factors but also have a two-way relationship with diabetes control. Periodontal diseases are the most frequent pathologies and the relationship with glycemic control has clearly been established: their frequency increases in case of uncontrolled glycemia, which makes them a good marker of glycated hemoglobin. Thorough oral health follow-up of diabetic patients that is coordinated by its various actors from the beginning of the treatment is thus of great interest. Most of the care given to diabetic patients can easily be performed at the dental clinic, provided adequate precautions are taken and improvement of the oral cavity is beneficial to glycemic control as well as to the patients' quality of life. When implemented by trained oral health professionals in dental clinics, therapeutic education proves highly efficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Personal responsibility is a powerful idea supported by many values central to West European thought. On the conceptual level personal responsibility is a complex notion. It is important to separate the concept of being responsible for a given state of affairs from the concept of holding people responsible by introducing measures that decrease their share of available resources. Introducing personal responsibility in oral health also has limitations of a more practical nature. Knowledge, social status and other diseases affect the degree to which people can be said to be responsible for their poor oral health. These factors affect people's oral health and their ability to take care of it. Both the conceptual and practical issues at stake are not reasons to abandon the idea of personal responsibility in oral health, but they do affect what the notion means and when it is reasonable to hold people responsible. They also commit people who support the idea of personal responsibility in oral health to supporting the idea of societal responsibility for mitigating the effects of factors that diminish people's responsibility and increase the available information and knowledge in the population.
Palmer, Robert J
The oral bacterial microbiome encompasses approximately 700 commonly occurring phylotypes, approximately half of which can be present at any time in any individual. These bacteria are largely indigenous to the oral cavity; this limited habitat range suggests that interactions between the various phylotypes, and between the phylotypes and their environment, are crucial for their existence. Molecular cataloging has confirmed many basic observations on the composition of the oral microbiome that were formulated well before ribosomal RNA-based systematics, but the power and the scope of molecular taxonomy have resulted in the discovery of new phylotypes and, more importantly, have made possible a level of bacterial community analysis that was unachievable with classical methods. Bacterial community structure varies with location within the mouth, and changes in community structure are related to disease initiation and disease progression. Factors that influence the formation and the evolution of communities include selective adherence to epithelial or tooth surfaces, specific cell-to-cell binding as a driver of early community composition, and interorganismal interaction leading to alteration of the local environment, which represents the first step on the road to oral disease. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors interact to drive changes in the composition of the oral microbial community can lead to new strategies for the inhibition of periodontal diseases and dental caries. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Fisher-Owens, S A; Soobader, M J; Gansky, S A; Isong, I A; Weintraub, J A; Platt, L J; Newacheck, P W
To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences. Observational study using cross-sectional surveys. Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parents' report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighbourhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of the population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ∼¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ∼½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thurnheer, Thomas; Belibasakis, Georgios N
Biofilms are polymicrobial communities that grow on surfaces in nature. Oral bacteria can spontaneously form biofilms on the surface of teeth, which may compromise the health of the teeth, or their surrounding (periodontal) tissues. While the oral bacteria exhibit high tropism for their specialized ecological niche, it is not clear if bacteria that are not part of the normal oral microbiota can efficiently colonize and grow within oral biofilms. By using an in vitro "supragingival" biofilm model of 6 oral species, this study aimed to investigate if 3 individual bacterial species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota (Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecails) and one not previously tested oral species (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) can be incorporated into this established supragingival biofilm model. Staphylococcus aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans were able to grow efficiently in the biofilm, without disrupting the growth of the remaining species. They localized in sparse small aggregates within the biofilm mass. Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli were both able to populate the biofilm at high numbers, and suppressed the growth of A. oris and S. mutants. Enterococcus faecalis was arranged in a chain-like conformation, whereas E. coli was densely and evenly spread throughout the biofilm mass. In conclusion, it is possible for selected species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota to be introduced into an oral biofilm, under the given experimental micro-environmental conditions. Moreover, the equilibrated incorporation of A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. aureus in this oral biofilm model could be a useful tool in the study of aggressive periodontitis and peri-implantitis, in which these organisms are involved, respectively.
Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J
The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.
Fisher-Owens, Susan A.; Soobader, Mah-J; Gansky, Stuart A.; Isong, Inyang A.; Weintraub, Jane A.; Platt, Larry J.; Newacheck, Paul W.
Objectives To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences Study Design Observational study using cross-sectional surveys Methods Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parent's report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighborhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Results Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ~¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ~½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Conclusion Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. PMID:26995567
Fitzgerald, Ruth P; Thomson, W Murray; Schafer, Cyril T; Loose, Moragh A T H
To investigate Otago adolescents' views of oral health and oral health care, in order to increase understanding of the influences on their use or non-use of free care. The study employed a qualitative approach, using focus groups and grounded theory analysis. Participants ranged in age from 13 to 18, and included both genders and a variety of educational attainments, ethnicities and family incomes. Focus groups were conducted in schools, training centres, a place of employment, a CYF (Child, Youth and Family) Home, and a University Hall of Residence. While aware of the normative pressure to attend for free dental care and engage in oral health care, Otago adolescents consider doing so to be "just so gay". They exhibit strongly held preconceptions about the expense of dentistry and the respective competence of dentists and dental therapists. The dental surgery environment was viewed as a major disincentive. Adolescent oral health beliefs centred on two models: the medicalised, pragmatic view of oral health (which valued the function of teeth); and the cosmetic view of oral health (which valued the aesthetics of teeth); or a combination of these two models. In both models, media advertising for oral health care products was a significant source of oral health information. The preferred oral health behaviour associated with the medicalised model was frequent use of chewing gum and rapid toothbrushing, and, for the cosmetic model frequent use of chewing gum and breath fresheners. These findings support the international literature on the use/non-use of dental services even when the financial barriers to seeking such services has been removed. New Zealand dental care has developed without reference to the changing norms of youth culture, and the conventional dental practice setting is not viewed by adolescents as being inviting or appropriate. Increasing the uptake of free oral health care by that group will require some innovative approaches.
Drogoszewska, Barbara; Polcyn, Adam; Michcik, Adam
Introduction Direct oral microscopy is a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique that aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The principle is to reveal precancerous lesions of oral mucosae in their subclinical phase in order to begin their treatment as early as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, chronic disease affecting oral mucous membranes. Buccal mucosae are most often affected. Aim To describe the in vivo picture of erosive OLP in direct oral microscopy in terms of the pattern and density of subepithelial blood vessels, surface texture, color, transparency and borders of the lesions. The study also demonstrates the utility of the method in the selection of the most appropriate biopsy site. Material and methods A total of 30 patients with erosive OLP were examined. Clinical examination of the oral cavity with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy. The most appropriate biopsy sites based on both examinations were chosen for every individual and biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Results Biopsies obtained based on direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 16 patients (53.3%). Biopsies obtained based on clinical examination with the naked eye revealed dysplasia in 3 cases (10%). Conclusions Direct oral microscopy makes it possible to obtain a repeated picture of erosive OLP and constitutes an alternative to the clinical examination with the naked eye in election of the most appropriate biopsy site. Thus, introduction of the most accurate and early therapy is possible. PMID:25254007
Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A
Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.
Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.
Background Active pharmaceutical ingredients that taste bitter and/or irritate the mouth and throat are aversive to children as well as many adults. Effective methods of avoiding unpleasant tastes for adults (eg, encapsulating the medicine in pill, capsule, or tablet form) are problematic because many children cannot or will not swallow these. The unpalatable flavor of the medicine can thwart the benefits of even the most powerful of drugs. Failure to consume medication may do the child harm and can even be life-threatening. Objectives This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of the sensory capabilities and preferences of children as it relates to flavor, defined here as the combined input of taste, smell, and chemical irritation. The methods used to evaluate flavor perception in children are reviewed. Recent scientific advances are summarized that shed light on why the bitter taste of oral pharmaceuticals is an ongoing formulation problem and how discoveries of novel flavor molecules and modulators of bitter tastes hold considerable promise for the future. Alternative methods for evaluation of the palatability of medicines are described. Methods The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development sponsored a Pediatric Formulation Initiative workshop on December 6 and 7, 2005, in Bethesda, Maryland. Information for this article was gathered from literature reviews that were then discussed during this workshop as well as during several conference calls with the Taste and Flavor Working Group members. Terms for the MEDLINE search (1970-2007) included infant, children, taste, olfaction/smell, flavor, chemical senses, palatability, sensory testing, pharmaceutical, and medicines. Results Children have well-developed sensory systems for detecting tastes, smells, and chemical irritants, and their rejection of unpalatable medications is a reflection of their basic biology. Sugars, salt, and other substances reportedly
Poonia, Neelam; Kharb, Rajeev; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti
Oral delivery is the most accepted and economical route for drug administration and leads to substantial reduction in dosing frequency. However, this route still remains a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry due to poorly soluble and permeable drugs leading to poor oral bioavailability. Incorporating bioactives into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) has helped in boosting their therapeutic functionality and prolonged release from these carrier systems thus providing improved pharmacokinetic parameters. The present review provides an overview of noteworthy studies reporting impending benefits of NLCs in oral delivery and highlights recent advancements for developing engineered NLCs either by conjugating polymers over their surface or modifying their charge to overcome the mucosal barrier of GI tract for active transport across intestinal membrane. PMID:28031979
Liu, Weidong; Zhai, Yingjie; Heng, Xueyuan; Che, Feng Yuan; Chen, Wenjun; Sun, Dezhong; Zhai, Guangxi
Curcumin is a natural compound of Curcuma longa L. and has shown many pharmacological activities such as anti-inﬂammatory, anti-oxidant in both preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, curcumin has hepatoprotective, neuroprotective activities and protects against myocardial infarction. Particularly, curcumin has also demonstrated favorite anticancer efficacy. But limiting factors such as its extremely low oral bioavailability hampers its application as therapeutic agent. Therefore, many technologies have been developed and applied to overcome this limitation. This review described the main physicochemical properties of curcumin and summarized the recent studies in the design and development of oral delivery systems for curcumin to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability, including liposomes, nanoparticles and polymeric micelles, phospholipid complexes, and microemulsions.
Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo
Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133
Allaker, Robert P; Stephen, Abish S
The purpose of this study is to critically assess recent studies concerning the use of probiotics to control periodontal diseases, dental caries and halitosis (oral malodour). Clinical studies have shown that probiotics when allied to conventional periodontal treatment can ameliorate microbial dysbiosis and produce significant improvement in clinical indicators of disease. However, this effect is often not maintained by the host after the end of probiotic use. Current probiotics also show limited effects in treating caries and halitosis. Novel approaches based up on replacement therapy and using highly abundant health-associated oral species, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, have been proposed to improve persistence of probiotic strains and maintain oral health benefits. Probiotics have potential in the management of multifactorial diseases such as the periodontal diseases and caries, by more effectively addressing the host-microbial interface to restore homeostasis that may not be achieved with conventional treatments.
Bonifait, Laetitia; Chandad, Fatiha; Grenier, Daniel
For some decades now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects for human health. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host"s immune response. The potential application of probiotics for oral health has recently attracted the attention of several teams of researchers. Although only a few clinical studies have been conducted so far, the results to date suggest that probiotics could be useful in preventing and treating oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. This article summarizes the currently available data on the potential benefits of probiotics for oral health.
Hislop, T G; Threlfall, W J
In 1980 a questionnaire was mailed to 726 nurses who had previously entered a study of breast disease in the late 1940s and 1950s; 665 responded. Between the ages of 30 to 49 years, 137 reported detecting their first signs of benign breast disease and 76 reported receiving their first biopsy for these signs. Long-term oral contraceptive usage reduced the risk of developing signs of benign breast disease and the risk of biopsy for these signs. The potential bias due to the effect of prior benign breast disease on the prescribing practices for oral contraceptives was minimized by considering oral contraceptive usage prior to detecting the first signs of benign breast disease.
Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki
Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.
Chan, John P; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L
Ribavirin is an antiviral agent commonly used in Hong Kong for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome. The choice of oral ribavirin therapeutic products available in the local market is currently limited to capsules. The present study investigated the chemical stability of an oral ribavirin suspension (200 mg/5mL) prepared extemporaneously from oral capsules using a sugar-free suspension formula. The suspension was subjected to stability testing at 4 deg C for up to 28 days. Employing a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method, the ribavirin content of the extemporaneous preparation has been demonstrated to exhibit negligible changes throughout the storage period. No degradation product was observable in all high-peroformance liquid chromatograms, suggesting that the suspension remained chermically stable under the stated conditions.
Igami, Thais Zamudio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Osaki, Tammy Hentona; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-Jose, Newton; Hida, Richard Y
To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis.
Patil, Shankargouda; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Raj, Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Rao, Roopa S
Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a new entity described by an expert working group from South Asia. First reported in Taiwan, there are no reports so far from an Indian population. The aim was to use the microscopic features described by the expert group to differentiate OVH from other oral verruco-papillary lesions in an Indian archive. In a retrospective multicentre study, using pathology archives, 188 verruco-papillary lesions were retrieved from pathology archives. A proforma listing histopathological criteria for OVH based on published guidelines (Annals of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 2013) was used. Patients' demographic and clinical data were transcribed from patient charts. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine associations between clinical and histopathological features. Of 188 oral verruco-papillary lesions that were evaluated, based on microscopic features the cases were reclassified as OVH (57), verrucous carcinoma (VC) (84), oral squamous cell carcinoma (16), and other verruco-papillary lesions (31). Both OVH (70%) and VC (60%) showed male predominance and commonly affected buccal mucosa (OVH 74% and VC 57%). Absence of downward growth of the hyperplastic epithelium into lamina propria when compared with the level of the basement membrane of the adjacent normal epithelium was a distinct feature in OVH. Keratin plugging, epithelial dysplasia and subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) in OVH versus VC. The sample size of other verruco-papillary lesions was insufficient for statistical comparison. Apart from the absence of an endophytic growth pattern in OVH, we noted the presence of dysplasia in OVH. This significant observation does institute a debate as to whether this enigmatic lesion could possibly be a precedent of oral squamous or verrucous carcinoma. We propose OVH is a distinct entity in our Indian population and should be considered in the classification of oral
Vilenchik, Rolanda; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Jossifoff, Azaria; Ben-Zvi, Zvi; Kozer, Eran
Ibuprofen is a safe and effective non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Ibuprofen suppositories are marketed in Europe; but data regarding pharmacokinetics of rectal vs. oral ibuprofen in humans is scarce. The objective of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics of single-dose rectal vs. oral ibuprofen in healthy adult volunteers. Ten healthy adult male volunteers, aged 20-37 years, received in a non-blind, cross-over setting, two formulations of ibuprofen. First, a 400 mg (about 5 mg/kg) of racemic ibuprofen suppository; second (after a three week washout period) the same dosage of ibuprofen syrup. Blood samples were collected before dosing and for 12 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics analysis was preformed. Mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of rectal ibuprofen was considerably lower, and the mean time to peak (Tmax) considerably longer, compared to oral ibuprofen. Absorption of rectal ibuprofen was considerably lower than oral ibuprofen, with a relative bioequivalence of 63%. Rectal ibuprofen reached therapeutic plasma concentration (>10 µg/ml) 45 minutes after dosing and remained in that range for four hours. The values of Vd/F and CL/F also differ significantly after rectal and oral administration, while no difference was found in the elimination rate constant (Kel) or half-life elimination (t1/2). Racemic ibuprofen suppository has lower bioavailability compared with ibuprofen syrup. Therapeutic plasma concentrations of ibuprofen were reached 45 minutes after dosing and remained in that range for 4 hours. Ibuprofen suppositories can contribute to the management of fever and pain when the oral route is not available.
Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J
Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helvaci, N; Yildiz, B O
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age and combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are often the first-line treatment of the syndrome by improving hyperandrogenism and regulating menstrual cycles. Oral contraceptives have some cardiovascular and metabolic effects that varies among different formulations depending upon the dose and type of the both estrogen and progestin components. These cardiometabolic effects of OCs raise some concerns about their long-term use in PCOS, but available data suggest that the benefits outweigh the risks. More studies are needed to clarify the safety of long-term use of OCs in PCOS.
Sebastiani, Francesco R; Dym, Harry; Wolf, Joshua
This article highlights the commonly used medications used in dentistry and oral surgery. General dentists and specialists must be knowledgeable about the pharmacology of the drugs currently available along with their risks and benefits. Enteral sedation is a useful adjunct for the treatment of anxious adult and pediatric patients. When enteral sedation is used within the standards of care, the interests of the public and the dental profession are served through a cost-effective, effective service that can be widely available. Oral sedation enables dentists to provide dental care to millions of individuals who otherwise would have unmet dental needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M
Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tampa, Mircea; Mitran, Madalina; Mitran, Cristina; Matei, Clara; Georgescu, Simona-Roxana
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Malignant transformation into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered as one of the most serious complications of the disease; nevertheless, controversy still persists. Various factors seem to be involved in the progression of malignant transformation; however, the mechanism of this process is not fully understood yet. Molecular alterations detected in OLP samples might represent useful biomarkers for predicting and monitoring the malignant progression. In this review, we discuss various studies which highlight different molecules as ominous predictors of OLP malignant transformation. PMID:29682099
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING... Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal is to test the hypothesis that oral microbiome and metagenomic analyses will allow us to identify new
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING...Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d...significant difference in the oral microbiome at the subspecies level of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal is to test the
Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki
In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.
Pinheiro, Raquel dos Santos; de França, Talita Ribeiro Tenório; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Ribeiro, Camila Maria Beder; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Castro, Gloria Fernanda
The aim of this literature review was to identify studies conducted on the oral Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in children. An electronic database search was performed using the terms 'oral HPV' and 'children'. The studies on the prevalence of oral HPV in children worldwide, descriptive studies, case reports, studies on the association of oral HPV and risk factors and transmission of HPV were included. The presence of HPV in oral mucosa of children should be investigated in virtue of the various forms of transmission, and the possibility of sexual abuse eliminated, and also of its possible relation with oral carcinoma pathogenesis in children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Background The generic and oral health-related quality of life (QoL) has provided opportunity for investigation of the interrelations among generic health, oral health, and related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the generic and oral QoL in the patients with oral mucosal disease (OMD). Methods Five hundred and thirty-eight OMDs were recruited in this study. The instruments applied were Chinese version of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) and the short-form of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results The mean score of sum OHIP-14 was significantly higher in the patients with OMD (10.81 ± 9.01) compared with those in the healthy subjects (HS) (6.55 ± 6.73) (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). 56.51% of the OMD patients and 12.94% of the HS reported at least one oral negative impact (p < 0.001, Chi-square test). The overall mean score of SF-36 was significantly lower in the patients with OMD (74.54 ± 12.77) compared with those in the HS (77.97 ± 12.39) (p = 0.021, t-test). Conclusions Administration of specific and generic questionnaires of QoL can provide us a detailed picture of the impact of OMDs on patients, and both generic and oral QoL were impaired in the patients with OMD. PMID:22225834
Lalic, M; Aleksic, E; Gajic, M; Milic, J; Malesevic, D
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of oral health counseling sessions with traditional oral hygiene education in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. randomised control trial with experimental and control group. A group of 99 adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly assigned to oral health counseling (experimental) or traditional health education (control) group. Subjects in the control group received verbal instructions and a demonstration of the modified Bass brushing technique on a model. The experimental group also received the verbal information with demonstration on the model and in addition a personalised 40-minutes counseling session on oral hygiene. Plaque Index (PI) and gingivitis (G) were recorded before, 1 and 6 months after the counseling session/traditional education. Oral health counseling and traditional education improved the oral hygiene of orthodontic patients. PI values were significantly lower after 6 months compared to the baseline in both groups, but the prevalence of gingival inflammation remained significantly lower only in the experimental group. Oral health counseling increased plaque removal efficacy and control of gingival inflammation. The efficiency of counseling and traditional education was similar. Counseling is a promising approach that warrants further attention in a variety of dental contexts.
Owotade, Foluso J; Patel, Mrudula
This study compared the virulence of oral Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women with and without oral candidiasis. Candida species were isolated from 197 women, and their virulence attributes were measured. Of the 197 women, 117 (59.4%) carried Candida. Of these, 15 (12.8%) had symptoms of oral candidiasis. Among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive patients, 33% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, whereas 5.9% were asymptomatic carriers (P < .01). C. albicans was the predominant species, with higher virulence attributes than non-albicans Candida. Women diagnosed with oral candidiasis had higher levels of Candida (P = .02) than asymptomatic carriers. There was no difference in the CD4 counts and the virulence attributes of Candida from both the groups. This study indicates that oral candidiasis is mainly caused by high counts of C. albicans and suggests the importance of therapies targeting Candida counts in the oral cavity even in patients on HAART to reduce the development of infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stellingsma, Cornelis; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Janke; Duipmans, José C; Jonkman, Marcel F; Dekker, Rienk
Several forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) present oral manifestations. Blistering of the (peri)oral mucosa affects the opening of the mouth, the mobility of the tongue and lips, thereby restricting oral functions. We describe the prevalence and characteristics of oral manifestations of EB in relation to loss of oral functions in a cross-sectional study of different types of EB patients using standardized measurement techniques. Twenty-two patients were included. The mobility of the mandible, lips and tongue was measured, the mandibular function impairment questionnaire (MFIQ) was filled out and additional questions regarding hindrance of EB during oral hygiene and intelligibility of speech (being understood) were asked in structured interviews. The median age was 11.8 yrs. Mobility of the mandible, tongue and lip was restricted, oral hygiene procedures were hindered in most patients. A data comparison was made between the recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB) and junctional EB (JEB) groups. Mandibular function was impaired in both groups but more severely in the RDEB-population. Intelligibility in both groups was almost unaffected. Restrictions in mobility of the mouth, tongue and lips are frequently present in EB patients. These are most severe in the RDEB group and support the clinical relevance of optimizing symptomatic treatment.
Keke, Zhang; Xuedong, Zhou; Xin, Xu
Hydrogen peroxide, an important antimicrobial agent in oral cavity, plays a significant role in the balance of oral microecology. At the early stage of biofilm formation, about 80% of the detected initial colonizers belong to the genus Streptococcus. These oral streptococci use different oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide. Recent studies showed that the produced hydrogen peroxide plays a critical role in modulating oral microecology. Hydrogen peroxide modulates biofilm development attributed to its growth inhibitory nature. Hydrogen peroxide production is closely associated with extracellular DNA(eDNA) release from microbe and the development of its competent cell which are critical for biofilm development and also serves as source for horizontal gene transfer. Microbe also can reduce the damage to themselves through several detoxification mechanisms. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is also involved in the regulation of interactions between oral microorganisms and host. Taken together, hydrogen peroxide is an imperative ecological factor that contributes to the microbial equilibrium in the oral cavity. Here we will give a brief review of both the origin and the function in the oral microecology balance of hydrogen peroxide.
Pan, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Ning
The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China. These patients were used as test group and the respective age grouped healthy individuals as control group. In this study, the oral cavity microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast were taken for the analysis. After the screening of representative microorganisms, their aptitude of pervasiveness against drugs was studied. Here, we used antimicrobial agents which are common in clinical practice. We also performed studies to investigate the presence of toxin genes in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that the prevalence of drug-resistant microbes was more pronounced in oral cancer patients after initial treatment above 70 years old. The oxacillin resistance of S. aureus isolate confirms that the prevalence of MRSA is increasing in accordance to age-factor and immune compromise in elderly patients. This study reveals the occurrence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer in aged individuals. Special attention should be directed to MRSA during the treatment of oral cancer, and to realize the fact of immune compromise in elderly patients.
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.
Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…
Gissi, Davide Bartolomeo; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea
Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize self-antigens expressed on the body's own cells and attacks them. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease of the oral cavity characterized by white/red lesions. Considered a potentially malignant disorder, OLP evolution into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still a matter of debate. While chronic autoimmune inflammation is considered a potential risk factor for malignant transformation in many solid tumors, the opposite idea that cancer may trigger autoimmune responses remains controversial. We describe 2 patients who developed lesions clinically suggestive of OLP with histological evidence of lichenoid infiltration some time after OSCC removal, even in areas far from the neoplastic site. Neither patient had OLP before the diagnosis of OSCC, or reported exposure to OLP-associated etiologic factors, and neither. experienced tumor recurrence during follow-up. Our findings suggest that oral cancer remission may be linked to OLP development, but further studies are necessary to unveil the underlying mechanisms and possible prognostic implications.
de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo
The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user’s perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws. PMID:27775584
Klaus, Katharina; Eichenauer, Johanna; Sprenger, Rhea; Ruf, Sabine
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of oral microbiota (Candida species (spp.), Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacilli) in patients with multibracket (MB) appliances in relation to the quality of oral hygiene. Saliva and plaque samples were collected from three groups of 25 patients each (good oral hygiene (GOH), poor oral hygiene (POH), and poor oral hygiene with white spot lesions (POH/WSL)). Counts of colony forming units (CFU) of the investigated oral microbiota were compared using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both saliva and plaque samples showed a high prevalence of Candida spp. in all patients (saliva: 73.4 %, plaque: 60.9 %). The main Candida species was C. albicans. The salivary CFU of Candida spp. in the GOH group was significantly lower than that in the POH group (p = 0.045) and POH/WSL group (p = 0.011). S. mutans was found in the saliva and plaque samples of all patients. Lactobacilli were found in the saliva samples of all patients and in 90.7 % of the plaque samples. In the saliva samples, the CFU of Lactobacilli were more numerous in the POH and POH/WSL groups than in the GOH group (p = 0.047). The investigated sample of patients showed a high carriage of oral Candida spp. Patients with WSL formation during MB appliance treatment exhibited higher counts of Candida and Lactobacilli compared with patients with good oral hygiene. Independent of oral hygiene quality, S. mutans was detected in all patients.
Landzberg, M; Doering, H; Aboodi, G M; Tenenbaum, H C; Glogauer, M
Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that are recruited to fight the initial phases of microbial infections. While healthy norms have been determined for circulating blood neutrophil counts in order to identify patients with suspected systemic infections, the levels of oral neutrophils (oPMNs) in oral health and in the presence of periodontal diseases have not been described. It is important to address this deficiency in our knowledge as neutrophils are the primary immune cell present in the crevicular fluid and oral environment and previous work has suggested that they may be good indicators of overall oral inflammation and periodontal disease severity. The objective of this study was to measure oPMN counts obtained in a standardized oral rinse from healthy patients and from those with chronic periodontal disease in order to determine if oPMN levels have clinical relevance as markers of periodontal inflammation. A parallel goal of this investigation was to introduce the concept of 'oral inflammatory load', which constitutes the inflammatory burden experienced by the body as a consequence of oral inflammatory disease. Periodontal examinations of patients with a healthy periodontium and chronic periodontal disease were performed (n = 124). Two standardized consecutive saline rinses of 30 s each were collected before patient examination and instrumentation. Neutrophils were quantified in the rinse samples and correlated with the clinical parameters and periodontal diagnosis. Average oPMN counts were determined for healthy patients and for those with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontal diseases. A statistically significant correlation was found between oPMN counts and deep periodontal probing, sites with bleeding on probing and overall severity of periodontal disease. oPMN counts obtained through a 30-s oral rinse are a good marker of oral inflammatory load and correlate with measures of periodontal disease severity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A
Haresaku, S; Monji, M; Miyoshi, M; Kubota, K; Kuroki, M; Aoki, H; Yoshida, R; Machishima, K; Makino, M; Naito, T
The purpose of this study was to identify the weak points in the knowledge and attitudes of first-year oral health care and nursing students towards oral health care and to identify the factors associated with their positive willingness to practise oral health care after becoming a health professional in order to develop oral healthcare curricula. The subjects were 88 first-year dental students (DSs), 64 dental hygiene students (DHSs) and 119 nursing students (NSs) enrolled in schools in Japan, as of April 2017. A questionnaire was distributed to subjects in each school to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards oral health care. Less than half knew that oral health care was also provided in cancer hospitals, hospices, acute care hospitals, maternity wards and psychiatric wards. Only 46.2% knew that oral health care was effective in the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. The level of knowledge and attitudes in NSs regarding oral health care were likely to be lowest amongst the student groups. Only NSs' high interest towards oral health care was associated with their positive willingness to practise oral health care in the future although oral health students' high perceptions and interest regarding oral health care were associated with the willingness. This study showed oral healthcare and nursing students' weak points regarding their attitudes and knowledge of oral health care at early stages. Oral health academic staff and professionals should develop effective oral healthcare curricula for oral healthcare students and help nursing staff develop a collaborative nursing oral healthcare curriculum to motivate nursing students. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Azevedo, Rebeca Souza; Gouvêa, Adriele Ferreira; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; Corrêa, Marcelo Brum; Jorge, Jacks
Oral paracoccidioidomycosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma may occur in the same patient. As both lesions may present similar clinical and histopathological features, the diagnosis is sometimes challenging. This paper describes the case of a 54-year-old male who was a farm worker and heavy alcohol and tobacco user. He developed paracoccidioidomycosis and two lesions of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity. During the follow-up, the patient presented enlargement of the submandibular lymph nodes, which was thought to be regional metastasis but was diagnosed as paracoccidioidomycosis. Therefore, the significance of this association is emphasized and discussed.
Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M
Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.
The main aim of this thesis was to study the oral health and the self-perceived oral treatment need of adults in Sweden. The first step was to analyse the self-perceived oral treatment need in a random national sample of young adults (20 to 25-year-olds). This study used one patient and one dentist questionnaire. The patient questionnaire was sent to 611 young adults and the response rate was 78%. After permission from 377 of these individuals, a questionnaire was sent to their dentists and answers were received from 85% (321 dentists). How the individuals perceived their oral treatment need was used as a dependent variable in a multivariate logistic regression model. Independent variables were self-assessed socio-economic situation, general health and dental attitudes together with information from the dentists on their patient's dental status. The results showed that having a high educational level, poorer oral health compared to one's peers, and being concerned about one's oral health significantly increased the odds for a high perceived oral treatment need. In this group of young adults, 33% perceived a high oral treatment need. In order to study if the oral treatment need was the same in all adult age groups and how the perceived oral health was in an adult Swedish population, a new questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 9 690 individuals, 20 to 89-year-olds, living in Skåne, Sweden. The response rate was 63%. The results showed that a majority of the adult population in Skåne had a positive perception of their oral health, in particular the individuals in the youngest age group. Most individuals had lost few teeth and removable dentures were uncommon. One third rated their dental treatment need as high. The highest proportion of individuals with a perceived high oral treatment need was found in the age group 70-79. In order to study the perceived oral treatment need in all adult age groups, the questionnaire was further analysed. The Andersen
Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Allaker, Robert P; Ian Douglas, CW
As our knowledge of host-microbial interactions within the oral cavity increases, future treatments are likely to be more targeted. For example, efforts to target a single species or key virulence factors that they produce, while maintaining the natural balance of the resident oral microbiota that acts to modulate the host immune response would be an advantage. Targeted approaches may be directed at the black-pigmented anaerobes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, associated with periodontitis. Such pigments provide an opportunity for targeted phototherapy with high-intensity monochromatic light. Functional inhibition approaches, including the use of enzyme inhibitors, are also being explored to control periodontitis. More general disruption of dental plaque through the use of enzymes and detergents, alone and in combination, shows much promise. The use of probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health has now led to an interest in using these approaches to control oral disease. More recently the potential of antimicrobial peptides and nanotechnology, through the application of nanoparticles with biocidal, anti-adhesive and delivery capabilities, has been explored. The aim of this review is to consider the current status as regards non-conventional treatment approaches for oral infections with particular emphasis on the plaque-related diseases. PMID:25668296
Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; M. Harmsen, Hermie J.
Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species. PMID:20195365
Pace, Michelle H.; Ortiz, Enrique
As a Title I kindergarten teacher, Michelle Pace, second grade teacher at Lake Mary Elementary School in Florida, has seen firsthand how oral language can create roadblocks for students in all areas of the curriculum, both academically and socially. At the time this article was written, the state of Florida had recently adopted the Common Core…
Barber, H. Dexter; And Others
A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)
Oshinsky, David M.
Describes oral history interviewing techniques that the author used to research his biography of Joseph McCarthy before the American Historical Association (AHA) issued its seven guidelines on interview use. These guidelines focus on taping sessions, signed releases, written transcripts, respecting human dignity, and placing materials in archive…
Casto, Bruce C; Knobloch, Thomas J; Galioto, Rebecca L; Yu, Zhangsheng; Accurso, Brent T; Warner, Blake M
Oral cancer represents approximately 2.5% of all cancers in the United States, with five- and 10-year survival rates of 62% and 51%. In the present study, lyophilized strawberries (LS) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit tumorigenesis in the hamster cheek pouch (HCP) model of oral cancer and for their ability to modify expression of several genes relevant to oral cancer development. HCPs were painted three times a week for six weeks with 0.2% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Hamsters were given 5% or 10% LS in their diet prior to, during, and after, or only after carcinogen treatment. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks from the beginning of DMBA treatment and the number of total lesions and tumors was determined. A significant difference (p<0.01-0.04) in the number of tumors was found between the LS-treated groups and the carcinogen controls. Histological examination of HCPs revealed a significant reduction in mild and severe dysplasia following 12 weeks of treatment with LS. Molecular analysis revealed that genes related to tumor development were modulated by LS. These experiments support previous studies in HCP that demonstrated a chemopreventive activity by black raspberries and show, to our knowledge for the first time, that strawberries can inhibit tumor formation in an animal model of oral cancer.
Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Galioto, Rebecca L.; Yu, Zhangsheng; Accurso, Brent T.; Warner, Blake M.
Background/Aim Oral cancer represents approximately 2.5% of all cancer in the United States, with five- and 10-year survival rates of 62% and 51%. In the present study, lyophilized strawberries (LS) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit tumorigenesis in the hamster cheek pouch (HCP) model of oral cancer and for their ability to modify expression of several genes relevant to oral cancer development. Materials and Methods HCPs were painted three times a week for six weeks with 0.2% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Hamsters were given 5% LS or 10% LS in their diet prior to, during, and after, or only after carcinogen treatment. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks from the beginning of DMBA treatment and the number of total lesions and tumors determined. Results A significant difference (p-value <0.01–0.04) in the number of tumors was found between the LS-treated groups and the carcinogen controls. Histological examination of HCPs revealed a significant reduction in mild and severe dysplasia following 12 weeks of treatment with LS. Molecular analysis revealed that genes related to tumor development were modulated by LS. Conclusions These experiments support previous studies in HCPs that demonstrated a chemopreventive activity by black raspberries and show, to our knowledge for the first time, that strawberries can inhibit tumor formation in an animal model of oral cancer. PMID:24222110
Swerdlow, Linda Kantor
This article describes the Veteran's Oral History Project, a collaboration between students at Isaac Young Middle School and pre-service teachers enrolled in the author's middle school education class at the College of New Rochelle. The pre-service teachers developed and taught an integrated interdisciplinary unit on the Vietnam era, culminating…
Chang, Ni; Cress, Susan
Visual arts, such as drawings, are attractive to most young children. Marks left on paper by young children contain meaning. Although it is known that children's oral language could be enhanced through communication with adults, rarely is there a series of dialogues between adults and young children about their drawings. Often heard instead…
Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.
It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.
This paper describes an action research project that addressed the issue of low oral performance in English among third grade learners at a public girls' school in Bogota, Colombia. The issue was identified via content analysis of ten field logs compiled over the third and fourth quarter of the second semester, 2010. To address the problem of…
Rust, O A; Bofill, J A; Arriola, R M; Andrew, M E; Morrison, J C
Our purpose was to determine whether maintenance oral tocolytic therapy after preterm labor stabilization decreases uterine activity, reduces the rate of recurrent preterm labor and subsequent preterm birth, or improves neonatal outcome. Women with documented idiopathic preterm labor stabilized with acute tocolytic therapy were randomized to three groups: placebo, terbutaline 5 mg, or magnesium chloride 128 mg, all given orally every 4 hours. Patients and providers were blinded to group assignment. All subjects were enrolled in a comprehensive system of preterm birth prevention that included preterm labor education, weekly clinic visits, home uterine contraction assessment, daily phone contact, and 24-hour perinatal nurse access. Of the 248 patients who were randomized, 39 were delivered before discharge and 4 were lost to follow-up, leaving 205 for final analysis: 68 placebo, 72 terbutaline, and 65 magnesium. The terbutaline group had significantly more side effects than the placebo group did. All groups had otherwise similar perinatal outcomes when confounding variables were controlled for. Overall, the three groups had a preterm birth rate < 37 weeks of 55.6% delivery, < 34 weeks of 15.6%, a 20.4% rate of newborn intensive care unit admission, and a mean neonatal length of stay of 6.3 days. Maintenance oral tocolytic therapy did not decrease uterine activity, reduce the rate of recurrent preterm labor or preterm birth, or improve perinatal outcome. Overall improvement in perinatal outcome may be achieved with a comprehensive program of preterm birth prevention without the use of maintenance oral tocolytic therapy.
Snyder, Derek J; Bartoshuk, Linda M
Oral sensations (i.e., taste, oral somatosensation, retronasal olfaction) are integrated into a composite sense of flavor, which guides dietary choices with long-term health impact. The nerves carrying this input are vulnerable to peripheral damage from multiple sources (e.g., otitis media, tonsillectomy, head injury), and this regional damage can boost sensations elsewhere in the mouth because of central interactions among nerve targets. Mutual inhibition governs this compensatory process, but individual differences lead to variation in whole-mouth outcomes: some individuals are unaffected, others experience severe loss, and some encounter sensory increases that may (if experienced early in life) elevate sweet-fat palatability and body mass. Phantom taste, touch, or pain sensations (e.g., burning mouth syndrome) may also occur, particularly in those expressing the most taste buds. To identify and treat these conditions effectively, emerging clinical tests measure regional vs. whole-mouth sensation, stimulated vs. phantom cues, and oral anatomy. Scaling methods allowing valid group comparisons have strongly aided these efforts. Overall, advances in measuring oral sensory function in health and disease show promise for understanding the varied clinical consequences of nerve damage.
Snyder, Derek J.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.
Oral sensations (i.e., taste, oral somatosensation, retronasal olfaction) are integrated into a composite sense of flavor, which guides dietary choices with long-term health impact. The nerves carrying this input are vulnerable to peripheral damage from multiple sources (e.g., otitis media, tonsillectomy, head injury), and this regional damage can boost sensations elsewhere in the mouth because of central interactions among nerve targets. Mutual inhibition governs this compensatory process, but individual differences lead to variation in whole-mouth outcomes: some individuals are unaffected, others experience severe loss, and some encounter sensory increases that may (if experienced early in life) elevate sweet-fat palatability and body mass. Phantom taste, touch, or pain sensations (e.g., burning mouth syndrome) may also occur, particularly in those expressing the most taste buds. To identify and treat these conditions effectively, emerging clinical tests measure regional vs. whole-mouth sensation, stimulated vs. phantom cues, and oral anatomy. Scaling methods allowing valid group comparisons have strongly aided these efforts. Overall, advances in measuring oral sensory function in health and disease show promise for understanding the varied clinical consequences of nerve damage. PMID:27511471
Blinkhorn, Anthony S.; Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.
Background and Objective: The main purpose of this review was to rehearse the available evidence of good practice in dental public health in order to define policies that could improve oral health in the enlarged European Union and associated countries. Secondary objectives were to describe the basic principles of health service organisation and…
... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors...
Scott, D F; Moffett, A M; Swash, M
Oral tyramine activated pre-existing episodic EEG abnormalities--namely, sharp waves, spike and wave, and localised theta activity--in epileptic patients. Little change was found in the EEGs of migrainous subjects after chocolate or beta-phenylethylamine. The implications of the findings with tyramine are discussed. Images PMID:864482
Scott, D F; Moffett, A M; Swash, M
Oral tyramine activated pre-existing episodic EEG abnormalities--namely, sharp waves, spike and wave, and localised theta activity--in epileptic patients. Little change was found in the EEGs of migrainous subjects after chocolate or beta-phenylethylamine. The implications of the findings with tyramine are discussed.
Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence. PMID:28053902
Kim, Soung Min
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.
Jou, Adriana; Miranda, Fábio V; Oliveira, Márcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Rados, Pantelis V; Filho, Manoel S
Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) arising in the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm that may be confused with a variety of non-melanocytic benign or malignant lesions. To present a case of DM in the oral mucosa mimicking fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia, discusses the difficulties involved in the diagnosis and offers a literature review on the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemincal aspects of this neoplasm. A 62-year-old white male, smoker, was referred with a chief complaint of pain and swelling in the palate. The oral examination revealed multiple brown-to-black patches and a non-pigmented sessile nodule located on the mucosa of the hard palate. The clinical diagnosis of the pigmented lesions was either oral melanosis or melanoma. The nodular lesion was clinically diagnosed as fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia. Incisional biopsy was performed on the pigmented lesion and the microscopic sections revealed a melanotic macule. The nodular lesions histologically revealed an amelanotic desmoplastic melanoma. Reactive lesions close to a pigmented area should be investigated with great care. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Hong, Zhang; Smith, Carl, Comp.
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on developing oral language is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…
Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H
The pharmacology of methamphetamine is reviewed, and the effects of methamphetamine use on oral health are described. Methamphetamine is a highly addictive amphetamine analogue, initially synthesized in 1919. Illicit methamphetamine use leads to devastating effects on health, particularly the dentition. Illegal production of methamphetamine has skyrocketed in recent years, as have the number of users. The chief complaint of methamphetamine users is xerostomia. Without the protective effects of saliva, caries development in these patients is rampant. The typical pattern of decay involves the facial and cervical areas of both the maxillary and mandibular teeth, with eventual progression to frank coronal involvement. The acidic substances used to manufacture this drug have also been implicated as a cause of tooth decay and wear in users, as has bruxism as a result of drug-induced hyperactivity. When possible, these patients should be referred to a dentist to improve their oral health status and minimize the potential for adverse cardiovascular sequelae. Other preventive measures for methamphetamine users include stimulating saliva flow and increasing fluoride supplementation. Pharmacists should also counsel users to avoid carbohydrate-rich soft drinks in favor of water. Oral moisturizers may also be effective. Methamphetamine use causes xerostomia secondary to sympathetic central nervous system activation, rampant caries caused by high-sugar intake in the absence of protective saliva, and bruxism as a result of hyperactivity. Practitioners should know how to recognize the signs of and manage the oral health of patients with a history of methamphetamine use.
An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...
This article presents the elements of the Oral Motor Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence based as well as infant driven and family focused. In the context of anticipated maturation of…
Agrelo-Gonzalez, Maria; And Others
The assessment packet includes a series of oral tests to help develop speaking as an integral part of second language instruction at levels II and III. It contains: 8 mini-tests for use at level II; 9 mini-tests for use at level III; a rating scale and score sheet masters for evaluating performance on these tests; and a collection of suggested…
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors...